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Submitted by:​ ​Hugo Pinto, ​Justin Cordero, Gabriel

Columna, and Bleston Mercado

Submitted to:​ Ms. Valinho
Date:​ June 10, 2016
Course Code:​ SNC2D2-02
Procedure Questions

10. The circulatory blood vessels are close to the digestive organs that absorb the nutrients
and substances, like the small intestine and the large intestine. The blood vessels are there so
that once the small intestine and large intestine diffuse the nutrients from the food, the blood
vessels pick up the nutrients and substances and the blood transports that to the rest of the
frog's body so the cells are supplied with the things they need to survive and function.

11a) The surface inside the frog's stomach is rigid and it looks like as if bones were wielded to
the walls of the stomach.

b) The small intestine is really small in diameter compared to the large intestine but the
small intestine is much more longer than the large intestine when compared by length.

c) The frog's heart is different than a human heart because a frog's heart is the same size
and is symmetrical while in a human heart, the left side is larger than the right. Also, a frog's
heart has only one ventricle while a human heart has two ventricles.
What Did You Find Out?

1. a) Muscle Tissue, Epithelial Tissue

b) Liver, Stomach

c) Digestive System, Respiratory System

2. a)

Frog eats insect Insect flows down the esophagus

2. b) When the insect enters the frog's mouth it is swallowed immediately because the frog is
incapable of chewing due to the lack of teeth. Once the insect passes through the esophagus, it
is digested and broken down within the frog’s stomach. After being broken down in the stomach,
the digested insect enters the small intestine to have all of its nutrients absorbed. Then it enters
the large intestine to have all the water absorbed. Finally, the remains of the digested insect is
considered waste and is excreted through the frog’s anus.

3. a) When the frog absorbs nutrients from whatever insect, or small animal it eats via the
small intestine, it is then that the nutrients enter the circulatory system.Upon entering the
circulatory system, the nutrients flow through the blood and are then sent to the muscles that
require it, such as the frogs legs, to provide the energy the frog requires.

b) The interaction between the two systems are mandatory for the frogs survival because if
the nutrients absorbed through the digestive system don’t enter the circulatory system, then the
nutrients will never be able to go to the muscles that require it for the frog to be able to function.
If the frog is incapable of utilizing its body due to the lack of energy then it is inevitable that the
frog will die.

4. My group and I think that all animals should be loved and cared for like every other
creature created by God but if a student wanted to learn the organ system of a living organism it
will be more beneficial to learn off of a real animal because it comes along with the reality of
surgery and the physical experience gained. If students were to use technology to study animal
organ systems, the only benefit and knowledge that they would gain is on the locations of the
organs, but in reality everybody's organs size and locations are not exactly by the textbook
because everyone's anatomy is slightly different. I also think that using a real animal is
beneficial because you are learning from a once living organism and looking into the organ
system that kept the specific organism alive which gives us a better understanding of how it all
connects together. Overall, we think that it is better for students to use a real animal because it
allows us to learn anatomy from a once living organism as well as practicing our ability to work
under pressure and identify organisms on our own.

Inquire Further

The different organ systems in the frog all work together to keep the frog alive.

Nervous and Muscular System

The frog’s central nervous system picks up external signals from the sensory receptors
and internal signals from the peripheral nervous system and then takes in all the information to
decide what the frog should do. The brain then processes the information and thinks about what
to do and then the central nervous system relays the new information back to the peripheral
nervous system, and tells the muscles what to do. The muscles then follow the instructions from
the brain and move normally and that is what allows the frog to move around and live it’s life.
Without the nerves giving information to the muscle, the muscles wouldn’t be able to move and
the frog wouldn’t be able to survive.

Nervous and Respiratory System

To breathe, frogs lower their mouth and expand their throat to allow oxygen into their
lungs coming in from the nose. It then does the same thing to exhale by pushing the carbon
dioxide out. Frogs are also able to breathe through their skin. The nervous system helps with
this because the brain is able to tell the body when to contract and expand to let air in and out.
The central nervous system gives messages to the peripheral nervous system to lower the
mouth, expand the throat, and open the nose. The central nervous system is also responsible
for regulating the breathing that the frog does. It sends messages to the body to not breathe too
fast or too slow and checks if there’s any irregularities in the breathing of the frog. The
respiratory system helps the nervous system by sending oxygen and nutrients to the nervous
system to allow the nerves and brain to function and control the frog.

Muscular and Respiratory System

Frogs use their different muscles in their body to breathe such as their nose muscles,
throat muscles, and mouth muscles. The muscles are able to expand and contract, or open and
close to allow the frog’s respiratory system to function. The respiratory system helps out the
muscular system by bringing oxygen and nutrients into the body, and into the muscles of the
frog. This lets the frog’s muscles do their job, and in turn, help the respiratory muscles bring in
more oxygen and nutrients.