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University of Haripur Journal of Management (UOHJM)

Published by University of Haripur. October 2016


UOHJM available at www.uoh.edu.pk/uohjm Volume 1. Issue 2

Role of Leaders’ Idealized Influence and Inspirational


Motivation on Employees’ Job Satisfaction

SHEHNAZ SAHIBZADA
Lecturer Abdul Wali Kan University Mardan
Email: doctorsherry28@yahoo.com

SHAHID JAN KAKAKHEL


Associate Professor Abdul Wali Kan University Mardan
Email: shahidjan@awkum.edu.pk

ASAD KHAN
University of Haripur, Haripur
Email: asadkhan@uoh.edu.pk

Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to examine the impact of idealized influence and
inspirational motivation of leaders on employees’ job satisfaction. Data was collected
through a well-established questionnaire from 330 employees of 10 different private
sector universities located in KPK. The results confirmed a non-zero relationship of the
two dimensions of leadership with employees’ job satisfaction. Both of the variables;
Idealized Influence and Inspirational Motivation, showed significant association with
employee’s job satisfaction. The study brought out important findings to bring about
behavioral improvements in leadership style of education sector that will eventually
enhance levels of Job Satisfaction of employees.

Keywords: Employees’ Job Satisfaction, Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation.

Introduction
Attaining employees’ job satisfaction is viable to retain productive and efficient employees. Therefore, one
way that may help managers to improve employee satisfaction is to adopt the right leadership style.
Opportunities to lead an organization have occurred at every management level where managers must
interchangeably assume the roles of manager, supervisor and leader. Researchers claimed that different
leadership behaviors directly influence organizational effectiveness in terms of commitment, loyalty, and
satisfaction among stakeholders - both internal and external to the organization (Bass, 2008; Bass &
Riggio, 2006; Scott & Davis, 2007).

Bodla and Nawaz (2010) identified couple of facets of idealized influence, the particular actions of the
leader and the other aspects which can be related to the particular leader’s personality by simply on
supporters. Leaders emphasized on to build value, commitment, and trust via supporters by the actions and
behaviors they exhibit, decreasing their particular obtain with the beneficial on the corporation (Shibru &
Darshan, 2011). Inspirational leaders pushed followers to realize larger that means using their work (Bass
& Riggio, 2006). The best prompted followers as a result of interchanging a new vision graciously and
optimistically receiving to help supporters (Bass, 2008; Shirbu & Darshan, 2011).

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University of Haripur Journal of Management (UOHJM)
Published by University of Haripur. October 2016
UOHJM available at www.uoh.edu.pk/uohjm Volume 1. Issue 2

The importance of effective leadership behaviors is no different for an education sector. Private sector
universities compare to small, self-contained cities, managed by leaders whose primary objective is
promoting education at convenient pace. Leaders conceded the value that employee job satisfaction holds
as a key component of organizational performance (Larsson, Vinberg, & Wiklund, 2007; Limsila &
Ogunlana, 2008). Therefore the sole spirit of this paper was to explore the role of leaders’ Idealied
Influence and Inspirational Motivation in effect with employees’ job satisfaction.

Review of Literature
Idealized influence (II)

Leaders with idealized influence attribute well-socialized inside remarkable strategies brought on
supporters to identify together with organization. Bodla and Nawaz (2010) identified a couple of facets of
idealized influence: the particular actions of the leader and the other aspects which can be related to the
particular leader’s personality by simply on supporters. Leaders emphasized on to build value,
commitment, and trust via supporters by the actions and behaviors they exhibit, decreasing their particular
obtain with the beneficial on the corporation (Shibru & Darshan, 2011). Additionally, such leader took
risks, yet managed consistent actions of ethical values and conduct (Bass & Riggio, 2006).

Sosik and Godshalk (2000) referred to some sort of transformational attributes of leadership that arises
collective work attitudes and avail them with hard functions for development, in addition to inspires some
others to help perceive hard conditions seeing that substantial issues required for building the expertise and
individual abilities. The particular experts furthermore considered idealized influence as productive and
valued attribute of leadership. These leaders also recognized as role models or may be coach. Leaders
showed attributes associated with idealized influenced after they served seeing that role models, inspired
their followers to realize aims, and indicated involvement to advance their employment opportunities
(Sosik, Godshalk and Yammarino, 2004).

Sosik and Godshalk (2000) likewise recognized such leaders seeing that "learned and also trusted analysts -
a way to obtain wisdom. They enhance their supporters to develop confidence, self-identity and also well-
being. The theory that leaders having charismatic attributes absolutely impact supporters has additionally
identified support and help in business settings.

Inspirational motivation

Leaders utilized inspirational drive to gain supporters' assistance of a program, strategy, or result in.
Inspirational leaders pushed followers to realize larger that means using their work (Bass & Riggio, 2006).
The best prompted followers as a result of interchanging a new vision graciously and optimistically
receiving to help supporters (Bass, 2008; Shirbu & Darshan, 2011). After followers comprehended exactly
why they will stick to, they will acknowledged the point and grew to be prompted to help dedicate
themselves entirely to the program or result.

The method of goal setting tips can be a good course of action that gives purpose, and in addition
encourages their long-run improvement, Wrosch, Scheier, Carver and Schulz (2003). Additionally, that
whenever employees’ expertise doubt in attaining their objectives, they will very well turn into affected,
disengaged and may confront lack of organizational commitment.

Wrosch et al. additionally declared that disengagement throughout accomplishing goals has been like a
reduction in effort towards attaining results. Also, Leiter (1992) thought that when organizations didn't
support the actual specialized goals of subordinates, tiredness, cynicism and also low professional
efficaciousness could result. Setting obvious inspirational aims is the first step of which transformational
frontrunners ingest inspiring subordinates toward accomplishment of goals.

When organizational leaders could delineate the vision of the firm, these were additionally more prone to
assist subordinate members understand the value with their benefits toward the group vision on the firm,

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University of Haripur Journal of Management (UOHJM)
Published by University of Haripur. October 2016
UOHJM available at www.uoh.edu.pk/uohjm Volume 1. Issue 2

Crabtree (2003). In this way, the leaders permitted members to help feel a lot more a number of in regards
to the path onward, they additionally developed function by means of supporting staff members see how
accomplishing their own ambitions made it easier for bring about the broader vision on the firm. Haudan
and MacLean (2001) assumed that members whom worked well inside synchrony with leaders to discover
greater image on the firm ended up more prone to grasp their own position and superior understand the
bigger influence with their benefits.

Employee Job Satisfaction

Spector (1997) identifies job satisfaction as a collection of emotions or maybe affective replies associated
with the job scenario, or maybe it's “how individuals feel about different factors of their jobs”. Job
satisfaction is usually understood to be “the degree to that workers like their jobs” (Stamps, 1997). Even so,
this meaning won't completely capture the intricacy on the characteristics connected with job satisfaction.

The idea that satisfied organizational members may perform their function better grew to become the
foundation for most concepts of overall performance, returns, work design and leadership (Shipton et al.
2006). Illies et al. (2009) describes employees’ full satisfaction just as one mind-set in which pertains to all
round thinking in direction of existence or even life satisfaction and also help in exhibiting excellent
service (Schneider & Bowen, 1985).

Job satisfaction identifies one’s affective and cognitive reactions thus to their jobs (Weiss & Crapanzano,
1996) while job engagement identifies motivational state during which one’s make invest his/her cognitive,
actual physical and emotive selves in their work (Rich et al. 2010). The results of Rich et al. (2010) analyze
that job engagement and job satisfaction is usually a couple of unique and remarkably correlated issues.

Brossiot (2002), asserted that charismatic attributes of leadership effects subordinate’s cognition regarding
empowerment. Her findings disclosed that this style highly appeals to employee perception, giving
meaning to their jobs, and this drawing of meaning in their perception of employee advances further in
creation of higher job satisfaction. Sparks and Schenk (2001) presented results that corroborated the idea
that this format of leadership in terms of reality transforms employees by instilling in them the higher
purpose of their work. He further said that there is an association of an individual work and job satisfaction.
A study conducted by Bono, Purrvanova and Dziweczy (2008) about leadership style found that there exist
a positive relation between the perception held by employees’ regarding their job and the specific behavior
of the leaders (p.17). The same was true for the study in which 98 employees’ from countries such as
China, US and India were taken as a sample, the results claimed that when transformational style of
leadership was practiced , employees forgot their geographical affiliations and they were found to be more
committed, devoted and satisfied from their jobs (Krishnam & Ramanchandvan, 2009, ).

Campion and Rashid (2002) supported the facts that there is an inverse relationship between this version of
leadership and dissatisfaction. Idealized influence and inspirational motivation factors have been disclosed
to get positive relation while using the performance of the corporation in addition to employees’
satisfaction derived from their jobs (Keller & Nemonich, 2007).

Idealized Influence
Employees’
Job satisfaction
Inspirational Motivation

Figure 1. Theoretical Framework

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University of Haripur Journal of Management (UOHJM)
Published by University of Haripur. October 2016
UOHJM available at www.uoh.edu.pk/uohjm Volume 1. Issue 2

Research Hypotheses
Ho1: Idealized influence has no significant relationship with employees’ job satisfaction.
Ho2: Inspirational motivation has no significant relationship with employees’ job satisfaction.

Methodology
The data was obtained from 322 employees’ to make the representation of ten different private sector
universities located in KPK. Data was collected by using Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ)
constructed by Bass and Avolio & Jung (1999) while regarding Job Satisfaction questionnaire designed by
Edward & Rothbard (1999) and Weiss, et al. (1967).

Questionnaires were distributed to direct supervisors of all of the selected universities; which were
internally distributed to their subordinates. After a week, filled questionnaires were collected from the same
supervisors. Total 330 questionnaires were distributed in which 322 were returned.

Data was analyzed firstly by adopting the descriptive statistical approach which explained frequencies,
percentages, and standard deviation and mean tendencies of the variables. Then Pearson Co-efficient of
Correlation was used to estimate the strength of linear relationship between Leaders’ Idealized Influence
and Inspirational Motivation and Employees’ Job satisfaction. Then Simple linear regression was applied to
determine the extent of influence exerted by the predictive variables of leadership on the dependent
variable (Employees’ job satisfaction) using SPSS package.

Results
Descriptive Statistics

The demographic statistics for 322 employees’ are: gender of employees’ were dominated by male as
96.6% were male while 3.1% were female respondents. Tenure information of respondents showed that
14.3% were working in their current university for the period less than one year, 58.4% for 1-2 years,
20.5%) for 3-5 years, 6.5% for 6-10 years and 0.3% were working for more than 10 years. It is found that
10.2% of the respondents belong to age group of 21-25 years, 65.8% were from age group of 26-30 years,
14.3% were from age group of 31-35 years, 5.6% were from age group of 36-40 years, 2.8% were from age
group of 41-45 years, 0.9% were from age group of 46-50 years and only one respondent was aged between
51-55 years.

The results showed that out of total 322 respondents 33.2% were having work experience under their
current supervisor for less than one year, 52.8% were having 1-2 years which is highest among this
category, 12.7% were working for 3-5 years, and 1.2% was working for 6-10 years. The results about
qualification of respondents showed that 0.9% respondents were graduate, 86.6% were post graduate
which is comparatively highest percentage among this category, 10.2% were M.Phil./ MS and 2.2% were
PhDs.

Hypothesis One

Ho: Idealized Influence has no significant relationship with Employees’ Job Satisfaction.
H1: Idealized Influence has significant relationship with Employees’ Job Satisfaction.

Table 1. Correlation Results for II and EJS


II EJS
II Pearson Correlation 1 .847
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Note. II: Idealized Influence, EJS: Employees’ Job Satisfaction.

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University of Haripur Journal of Management (UOHJM)
Published by University of Haripur. October 2016
UOHJM available at www.uoh.edu.pk/uohjm Volume 1. Issue 2

The results indicate a strong positive correlation between Idealized Influence and Employees’ Job
Satisfaction. Pearson product correlation of II and EJS is statistically significant (r = 0.847, p = 0.000 or p
< 0.05). This shows that an increase in the level of idealized influence of the leader would lead to an
increased level of job satisfaction of the employees.

Table 2. Regression results of leader’s Idealized Influence on Employees’ Job Satisfaction


Un-
Regression standardized Adj R p- Hypothesis
Hypothesis t
Weights Beta Square value Supported
Coefficient
H1 II → EJS .818 0.716 28.462 .000 Yes

Table 2 , shows that the independent variable (II) explains 71.6% (Adjusted R-Square) variance in the
dependent variable (EJS). Telling us that 71.6% change in EJS can be accounted to II. Since the
hypothesis.1 has only one variable, the value of Standardized Coefficient is similar to the value of Pearson
correlation. In this case II is significant (t = 28.462, p = 0.000). Overall these results clearly show a
significant effect of the II on EJS.

Hypothesis Two

Ho: Inspirational Motivation has no significant relationship with Employees’ Job Satisfaction.
H2: Inspirational Motivation has significant relationship with Employees’ Job Satisfaction.

Table 3. Correlation Analysis between IM and EJS


**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
IM EJS
IM Pearson Correlation 1 .820
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
Note. IM: Inspirational Motivation, EJS: Employees’ Job Satisfaction

The results of second hypothesis indicated a strong positive correlation between Inspirational Motivation
and Employees’ Job Satisfaction. Pearson product correlation of IM and EJS is statistically significant (r =
0.820, p = 0.000 or p < 0.05). This shows that an increase in the level of Inspirational Motivation of the
leader would lead to an increased level of job satisfaction of the employees.

Table 4. Regression results of leader’s Inspirational Motivation on Employees’ Job Satisfaction


Un-
Regression standardized Adj R p- Hypothesis
Hypothesis t
Weights Beta Square value Supported
Coefficient
H2 IM → EJS .997 0.672 25.665 .000 Yes

Table 4 shows that the independent variable (IM) explains 67.2% (Adjusted R-Square) variance in the
dependent variable (EJS). Telling us that 67.2% change in EJS can be accounted to IM. Since the
hypothesis.2 has only one variable, the value of Standardized Coefficient is similar to the value of Pearson
correlation. In this case IM is significant (t = 25.665, p = 0.000). Overall these results clearly show a
significant effect of the IM on EJS.

Conclusion
In conclusion, this study endorses the hypotheses that leaders’ idealized Influence and Inspirational
Motivation has a constructive and significant impact on employees’ job satisfaction. The results indicated
an organizational culture within private sector universities where leaders and followers engage directly and

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University of Haripur Journal of Management (UOHJM)
Published by University of Haripur. October 2016
UOHJM available at www.uoh.edu.pk/uohjm Volume 1. Issue 2

indirectly toward effectiveness. It is concluded from the study that the actions and behaviors of leaders
influence employees and private universities’ employee perception of his or her leaders supported this
influence, as evidenced by a strong r value of 0.885.

Similarly, the results of second hypothesis showed that employee satisfaction increases significantly when
leaders challenge supporters to reach higher sense from their work (Bass & Riggio, 2006). It is indicated
that private universities’ employee perception of his or her leaders supported that their leaders offer endless
inspiration to them throughout improved contribution as a mean of acknowledgement, and it was evidenced
by a strong r value of 0.927.

As pertaining results proved that leaders’ Idealized Influence and Inspirational Motivation are good
accelerators to increase employees’ job satisfaction so it is recommended that leaders must play a critical
role, must be an icon as a good role models and exhibiting full commitment to achieve organizational
purposes and secure confidence from organizational personnel. Upcoming exploration could consider other
variables such as turnover intent, employees’ efficiency, employee retention, job performance and
organizational commitment. Since the extent of organizational size affecting the variables in this research,
other methodology for Organizational Efficacy through prospect researchers should tackle to improve
further knowledge for the review body is to study public sector universities, banking sector, health sector
and non-profit organizations.

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