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FUNCTION OF INDUSTRIAL BATTERY CHARGER

Chloride Power Systems and Solutions Limited, formerly known as Caldyne Automatics Limited is a 100% subsidiary of
Exide Industries Limited. It is a leading name in the field of Industrial Battery Charger, DC Power Solutions and Solar
Power systems in India. As a part of its policy of continuous innovation, Chloride introduces its industrial charger.
Battery chargers play an important role in ensuring optimum life and performance of Industrial Storage Batteries. Chloride
chargers have been performing this duty relentlessly at different power plants, sub-stations, steel plants, refineries & petro
chemicals,cement plants, oil & gas pipelines, telephone exchanges and many other industries for over last three decades.The
main function of Industrial Battery charger is to supply the continuous D.C load and charge the battery bank as per user's
requirement. In case of failure of main A.C supply,the battery bank supplies the constant and emergency D.C load and thus
ensures that expensive instruments are protected and also uninterrupted power supply is maintained for critical loads during
faults and/or power outages.
The AC to DC power conversion element of the system is typically configured from thyristor or switch mode technology
depending on the application, criticality and space constraints. The thyristor based systems are highly rugged and suitable for
the most demanding environmental and operating conditions.
CHARGING OF A BATTERY
To keep a battery healthy and to achieve optimum battery life, twin charging modes are usually followed for standby float
application. These two modes are required: (a) Boost charging and (b) Stand by Float charging
(a) Boost Charging
In Boost mode a Battery is charged from discharged condition to fully charged condition within minimum possible time. Boost
charging procedures of various batteries are as follows:-
A Plante/ OPZS/ TBS/HR Two - step constant current charging at starting rate of current (12 to 14%), from 2.00 vpc
Tubular battery to 2.36/2.4 vpc and at finishing (6 to 7%)rate of current, from 2.36/2.4 to 2.65/2.75 vpc
B AGM VRLA/GEL Tubular Current limited constant voltage charging at 2.23 vpc.
C For Ni-Cd Battery Current limited constant voltage charging, at 1.7 vpc or single step constant current charging
up to 1 .7 vpc
In case of Flooded Lead Acid Battery (Plante/OPZs/TBS/HR Tubular) for Standby Float application, the constant current
charging procedure is followed for efficient charging. During boost charging, voltage start rising from 2.0V/cell and reaches to
a level of 2.65 to 2.75V/cell on top up charge condition. The gassing starts from the beginning of charging and reaches its
peak at the gassing point i.e. at a voltage level of 2.36 to 2.40V/cell. Upto this gassing point of 2.36V/cell, the battery can be
charged at a relatively higher current or at the starting rate which is generally 12-14% of its Ah capacity. However, charging
current needs to be reduced to half of this value (6-7%) i.e. to finishing rate once the battery reaches the gassing point.
Charging at finishing rate is continued till the battery bank is fully charged. When the battery reaches its full charge level, the
specific gravity reaches a constant value over three consecutive hourly readings, the voltage also reaches a steady value over
three consecutive hourly reading and all the cells gas profusely. One has to also ensure a minimum Ah input is fed into the
battery during initial charging as specified by the manufacturer.
Generally, in Boost charging mode for VRLA/Ni-Cd Batteries, current limited constant voltage charging process is followed.
Maximum charging voltage of VRLA battery must be restricted to 2.25vpc / 2.30 vpc to avoid gassing. Maximum charging
voltage of Ni-Cd battery should be restricted to 1.70 vpc. Ni-Cd batteries can also be charged at constant current up to 1.70
vpc. Sometimes Ni-Cd batteries are charged at a higher charging current depending upon the ambient temperature. In current
limited constant voltage process, initial charging starts at constant current. When battery voltage attains the specified level, the
current starts decaying while voltage remains constant.
(b) Float charging
Float charger charges a battery at constant voltage to compensate self discharge or internal loss of a storage battery. For
optimum trickle charging, voltage should be maintained at 2.2 to 2.25 vpc for lead acid batteries and at 1.42 vpc for Ni-Cd
Battery.
In case the batteries are not floated at the recommended voltage, internal loss due to the self discharge is not fully
compensated. In such an event occasional higher rate charging (equalising charge) at constant current with the permissible
finishing rate may be required.
APPLICATION AREA
Power Plants, Substations, Steel Plant, Petrochemicals and Refineries, Oil and Gas Pipe line, Cement Plant, Coal mines,
Telecommunication
'FLOAT CHARGER' EXPLAINED
Under normal operation, when AC mains is available, the charger supplies the DC continuous load at constant voltage mode.
It also provides float charging current to the battery, keeping it in just FLOATING condition so that the battery can supply the
loads during an emergency. The battery may also be required to supply the additional load.
Industrial Battery Chargers – Brief Technical Details
AC Input Voltage 415V or 400V or 380V or 230V or as specified by Customer with +/- 10%
tolerance (1 Phase or 3 Phase - 3 wire/4 wire, 50 Hz +/- 5%
Voltage & Frequency tolerance can be enhanced as per the customer's requirement
DC Output Voltage 12V/24V/48V/110V/220V/360 V or as per customer's requirement
DC Output Current Up to 3000 A or as per the customer / system requirement
Regulation +/- 1%
Ripple Content < 3% rms (Standard) or < 1 % if required/4 mV Psophometric for Telecom application
Charger Efficiency >85% for 3 Phase Input
>80% for 1 Phase Input
Protections/ Annunciations • Battery under voltage / over voltage
Ÿ Battery over charge & over load
Ÿ SCR bridge protection through fast acting semiconductor fuses
Ÿ Surge Suppressor/ Snubber network
Ÿ AC & DC side protection by MCCB /ACB/HRC Fuse
Ÿ Fuse fail
Ÿ Earth leakage detection (D.C) and as per customer's specific requirement
Cooling Natural/forced. As per requirement of System/Customer
Operating Condition 0 - 50° C or as per Customer's requirement
Humidity <95% ( Non Condensing),
Control Configuration Full/Half control SCR bridge ( 6 Pulse/12 Pulse)
Charging Characteristic Float : Constant Voltage
Boost : Constant Current (Tubular & Plante)
Constant Potential with current limit ( VRLA)
System Voltage Planté OPzS HR Tubular AGM/Gel VRLA Nickel Cadmium
(DC) ( No of Cell) ( No of Cell) ( No of Cell) (No of Cell) (No of Cell)
24 V 11 11 12 11/12 19-21
48 V 23 23 23 23 37-40
110 V 54 54 54 54 87-92
220 V 107 108 110 108 169-176
Communication "RS - 485 Port (Optional)
"Analogue signal ( 4-20mA)
"Potential free Contact
Current Limit 103 to 105% of rated current
High Voltage Insulation 2.5 K V for 1 minute
Magnetic Isolation Transformer, Filter choke,
Insulation Class - F (Other on request)
Cable Entry Bottom ( Top cable entry on request)
Terminal Arrangement At back Side or as per specification
Panel access Front & Rear
Acoustic Noise 60 to 75 dB
Cabinet Free Standing Steel Cabinet 1.6/2 mm gauge sheet steel or as per customer's
requirement
Degree of Protection as per IP 20, IP-30, IP-31,IP41,IP42,IP52 or as per customer's
requirement
Colour : RAL 7032 or as per customer's requirement
Paint Finish : Powder Coating
Routine Test Visual & Dimensional check , Insulation Resistance test , H V Test ,Measurement of
Voltage Regulation , Measurement of Current Regulation, Measurement of Ripple ,
Annunciation checks , Charger Functional checks
Test - Optional Heat Run Test , Efficiency & Power factor measurement , Dynamic Response Test
( Over Shoot / Under Shoot), Degree of Protection Test.
DCDB Up to 220V/ 110 V/48 V/ 24 V DC and as per Customer's requirement
ACDB Up to 415 V AC and as per Customer's requirement
Salient Features Different Configurations of
Ÿ Suitably designed for all types of batteries - Lead acid (Plante/OPzS/TBS/HR Battery charger
Tubular/AGM VRLA,GEL Tubular) and Ni-Cd Ÿ Float Cum Boost (FCB)
Ÿ Microprocessor Controlled / Analog Controlled
Ÿ Float and Boost ( FC and
Ÿ Soft Start feature
BC)
Ÿ Battery path limiting current
Ÿ Automatic Float Boost Changeover Ÿ Float and Float Cum Boost
Ÿ Protection against AC phase reversal , single phasing, A.C Under Voltage, Over
charger (FC & FCBC)
Voltage, A.C Unbalance Ÿ Dual Float Cum Boost
Ÿ Dropper diode regulator in load path for specific application (DFCBC)
Ÿ Psophometric noise 4 mV for specific application / requirement of customer Ÿ Application/Customer
Ÿ Seismic Test Certification specific requirement
Ÿ Soak Test / Environmental Test Certification
Ÿ Surge with Stand capability as per ANSI-C37.90.1-2002

FLOAT CUM BOOST CHARGER (FCB)


This is a special type of low cost charger for low voltage BLOCK SCHEMATICS FOR FLOAT & BOOST CHARGER
DC CONTACTOR
ranges. Only one converter is used. Under float mode this
connects directly to the load bus along with battery L

floating to meet the DC loads at constant voltage. FLOAT CUM BOOST


O
A
D
AC
Under boost mode, battery will be charged at constant SUPPLY

current rate. Load will be connected through the B


A
controlled dropper so that it (load) will not be affected by T
T

the boost voltage.


In this system both float and boost charging is possible
simultaneously through single converter. Float Cum Boost charger rating will be the sum of the load current and boost
charging current.
This system is generally used for 24 Volts, 30 Volts and 48 Volts system.

FLOAT AND BOOST CHARGER (F&B)


The Float charger is connected to the load bus directly
BLOCK SCHEMATICS FOR FLOAT & BOOST CHARGER and the Boost charger is connected to the battery. The
Float charger will supply DC load at constant voltage. The
L
Boost charger will quick (boost) charge the discharged
FLOAT CHARGER
CONNECTOR

TAP
O
A
battery at constant current as per requirement.
DC

CELL D
AC
SUPPLY
The DC contactor (DC) is connected between battery and
BOOST CHARGER B load bus. It will connect the battery to the load after
A
T
T
completion of boost charge or on failure of the float
charger or on failure of AC supply. Pick up time (200-
500ms) of DC contactor may interrupt the load.
Intermediate cell connected blocking diode (CD) ensures
at least 80% of battery voltage during this interval . The entire system ensures an uninterrupted DC power supply for the
connected DC load

FLOAT AND FLOAT CUM BOOST CHARGER (F & FCB)


The system consists of two converters for Float and Float cum Boost chargers.
The primary function of the Float charger is to supply the BLOCK SCHEMATICS FOR FLOAT & FLOAT CUM CHARGER BOOST
connected DC load and simultaneously float charge the
floating battery bank to keep it in fully charged state, so
that it can supply the load during a power failure or any FLOAT CHARGER L
CONTACTOR

O
TAP A
problem in input supply.
DC

CELL D
AC
SUPPLY
The function of Float cum boost charger is to quick charge FLOAT CUM
BOOST CHARGER B
the battery after a heavy discharge and restores it to its full A
T
F T
capacity within the shortest possible time and to supply the FCB
B
load in case of Float charger fails.
DUAL FLOAT CUM BOOST CHARGER (DUAL FCB)
BLOCK SCHEMATICS FOR 2NO. IDENTICAL FLOAT CUM BOOST CHARGER
The two identical float cum boost chargers are connected 1
L
with battery and load circuit through a mode selector FLOAT CUM BOOST

CONNECTOR
2 O
A
switch in such a way that one charger can feed the load in CHARGER 1 TEMP

DC
D
CELL
AC 1
float mode & other can perform the boost operation in SUPPLY FLOAT CUM BOOST
2 B
boost mode. When one charger is in Float mode and the CHARGER 2 A
T
1
other charger is in Boost mode (if battery requires boost TO
T

CONTROL CKT
charging) then the charger on boost mode will start boost 2

charging (automatically) and after termination of boost


charging the charger changes its mode from boost to
float mode automatically.
For MODE SELECTOR SWITCH at Position-1, CHARGER-I works in float mode and CHARGER-II in boost mode. For MODE
SELECTOR SWITCH in Position-2, CHARGER-II will operate in float mode and CHARGER-I in boost mode.
In this system the major advantage is both the converters ( Charger-1 & Charger-2) can be operated either in float mode or in
boost mode. Both chargers can be operated in parallel also to supply the load.

FUNCTION OF DROPPER DIODE IN A BATTERY CHARGER


Dropper diode is required to restrict boost voltage at load bus during boost charging. It is required when same converter is used
to supply the load and boost charge the battery bank simultaneously. Dropper diode bank is connected in series with load bus
through d.c contactor as indicated in Figure-A. Dropper diode bank will come in to the circuit step by step when boost voltage
increases gradually during boost charging of battery bank.

FUNCTION OF TAP CELL DIODE IN A BATTERY CHARGER


Tap cell diode is connected between load bus and intermediate cell (84th cell in case of 220V lead acid battery bank) of battery
bank. The function of Tap cell diode is as follows:
a. In case of failure of A.C supply during boost charging of battery bank (when other charger supplies the load), the continuity
of DC supply will be maintained through tap cell diode because the energisation time for d.c contactor (coil) is around 200
to 500 milli Second.
b.. ADVANTAGES & LIMITATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPE BATTERY CHARGER
Our Presence
Thermal Power Plant: Coastal Gujrat Power Ltd., WBPDCL, DVC, NTPC, Tata Power, CESC, Torrent Power, KPCL, CGPL,
Athena Power, Ideal Energy, Jindal, CESC,
Hydel Power Plant: Tala Hydel, Bhutan , NHPC, Nathpa Jhakri, Tehri Hydro Electric Project, Nimoo Bazgo & Chutak,
Leska-Meghalya, Swarakuddu, Kasang, Rampur, NEEPCO, Koyna Hydel, Koteshwar Hydro Electric Project,BBMB etc
Nuclear: NPCIL, BARC etc
Oil & Gas : BPCL, HPCL, IOCL, GAIL, Oil India etc
Metal: Tata Steel, RSP, BSP, DSP, Jindal, IISCO, Essar, Nalco,
Substations
PGCIL, WBSETCL, WBSEDCL, ASEB, OPTCL, MSEB, MeSEB, BSEB, JSEB, Mizoram, TNEB, Delhi Vidyut Board, UPPCL,
PGCIL and all other leading Power Transmission and Distribution utilities
Consultants : DCPL, MECON, CET, M N DASTUR, TCE, EIL, PDIL, CEA, BECTEL, FITCHNER, HOLTEC, DESEIN and
all other
Our Overseas Supply
Ÿ ZESCO – Zambia
Ÿ Dhaka Electricity Supply Authority (DESA )
Ÿ Bangladesh Power Development Board
Ÿ Tala Hydro Electric Plant – Bhutan
Ÿ Tata Motors – Myanmar
Ÿ Distribution Substation at Singapore/Hong Kong
Ÿ Nepal Electricity Authority
Ÿ Venco Imtihaz - Kabul Afghanistan
Ÿ Zambia – Zesco
Ÿ Emirates Steel – Abudhabhi
Ÿ Power Grid – Hong Kong

Our Major customers

Chloride Power Systems and Solutions Limited (a wholly owned subsidiary of Exide Industries Limited) KOLKATA : Plot No.Y-21, Block-EP, Sector-V, Salt Lake Electronics Complex, Kolkata
700 091, West Bengal, India , Phone Nos. (033) 2357 5851/5852/5853/5854/7841, Fax : (033) 2357 7062, Email : info@chloridepower.co.in, Website : www.chloridepowersystems.com, Debasis
Saha Mobile No. : +919830125945 Email: d_saha@chloridepower.co.in, Santasri Sarma Mobile No. : +919830482288 Email: sarmas@chloridepower.co.in, Mosharaf Ali Mobile No. :
+919051570328 Email: mosharaf@chloridepower.co.in, Mr.Nelesh Pandit, nelesh@chloridepower.co.in, +91 9051260600, Indrajit Bhattacharya Mobile No. : +919674163117 Email :
indrajit@chloridepower.co.in Central Service Parthapratim Sahana Mobile No. : +919674163113 Email : sahanap@chloridepower.co.in, DELHI: 8/42,Ground floor, Opposite of MDH Spice
SYNERGIX/cpssl/cat1/0515/

factory, Kirtinagar Industrial Area, Email : ashutoshrai@chloridepower.co.in, caldynedel@exide.co.in / caldynedel@rediffmail.com, Ashutosh Rai Mobile No. : +9199115 51626 MUMBAI: Apeejay
Chambers, 5, Wallace Street, Fort, Mumbai - 400 001 Phone : 022-22058502, Suresh Chopra , Mob no. + 91 9819285745, sureshpc@chloridepower.co.in, CHENNAI: Now No. 824/1, Old No 398.
3rd floor Anna Salai, Nandanam, Chennai 600035, Tamilnadu, India Ph: 044 2434 1217, Fax: 044 4907 5126, Isaac Shantharaj Mobile No.: +919444073315 Email : isaacjs@chloridepower.co.in,
BANGALORE: Ware House No. 8, KKSP Complex, 7th Mile, Kudlugate, Hosur Main Road, Bangalore - 560 068, Phone : 080-2574 4353 Email ID : rahul@chloridepower.co.in, Mr. Rahul Kumar
Vishwakarma Mobile No. : +919901444665 For Solar enquiries Sanjoy Malash Mobile No. : +9192305 19896 Email: sanjoym@chloridepower.co.in, Satyabrata Pattanayak Mobile No. :
+919830440008 Email: satyabratap@chloridepower.co.in Website : www.chloridepowersystems.com
"This catalogue is issued to provide outline information only and should not be deemed to form part of an offer or contract. As a process of continuous product improvement
policy, the specifications are subject to change without prior notice.".