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USA, March 22-24, 1999.

**Comparative Assessment of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for Face Recognition
**

Chengjun Liu and Harry Wechsler Department of Computer Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, USA cliu, wechsler @cs.gmu.edu

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Abstract

This paper addresses the relative usefulness of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for Face Recognition. Comparative assessments are made regarding (i) ICA sensitivity to the dimension of the space where it is carried out, and (ii) ICA discriminant performance alone or when combined with other discriminant criteria such as Bayesian framework or Fisher’s Linear Discriminant (FLD). Sensitivity analysis suggests that for enhanced performance ICA should be carried out in a compressed and whitened Principal Component Analysis (PCA) space where the small trailing eigenvalues are discarded. The reason for this ﬁnding is that during whitening the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix appear in the denominator and that the small trailing eigenvalues mostly encode noise. As a consequence the whitening component, if used in an uncompressed image space, would ﬁt for misleading variations and thus generalize poorly to new data. Discriminant analysis shows that the ICA criterion, when carried out in the properly compressed and whitened space, performs better than the eigenfaces and Fisherfaces methods for face recognition, but its performance deteriorates when augmented by additional criteria such as the Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) rule of the Bayes classiﬁer or the FLD. The reason for the last ﬁnding is that the Mahalanobis distance embedded in the MAP classiﬁer duplicates to some extent the whitening component, while using FLD is counter to the independence criterion intrinsic to ICA.

1. Introduction

Face recognition is important not only because it has a lot of potential applications in research ﬁelds such as Human Computer Interaction (HCI), biometrics and security, but also because it is a typical Pattern Recognition (PR) problem whose solution would help solving other classi-

ﬁcation problems. A successful face recognition methodology depends heavily on the particular choice of the features used by the (pattern) classiﬁer [4], [17], [3]. Feature selection in pattern recognition involves the derivation of salient features from the raw input data in order to reduce the amount of data used for classiﬁcation and simultaneously provide enhanced discriminatory power. One popular technique for feature selection and dimensionality reduction is Principal Component Analysis (PCA) [8], [6]. PCA is a standard decorrelation technique and following its application one derives an orthogonal projection basis which directly leads to dimensionality reduction, and possibly to feature selection. PCA was ﬁrst applied to reconstruct human faces by Kirby and Sirovich [10] and to recognize faces by Turk and Pentland [19]. The recognition method, known as eigenfaces, deﬁnes a feature space, or “face space”, which drastically reduces the dimensionality of the original space, and face detection and identiﬁcation are then carried out in the reduced space. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has emerged recently as one powerful solution to the problem of blind source separation [5], [9], [7] while its possible use for face recognition has been shown by Bartlett and Sejnowski [1]. ICA searches for a linear transformation to express a set of random variables as linear combinations of statistically independent source variables [5]. The search criterion involves the minimization of the mutual information expressed as a function of high order cumulants. Basically PCA considers the 2nd order moments only and it uncorrelates data, while ICA accounts for higher order statistics and it identiﬁes the independent source components from their linear mixtures (the observables). ICA thus provides a more powerful data representation than PCA [9]. As PCA derives only the most expressive features for face reconstruction rather than face classiﬁcation, one would usually use some subsequent discriminant analysis to enhance PCA performance [18]. This paper makes a comparative assessment on the use

and that ICA performance deteriorate when it is augmented by additional decision rules such as the Bayes classiﬁer or the Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis. Swets and Weng [18] point out that PCA derives only the most expressive features which are unrelated to actual face recognition. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) As PCA considers the 2nd order moments only it lacks information on higher order statistics. In particular. The Fisher’s Linear Discriminant (FLD) is yet another popular discriminant criterion. let be a random vector representing an image. The ICA of factorizes the covariance matrix into the following form (2) where is diagonal real positive and original data into transforms the (3) such that the components of the new data are independent or “the most independent possible” [5]. The motivation behind using PCA for human face representation and recognition comes from its optimal and robust image compression and reconstruction capability [10] [15]. To derive the ICA transformation . the whitening operation transforms a random vector into another one that has a unit covariance matrix. (4) where and are derived by solving the following eigenvalue equation. where is the dimensionality of the image space. ICA thus provides a more powerful data representation than PCA [9] as its goal is that of providing an independent rather than uncorrelated image decomposition and representation. however. yields the minimum classiﬁcation error when the underlying probability density functions (pdf) are known. denotes the transpose operation. Methods that combine PCA and the standard FLD. First. Experiments in support of our comparative assessment of ICA for face recognition are carried out using a large data set consisting of 1. and Kriegman [2] and Swets and Weng [18] developed similar methods (Fisher2 where is the expectation operator.107 images and drawn from the FERET database [16]. ICA accounts for higher order statistics and it identiﬁes the independent source components from their linear mixtures (the observables). and in order to improve performance one needs additional discriminant analysis. One such discriminant criterion. To address the overﬁtting problem Liu and Wechsler [11] introduced Enhanced FLD Models (EFM) to improve on the generalization capability of the standard FLD based classiﬁers such as Fisherfaces [2]. Background PCA provides an optimal signal representation technique in the mean square error sense. ICA of a random vector searches for a linear transformation which minimizes the statistical dependence between its components [5]. To address the lack of sufﬁcient training data Liu and Wechsler [12] introduced the Probabilistic Reasoning Models (PRM) where the conditional pdf for each class is modeled using the pooled within-class scatter and the Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) Bayes classiﬁcation rule is implemented in the reduced PCA subspace. The comparative assessment suggests that for enhanced face recognition performance ICA should be carried out in a compressed and whitened space. PCA yields projection axes based on the variations from all the training samples. The use of the Bayes classiﬁer is conditioned on the availability of an adequate amount of representative training data in order to estimate the pdf. Moghaddam and Pentland [13] developed a Probabilistic Visual Learning (PVL) method which uses the eigenspace decomposition as an integral part of estimating the pdf in high-dimensional image spaces. Belhumire. This leads to poor performance when the distributions of the face classes are not separated by the mean-difference but separated by the covariancedifference [6]. Comon [5] developed an algorithm which consists of three operations: whitening. however. hence these axes are fairly robust for representing both training and testing images (not seen during training). PCA does not distinguish.and between-class variations) and it treats them equally. Hespanha. and . the different roles of the variations (within. lack in their generalization ability as they overﬁt to the training data.of ICA as a discriminant analysis criterion whose goal is to enhance PCA stand alone performance. and normalization. rotation. faces and the Most Discriminant Features (MDF) method) for face recognition. By applying ﬁrst PCA for dimensionality reduction and then FLD for discriminant analysis. As an example. the Bayes classiﬁer. 3. The covariance matrix of is deﬁned as 2. The vector is formed by concatenating the rows or the columns of the image which may be normalized to have a unit norm and/or an equalized histogram. (5) § ¥£ ¡ ¦¤¢ RTR 3 @ © ¨ T R Q 6X8WVSP UTR Q F I I F P I G F FGF 3 HD © ¨ 9 EDB@¤A@¨ ¥ C ¥©£¨ ¡ © % 871 " 5643)'%&2 "1!0 )('&$ #! ¨ % " © (1) .

The images are cropped to the size of 64 x 96. The rotation operations. the normalization operation derives unique independent components in terms of orientation. The trailing eigenvalues. As a consequence. the eigenvalue spectrum of the training data supplies useful information for the decision of the dimensionality of the subspace. once the eye coordinates are manually detected. Toward that end. Eq. and order of projections [5].4. When the eigenvalue index is greater than 40. unit norm. 3 UWXR T Q ¢ " T ) R C D£ . 2 shows the relative magnitude of the eigenvalues derived using the 738 training face images. 6 shows that during whitening the eigenvalues appear in the denominator. while the third shot is taken under low illumination. Note that the goal of using whitening for dimensionality reduction is two-fold. 4 can be rearranged to the following form (6) (7) The dimensionality reduction whitening transforms the data into " The question now is how to choose the dimensionality of the reduced subspace. space dimensionality is ﬁrst reduced to discard the small trailing eigenvalues and only then the compressed data is normalized (‘sphered’) to unit gain control. As a result. If we assume that the eigenvalues in are sorted in decreasing order. For the remaining 169 subjects there are also three images for each subject. thus cause the whitening step to ﬁt for misleading variations and make the ICA criterion to generalize poorly when it is exposed to new data. ¡UT § ! # $ ' R X R U R C D¥ £ ¡ ¥ 777 X U 5¥ T ¡ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥¥¦¥¡ # " ¡ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¡ ¥¥¥¦% X U © ¨ X PT U R ¡ © § £¨ ¡ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¡ ¥¥¦¥£ ¢ ¡ ¡ ' ¥ small trailing eigenvalues are excluded so that we can obtain more robust whitening results.107 facial images corresponding to 369 subjects. perform source separation (to derive independent components) by minimizing the mutual information approximated using higher order cumulants. an integral ICA component. respectively (see Eq. and if they were included in the whitening transformation these small eigenvalues will lead 3 g b F 9 2 a 9 f e F e s 9 S S F 7 x 9 a R v R e R s r h i h I%gT¥Tg¥yw333£yw88u`3t6qpG1 9 f g¥e H F 7 b a 9 4 R H2 3dc£8`YXW9 VT8PI3GE3B@864 31 U S H R Q 9 9 H F D C A 97 5 2 where and are eigenvector and eigenvalue matrices. Some of the face images used are shown in Fig. . consisting of 1. On the other hand. 600 out of the 1. if the whitening step is preceded by a dimensionality reduction procedure ICA performance would be enhanced and computational complexity reduced. then the ﬁrst ( ) leading eigenvectors deﬁne a matrix where is an orthonormal eigenvector matrix and is a diagonal eigenvalue matrix of . Two images of each subject are used for training with the remaining one used for testing. 5). Speciﬁcally. counteracts the fact that the Mean Square Error (MSE) preferentially weighs low frequencies [14]. Sensitivity Analysis of ICA Eq. then.107 images correspond to 200 subjects with each subject having three images — two of them are the ﬁrst and the second shot. but two out of the three images are duplicates taken at a different and much later time. Finally. On the one hand. comes from the FERET database [16]. we hope to lose as little representative information of the original data as possible in the transformation from the high dimensional space to the low dimensional one. 1. during the whitening transformation we should keep a balance between the need that the selected eigenvalues account for most of the spectral energy of the raw data and the requirement that the trailing eigenvalues of the covariance matrix are not too small. in the reduced subspace the 5 # ¡ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥¥¦¥¡ X U T 3 6X UW U ¡ © § ( £' ) # 0 £¡ UT and the ﬁrst # # $ & eigenvalues specify a diagonal matrix (8) (9) The experimental data. Fig. which tend to capture noise as their values are fairly small. One notes that whitening. the corresponding eigenvalues have relatively small magnitudes.

93 correct retrieval rate 0.92 0. As a result.01 0 0. 3 and Fig.03 0. Note that Fisherfaces apply ﬁrst PCA for dimensionality reduction and then FLD for discriminant analysis.06 0.09 0.88 0. 4 show the ICA face recognition performance when different is chosen during the whitening transformation (see Eq. The explanation for this behavior is that the trailing eigenvalues correspond to high-frequency components and usually encode noise. more small trailing eigenvalues (see Fig.8 0.87 0.76 50 50 100 150 200 index of eigenvalues 250 300 350 100 150 200 250 number of features 300 m = 100 m = 200 m = 369 350 5.1 0. 9) and as the number of features used can range up to the dimension of the compressed space. we implemented the eigenfaces [19] and Fisherfaces [2] methods for comparison purposes.94 0. when these trailing but small valued eigenvalues are used to deﬁne the reduced PCA subspace.9 0. 0. 4 shows that ICA performance deteriorates quite severely as is getting larger.0.94 0. Relevant questions concerning PCA are usually related to the range of principal components used and how it affects performance.84 0.9 0. 3 and Fig.89 0.91 0. the FLD procedure has to ﬁt for noise as well and as a C U 9 e 9 S a 9 5 `£ 2 ¢3¦@7 4 ( ¡ C 1¡ A @ gf 8§Fd2gue d2£ $¤ $%¤TXHd2£ a3s B 9 ¤9 & ¤ 79 7 e R 2 7 2 R `R #"$F ¢$¤ YH `b g3S ££ 2 `£8T3F C 7@864 31 a $ ! b 9 R 7 F 7 9 9 e R7 R S H 6 97 5 2 C U 9 e 9 S a 9 5 `£ 2 ¢3¦@7 4 23¡ 01¡ ¡ ) gf '§Fd2gue d2£ $¤ $%¤TXHd2£ a3s ( ¤9 & ¤ 79 7 e R 2 7 2 $ ! b 9 R 7 79 9 e 7RS H C 75 2 #"$F ¢$¤ YH `Fb g3S ££ 2 `R£8T3F 6@9864 31 R `R a to decreased ICA performance (see Fig. 4) as they amplify the effects of noise.88 0. Note that smaller values for lead to decreased ICA performance as well because the whitened space fails to capture enough information on the original data.05 0. Fig. 4 Regarding discriminant analysis one has to understand the reasons for overﬁtting and how to avoid it. One can actually show that using more principal components may lead to decreased performance (for recognition).96 0.86 m = 30 m = 40 m = 50 m = 70 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 number of features 55 60 65 70 % 0 ¦ ©¨§ " 9 s 5 2 4 R V$¥e 8 YH ¤ ¥ a 9 5U R gX$ 8`9 gF 9 42 b 9 e RU 9 9 £ 2 ``7 $f r 6 @85 31 C 9 7 42 £ £¤ ¡ ¢ . 2 ) are included in the whitening step and this leads to an unstable transformation. The reason for this deterioration is that for the large values of . In order to assess the sensitivity of ICA in terms of the dimension of the compressed and whitened space where it is implemented.95 0.02 0. The curve corresponding to performs better than all the other curves obtained for different values.96 0. Fig.08 relative magnitude of eigenvalues correct retrieval rate 0. So we set the dimension of the reduced space as .78 0.86 0.82 0. we carried out a comparative assessment for different dimensional ( ) whitened subspace.92 0.07 0. Discrimination Power of ICA To assess the performance of ICA as a discriminant criterion.04 0.

the MAP rule speciﬁes a quadratic classi5 ﬁer characterized by Mahalanobis distance. the Mahalanobis distance embedded in the MAP classiﬁer duplicates to some extent the whitening component of ICA and can not improve the overall performance.9 0.9 0. respectively. 8. This deterioration is caused by the additional FLD transformation which cancels to a large extent the independence criterion intrinsic to ICA. whose performance is shown in Fig.89 ICA eigenfaces Fisherfaces 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 number of features 34 36 38 0. 5 shows that ICA criterion performs better than both eigenfaces and Fisherfaces. signiﬁcantly deteriorates the recognition performance.92 0. The ﬁrst augmented criterion (ICA + Bayes classiﬁer) does not improve the face recognition rate as it displays a similar performance curve to that of ICA as plotted in Fig.86 We next augmented the ICA criterion by additional criteria such as the MAP rule of the Bayes classiﬁer or the FLD. the Bayes classiﬁer uses the pooled within-class scatter to estimate the covariance matrix for each class in order to approximate the conditional pdf.96 0. The comparative performance of eigenfaces.91 0.94 0. ICA is shown to have comparable face recognition performance with the MAP rule of the Bayes classiﬁer and the Fisher’s linear discriminant as embedded within PRM and EFM.94 0.92 correct retrieval rate 0.86 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 number of features 34 36 38 0. To improve the generalization ability of Fisherfaces. In the ICA space.9 0.0.96 0.93 0.94 correct retrieval rate 0. 5 when ICA was implemented in the PCA subspace.88 0.88 0.87 ICA ICA+Bayes 0. 0.88 ICA PRM−1 0. 4 w©i §gF ¢8¤ R A ¢ ¨ ¦ b 9 s $ R ¤ #! $ C 7 9 2 a a RU a 9 u`6 ¥w` £ R f ¥e 2 s 9 2 v H F `g VT3£t b F 9 R 7 Fb7 9 9 e R7 R H g¢8 YH g@@`3S 2 d£$S 3F 6 @864 31 C 97 5 2 ¤ C s 8 R w A 1 ph H gb `3S £ 2 `£8TH F 6 @864 31 7 F 7 9 9 e R7 R S C 97 5 2 5 & £ £ $ ! ¤ 4 ¢ ¨ ¥ ¤ consequence overﬁtting takes place. Fig. we implemented it in the PCA subspace.92 0.95 0. and then applies the MAP rule as the classiﬁcation criterion (see [12] for detail). Fisherfaces and ICA is plotted in Fig.86 EFM−1 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 number of features 34 36 38 . The FLD also use the pooled withinclass scatter to estimate the within-class covariance matrix in the ICA space [11]. As a result. Note that when ICA is combined with the Bayes classiﬁer. The second augmented criterion (ICA + FLD). Fig. 7. We also assessed the ICA discriminant criterion against two other popular discriminant criteria: the MAP rule of the Bayes classiﬁer and the Fisher’s linear discriminant as they are embedded within the Probabilistic Reasoning Models (PRM) [12] and the Enhanced FLD Models (EFM) [11].96 correct retrieval rate %¤ $ ! ¢¤9 2 £84 `9 C s 8 R ¢g@@`g¦31 £¢gb a 9 R b 7 9 f a2 a 9 R b gF ¢$ YH g@b g3S £ w`$S 3F C 9 R 7 F 7 9 9 2 e R7 R H 9 7 42 @85 31 ¤ $ ' 4 ! ¤ £ ¡ A B 4 0. The whitening transformation to standardize the data is applied ﬁrst and it precedes MAP. 6 plots the comparative performances of PRM-1 and EFM-1 against the ICA method with again being set to 40.

New York. IEEE. P. 25(1):65–77. 15(10):1042–1053. August 17-20.65 0. Wang. 19(7):696–710. A. the 14th International Conference on Pattern Recognition. Sirovich. P. Comparative assessments are made regarding (i) ICA sensitivity to the dimension of the space where it is carried out. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 1991. 9:1483–1492. Eigenfaces vs. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program. P. H. Field. Rizvi. and J. Local feature analysis: A general statistical theory for object representation. L. J. 1990. and (ii) ICA discriminant performance alone or when combined with other discriminant criteria such as the MAP criteria of the Bayes classiﬁer or the Fisher’s linear discriminant. 1996. A fast ﬁxed-point algorithm for independent component analysis. Principal Component Analysis. Wechsler. Wilson. when carried out in the properly compressed and whitened space. Probabilistic reasoning models for face recognition. Pentland. C. Moon. the 4th Annual Joint Symposium on Neural Computation. Vigario. Springer. Sirohey. Pentland. 1997. IEEE Trans. Liu and H. Introduction to Statistical Pattern Recognition. I. 1997. Emergence of simplecell receptive ﬁeld properties by learning a sparse code for natural images. Joutsensalo. IEEE Trans. USA. IEEE Trans. 1986. J. 8(3):486– 504. and S. Pattern Recognition. Swets and J. 1997. Academic Press. The discriminant analysis shows that the ICA criterion. 1992. June 23-25.6 0. and D. Jolliffe. Moghaddam and A. [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] References [19] [1] M.0.55 0. Olshausen and D. Bartlett and T. 83(5):705–740. 1994. on Audio and Video-based Biometric Person Authentication. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Human and machine recognition of faces: A survey. In Proc. second edition. R.75 0. Eigenfaces for recognition. Karhunen. Kriegman. 1991. A class of neural networks for independent component analysis. Pasadena. IEEE Trans. A. Belhumeur. Kirby and L. on Neural Networks. Turk and A. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Conclusions This paper addresses the relative usefulness of the independent component analysis for Face Recognition. M. First Int’l Conf. K. T. Atick. B. P. 1997. 381(13):607–609. Australia. 1995. 1993. Application of the karhunenloeve procedure for the characterization of human faces. Fukunaga. Face recognition: Features vs. pages 12–14. under contract DAAL01-97-K-0118. Oja. Samal and P. Network: Computation in Neural Systems.S. L.5 5 ICA ICA+FLD 10 15 20 25 number of features 30 35 40 [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] 6. The sensitivity analysis suggests that for enhanced performance ICA should be carried out in a compressed and whitened space where most of the representative information of the original data is preserved and the small trailing eigenvalues discarded.8 0. A. E. Automatic recognition and analysis of human faces and facial expression: A survey. May 17. on PAMI. IEEE Trans. Proc. Nature. ﬁsherfaces: Recognition using class speciﬁc linear projection. 1998. Comon. In Proc. with the U. Hyvarinen and E. California. templates. 1996. Chellappa. Using discriminant eigenfeatures for image retrieval. 12(1):103–108. a new concept? Signal Processing. M. Hespanha. Brunelli and T. 13(1):71–86. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. P. C. B. D. Independent component analysis. 18(8):831–836. 1996. Neural Computation.9 0. Poggio. Enhanced ﬁsher linear discriminant models for face recognition. 1998. correct retrieval rate s $ R ¤ #! $ C ¤¢1 f 2 £ ¡ e s 9 2 H F $ 8v 3%c b F 9 R 7 F 7 9 9 e R7 R H $¢$ YH g@b g3S 2 d£$S 3F C @85 31 9 7 42 ¤ £ & %¤ $ #! 6 . performs better than the eigenfaces and Fisherfaces methods for face recognition.7 [2] [3] [4] 0. IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. and S. 36:287–314. Phillips. 1997. In Proc. Independent components of face images: A representation for face recognition. The dimensionality of the compressed subspace is decided based on the eigenvalue spectrum from the training data. Rauss. Queensland. Probabilistic visual learning for object representation. but its performance deteriorates signiﬁcantly when augmented by an additional discriminant criteria such as the FLD. R. 1997. In Proc. Weng. Penev and J. Wechsler. The FERET september 1996 database and evaluation procedure. J. 19(7):711–720.85 0. R.95 0. 7:477–500. IEEE Trans. Liu and H. Army Research Laboratory as Technical Agent. Sejnowski. Santa Barbara. C. CA. Switzerland. Iyengar. Oja.

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