This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
First described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him. In 2006, there were 26.6 million sufferers worldwide. Alzheimer's is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people globally by 2050. AD is a progressive, irreversible, degenerative neurologic disease that begins insidiously and is characterized by gradual losses of cognitive function and disturbances in behaviour and affect. Although AD can occur in people as young as 40, it is uncommon before age 65. Although the greatest risk for AD is increasing age, many environmental, dietary and inflammatory factors may affect whether a person suffers from this cognitive disease. AD is a form of dementia, a complex brain disorder caused by a combination of various factors. These factors may include genes, neurotransmitter changes, vascular abnormalities, stress, hormones, circadian changes, head trauma and seizures. AD can be classified into two types: familial or early onset and sporadic or late-onset. Familial AD is rare. It is frequently associated with genetic mutations. It occurs in middle-aged adults. If family members have at least one other relative with AD, then there is a familial component, which non-specifically includes both environmental triggers and genetic determinants. Sporadic AD generally occurs in people older than 65 years of age and it has no obvious pattern of inheritance. Researchers are also beginning to discover the roles of inflammation and oxidative stress and the contribution of brain infarctions to the disease. Dementia is a degenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss, confusion, and inability to think or communicate effectively. Consciousness and perception are usually unaffected. Known causes of the dementia include multiple cerebral infarcts, severe infections, and toxins.
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS In the early stages of AD, forgetfulness and subtle memory loss occur. Patients may experience small difficulties in work or social activities or social activities but have adequate cognitive function to hide the loss and function independently. Depression may occur. With further progression of AD, deficits can no longer be concealed. Forgetfulness is manifested in many daily actions. Patients may lose their ability to recognise familiar faces, places and objects, and they may become lost in a familiar environment. They
paranoid. Eventually. and even combative. malnutrition. The terminal stage. Trying to reason with people with AD and using reality orientation only increases their anxiety without increasing function. or dehydration. patients may recognize family members or caregivers. including eating and toileting. Patients are often unable to recognize consequences of their actions and will therefore exhibit impulsive behavior.may repeat the same stories because they forget that they have already told them. Occasionally. in which patients are usually immobile and require total care. Conversation becomes difficult. such as operating simple appliances and handling money. The ability to formulate concepts and think abstractly disappears. suspicious. and word-finding difficulties occur. Death occurs as a result of complications such as pneumonia. Progression of this disease intensifies the symptoms: speaking skills deteriorate to nonsense syllables. Patients have difficulty with everyday activities. because dysphagia and incontinence develop. hostile. agitation and physical activities increase and patients may wander at night. assistance is needed for most ADLs. Patients may become depressed. . Personality changes are also usually evident. may last months or years.