You are on page 1of 49

INTERNATIONAL

INSTITUTE

FOR HYDRAULIC

AND

ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERING

DELFT

APPLIED HYDRAULICS

Prof.

Dr

P.

Novak

1981

Novak

Applied Hydraulics Errata

1981

page

  • 3 rp = PQ(v2 - vI)

(13)

 

dE

0

 
  • 4 Q2

>

Q1

i -=

dy

 
  • Clv 2

c

(20)

E

=

+--

 

min

Yc

 

2g

  • 5 Y = B-

 

(21)

 

e

9

  • 6 S

c

= 9

10/~ n 2 q -2/9

 

(24)

2

  • 11 p = ~pgy b

 

(last line)

  • 13 change horizontal axis from Y3

-

= (1.1 -+ 2.5)

to

(1.1 -+ 2.6) i

Y1

2

one point on vertical axis should read Fr1 = 0.8 (not 0.7);

  • 14 in Fig. 13b insert widths bl,b2

b1-b2

L

  • 15 2tan8

=

=

(41)

e

=

h (tan -1

 

13

) - .......

(43)

t/(F2_1)

 
 

r

2

  • 17 - v2

vI

2

= I1v2

(first line)

 
 

Y

  • 19 dy =

    • dx S

=

 

1-(~)N

:i

(47)

0

y

 

1-13 (~)N

y

page

  • 21 = 2QdQ _

22

s

o

=

t::.J =

dxgA

222

=!_+3.9_

2

C R

2

gA x

=

  • 24 Q = by V(2g (E-y» y = Yl at x = 0

  • 27 Y = O.5x1.85

29

Q = ~ C I~

3

d

-

b (H 3/3_8

1

2

3/2)

(57)

(72)

  • 35 .•. spi11way and h' the overfa11 jet thickness.at distanee 1).

"

  • 42 Cábe1ka J.

CONTENTS

List of symbols

page

  • 1. Introduction

1

  • 2. Basic Principles

2

  • 3. Energy and Critical

Specific

Depth

3

  • 4. Momentum Function and Hydraulic Jump

 

6

  • 5. Some Applications

of the Specific

Energy and

8

Momentum Principles

  • 5.1. in channel

Changes

width

or bed elevation

8

without

loss of energy

  • 5.2. Flow through bridges

8

 
  • 5.3. Outflow from a reservoir

 

10

  • 5.4. Flow under a gate

10

  • 6. Channel Transitions

11

  • 7. Gradually Varied Non-uniform

Flow

16

 
  • 7.1. Basic differential equation

16

  • 7.2. Surface Profiles

17

  • 7.3. Introduction to methods of computation

18

  • 8. Spatially Varied Non-uniform Flow

 

20

 
  • 8.1. Side channel spillway-lateral inflow

20

  • 8.2. Side weir-lateral outflow

 

23

  • 8.3. Bottom withdrawal

24

9.

Spillway Design

25

  • 9.1. Artificial

control

25

  • 9.2. Basic approach

 

26

  • 9.3. Spillway types and principles of design

27

  • 9.4. Energy dissipation on spillways

 

35

  • 10. Stilling Basins

 

35

  • 11. Drop Structures and Flow through Culverts

38

  • 12. Cavitation and :Vibration

 

40

 

References

42

LIST

OF SYMBOLS

a

heightof roughness,constant

A

cross-sectionalarea

b

channelwidth

B

water surfacewidth

c

constant,wave velocity

C

chézycoefficient

Cd

coefficientof discharge

D

diameter

E

specificenergy

f

function

F

function

Fr

Froudenumber

g

gravitationalacceleration

h

head, stage

hf

frictionloss

H

totalenergy (head), head on spillway

I

inflow

K

channelconveyance

1

length (ofthe hydraulicpump)

  • L length (e.g.of stillingbasin)

  • M momentumfunction,exponent

  • m Manning'scoefficient hydraulicexponent outflow pressureintensity force,wettedperimeter specificdischarge discharge ratio (e.g.b2/bl) hydraulicradius slope

N

o

p

P

q

Q

r

R

S

  • c criticalslope bed slope totalenergyline slope time

S

So

Sf

t

ulocal

velocity

  • v mean cross-sectionalvelocity

    • c criticalvelocity

v

List

of symbols

(continued)

!J.v

difference between local and mean velocity

  • v volume, storage

    • x coordinate, distance depth stilling basin depth depth of centroid of section A critical depth

y

y'

y+

A

mean depth (= 'B) height above datum

  • Cl energy (Coriolis) coefficient momentum (Boussinesque) coefficient thickness of laminar sub-layer

S

.0

  • e- velocity coefficient function specific weight (= Pg) friction coefficient coefficient of viscosity specific mass safety coefficient shear stress at wallof channel (head loss) coefficient

cp

y

À

\)

P

o

'T.

o

1.

Introduction

These lecture notes form the background

to the lectures

in applied hydraulics

at the International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering

in Delft. They assume the knowledge of basic fluid mechanics and are oriented

towards the application

of basic

principles

to hydraulic engineering

design,

particularly

in non-uniform

open channel

flow and spillway

and stilling basin

design. Delait~d non-uniform

flow computations

and unsteady

flow problems

are

not included.

2.

Basic principles

In hydraulics

we can apply

to any situation

two out of three

principles:

(i) the principle

of conservation

of matter

(continuity) and the

 

principle of conservation

of energy

(if we can account

for all

enercjy "losses") or

 

(ii) the principle

of continuity

and the momentum principle

(if we

 

can account

for all external

forces).

In open

channel

flow the continuity

principle

for a constant discharge

Q

 

is stated

by the equation:

 

(1)

Where

A and vare

the cross-sectional

area

and the mean

velocity

of flow

in

sections

1 and

2. If the velocity

remains constant

(vI = V2)

the cross-sectional

area remains constant;

this

implies

in a prismatic

channel a constant

depth

and uniform

flow. The

uniform

flow results

from an exact balance

between

forces of gravity

and frictional

resistance.

Denoting the

total energy

head

in a section

H, the height

above datum

z,

the pressure

head ~

and the velocity

head

2~' (kinetic

energy) :

...

E ....

v2

H = z + pg + 2g

 

(2)

In an ideal

fluid

the total

energy

head

H remains

constant

throughout the

 

flow; equation

2 then

becomes

a statement

of the Bernoulli

equation

for an

ideal fluid.

For the flow of the real

fluid we must

take into account

the velocity

distri-

bution in the cross-section

where

the local

(time average) velocity

u will

be

different

from the mean

velocity

v:

u

= v

+ l:!.v

(3)

-

2

-

This

fact

is taken

into account by multiplying

by a coefficient

a (Coriolis

coef.)

where:

the velocity

head

in equation

2

(4)

(In equation

4 the

term f~v3dA

was neglected

and f~vdA

= 0 from vA = fudA).

In a real fluid there is also a loss of energy

~E = hf

(due to friction and/

or

local losses) . Thus

from equation 2 we

can write for two sections 1 and 2:

(5)

If e.g. an open channel z is the height of the lowest point of the section

above datum, then ~

pg

= y,

(the depth

of the channel) (assuming hydrostatic

pressure distribution

in the channel i.e. the channel has a relatively

small

slope and linear longitudinal section).

Equation 5 becomes:

(6 )

In uniform flow YI = Y2, al = al, vI = vl

and thus

(zl - zl) = hf. If ~X is

the distance between the sections

and S

the slope of the bed and Sf the

slope of the total energy line where S

 

o

~z

= - ---- and S

o

~x

f

= -

~H

h : ..

---- = - ~

~x

~x

then for

uniform flow:

(7)

Denoting L

o

the mean shear stress on the channel perimeter Pand

the ratio

of ~ = R

(the hydraulic radius) from the balance between gravity and frictional

resistance we get:

L

o

= pgRS

= pvl

o:t

(8)

where v:tis the shear velocity.

Since

in fully turbulent flow L

o

a vl equation

equation for uniform flow:

(8)

leads to the well known Chézy

v

= C I (RS )

o

(units of Care

~ -1

L T

).

The "coefficient" C can be expressed as

(9)

6R

  • C 18 log a +

6/7

(10)

-

3

-

where À is the friction coefficient in the Darcy-Weisbach equation:

(11 )

and "a" is a length characterising the roughness

and 0 =

11·6v

v

~s the thickness

.

of the laminar sublayer. Another frequently used express~on . ~. ~s

th

e Manning

equation using a constant n which is a function of the roughness:

%

v = ~

Is

n

0

1/6

(Le. C = ~

)

n

From the second law of Newton by equating the

(12)

sum of all external forces P

to the rate of change of momentum PQv we can write for sections 1 and 2 in

a flow:

(13)

In rea1 fluid flow we have to take again into account the velocity distribution

by introducing a coeffiecient 8(Boussinesque coefficient):

(14)

Therefore 1 < p < a

..

Under normal conditions 1 < a. < 1.1 but the value of a. can be

(15)

higher in irregular sections, downstream of hydraulic pumps, etc.

As8 is alway,s

smaller than a. it is often taken as 1.0.

3. Specific Energy and Critical Depth

From equation 6 we may write the total head in a cross-section as:

(16)

In equation

(16) h = z + Y is the height of the water level (or in pipe flow the

height of the hydraulic gradient line) above a datum;-in river engineering this

is denoted as the "stage". The expression

(17)

is termed the specific energy ; this is the energy referred to the lowest point

in the channel cross-section. The concept of specific energy is very important

in open channel design.

- 4 -

For a constant discharge Q, equation 17 can be plotted in a graph y x E

- see

fig. 1. For any particular value of El>E.

m1n

we obtain two possible

depths - the alternate depths belonging to two different flow regimes i.e.

the subcritical flow (y>y , v<v ) and the supercritical flow (y<y ,v>v ) c c
the subcritical flow (y>y , v<v ) and the supercritical flow (y<y ,v>v )
c
c
c
c
y
subcritical flow
2
ClV
t
2g
B
y
Yl
/
supercritical flow
/
/
(El)yc
--- -/--
/
alternate depths
;
__
....
4_
-
'7
(Ql)yc
50
/
-
-
/
:r .,
...~
-
-
Y2
,/
_I - -
I
-
El
E
Emin
Fig. 1
At E = E.
there is only one solution for the depth y = y
- the critical depth
m1n
c-

(resuIting in the critical velocity (v).

c

We can find the minimum energy and

thus critical depth from the conditions ~~ = O. From

equation 17:

1-

ClQ2 dA -

0

~dy

-

c

From fig. 1 it is evident that dA = B i.e. the water surface width

dy

at E min:

and thus

(18)

ClQ2B

The dimensionless term ~

2

is the square of the froude number -Fr - for a

general channel shape. Thus the condition for critical depth becomes:

(18a)

For subcritical flow Frf<1 and for supercritical flow Fr > 1. We could draw

similar curves

for any value of Q. Thus

in fig. 1 another curve is drawn for

Q2>Q

and line "a" separates the region of supercritical and subcritical flow.

A

The term B can be denoted as

the mean depth Ym' The condition for critical

velocity then becomes from equation 18:

V

c

=

A

.R. = I(!I ~) = I(L mc)

A

ClB

Cl

Y

c

c

and we can write for the minimum energy:

(19 )

E

.

m1n

=

y c +

~

2g

y

c

+

y

__

m.c_

2

(20 )

-

5

-

For a rectangular section, width b = B = constant, equation 18 results in

and thus for Q = q b

From equation 20

Emin = Yc +

!c_3

2 = '2 Yc

(18b)

(21)

(20a)

In a rectangular channel line "a" in fig. 1 has thus a slope 2:3.

From fig. 1 it can be seen that

for a given specific energy El

the maximum

discharge that can pass through the section with this energy will be Q2 for

which

the depth at El will be critical. Another way of getting the same result,

would be to rewrite

equation 17 for a constant value of El as:

(22)

and·put ~; = 0

From equation 20

we

obtain E

1

- Y

c

A

= _:::_ which together with (22) gives a

2Bc

~

B

__ax_3_c_=

g ~

1,

which is of course identical with equation 18.

A plot of equation 22 is shown in figure 2.

Equation 18 also unables

us to find the critical depth for a given discharge

Q for any general cross-section as shown in figure 3.

y

subcritical

I

flow

y

Isupercritical

:

flow

I

 

Q

Fig. 2

Fig. 3

-

6 -

The bed slope of a channel where the uniform flow depth y

o

(also called "normal"

depth) is critical,(yo = Yc) is the critical

slope. From equation

12 and 19

we get

s

c

2

g Ymc n

.

R

c

4/3

(l

(23)

for (l = 1 and a wide rectangular channel with y

mc

equation 23 and 21:

= Yc = R

c

we

get from

s

c

= g

~3 2

n

g

- 719

(24)

A channel with a slope S

o

> S

c

has a super-critical slope and is called "steep"

and with S

o

< S

c

a subcritical slope usually called "mild".

4. Momentum Function and Hydraulic Jumps

Let us consider a channel with water levels as indicated in fig. 4 where the

change in water levels between sections 1 and 2 is caused by an obstacle

exerting an

(external) force P on the flow.

_.

L-.,.--

_-

-

-

_- y

Y2

Fig. 4

From equation

13 it follows that

~in

Fig. S

.conjugate

depths

where Pi

and Pz are the hydrostatic forces in sections 1 and 2 with Pl

=

+

. +

pgA1Y1 where Y1 is the depth of the centre of gravity of area Al.

Thus

pg Al

+

Yl

-

P

-

pg A2 Y2 - pR2 Q IA2 - pB1 Q lAl

+ _

2

2

-

7 -

p

-=

pg

(25)

Denoting the term in the brackets as M·- momentum

function - we can write:

p

-=

pg

Fig. 5 shows a plot of depth y against M; as for specific energy we get two

flow regimes i.e. sub- and supercritical and for each value of M

bigger than

Mmin at y = Yc' two depths Yl and Y2 which are called initial and sequent depths

or conjugate depths. Writing the expression for the momentum function for a

rectangular

channel with y+ =~,

for B1 = B2 =

1 and unit width as:

M = y2

+ ~

2

gy

results for dM

dy

o in

which is identical with equation 21 (for a. = B = 1).

Equation 25 permits the computation of one unknown among four variables

- Pl'Ql'Al'A2 - for a given channel shape and B1 = S·

  • 2 = 1 (y+ is a function of

channel shape and position of water

level i. e. A) .

The transition from supercritical to subcritical flow occurs through the

hydraulic jump (standing wave). The equation for the sequent depth from the

initial depth (or vice-versa) can be derived

from eq. 25 for P = O. Thus e.g.

for a rectangular channel

resulting in

 

(Ut +'LJ_=~

 

Y2

y

2

g Y. 2

.

~

=

1

 

2

 

..

(-1 +

1(1 + 8 Fr2

Y2

2

 

or similarly

X2.1

= -

 

(-1 + 1(1

2

+ 8 Fr1

y1

2

 

and

)

)

)

)

(26)

(27)

-

8 -

The height of the hydraulic jump is given by

(Y2 - Yl) and is a function of

the Froude number. The length of the jump

1 is given by

(28)

The energy

loss in the jump can be computed

from equation 26

difference between the energies of

section 1 and 2:

(or 27) as the

(29)

5. Some Applications of the Specific Energy and Momentum Principles

5.1. Changes in channel width or bed elevation without loss of energy

Figure

1 and equations 16 - 22 can be used to compute changes in depth

or specific discharge resulting from a change in channel width and/or

from a change in bed level assuming that energy losses can be neglected.

If a channel is constricted or its bed raised so that a critical depth

occurs a hydraulic jump will form downstream of the (contracted) section

and a standing wave flume or venturi flume is formed. The discharge

through

this flume for a rectangular

section with

a throat width bt is given by

(30)

In equation 30 the discharge is implicit

Q2

(as E = Y + -2=g-A-2~'

where A is the

upstream cross-sectional area of flow) and has to be found by iteration.

5.2. Flow through bridges

__.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

1

2

3

Fig. 6a

Fig. 6b

Figures

6a and 6b show two possible

longitudinal sections through the flow

between bridge piers. In fig. 6a the flow remains subcritical throughout

whereas

in fig. 6b it changes from subcritical to supercritical and back to

subcritical.

(Both cases assume that the normal flow depth is > y

c

)

-

9 -

The parameter required for design is the increase in depth ~y, caused by

the flow through the bridge, for various values of Q, y o and b

~

. The condi-

tion for a critical depth to occur in the bridge is y

  • 2 = yc

assumption E

1

':!

E2 we obtain for È2 = r

b1

= 1zz2. From the

g

r 2 =

27 Fr-f _.

___

;;; , ..

...

..

  • c (2 + Fr ~)j

1

--

(31)

The disadvantage of equation 31 is that it uses an

(unknown) upstream Fr! and

that the assumption El = E2 is not really justified. It is, therefore, better

to put M2 = M3 and work from downstream, where the depth Y3 is known for a

given discharge. For Y2 = Yc' this gives:

r

c

1

(2 + -)

r

c

-

3 Fr4 -

3

(1 +

2 Fr

-3

2)3"

(32)

Thus if r >Pr

c

the flow in fig. 6a will occur, if r < r

fig. 6b will be valide

c

For r < reit

is

then

best to compute M2 for the section between the piers

(from M2 ~ M3) and to calculate Y1 from the energy equation all~~ing for a

head loss between section 1 and 2. This can be taken as ~

= c ~,

where

c = 0.18 for a roundheaded pier and c = 0.35 for a square pier head.

~Y is

then calculated aS-Y1 - Y3 taking into account energy losses in the hydraulic

jump and between sections 1 and 2.•

For the case when r > r , i.e. the bridge is not choked, Yarnell on the basis

c

of experiments (carried out

for ~

1

> 0.5) suggested the equation:

~

Y3

__

K ~r3

2

(K +

Fr3

2

+

- 0.6) (r

+4

+ 15 r

)

(33)

where r+ = bl - b2 = 1 - rand

b1

K is a coefficient.

K = 0.9 for piers with a semicircular nose and tail, K = 1.25 for piers with

a square nose and tail. Equation 33 is valid for ratio of pier length and

width L/ B about 4. For more slender piers ~y can be reduced by about 10 %

(for ~ = 7 to 13 the reduction is 17 % to 4 %). The

case of subcritical flow

throughout (fig. 6a) is also sometimes solved by the equation (d'Aubuisson)

(34)

(which is derived from the assumption Y2 = Y3 and using a coefficient Cb to

account for the entry energy loss and the inaccurate assumption) with

0.90 < Cb <

1.05 according to pier geometry. For piers not parallel to the

-

10 -

flow the effect of skew can be taken into account by assuming the effective

width of the pier as the width projected normal to flow for angles of

deviation

from the flow up to 200 •

  • 5.3. Outflow from a reservoir

E

o

Fig. 7a

y

E

I

_ 11

-

Q

Fig. 7b

The task is to compute the outflow from a reservoir for a given height of

water above the crest of the outflow with a channel downstream of the crest.

This generally

simple computation for the case of S

o

> S

c

i.e. a steep

channel is more complicated for the case when S

o

< S

c

. In any case the value

of S

c

depends on the discharge which we are seeking

(see eq. 23 and 24).

The problem

is best solved by the application of the energy principle

to the

crest and plotting

fig. 7b which is a combination of fig. 2 and the stage

discharge curve for the channel slope S

and known roughness. If the channel

o

is long enough for uniform flow to,be established then in case of channel

rating curve 11 the outflow will be given by Q

, in case of the curve I

max

by the discharge QI' which alone satifies both conditions of given energy

Eo and channel slope and roughness.

(If the rating curve

passes through the

point where on the energy curve y = Yc' than the channel has a critical

slope

and

again Q = Q

max

)

The problem

is a clear example of flow "control". For S

 

.::.S

the spillway

 

o

c

~rest

controls the flow, for S

 

< S

the channel (roughness) controls the

o

c

discharge.

  • 5.4. Flow under a gate

Some of the problems associated with the flow under a gate - e.g. the force

acting on the gate and the energy 1055 downstream of the gate can best be

appreciated

from fig. 8 where both figs. 1 and 5 are combined:

-

11 -

y

P/Pg

Fig. 8

dE

/

E

The computation proceeds from section 3 upstream with M2 = M3 and E2 - E3 = 6Ei

then El ~ E2 and Ml - M2 = p/Pg i.e. the force exerted on the gate.

  • 6. Channel transitions

Channel transitions are changes of direction, slope or cross-section.

All controls are transitions (but not vice-versa). The flow through gradual

smooth channel transitions can be solved or at least approximated by assuming

no energy loss and using methods described in chapter

3 and section 5.1.

For flow through "sudden" transitions and particulary for flow through short

expansions and contractions the assumption of no energy loss is not valid

and the energy loss-enabling the application of the energy principle - is not

known beforehand. Furthermore for supercritical flow additional complications

in the form of standing wave~ (waves of interference) arise. In these situations

it is better to approach the problem through the application of the momentum

principle under certain.assumptions:

P1

I

.-

I

1

I

I

P2/2

!'~

I

1

:

y.

,,:

-

.

I

P2/2:

2

Fig. 9

3

P2~:

i

P3 P ---

1

I

I

I

-

____

;

I

I

-

I

~

1

2

Fig. 10

;

I

 

..

P3

I

j

For a contraction (fig. 9) we can write

For a rectangular section, 81 = 82 and Y2 = Y3 with P = ~g

y2 and Fr12

2

= 2L_

9 y 1

 

-

12 -

 

this reduces

to

 

(35)

Similarly

for an expansion

(fig.

10) and

assuming

Y1 = Y2 we get:

 

·22

 

= (b..db1)

(Y3/Yl)

(Y3 !Yl

-

1)

 

(36)

Fr 2

  • 1 2(Y3/Y1

- b/b3)

Both equations may be represented by a series of curves in a plot of F.:r:.f.

against Y3/Y1 with

b3/b1 as a parameter - Fig. 11. This

figure permits a quick

application of equations 35 and 36 in design. There are 4 zönes in the

figure representing:

1) supercritical flow throughout the transition

2) change from supercritical to subcritical flow

3) subcritical flow throughout the transition

4) change from subcritical to supercritical flow

The head loss, particulary in subcritical transitions, can then be calculated

as ~E = El - E3. For a tapered contraction this shouldfe

2

6E ~ c vig with c

in the region of 0.2. For an expansion 6E ~ c (V12~ V3)

with 0.3 <- c < 1

(limits for a tapered and sudden expansion). The above values are only approxi-

mate and sometimes the applications of figure 11 leads-because of the assump-

tions made - to seemingly impossible results with no energy loss or even a

negative value of 6E.

For supercritical flow further complications are caused by the standing waves

and associated losses. The waves, dynamically similar to short waves in super-

sonic gas flow, occur whenever there is an interference with supercritical flow.

Using for the wave celerity c the expression for long waves of small amplitude

c

= .l gy)

(37)

the ratio of the flow velocity v and of c becomes the Froude number

(Mach number

in compressible fluids).

For an

inclination 8 of the wave to the direction of

flow (see figure 12a)

v

1

-

  • c sin 8

= Fr = ---

(38)

- 13 - [j) t:: 0 -l .j ) .. o - - lIS l-t .j
-
13 -
[j)
t::
0
-l
.j ) ..
o
-
-
lIS
l-t
.j ) ..
t::
0
-
0'1
o
-l
>.
r ...
.-!
<,
lIS
r")
.j ) ..
>.
t::
0
N
•.-l
l-t
0
c::
c::
0'1
::l
[j)
c
0
l-t
0
c::
-l
.j ) ..
til
~
3:
0
0 ..
.-!
X
~
<:r'.
QJ
CD
l-t
'0
\I
0
1.0
~
~
·
~
-
......
r")
Q
>.
<,
IJ")
r")
-
·
>.
:>
~
-
N _
lol
r ...
r")
-
·
--~----~I.O~--~~;.--~N~-
.
10
CD
r--
.....
......
......

c

Fig. 12a

v>c

Fig. 12b

Thus, if there is a change in direction 9 of a channel wall

(see fig. 12b)

a shock wave, inclination 8, will be created. With no force acting along the

front of the wave:

.vI cos 8 = v2 cos (13 -

9)

From the momentum equation for the wave

(jump) we get:

(see equation 26) resulting in

sin

(For values of Y2/Yl approaching 1 equation 39 reduces to

continuity:

VI Yl sin 8 = v2 Y2 sin (13 -

9)

we can 5

ubs t i

s t ä t.ut;eLrrt.o eq.

.

with the result:

39 f

v",

or ~

Y1

= -

__

.t.an S

;=~

__

;-

tan

(8

-

9)

tan 13

tan

(B -

9)

1

2

(I (1 + 8 sin 2 13

Fr

1

2) -

1)

 

(39)

38). As

from

(40)

(Equation 40 is an implicit equation for 13 which is more accurate than eq. 38

valid

for very small waves). If the wave caused by the change in direction

indicated in fig.12b hits an opposite wall an unfavourable train of wave

fronts is set up in the channel

(see fig. 13a)

Fig. 13a

.--

-

15-

This

can be offset,

for one value

of Fr1,

only by asymmetrical

of a length

L satisfying

the condition

(see figure

13b):

L = b2 - b2

2 tan 8

= ~ __b~l

+

2 tan 81

=b~

_

2 tan (82 - 8)

contraction

(41)

For the design of a gradual smooth transition without energy loss in super-

critical flow (see fig.

small changes in 8:

14) we may

use the above equations for continuous

dy/d8

=

sin 8 cos 8

=

2

v

g

tan 8

(42)

Integration of equation ~2)yields

.8 = h

(tan -

1

h

f(Fr2

- 1)

-1

- tan

____

,;;.1

___

_

f (Fr2 _ 1)

8

1

(43)

If we plot (8 + 81) against Fr we can use the graph - Fig.

15 - for design.

We enter the graph for the upstream Froude number Fr1with 8 = 0 and get 81;

adding 8 to 81 for a positive wave or subtracting for a negative wave the next

Froude number is obtained etc. The depth is computed for a constant E from

v2

v2

E = Y + 2g = Y (1 + 2 g y)

Fr2

= y (1 + -2-)

positive waves

increasing depth

converging contours

Fig. 14

negative waves

decreasing depth

diverging contours

-

16 -

7. Gradually Varied Non-uniform Flow

7.1. Basic differential equation

The concept of uniform flow was introduced in chapter 2. The flow discussed

in chapters

3 - 6 were mainly examples of rapidly varied non-uniform flow

where the changes

in depth and velocity occured over a relating short

distance. If these changes are gradual we refer to the flow as gradually

varied non-uniform flow. In both cases the flow does not vary with time and

is thus steady.

The equation for gradually varied flow and its solution is

derived on the assumption (substantiated by experiment) that uniform flow

equations may be used to evaluate the energy slope at a given channel

section. In a general non-prismatic channel from equation 6 and for

70

°

65°53

l- l-

60

50·

\ \

CD

+

CD

1\

\

\

.\_ -- f- ec •

'\

43)

j

t+-

20'

10°

Fr I--- H"

Fr,

I'- ..

i

8

t4-ti-

af'

Star

cur~ Ie

! r--- t---

-

9,

I

I

..-

l

!

o· I

2

3

4

5

6

7

f

8

=r

9

IQ

11

12

13

!4

15

Fig. 15

-

17-

v

2

-

v

2

-

 

1

2

we get

 

and thus

 

S

 

~_

dx-

~ v2 with

= d(~)

A

2

= -2 ---orAQ(2aA dy + dA db)

1'\

..

)

dY

db

0

db

For a prismatic channel -- = 0 and eq. 44 reduces to

dx

(44)

(45)

Introducing the channel conveyance K = C A I ~)

(i.e. the discharge for a slope 1) eq. 45 becomes:

d

~

-

dx -

S

l-(!o.) 2

K

0 1 _ FrZ·

(46)

(equation 46 simplies that

To = pg R

T

o

= pg R

0

S)

0

Sf - see equation 8 - as weil as

Equation 46 can be conveniently used to analyse various surface profiles in

non-uniform flow as generally K2(l yN where the exponent N is called the

hydraulic exponent.

7.2. Surface profiles

In open channel flow the slope S

of the channel can be S

o

0

 

< S

c

(mild),

S

> S

(steep), S

= S

(critical),S

 

= 0 (horizontal) S

<

0

(adverse

 

o

coc

0

0

slope). In the first three cases uniform flow is possible with yo >yc

in

the mild channel, y

o

'C..

Y

in the steep channel and y

coc

= y

in the case of

the critical slope. Uniform flow is not possible for So ~ O. We can thus

have 12 surface profiles: M1 M2 M3' Sl S2 S3' Cl C3, H2 H3' A2 A3·

Curves in zone 1 are called backwater curves (positive slope), curves in

middle

zone 2 are called drawdown curves

(they have a negative slope).

In all cases the uniform flow depth is approached asymtotically and the

critical depth is intersected at sight angles. At the upper limits of depth

the curves become

asymptotic to a horizontal water level, at the bed they

-

18 -

intersect it at right angles. Figure 16 summarizes the surface profiles

o-~~_:

_

c--

_____

~----o

'

__

- -;-c

"'-------

nJI51/11/1/1

--.

c_

0_

__

-

------

=i-: \ -

,

~\

---

..._

,

-_

C

o

co

c - ---

____

---

\

=:- - - c

~

,

IJlhlll7

1/ 71/ 77 7/111

H

Fig. 16

,

-

__'

-.J ,"_

_....

---==---cl

When using the surface profile curves we have to stablish first of all the

various controls i.e. sections where there is a definite relationship between

depth and discharge.

(e.g. dams, weirs, gates, channel entries and exits etc.

see also chapter 5). In the transition from subcritical to superciitical

flow

the critical depth is the control; in the reverse case the transition occurs

through a hydraulic

pump the location of which

is generally not known in

the first instance. Profile plotting and depth computation proceed from

the control upstream in subcritical flow and downstream in supercritical flow.

7.3. Introduction to methods of computation

As stated in chapter 1 only an introduction to the actual computation of the

depth of gradually varied non-uniform flow is given here. Generally equation

46, valid for prismatic channels, may be solved by direct integration, by

numerical methods or by a combination of numerical and graphical techniques.

a) direct integration

------------------

wr a l.ng or

't'

f

F 2

r

2

a Q

= ~-

g A

B

=

A3

i.e. assuming that ï3 varies as

  • M and subsituting for (-~ol =

Y

as Y

N

K

we get from equation 46:

(Yo.)N

Y

i.e. assuming that K2 =

 

-

19 -

 

1 _

(Ya.) N

~

= So ---,y~-

= S

dx

1

_

(Yc.) M

0

y

where 8 = a.- c2 Sa

g P

B

From eq. 47:

denoting

y/y

1

-

8

o

= U and f du

l-uN"-

- B(u) we get

(47)

(48)

The function B (u) - the Bachme_te:vfunction - can be evaluated for varLous.

values of N and u and tables of the function B(u) are available.

For the ease of a wide rectangular channel using Chézy equation we get

N = M = 3 and the functions in equation 48 revert to the Bresse

functions.

Eq. 48 can be used to compute (xl - x2) for given values of u1 and u2

- an explicit solution - or to compute u2 from given values of (xl - x2)

and u1 - and implicit solution.

b) numerical methods

Various step methods may be used. E.g. for prismatic channels evaluating

the nominator and denominator for the mean depth in a depth incremental

interval yields directly ~y/~x and the distance between Yl and Y2 as L~X.

Alternatively we can compute the distance from eq. 16 where ~!= So - Sf

with Q = K ISf .

The computation of depth from a given distance is always more troublesome

as a trial and error or a graphical procedure must be used.

In non-prismatic channels equation 44 applies and generally this with the

introduction of local losses can be evaluated only by a step-by-step method.

In principle we use again

equation 6 (16) introducing a

v2

local loss ~ 2g

as weIl as the frictional head loss hf between sections 1 and 2.

The computation of distance from stage is simpie, the computation of stage

from distance is by

adopting

teration which can be reduced to a single one by

- 20 -

(49)

where ~Y2 is the correction of the assumed depth in section

2 which resulted

in an error ~H in the computed and assumed energy head. The whole computation

for longer river reaches is best handled by using a computer with a simple

programme.

  • 8. Spatially Varied Non-uniform Flow

    • 8.1. Side channel spillway - lateral inflow

Rllll!_!

L

__

a

I:" I

]

~

b

Fig. 17

c

For a lateral inflow into a channel

(fig. 17a) the

inflow has no momentum

in the direction of flow, but there is substantial energy dissipation

in the

channel.

Thus we can apply the momentum principle but not the energy

principle.

Taking the slope of the channel and the resistance into account results in:

thus

pgt.M+ pg.MZ + L Pt.x= 0

0

dl-1

-=

dx

dz

A(- --

dx

pgRSf

PgR ) = A(S

0

- S

f

)

(50)

Equation (50) can be solved by numerical methods similar to non-uniform

computations. Also:

dM

dx

=

d

dx

Q2

(-

gA

+ Ay

+

)

=

2Q dQ _ Q2

dA

d

gA

dx

gA2 dx + dx

+

(Ay )

-

21 -

From

+

A(y

dv

+ dy) + dA 2'" =

(A + dA)

+

(y

~+

+ dy dy)

A dy

= y+

+

dA + A ~

dy

dy =

Therefore

A(S

o

_ S ) = 2Q dQ

f

d x qA

_ Q2~ ~

gA

dx

+ A ~

dx

(51 )

Critical flow occurs a~ Fr1

1 but ~

has a finite value.

Thus for critical flow:

S

o

- S

f

- 2Q2 dQ = 0

gA

dx

For Q = a x, where "a" is a constant,

 

dQ

dx

= a

Thus:

 

S

= S

+ 2Q2

o

f

gA2x

with

 

Q2B

---

= 1 at the

gA3

 

(52)

=

v2

+ ~

= Q2B

~

+ Q2B

2A

C2R

gA2x

gA3

BC2R

gA3

BX

critical section and

 
 

this results in:

 
 

(53)

- 22

-

For

a critical

section

to occur,

the slope

must

be bigger

than

the value

given

by eq.

(53) with x = L or the length of the spillway L must be

bigger than

8a2

x = ----~~------

gB2 (S

o

_ 2:_) 3

C2B

(54)

For a rectangular

section and for So = Sf = 0 equation (51) can be

integrated as for

a

unit width (B = 1):

and

 

2a2x

a2x2

--

dx + (gy - --)dy

= 0

 

y

y2

OD1

OD2

(as ~

= ~

in the equation Dl dx + D2 dy = 0):

(x) 2

=

( 1

+

;1;:

L

2 Fr2 L

with

YL and

FrL applying to the

downstream

end section (x = L) .

(55)

Returning to equation (50), the scheme for numerical integration could

be expressed as follows:

dQ + A ~

dx

dx

thus

~=

dx

S

0

_ S

f

_ v

g

dv

dx

v2

-

gQ

dQ

dx

ó,y

-

vl + v2

-

2g

vl + v2

(ó'v+

Ql + Q2

ó'Q) +

(S

0

- Sf)ó'x

ó,y

-

aQ1(v1 + v2)

-

g(Ql + Q2)

(ó,v+

v2ó'Q

--)

Ql

+

(S

0

- S

f

)Ó,

(56)

(57)

-

23 -

Equation (57) can be solved by trial and error for Óy with Q1' v1, So'

ÓX, Q2 and channel shape known and an assumed value of Y2 (and therefore

v2) which must agree with

óy = Y2 - Y1' given by eq. (57)

  • 8.2. Side weir - lateral outflow

For this type of flow the energy principle may be applied (see fig. 17b):

dE

-=

dx

S

0

- S

f

3x. + Q

dQ _ ~

dx

gA2 dx

gA3

dA

-=

dx

S

0

- S

~=

S

0

- S

f

-

Q

2AZ

dQ

dx

  • dx 1 _ F2

r

 

(58)

f

 

(59)

Substituting for Q = A/(2g(E - y) ) and for the outflow

_ ~

dx

= C, 1(2g)

(y - d) 3/2

where C, is a constant, leads to a computational scheme;

eq. (57) we can write:

(60)

similarly, to

Óy = -

~Q1

(v 1 + v 2) Óv

g(Q1 + Q2)

(61)

The main difficulty in the solution is the unknown value of the boundary

conditions i.e. depths at the beginning or end of the outflow and the

location of the control section;

necessary.

a trial and error computation is

For a rectangular channel section with a horizontal overflow and S

o

= S

f

~ 0

equation (59) together with eq. (60) yields:

~

_

-

QA ~

= 2c11( (E -

y) (y -

d) 3

)

(62)

- 24 -

Integrating eq. (61) results in:

XCI

b

2E - 3d I E

- Y

-1

I E - y

 

=

E

- d

(y _ d) - 3 sin

 

(y

d' + const.

(63)

The constant of integration must again be obtained by trial and error as

the boundary condition at the downstream end is not known.

8.3. Bottom withdrawal

From fig. 17c we can again apply the energy principle resulting in

eq.

(59).

Assuming a negligible energy loss and the head on the opening

as Eresults

in:

_ dQ = rcBI (2gE)

dx

(64)

where r is the ratio of the area of the opening to the corresponding

total bed area and c is a coefficient.

For S

o

= S ~ 0 and a rectangular

channel with Q = by/(2g(e - y) ) equations

(59) and

(64) result in

~

_ 2rc/(E(E - y)

dx -

3y - 2E

Integration of eq.

(65) results for y = Yl' at

X =

1

rc

o in:

(65)

(66)

The value of c has been determined experimentally as 0.4 < c < 0.5

(MOstkov)

This

coefficient and eq.

(66) are applicable to an opening

with longitudinal

bars (i.e. negligible energy loss) .

For an opening with transverse bars there is an energy loss

in equation

(64) E is replaced by y resulting in

2

~.~

2g

and thus

~

_ 2rc/(y(E - y)

dx -

3y - 2E

Integration of eq. (67) gives:

(67)

X =

E

4rc

- 25

-

Equations

(66) and

(67) may be used

for designing

the opening

in a

channel bottom for complete withdrawal of the water by finding the distance

x = L for y = O.

  • 9. Spillway Design

9.1. Artificial control

All notches, weirs and flumes are examples of artificial control.

The

most common type of sharp-crested weirs, i.e. notches, is the rectangular

notch.

If T is the height of the crest above the approach channel bed -

see fig. 18- we can write for discharge:

2

«h + ~) 2g

a.v 3/2

a.v

(~)

2g

3/2)

(68)

In eq. (68) b is the width

(length) of the notch and h is the head above

the crest.

Eq. (68) may for small values of v

also be written as:

o

(68a)

For a notch without side contractions in eq. (68)

or

h

= 0.611 + 0.08 T (Rehbock)

h

Cd = 0.602 + 0.083 T (BS 3680)

or in (68a) (Bazin):

Cd = 0.608 + 0.~05

with

a.v2

(1 + ~)3/2

2gh

= 1 + 0.55(h h

+ T

)2

For a notch with side contractions in eq. (68):

Cd = 0.616 (1 - 0.1 ~) (Hamilton-Smith)

For a triangular

(V) notch with an included angle e at the vertex the

discharge is given by:

(69)

-

26

-

For a 900 notch

(Thomson weir) tan ~ = 1 and Cd :< 0.59.

Sharp-crested notches are used for discharge measurement in the laboratory;

in the field they are used primarily as temporary measurement structures

only, because they cause sediment accretion, have a large afflux, are

sensitive to upstream velocity distribution and their crests may easily

be damaged.

For more permanent artificial control we use in the field flumes and/or

broad-crested weirs.

Flumes are either standing-wave or venturi flumes,

trapezoidal flumes, steep-slope flumes, Parshall flumes, etc. Broad-

crested weirs have either the form of a streamlined hump in the bed or a

triangular cross-section usually with a 1:2 upstream and 1:5 downstream

slope with the crest acting as control (Crump weir - see BS 3680 Ackers et. al

(1979) ).

The discharge in these cases is usually given by the critical depth section

- see eq. (30). It is worth noting that

the coefficient 0.385 in this

3

equation corresponds to 20.385

= 0.578 = Cd in equa~on

(68).

For both

equations to represent the discharge correctly the downstream depth must

be sufficiently low for a critical depth to form at the crest i.e. for

"modular flow".

9.2. Basic approach

The selection of the size and type of spillway depends on the inflow hydro-

graph and size, purpose and operation of the reservoir.

The selection of the inflow hydrograph (I) for spillway design depends on

the dam location and type and on the availability of past records.

For any

given inflow hydrograph the outflow - which is the basis for the

selection of the spillway - will depend on the flood routing process,

which in turn is determined by the spillway size and

type.

Thus the

whole process of spillway design is an iterative one, particularly for

large reservoirs.

Reservoir flood routing is based on the unique relationship between

water level and discharge over the spillway resulting in a unique relation-

ship between storage and outflow.

- 27 -

Thus the continuity equation together with the relationship between

storage V and outflow 0 determine the process as

(70)

Equation (70) can be solved by iteration or by numerical or graphical

techniques (Puls, Goodrich etc.).

In spillway design we assume for flood routing the initial reservoir

stage as high as can be expected

at the start of

a major flood.

For

ungated spillways regulated outlets must also be considered as they can

influence the peak outflow.

In gated spillways gates are often closed

to use the additional storage for control except in cases where there is

no automatic gate operation and/or where there is no attendant. Rigid

regulations are required for spillway gate operations~

Freeboard

for wind and wave action has also to be considered in design.

The spillway size and type can appreciably influence the benefits from

flood control and the cost of dam construction.

  • 9.3. Spillway types and principles of design

Spillways are either free or gated and used as service, auxilliary or