INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR HYDRAULIC 
AND 

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 
DELFT 
APPLIED HYDRAULICS
Prof.
Dr
P.
Novak
1981
Novak
Applied Hydraulics Errata
1981
page
3 rp = PQ(v2  _{v}_{I}_{)}
(13)
dE 
0 


> Q1 
_{i} = dy 



c 
(20) 

E 
= 
+ 

min Yc 
2g 


(21) 

e 
9 


c 
= _{9} 10/~ n 2 q 2/9 
(24) 

2

(last line) 
13 change horizontal axis from Y3
 
= (1.1 + 2.5) 
to 
(1.1 + 2.6) i 
Y1 
2
one point on vertical axis should read Fr1 = 0.8 (not 0.7);
14 in Fig. 13b _{i}_{n}_{s}_{e}_{r}_{t} widths bl,b2
b1b2 

L
= 
= 
(41) 

e=h (tan ^{}^{1} 
^{1}^{3} 
)  ....... 
_{(}_{4}_{3}_{)} 

t/(F2_1) 

r 

2
_{v}_{I} 2 
_{=} I1v2 
(first line) 

Y 

= 
1(~)N :i 
(47) 

0 
y 

113 (~)N 

y 
page
_{2}_{1} = 2QdQ _
22
o
t::.J =
dxgA
222
=!_+3.9_
2
C R
2
gA x
=
24 Q = by V(2g (Ey» y = Yl at x = 0
27 Y = O.5x1.85
_{2}_{9}
Q = ~ C I~
3
d

b (H 3/3_8
1
2
3/2)
(57)
(72)
35 .•. spi11way and h' the overfa11 jet thickness.at distanee 1).
"
42 Cábe1ka J.
CONTENTS
List of symbols
page

1 


2 

Specific 
Depth 
3 


6 

of the Specific 
Energy and 
8 

Momentum Principles 

Changes width 
or bed elevation 
8 

without loss of energy 


8 

10 


10 


11 


Flow 
16 


16 


17 


18 


20 


20 


23 


24 

9. 
Spillway Design 
25 


control 
25 


26 


27 


35 


35 


38 


40 

References 
42 
LIST 
OF SYMBOLS 
a 
heightof roughness,constant 
A 
crosssectionalarea 
b 
channelwidth 
B 
water surfacewidth 
c 
constant,wave velocity 
C 
chézycoefficient 
Cd 
coefficientof discharge 
D 
diameter 
E 
specificenergy 
f 
function 
F 
function 
Fr 
Froudenumber 
g 
gravitationalacceleration 
h 
head, stage 
hf 
frictionloss 
H 
totalenergy (head), head on spillway 
I 
inflow 
K 
channelconveyance 
1 
length (ofthe hydraulicpump) 
L length (e.g.of stillingbasin)
M momentumfunction,exponent
m Manning'scoefficient hydraulicexponent outflow pressureintensity force,wettedperimeter specificdischarge discharge ratio (e.g.b2/bl) hydraulicradius slope
N
o
p
P
q
Q
r
R
S
c criticalslope bed slope totalenergyline slope time
S
So
Sf
t
ulocal
velocity
v mean crosssectionalvelocity
c criticalvelocity
v
List
of symbols
(continued)
!J.v
difference between local and mean velocity
v volume, storage
x coordinate, distance depth stilling basin depth depth of centroid of section A critical depth
y
y'
y+
A
mean depth (= 'B) height above datum
Cl energy (Coriolis) coefficient momentum (Boussinesque) coefficient thickness of laminar sublayer
S
.0
e velocity coefficient function specific weight (= Pg) friction coefficient coefficient of viscosity specific mass safety coefficient shear stress at wallof channel (head loss) coefficient
cp
y
À
\)
P
o
'T.
o
1.
Introduction
These lecture notes form the background
to the lectures
in applied hydraulics
at the International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering
in Delft. They assume the knowledge of basic fluid mechanics and are oriented
towards the application of basic principles 
to hydraulic engineering design, 

particularly in nonuniform open channel 
flow and spillway and stilling basin 

design. Delait~d nonuniform flow computations 
and unsteady flow problems 
are 
not included. 

2. Basic principles 

In hydraulics we can apply to any situation 
two out of three principles: 
(i) the principle
of conservation
of matter
(continuity) and the
principle of conservation 
of energy (if we can account 
for all 

enercjy "losses") or 

(ii) the principle 
of continuity 
and the momentum principle 
(if we 

can account 
for all external 
forces). 

In open 
channel flow the continuity 
principle for a constant discharge Q 

is stated 
by the equation: 

(1) 

Where A and vare the crosssectional 
area and the mean velocity 
of flow 
in 

sections 
1 and 2. If the velocity remains constant (vI = V2) 
the crosssectional 

area remains constant; 
this implies 
in a prismatic channel a constant 
depth 
and uniform 
flow. The uniform 
flow results 
from an exact balance between 

forces of gravity 
and frictional resistance. 

Denoting the 
total energy 
head in a section 
H, the height above datum 
z, 

the pressure 
head ~ 
and the velocity 
head 
2~' (kinetic energy) : 

... 
E .... 
v2 

H = z + pg + 2g 
(2) 
In an ideal 
fluid the total energy 
head H remains constant 
throughout the 

flow; equation 2 then becomes 
a statement of the Bernoulli 
equation 
for an 

ideal fluid. 

For the flow of the real fluid we must 
take into account 
the velocity 
distri 

bution in the crosssection where 
the local (time average) velocity 
u will 
be 

different 
from the mean velocity 
v: 

u 
= v+ l:!.v 
(3) 

2

This
fact
is taken
into account by multiplying
by a coefficient
a (Coriolis
coef.)
where:
the velocity
head
in equation
2
(4)
(In equation
4 the
term f~v3dA
was neglected
and f~vdA
= 0 from vA = fudA).
In a real fluid there is also a loss of energy
~E = hf
(due to friction and/
or
local losses) . Thus
from equation 2 we
can write for two sections 1 and 2:
(5)
If e.g. an open channel z is the height of the lowest point of the section
above datum, then ~
pg
= y,
(the depth
of the channel) (assuming hydrostatic
pressure distribution
in the channel i.e. the channel has a relatively
small
slope and linear longitudinal section).
_{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{5} _{b}_{e}_{c}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{s}_{:}
(6 )
In uniform flow YI = Y2, al = al, vI = vl
and thus
(zl  zl) = hf. If ~X is
the distance between the sections
and S
the slope of the bed and Sf the
slope of the total energy line where S
o 
~z 

=   and S 

o 
~x 
f 
= 
~H
h : ..
 =  ~
~x
~x
then for
uniform flow:
(7)
Denoting L
o
the mean shear stress on the channel perimeter Pand
the ratio
of ~ = R
(the hydraulic radius) from the balance between gravity and frictional
resistance we get:
L
o
= pgRS
= pvl
o:t
(8)
where v:tis the shear velocity.
Since
in fully turbulent flow L
o
a vl equation
equation for uniform flow:
(8)
leads to the well known Chézy
v
= C I (RS )
o
(units of Care
~ 1
L T
).
The "coefficient" C can be expressed as
(9)
6R
C 18 log a +
_{6}_{/}_{7}
(10)

3

where À is the friction coefficient in the DarcyWeisbach equation:
(11 )
and "a" is a length characterising the roughness
and 0 =
11·6v
v
~s the thickness
.
of the laminar sublayer. Another frequently used _{e}_{x}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{~}_{o}_{n} . ~. _{~}_{s}
th
_{e} _{M}_{a}_{n}_{n}_{i}_{n}_{g}
equation using a constant n which is a function of the roughness:
% 

v = ~ 
Is 

n 
0 

1/6 

(Le. C = ~ 
) 

n 
From the second law of Newton by equating the
(12)
sum of all external forces P
to the rate of change of momentum PQv we can write for sections 1 and 2 in
a flow:
(13)
In rea1 fluid flow we have to take again into account the velocity distribution
by introducing a coeffiecient 8(Boussinesque coefficient):
(14)
Therefore 1 < p < a
..
Under normal conditions 1 < a. < 1.1 but the value of a. can be
(15)
higher in irregular sections, downstream of hydraulic pumps, etc.
As8 is alway,s
smaller than a. it is often taken as 1.0.
3. Specific Energy and Critical Depth
From equation 6 we may write the total head in a crosssection as:
(16)
In equation
(16) h = z + Y is the height of the water level (or in pipe flow the
height of the hydraulic gradient line) above a datum;in river engineering this
is denoted as the "stage". The expression
(17)
is termed the specific energy ; this is the energy referred to the lowest point
in the channel crosssection. The concept of specific energy is very important
in open channel design.
 4 
For a constant discharge Q, equation 17 can be plotted in a graph y x E
 see
fig. 1. For any particular value of El>E.
m1n
we obtain two possible
depths  the alternate depths belonging to two different flow regimes i.e.
(resuIting in the critical velocity (v).
c
We can find the minimum energy and
thus critical depth from the conditions ~~ = O. From
equation 17:
1 
ClQ2 dA  
0 

~dy 
 

c 
From fig. 1 it is evident that dA = B i.e. the water surface width
dy
at E min:
and thus
(18)
ClQ2B
The dimensionless term ~
2
is the square of the froude number Fr  for a
general channel shape. Thus the condition for critical depth becomes:
(18a)
For subcritical flow Frf<1 and for supercritical flow Fr > 1. We could draw
similar curves
for any value of Q. Thus
in fig. 1 another curve is drawn for
Q2>Q
and line "a" separates the region of supercritical and subcritical flow.
A
The term B can be denoted as
the mean depth Ym' The condition for critical
velocity then becomes from equation 18:
V
c
=
A
.R. _{=} I(!I _{~}_{)} _{=} I(L mc)
A
ClB
Cl
Y
c
c
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{w}_{e} _{c}_{a}_{n} _{w}_{r}_{i}_{t}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{t}_{h}_{e} minimum energy:
(19 )
E
.
m1n
=
y c +
~
2g
y
c
+
y
__
m.c_
2
(20 )

5

For a rectangular section, width b = B = constant, equation 18 results in
and thus for Q = q b
From equation 20
Emin = Yc +
!c_3
(18b)
(21)
^{(}^{2}^{0}^{a}^{)}
In a rectangular channel line "a" in fig. 1 has thus a slope 2:3.
From fig. 1 it can be seen that
for a given specific energy El
the maximum
discharge that can pass through the section with this energy will be Q2 for
which
the depth at El will be critical. Another way of getting the same result,
would be to rewrite
equation 17 for a constant value of El as:
(22)
and·put ~; = 0
From equation 20
we
obtain E
1
 Y
c
A
= _:::_ which together with (22) gives a
2Bc
~
B
__ax_3_c_=
g ~
1,
which is of course identical with equation 18.
A plot of equation 22 is shown in figure 2.
Equation 18 also unables
us to find the critical depth for a given discharge
Q for any general crosssection as shown in figure 3.
y
subcritical
I
flow
y
Isupercritical
: 
flow 

I 

Q 

Fig. 2 
Fig. 3 

6 
The bed slope of a channel where the uniform flow depth y
o
(also called "normal"
depth) is critical,(yo = Yc) is the critical
slope. From equation
12 and 19
we get
s
c
2
g Ymc n
.
R
c
4/3
(l
(23)
for (l = 1 and a wide rectangular channel with y
mc
equation 23 and 21:
= Yc = R
c
we
get from
s
c
= g
~3 2
n
g
(24)
A channel with a slope S
o
> S
c
has a supercritical slope and is called "steep"
and with S
o
< S
c
a subcritical slope usually called "mild".
4. Momentum Function and Hydraulic Jumps
Let us consider a channel with water levels as indicated in fig. 4 where the
change in water levels between sections 1 and 2 is caused by an obstacle
exerting an
(external) force P on the flow.
_.
L.,.
_
_ y
Y2
Fig. 4
From equation
13 it follows that
~in
Fig. S
.conjugate
depths
where Pi
and Pz are the hydrostatic forces in sections 1 and 2 with Pl
=
+
. +
pgA1Y1 where Y1 is the depth of the centre of gravity of area Al.
Thus
pg Al
+
Yl

P

pg A2 Y2  pR2 Q IA2  pB1 Q lAl
+ _
2
2

7 
p
=
pg
(25)
Denoting the term in the brackets as M· momentum
function  we can write:
p
=
pg
Fig. 5 shows a plot of depth y against M; as for specific energy we get two
flow regimes i.e. sub and supercritical and for each value of M
bigger than
Mmin at y = Yc' two depths Yl and Y2 which are called initial and sequent depths
or conjugate depths. Writing the expression for the momentum function for a
rectangular 
channel with y+ =~, 
for B1 = B2 = 
1 and unit width as: 
M = y2 
+ ~ 

2 
gy 
results for dM
_{d}_{y}
o in
_{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{i}_{s} _{i}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} equation 21 (for a. _{=} B _{=} 1).
_{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{2}_{5} _{p}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{t}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{u}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of one unknown among four variables
_{} _{P}_{l}_{'}_{Q}_{l}_{'}_{A}_{l}_{'}_{A}_{2} _{} _{f}_{o}_{r} a given channel shape and _{B}_{1} _{=} S·
2 _{=} _{1} (y+ _{i}_{s} a function of
channel _{s}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{e} and position of water
level i. e. A) .
The transition from supercritical to subcritical flow occurs through the
hydraulic jump (standing wave). The equation for the sequent depth from the
initial depth (or viceversa) can be derived
from eq. 25 for P = O. Thus e.g.
for a rectangular channel
resulting in 

(Ut +'LJ_=~ 

Y2 
y 
2 
g Y. 2 
. 

~ 
= 
1 
^{2} 

.. 
_{(}_{}_{1} _{+} 
1(1 + 8 Fr2 

Y2 
^{2} 

or similarly 

X2.1 
=  
(1 + 1(1 
2 + 8 Fr1 

y1 
2 
and
)
)
)
)
(26)
(27)

8 
The height of the hydraulic jump is given by
(Y2  Yl) and is a function of
the Froude number. The length of the jump
1 is given by
(28)
The energy
loss in the jump can be computed
from equation 26
difference between the energies of
section 1 and 2:
(or 27) as the
(29)
5. Some Applications of the Specific Energy and Momentum Principles
5.1. Changes in channel width or bed elevation without loss of energy
Figure
1 and equations 16  22 can be used to compute changes in depth
or specific discharge resulting from a change in channel width and/or
from a change in bed level assuming that energy losses can be neglected.
If a channel is constricted or its bed raised so that a critical depth
occurs a hydraulic jump will form downstream of the (contracted) section
and a standing wave flume or venturi flume is formed. The discharge
through
this flume for a rectangular
section with
a throat width bt is given by
(30)
In equation 30 the discharge is implicit
Q2
(as E = Y + 2=gA2~'
where A is the
upstream crosssectional area of flow) and has to be found by iteration.
5.2. Flow through bridges
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1 
2 
3 

Fig. 6a 
Fig. 6b 

Figures 
6a and 6b show two possible longitudinal sections through the flow 

between bridge piers. In fig. 6a the flow remains subcritical throughout 

whereas 
in fig. 6b it changes from subcritical to supercritical and back to 

subcritical. (Both cases assume that the normal flow depth is > y 
c 
) 

9 
The parameter required for design is the increase in depth ~y, caused by
the flow through the bridge, for various values of Q, y _{o} and b
~
. The condi
tion for a critical depth to occur in the bridge is y
2 = yc
assumption E
1
':!
E2 we obtain for È2 = r
b1
= 1zz2. From the
g
r 2 =
27 Frf _.
___
;;; , ..
...
..
c (2 + Fr ~)j
1

(31)
The disadvantage of equation 31 is that it uses an
(unknown) upstream Fr! and
that the assumption El = E2 is not really justified. It is, therefore, better
to put M2 = M3 and work from downstream, where the depth Y3 is known for a
given discharge. For Y2 = Yc' this gives:
r
^{c}
1
_{(}_{2} _{+} )
r
^{c}

3 Fr4 
3
_{(}_{1} _{+}
2 Fr
3
2)3"
(32)
Thus if r >Pr
c
the flow in fig. 6a will occur, if r < r
fig. 6b will be valide
c
For r < reit
is
then
best to compute M2 for the section between the piers
(from M2 ~ M3) and to calculate Y1 from the energy equation all~~ing for a
head loss between section 1 and 2. This can be taken as ~
= c ~,
where
c = 0.18 for a roundheaded pier and c = 0.35 for a square pier head.
~Y is
then calculated aSY1  Y3 taking into account energy losses in the hydraulic
jump and between sections 1 and 2.•
For the case when r > r , i.e. the bridge is not choked, Yarnell on the basis
c
of experiments (carried out
for ~
1
> 0.5) suggested the equation:
~
Y3
__
K ~r3
2
(K +
Fr3
2
+
 0.6) (r
+4
+ 15 r
)
(33)
where r+ = bl  b2 = 1  rand
b1
K is a coefficient.
K = 0.9 for piers with a semicircular nose and tail, K = 1.25 for piers with
a square nose and tail. Equation 33 is valid for ratio of pier length and
width L/ B about 4. For more slender piers ~y can be reduced by about 10 %
(for ~ = 7 to 13 the reduction is 17 % to 4 %). The
case of subcritical flow
throughout (fig. 6a) is also sometimes solved by the equation (d'Aubuisson)
(34)
(which is derived from the assumption Y2 = Y3 and using a coefficient Cb to
account for the entry energy loss and the inaccurate assumption) with
0.90 < Cb <
1.05 according to pier geometry. For piers not parallel to the

10 
flow the effect of skew can be taken into account by assuming the effective
width of the pier as the width projected normal to flow for angles of
deviation
from the flow up to 200 •
5.3. Outflow from a reservoir
E
o
Fig. 7a
y
E
I
_ 11
Q
Fig. 7b
The task is to compute the outflow from a reservoir for a given height of
water above the crest of the outflow with a channel downstream of the crest.
This generally
simple computation for the case of S
o
> S
c
i.e. a steep
channel is more complicated for the case when S
o
< S
c
. In any case the value
of S
c
depends on the discharge which we are seeking
(see eq. 23 and 24).
The problem
is best solved by the application of the energy principle
to the
crest and plotting
fig. 7b which is a combination of fig. 2 and the stage
discharge curve for the channel slope S
and known roughness. If the channel
o
is long enough for uniform flow to,be established then in case of channel
rating curve 11 the outflow will be given by Q
, in case of the curve I
max
by the discharge QI' which alone satifies both conditions of given energy
Eo and channel slope and roughness.
(If the rating curve
passes through the
point where on the energy curve y = Yc' than the channel has a critical
slope
and again Q = Q 
max 
) 
• 

The problem 
is a clear example of flow "control". For S 
.::.S 
the spillway 

o 
c 

~rest controls the flow, for S 
< S 
the channel (roughness) controls the 

o 
c 

discharge. 
5.4. Flow under a gate
Some of the problems associated with the flow under a gate  e.g. the force
acting on the gate and the energy 1055 downstream of the gate can best be
appreciated
from fig. 8 where both figs. 1 and 5 are combined:

11 
y
P/Pg
Fig. 8
_{d}_{E}
/
E
The computation proceeds from section 3 upstream with M2 = M3 and E2  E3 = 6Ei
then El ~ E2 and Ml  M2 = p/Pg i.e. the force exerted on the gate.
6. Channel transitions
Channel transitions are changes of direction, slope or crosssection.
All controls are transitions (but not viceversa). The flow through gradual
smooth channel transitions can be solved or at least approximated by assuming
no energy loss and using methods described in chapter
3 and section 5.1.
For flow through "sudden" transitions and particulary for flow through short
expansions and contractions the assumption of no energy loss is not valid
and the energy lossenabling the application of the energy principle  is not
known beforehand. Furthermore for supercritical flow additional complications
in the form of standing wave~ (waves of interference) arise. In these situations
it is better to approach the problem through the application of the momentum
principle under certain.assumptions:
P1
I
.
I
1
I
I
P2/2
I
^{1}

I
P2/2:
2
Fig. 9
3
P2~:
^{i}
P3 P 
1
I
I
I

____
;
I
^{I}
I
~
1
2
Fig. 10
; 

^{I} 

.. 
P3 

I 

j 
For a contraction (fig. 9) we can write
For a rectangular section, 81 = 82 and Y2 = Y3 with P = ~g
y2 and Fr12
2
= 2L_
9 y 1
 12  

this reduces 
to 

(35) 

Similarly 
for an expansion (fig. 
10) and 
assuming 
Y1 = Y2 we get: 

·22 

= (b..db1) 
(Y3/Yl) (Y3 !Yl 
 
1) 
(36) 

Fr 2 
1 2(Y3/Y1
 b/b3)
Both equations may be represented by a series of curves in a plot of F.:r:.f.
against Y3/Y1 with
b3/b1 as a parameter  Fig. 11. This
figure permits a quick
application of equations 35 and 36 in design. There are 4 zönes in the
figure representing:
1) supercritical flow throughout the transition
2) change from supercritical to subcritical flow
3) subcritical flow throughout the transition
4) change from subcritical to supercritical flow
The head loss, particulary in subcritical transitions, can then be calculated
as ~E = El  E3. For a tapered contraction this shouldfe
2
6E ~ c vig with c
in the region of 0.2. For an expansion 6E ~ c (V12~ V3)
with 0.3 < c < 1
(limits for a tapered and sudden expansion). The above values are only approxi
mate and sometimes the applications of figure 11 leadsbecause of the assump
tions made  to seemingly impossible results with no energy loss or even a
negative value of 6E.
For supercritical flow further complications are caused by the standing waves
and associated losses. The waves, dynamically similar to short waves in super
sonic gas flow, occur whenever there is an interference with supercritical flow.
Using for the wave celerity c the expression for long waves of small amplitude
c
(37)
the ratio of the flow velocity v and of c becomes the Froude number
(Mach number
in compressible fluids).
For an
inclination 8 of the wave to the direction of
flow (see figure 12a)
v
1

c _{s}_{i}_{n} _{8}
= Fr = 
(38)
^{c}
Fig. 12a
v>c
^{F}^{i}^{g}^{.} ^{1}^{2}^{b}
Thus, if there is a change in direction 9 of a channel wall
(see fig. 12b)
a shock wave, inclination 8, will be created. With no force acting along the
front of the wave:
.vI cos 8 = v2 cos (13 
9)
From the momentum equation for the wave
(jump) we get:
(see equation 26) resulting in
_{s}_{i}_{n}
(For values of Y2/Yl approaching 1 equation 39 reduces to
continuity:
VI Yl sin 8 = v2 Y2 sin (13 
9)
we can 5
ubs t i
s t ä t.ut;eLrrt.o eq.
.
with the result:
39 f
v",
or ~
Y1
= 
__
.t.an S
;=~
__
;
tan
(8

9)
tan 13
tan
(B 
9)
1
2
(I (1 + 8 sin 2 13
Fr
1
2) 
1)
(39) 

38). As 
from 
(40) 
(Equation 40 is an implicit equation for 13 which is more accurate than eq. 38
valid
for very small waves). If the wave caused by the change in direction
indicated in fig.12b hits an opposite wall an unfavourable train of wave
fronts is set up in the channel
(see fig. 13a)
Fig. 13a

15
This
can be offset,
for one value
of Fr1,
only by asymmetrical
of a length
L satisfying
the condition
(see figure
13b):
L = b2  b2
2 tan 8
+
2 tan 81
=b~
_
2 tan (82  8)
contraction
(41)
For the design of a gradual smooth transition without energy loss in super
critical flow (see fig.
small changes in 8:
14) we may
use the above equations for continuous
dy/d8
=
sin 8 cos 8
2
^{v}
g
tan 8
^{(}^{4}^{2}^{)}
Integration of equation ~2)yields
.8 = h
(tan 
1
h
f(Fr2
 1)
1
 tan
____
,;;.1
___
_
f (Fr2 _ 1)
8
1
(43)
If we plot (8 + 81) against Fr we can use the graph  Fig.
15  for design.
We enter the graph for the upstream Froude number Fr1with 8 = 0 and get 81;
adding 8 to 81 for a positive wave or subtracting for a negative wave the next
Froude number is obtained etc. The depth is computed for a constant E from
v2
v2
E = Y + 2g = Y (1 + 2 g y)
Fr2
= y (1 + 2)
positive waves
increasing depth
converging contours
Fig. 14
negative waves
decreasing depth
diverging contours

16 
7. Gradually Varied Nonuniform Flow
7.1. Basic differential equation
The concept of uniform flow was introduced in chapter 2. The flow discussed
in chapters
3  6 were mainly examples of rapidly varied nonuniform flow
where the changes
in depth and velocity occured over a relating short
distance. If these changes are gradual we refer to the flow as gradually
varied nonuniform flow. In both cases the flow does not vary with time and
_{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{u}_{s} _{s}_{t}_{e}_{a}_{d}_{y}_{.}
The equation for gradually varied flow and its solution is
derived on the assumption (substantiated by experiment) that uniform flow
equations may be used to evaluate the energy slope at a given channel
section. In a general nonprismatic channel from equation 6 and for
70
°
65°53
60
•
50·
CD
+
CD
1\
'\
43)
j
_{t}_{+}_{}
20'
10°
_{F}_{r} I H"
_{F}_{r}_{,}
i
8
^{a}^{f}^{'}
Star
cur~ _{I}_{e}
9,
^{I}
I
..
!
^{o}^{·} I
2
3
4
5
6
7
f
8
=r
9
IQ
11
12
13
!4
15
Fig. 15

17
v 
2 
 
v 
2 
 

1 
2 

we get 

and thus 

S 

~_ 

_{d}_{x}_{} 
~ v2 with
= d(~)
A
2
= 2 orAQ(2aA dy + dA db)
1'\
..
)
dY
db
0
db
For a prismatic channel  = 0 and eq. 44 reduces to
dx
(44)
(45)
Introducing the channel conveyance K = C A I ~)
(i.e. the discharge for a slope 1) eq. 45 becomes:
d
~

dx 
S
l(!o.) 2
K
0 1 _ FrZ·
(46)
(equation 46 simplies that
To = pg R
T
o
= pg R
0
S)
0
Sf  see equation 8  as weil as
Equation 46 can be conveniently used to analyse various surface profiles in
nonuniform flow as generally K2(l yN where the exponent N is called the
hydraulic exponent.
7.2. Surface profiles
In open channel flow the slope S 
of the channel can be S o 0 
< S 
c 
(mild), 

S 
> S 
(steep), S 
= S (critical),S 
= 0 (horizontal) S 
< 
0 
(adverse 

o 
coc 
0 
0 
slope). In the first three cases uniform flow is possible with yo >yc
in
the mild channel, y
o
'C..
Y
in the steep channel and y
coc
= y
in the case of
the critical slope. Uniform flow is not possible for So ~ O. We can thus
have 12 surface profiles: M1 M2 M3' Sl S2 S3' Cl C3, H2 H3' A2 A3·
Curves in zone 1 are called backwater curves (positive slope), curves in
middle
zone 2 are called drawdown curves
(they have a negative slope).
In all cases the uniform flow depth is approached asymtotically and the
critical depth is intersected at sight angles. At the upper limits of depth
the curves become
asymptotic to a horizontal water level, at the bed they

18 
intersect it at right angles. Figure 16 summarizes the surface profiles
o~~_:
_
~o
__
 ;c
nJI51/11/1/1
.
c_
0_
__

=i: \ 
~\
..._
,
_
C
o
c  
____

\
~
,
IJlhlll7
1/ 71/ 77 7/111
H
Fig. 16
,
.J ,"_
When using the surface profile curves we have to stablish first of all the
various controls i.e. sections where there is a definite relationship between
depth and discharge.
(e.g. dams, weirs, gates, channel entries and exits etc.
see also chapter 5). In the transition from subcritical to superciitical
flow
the critical depth is the control; in the reverse case the transition occurs
through a hydraulic
pump the location of which
is generally not known in
the first instance. Profile plotting and depth computation proceed from
the control upstream in subcritical flow and downstream in supercritical flow.
7.3. Introduction to methods of computation
As stated in chapter 1 only an introduction to the actual computation of the
depth of gradually varied nonuniform flow is given here. Generally equation
46, valid for prismatic channels, may be solved by direct integration, by
numerical methods or by a combination of numerical and graphical techniques.
a) direct integration

wr a l.ng or
't'
f
F 2
r
2
a Q
g A
B
A3
i.e. assuming that ï3 varies as
M and subsituting for (~ol =
Y
as Y
N
K
we get from equation 46:
(Yo.)N
Y
_{i}_{.}_{e}_{.} assuming that K2 =
 
19  

1 _ 
(Ya.) N 

~ = So ,y~ 
= S 

dx 
1 _ 
(Yc.) M 
0 
y
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{8} = a. c2 Sa
g P
B
From eq. 47: 

denoting 
y/y 
1

8
o
= U and f du
luN"
 B(u) we get
(47)
(48)
The function B (u)  the Bachme_te:vfunction  can be evaluated for varLous.
values of N and u and tables of the function B(u) are available.
For the ease of a wide rectangular channel using Chézy equation we get
N = M = 3 and the functions in equation 48 revert to the Bresse
functions.
Eq. 48 can be used to compute (xl  x2) for given values of u1 and u2
 an explicit solution  or to compute u2 from given values of (xl  x2)
and u1  and implicit solution.
b) numerical methods
Various step methods may be used. E.g. for prismatic channels evaluating
the nominator and denominator for the mean depth in a depth incremental
interval yields directly ~y/~x and the distance between Yl and Y2 as L~X.
Alternatively we can compute the distance from eq. 16 where ~!= So  Sf
with Q = K ISf .
The computation of depth from a given distance is always more troublesome
as a trial and error or a graphical procedure must be used.
In nonprismatic channels equation 44 applies and generally this with the
introduction of local losses can be evaluated only by a stepbystep method.
In principle we use again
equation 6 (16) introducing a
v2
local loss ~ 2g
as weIl as the frictional head loss hf between sections 1 and 2.
The computation of distance from stage is simpie, the computation of stage
from distance is by
adopting
teration which can be reduced to a single one by
 20 
(49)
where ~Y2 is the correction of the assumed depth in section
2 which resulted
in an error ~H in the computed and assumed energy head. The whole computation
for longer river reaches is best handled by using a computer with a simple
programme.
8. Spatially Varied Nonuniform Flow
8.1. Side channel spillway  lateral inflow
L
__
a
~
b
Fig. 17
c
For a lateral inflow into a channel
(fig. 17a) the
inflow has no momentum
in the direction of flow, but there is substantial energy dissipation
in the
channel. 
Thus we can apply the momentum principle but not the energy 
principle. 
Taking the slope of the channel and the resistance into account results in:
thus
pgt.M+ pg.MZ + L Pt.x= _{0}
0
dl1
=
dx
_{d}_{z}
A( 
dx
pgRSf
PgR ) ^{=} ^{A}^{(}^{S}
0
 S
f
_{)}
(50)
Equation (50) can be solved by numerical methods similar to nonuniform
computations. Also:
dM
dx
d
dx
Q2
gA
+ Ay
+
)
=
2Q dQ _ Q2
dA
d
gA
dx
gA2 dx + dx
+
(Ay )

21 
From
+
A(y
dv
+ dy) + dA 2'" =
(A + dA)
+
(y
~+
+ dy dy)
A dy
= y+
+
dA + A ~
dy
dy =
_{T}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{e}
A(S
o
_ S ) = 2Q dQ
f
d x qA
_ Q2~ ~
gA
dx
+ A ~
dx
(51 )
Critical flow occurs a~ Fr1
1 but ~
has a finite value.
Thus for critical flow:
S
o
 S
f
 2Q2 dQ = 0
gA
dx
For Q = a x, where "a" is a constant,
dQ 

dx 
_{=} _{a} 

Thus: 

S 
= S 
+ 2Q2 

o 
f 
gA2x 

with 

Q2B 

 
= 1 at the 

gA3 
(52) 

= 
v2 
+ ~ 
= Q2B 
~ 
+ Q2B 
2A 

C2R 
gA2x 
gA3 
BC2R 
gA3 
BX 

critical section and 

this results in: 

(53) 
 22

For
a critical
section
to occur,
the slope
must
be bigger
than
the value
given
by eq.
(53) with x = L or the length of the spillway L must be
bigger than
8a2
gB2 (S
o
_ 2:_) 3
C2B
(54)
For a rectangular
section and for So = Sf = 0 equation (51) can be
integrated as for
a
unit width (B = 1):
and 

2a2x 
a2x2 

 
dx + (gy  )dy 
= 0 

y 
y2 

OD1 
OD2 

(as ~ 
= ~ 
in the equation Dl dx + D2 dy = 0): 

(x) 2 = 
( 1 
+ 
;1;: 

L 
2 Fr2 _{L} 

with YL and 
FrL applying to the downstream 
end section (x = L) . 
(55)
Returning to equation (50), the scheme for numerical integration could
be expressed as follows:
dQ + A ~
dx
dx
thus
~=
dx
S
0
_ S
f
_ v
g
dv
dx
v2
gQ
_{d}_{Q}
dx
ó,y

vl + v2
2g
vl + v2
(ó'v+
_{Q}_{l} + Q2
ó'Q) +
(S
0
 Sf)ó'x
ó,y

aQ1(v1 + v2)
g(Ql + Q2)
(ó,v+
v2ó'Q
)
Ql
_{+}
_{(}_{S}
^{0}
 S
f
)Ó,
(56)
(57)

23 
Equation (57) can be solved by trial and error for Óy with Q1' v1, So'
ÓX, Q2 and channel shape known and an assumed value of Y2 (and therefore
v2) which must agree with
óy = Y2  Y1' given by eq. (57)
8.2. Side weir  lateral outflow
For this type of flow the energy principle may be applied (see fig. 17b):
dE
=
dx
S
0
 S
f
^{d}^{Q} ^{_} ~
dx
gA2 _{d}_{x}
_{g}_{A}_{3}
dA
=
dx
S
0
 S
~=
S
0
 S
^{f}

_{Q}
2AZ
dQ
^{d}^{x}
dx _{1} _ F2
r
(58) 

f 

(59) 
Substituting for Q = A/(2g(E  y) ) and for the outflow
dx
= C, 1(2g)
(y  d) 3/2
where C, is a constant, leads to a computational scheme;
eq. (57) we can write:
(60)
similarly, to
Óy = 
~Q1
(v 1 + v 2) Óv
g(Q1 + Q2)
(61)
The main difficulty in the solution is the unknown value of the boundary
conditions i.e. depths at the beginning or end of the outflow and the
location of the control section;
necessary.
a trial and error computation is
For a rectangular channel section with a horizontal overflow and S
o
f
~ 0
equation (59) together with eq. (60) yields:
~
_

QA ~
= 2c11( (E 
y) (y 
d) 3
)
(62)
dx  gA3 _ Q2B
b(3y  2E)
 24 
Integrating eq. (61) results in:
XCI
2E  3d I E 
 Y 
1 I E  y 

= 
E 
 d (y _ d)  3 sin 
(y 
d' + const. 
(63)
The constant of integration must again be obtained by trial and error as
the boundary condition at the downstream end is not known.
8.3. Bottom withdrawal
From fig. 17c we can again apply the energy principle resulting in
_{e}_{q}_{.}
_{(}_{5}_{9}_{)}_{.}
Assuming a negligible energy loss and the head on the opening
as Eresults
in:
_ dQ = rcBI (2gE)
dx
(64)
where r is the ratio of the area of the opening to the corresponding
total bed area and c is a coefficient.
For S
o
= S ~ 0 and a rectangular
channel with Q = by/(2g(e  y) ) equations
(59) and
(64) result in
~
_ 2rc/(E(E  y)
dx 
3y  2E
Integration of eq.
(65) results for y = Yl' at
1
rc
o in:
(65)
(66)
The value of c has been determined experimentally as 0.4 < c < 0.5
_{(}_{M}_{O}_{s}_{t}_{k}_{o}_{v}_{)}_{•}
This
coefficient and eq.
(66) are applicable to an opening
with longitudinal
bars (i.e. negligible energy loss) .
For an opening with transverse bars there is an energy loss
in equation
(64) E is replaced by y resulting in
2
~.~
2g
and thus
~
_ 2rc/(y(E  y)
dx 
3y  2E
Integration of eq. (67) gives:
(67)
E
4rc
For this case 0.75 < c < 0.8
 25

Equations
(66) and
(67) may be used
for designing
the opening
in a
channel bottom for complete withdrawal of the water by finding the distance
x = L for y = O.
9. Spillway Design
9.1. Artificial control
All notches, weirs and flumes are examples of artificial control.
The
most common type of sharpcrested weirs, i.e. notches, is the rectangular
notch.
If T is the height of the crest above the approach channel bed 
see fig. 18 we can write for discharge:
2
«h + ~) _{2}_{g}
a.v 3/2
a.v
(~)
2g
3/2)
(68)
In eq. (68) b is the width
(length) of the notch and h is the head above
the crest.
Eq. (68) may for small values of v
also be written as:
o
(68a)
For a notch without side contractions in eq. (68)
or
h
= 0.611 + 0.08 T (Rehbock)
h
Cd = 0.602 + 0.083 T (BS 3680)
or in (68a) (Bazin):
Cd = 0.608 + 0.~05
with
a.v2
(1 + ~)3/2
2gh
= 1 + 0.55(h h
+ T
)2
For a notch with side contractions in eq. (68):
Cd = 0.616 (1  0.1 ~) (HamiltonSmith)
For a triangular
(V) notch with an included angle e at the vertex the
discharge is given by:
(69)

26

For a 900 notch
(Thomson weir) tan ~ = 1 and Cd :< 0.59.
Sharpcrested notches are used for discharge measurement in the laboratory;
in the field they are used primarily as temporary measurement structures
only, because they cause sediment accretion, have a large afflux, are
sensitive to upstream velocity distribution and their crests may easily
be damaged.
For more permanent artificial control we use in the field flumes and/or
_{b}_{r}_{o}_{a}_{d}_{}_{c}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{w}_{e}_{i}_{r}_{s}_{.}
Flumes are either standingwave or venturi flumes,
trapezoidal flumes, steepslope flumes, Parshall flumes, etc. Broad
crested weirs have either the form of a streamlined hump in the bed or a
triangular crosssection usually with a 1:2 upstream and 1:5 downstream
slope with the crest acting as control (Crump weir  see BS 3680 Ackers et. al
(1979) ).
The discharge in these cases is usually given by the critical depth section
 see eq. (30). It is worth noting that
the coefficient 0.385 in this
3
equation corresponds to 20.385
= 0.578 = Cd in equa~on
(68).
For both
equations to represent the discharge correctly the downstream depth must
be sufficiently low for a critical depth to form at the crest i.e. for
"modular flow".
9.2. Basic approach
The selection of the size and type of spillway depends on the inflow hydro
graph and size, purpose and operation of the reservoir.
The selection of the inflow hydrograph (I) for spillway design depends on
the dam location and type and on the availability of past records.
For any
given inflow hydrograph the outflow  which is the basis for the
selection of the spillway  will depend on the flood routing process,
which in turn is determined by the spillway size and
type.
Thus the
whole process of spillway design is an iterative one, particularly for
large reservoirs.
Reservoir flood routing is based on the unique relationship between
water level and discharge over the spillway resulting in a unique relation
ship between storage and outflow.
 27 
Thus the continuity equation together with the relationship between
storage V and outflow 0 determine the process as
(70)
Equation (70) can be solved by iteration or by numerical or graphical
techniques (Puls, Goodrich etc.).
In spillway design we assume for flood routing the initial reservoir
stage as high as can be expected
at the start of
a major flood.
For
ungated spillways regulated outlets must also be considered as they can
_{i}_{n}_{f}_{l}_{u}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{e}_{a}_{k} _{o}_{u}_{t}_{f}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{.}
In gated spillways gates are often closed
to use the additional storage for control except in cases where there is
no automatic gate operation and/or where there is no attendant. Rigid
regulations are required for spillway gate operations~
Freeboard
for wind and wave action has also to be considered in design.
The spillway size and type can appreciably influence the benefits from
flood control and the cost of dam construction.
9.3. Spillway types and principles of design
Spillways are either free or gated and used as service, auxilliary or