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Data Information Computer applications Computer generations Functioning of computers The input unit The output unit The memory The storage unit Categorization of computer Hardware Software

WHAT IS COMPUTER? The term computer is derived from the latin word computere which means to compute to calculate , so it said to calculating device. At first computer is invented for fast calculation, but nowadays people use the computer for other than calculati ng. Computer is a group of electronic devices used to process data or it can al so be said that a computer is an electronic device that can perform a variety of operations in accordance with a set of instructions called PROGRAMS . A computer is an electronic device that can perform a variety of operations ac cording to a set of instructions called programs . Or The computer is an electronic device designed in such a way it automatically acce pts and stores input data, process them and produce the desired output. Computers can access and process data millions of times faster than human bein gs. Computers can do a lot of different tasks such as playing games, railway res ervations, weather forecasting, error detection and controlling the height of sp ace aircraft etc. or

DATA A computer is used essentially as data processor. The term data and information are very commonly used. One must clearly understand the difference between the t wo. Data in computer terminology means raw facts and figures .

Used punched cards for storage. ENIAC. process and retrieve the data or information as and when require d. Let us recall the different generations through which the c omputer went through FIRST GENERATION (1956-1955) FEATURES: * * * * * Based on vacuum tube technology. After this. sophistication and efficient possible only with help of computers. from TV programmers to satellite launching.Data are processed to form information. from match-making to criminal catching. In 1960 s. Computer can store the process ed data is called in various shapes or size depending upon the application. For example : Mohan. Eg: UNIVAC. Produced a lot of heat. Very large and expensive Non profitable and very slow. whose roll no. computers went through various generat ions of development that led to changes in the computer industry till we got the computers of today.. Today. It means what we get after processing data (meaningful data). computer technology network has spread to ever sphere of modern man. Data are aggre gated and summarized in various meaningful ways to form information. COMPUTER APPLICATIONS In 1950 s computers were giant special-purpose machines that were used by huge ins titutions like governments and universities and they were used for performing co mplex numerical tasks such as calculating the precise orbit of mars or planning the trajectories of missiles etc. In 19 70 s the invention of personal computers revolutionized the world and today comput ers are being used in every field of life. from railway reservation or medical diagnosis. IBM 709 SECOND GENERATION (1956-1964) FEATURES: . business world started using computers for commercial purposes. air conditioning was essential. everywhere we witness the ele gance. is 1977 has got grade A is an information as it is conveyi ng some meaning. COMPUTER GENERATIONS The first computer was ENIAC. INFORMATION The processed data is called as information and data information comes in variou s shapes or sizes depending upon the application. Comp uter can store.

reliable and less prone to hardware failure. You go to the market.* * * * * * Based on transistor technology. Operating system concept started. To understand this we will take some examples: 1. Eg: Personal computer like ICL 2900. Small size and less costly. Smaller in size. Smaller. let us understand the way we function. Portable and reliable. Used high level language transistors like fortran and cobol to work. Magnetic disk started being used for storage. Used floppy disks and other devices to store data. Eg: IBM 370. Better reliability and speed. HP 9845 FIFTH GENERATION FEATURES: * Accepts instructions and commands by voice. Maintenance cost was low. * Interprets it on it s own to carry out the work. Used other languages like BASIC to do work. Consumed less power and generated less heat. Eg: Super computers FUNCTIONING OF A COMPUTER Before we start discussing the functioning of a computer. Eg: IBM 7090. and ICL 1901 THIRD GENERATION (1965-1975) FEATURES: * * * * * * * Based on integrated circuit technology. Cheaper. HP 2100 FOURTH GENERATION (1976 onwards) FEATURES: * * * * * Based on microprocessor system. purchase both the things and give it to your mo . Consider a case when your mother asks you to bring a cake and pastries from t he market. IBM 7049. Produced lesser heat and worked faster. cheaper and worked faster. Development in software to use user friendly graphical interfaced systems.

a signal is sent to the computer. digits and commands. data. ¾ cup of water. Memory is the storage brain of computer. The main memory holds the input and intermediate output during the processing. THE INPUT UNIT As we know that the input unit is responsible for accepting input i. by following some step s she makes tea. Above examples illustrate the way we human beings function consider all the thre e. MEMORY is the brain of computer which holds the data. It is an input device used to type in letters. You want to talk to one of your friends. many input devices have been built in many forms for many special purposes. The keyboard also includes shortcut keys that enable you to carry out certain tasks more easily and quickly using just the keyboard. the functioning of a computer can be summarized as: A computer takes an input.-. There are some things common in them. All this is done with the help of memory. 2. Your mom has to make tea. symbols like +. or programs fo r processing by the CPU. When a key is pressed. Over the years.*. Finally. and some special keys that can be used for moving cursor or deleting a letter or confirming a com mand etc. she takes some ingredients i. Thus the basic structure of a computer is as shown in figure. Usually a keyboard has s omething between 80 to 110 keys. So. which is decoded ther e to determine which key has been pressed. you dial up the number and speak to your friend.$.e. we get prepared tea. KEYBOARD We all are familiar with keyboard.ther. which holds the data during processing . Components known as input devices let users enter commands. FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM Since a computer follows input-process-output cycle. ½ t easpoon tea leaves. So. This work is accomplished with the help of input dev ices. It has keys for alphabets. Second stage is performed in computer by input unit central processing unit and the third stage is performed by output unit. Therefore. data and instructions from the user. ½ teaspoon sugar and ½ cup of milk. during processing.e. carries out a process upon it and produces one output . the first stage is performe d in computer by input unit. Thus. etc. the actual work was then carried out accordingly and final ly the result was obtained. . In all the examples certain things were needed to work upon. His phone number is 7455196. 3.#. Various types or coding are available for computers but the most common and popular code is ASCII which is acronym fo ./. digits.

P. The CPU is the brain of the computer i. Out of these.P. Control Unit (C. C. however. Arithmetic Logic Unit (A. moving the cursor to a certain location on the screen and sending a signal to the computer. your CPU works by executing a series of stored instructions known as a program.r American standard code for information interchange.U.U. A photocopier prints the given printed image/page on a paper. CPU must fetch.L. decode. The CPU is the control centre for a computer. it is the place where data is manipulated .) . touch scr een etc. (CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT) The CPU of a computer is responsible for carrying out the processing job with the aid of memory.U. COMPONENTS OF C. It guides.e. The mouse. Pointing device is a device that allows user to identify and select the necess ary command or option by. computer users used to interact with computer through comman ds which were to be typed through keyboard.U. MOUSE In earlier systems. are pointing devices. mouse is very common and popular po inting devices. this interface was known as character user interface . exe cute. A computer has two components: 1. light-pen. and write back the data in a fairly rapid succession. A scanner is an input device which creates an electronic form of a printed imag e . directs and control s a computer s performance. in effect. As much of character typing was invo lved in it.) 2. SCANNER A scanner is used to input paper documents or photos into the computer. No matter what type of computer you have. It is a device similar to a photocopier.

) The Control Unit can be thought of as the brain of the CPU itself.floppy disk and can output from or computer. OUTPUT DEVICES Monitor .) Arithmetic logic unit is that part of the computer which performs the different logic operations and arithmetic calculations like addition (+).Some the most common be used to put eem. a floppy disk orfloppy disk is used to record information on. or pictures.€ The information is Headphones .<> etc. The logic operations are compromiser op erations. It is the high speed digital circuit that solves calculations and does comparison. The sound output is produced with the help of speakers.A monitor is the screen on which words.€ They are similar stored on theHeadphones give soundbe used laterthe used on another computer.L. printer. CONTROL UNIT (C. its results get stored in output registers of the arithmetic logic unit. plotter etc. numbers. how other parts of the CPU and in turn.U. PRINTERS .<=. subtraction (-).€ This is call ed burning information to a CD. THE OUTPUT UNIT The output unit is responsible for producing the output in user readable form. The C. and graphics can be s Compact Disk .U. to speakers. except they are worn on the ears so only one person can hear the outpu t at a time. the entire processing is monitored and controlled by the contr ol unit. The function of an output device is to present processed data to t he user. make the output unit o f a computer.P. information on. It controls b ased on the instructions it decodes. In other words. V arious output devices like monitor. built into the computer and some are separate.A CD.<. res t of the computer systems should work in order that the instruction gets execute d in a correct manner. Eg: >.A disk drive is used to record information from the computer onto Floppy Disk . which controls the entire processin g. the monitor onto paper.ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT (A..>=. multiplication (*) and division (/). After the data gets processe d. MONITOR A monitor takes information and displays it on a screen for you to look at.Anumbers.U.€ Printers can pr Speaker . Disk Drives . It gets its data from a certain computer memory called processor register.€ The monitor iscompact disks canoutput device.speaker gives you sound output from your computer. Printer A printer be an whatever is on NOTE:€ A-CD can alsoprints input device.U. is one of the components of C.€ Some speakers are int words. Almost all the actions of the computer are done by it.

The most convenient and useful method by which the computer can deliver information is by means of printed characters.P.U. The ideal memory has a large capacity with restricted access time and cycle tim e. Tracks are concentric circular regions on the surface o f the disk. The two binary digits 0 and 1 are known as Bits . They are usually internal to a computer to read or write information. so a language that has just two symbols is known as binary lan guage. THE STORAGE UNIT Computer can understand only and only electricity signals. 1024 Bytes =MB (1 Megabyte) 8 bits ==11ByteKB (1 Kilobyte) GB MB KB TB GB 1 Terabyte) Gigabyte) TYPES OF MEMORY 1. It is often called main memory or primary memory. > Why Binary Language? Well. computer s language i s made up of just 1 s and 0 s and this language is also known as BINARY LANGUAGE . That means a computer can understand just two sign als ON (signified by 1) and OFF (signified by 0). a high throughput and is non-volatile. Internal Memory (Main/Primary memory) 2. HARD DISK DRIVE Hard disk drive consists of rigid circular platters of magnitizable material sealed in a metal box with associated read/write heads.1 GB to 20 GB. An electric signal ha s just two states: ON or OFF. It is generally the third comp onent of C. the read/write head of the right platters. Printers can be divided into two distinct categories: a) Impact printers b) Non-Impact printers FLOPPY DISK DRIVES A floppy disk is a thin piece of magnetizable material (just like a cassette s tape) inside a protective envelope. Sectors are pie shaped wedges that intersect each of the tracks furt her dividing them. is moved to right track and then the pla tter is revolved until the correct sector comes underneath the head. Hard disk t hese days are available varying from 8. Therefore. Information is organiz ed on the disk by dividing the disk into tracks and sectors. The information is stored in these sectors with the help of a read/write head just like in a cassette recorder. External Memory . Bi means two . THE MEMORY The term "memory" applies to any electronic component capable of temporarily sto ring data.

external memory is used. The internal memory that can be read from as well as written to is called RAM i. CD ROM. So.P. The RAM is volatile i. Generally ROM consists a set of startup instructions i. information once stored remains fixed i.(Auxiliary/Secondary memory) INTERNAL MEMORY The internal memory is the built in memory where C. what to do when a computer is turned on the contents of ROM remain stored even if power is turned off. There are two types of internal memory (1) READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM) Read-only memory. generally called RAM is the system's main memory. this type of memory only has read-only access. e. Most common external storage devices are hard dr ives.e. each time the computer is turned off.e. meaning that it only stores data as long as it supplied with electrici ty. all the data in the memory are i rremediably erased. random access memory where people talk about computer memory in connection wi th computer. floppy disks. Thus. In this memory. it is a space that allows you to temporarily store data when a program is r unning. video disks etc. holds the programs and d ata being manipulated. it is poss ible to save information in some types of ROM memory. The external memory is used to store temporary information permanently or semi permanently. it cannot be changed.e. called ROM. They usually mean the RAM. Unlike data storage on an auxiliary memory such as a hard drive. However. i. Magnetic tape cd rom . ROM can only be read and used.e.U. Basically. When the temporary information is to be stored permanently or semi-perman ently. it cannot be changed. EXTERNAL MEMORY As we have discussed just now the storage inside main or internal memory is temp orary. magnetic tapes. its contents ar e lost when power is turned off. (2) RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) Random access memory. is a type of memory that allows you to keep the in formation contained on it even when the memory is no longer receiving electricit y. RAM is volatile.

They are used to process complex scie ntific calculation by using many microprocessors together. business transactions. and scientific and engineering computations. that has reduced the size of the computer. They are being used a lot in research work ranging from space and under the sea. particularly speed of calculation. airline seat reservatio ns. MINI COMPUTERS Medium-capacity computer that is larger than a micro computer but smaller than most mainframes. MAIN-FRAME COMPUTERS Digital computer designed for high-speed data processing with heavy use of input/output units such as large-capacity disks an d printers. . Many microco mputers (when equipped with a keyboard and screen for input and output) are also personal computers These are also called personal computer and are small enough to be kept on the t able. information retrieval. It is a computer that is at the frontline of cur rent processing capacity. They are said to be computer of the future . After the computer took actual shapes. HARDWARE A personal computer is made up of multiple physical components of computer hardw are. fast and very expensive.Floppy disk CATOGARIZATION OF COMPUTERS Categorization of computers MICRO COMPUTERS A microcomputer is a computer with a micro processor as its central processing unit. very small in size called MICROPROCESSOR . A minicomputer can handle a larger amount of data These were developed to reduce the size and cost compared to a mainframe compute r. They have been used for such applications as payroll computations. upon which can be installed an operating system and a multitude of software applications to perform the operator's desired functions. a ccounting. They also work at high speed and support many users at the same time. main-frame computers were used that were large in size. They use a silicon chip. They occupy an entire room and produce a lot of heat. They are physically small compared to mainframe and minicomputers. SUPER COMPUTERS A supercomputer is a powerful computer that possesses the capacity to store and process far more information than is possible using a conventional personal computer.

Power supply 7. TYPES OF SOFTWARE A computer system consists of hardware and software for its proper functioning.Hardware of a modern Personal Computer. Mouse SOFTWARE The proficiency. Software is a set of instructions or programs that help the hardware to complet e the work. . the physical components of a computer system. The term di fferentiates these features from hardware. Software is the entire set of programs. These instructions are provided to it through software. Rather it requires instructions for each and everything it performs. including the operating system. Keyboard 10. RAM 5. Expansion cards 6. Software can be classified broadly into two cate gories: * System software * Application software SOFTWARE SYSTEM SOFTWARE A computer is merely a machine that knows nothing of itself. SOFTWARE represents the set of programs that govern the operations of a comput er system and run the hardware. Hard disk drives 9. Monitor 2. and routines associated with the operation of a computer system. The software that controls internal computer operations is known as system software. CPU 4. procedures. 1. Optical disc drives 8. versatility and the processing speed of desktop computers have advanced to such an extent that any type of information and data processing is l ike a child s play to the machines which are now available. Motherboard 3.

also known as an application. Database management system is a package that can handle and manage bulk of stored data. updating. query on reporting or relying completely on the application programs for such purpose. A DBMS may provide interactive data entry.S) It manages the storage. This type of software pertains to one specific application. DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (D. Application software is the set of programs necessary to carry out operations for a specified application. . APPLICATION SOFTWARE Application software.B.M. is computer software designe d to help the user to perform singular or multiple related specific tasks. retrieval and security and integrity of the database.System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware a nd to provide and maintain a platform for running application software.

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