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Department of Mechanical Engineering


Consolidated Question Papers Unit-wise
(Prepared on oct 2017)
Unit – I
STRESS, STRAIN AND DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS
Part A
Stress on Normal Plane

1. What do you mean by thermal stresses?(M/J-15)


Thermal stresses are the stresses induced in a body due to change
in temperature. Thermal stresses are setup in a body when the
temperature of the body is raised or lowered and the body is not allowed
to expand or contract freely.
2. Derive a relation for change in length of a bar hanging freely under
it’s our weights. (N/D-14,M/J-17)
For a bar hanging freely under it’s own weights, the change in
length is given by

δl = γl2/2E (or) Wl/2AE

where
γ – Specific weigth,
E – Young modulus,
A – Cross sectional area
W - Weight

3. Write the relationship between shear modulus and young’s modulus


of elasticity. (N/D-14)
The relationship between shear modulus and young’s modulus of
elasticity is given as

𝐸 = 3𝐾 (1 −2μ)
Where
E - Young’s modulus,
K - Bulk modulus,
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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
μ – Poisson’s ratio

4. What is Bulk Modulus of materials?(M/J-14)


Bulk modulus of the material is defined as the ratio of the direct
stress to the corresponding volumetric strain and is denoted by K.

K=D𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 /V𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛

5. Define Resilience and Proof Resilience. (M/J-14, N/D-11)


Resilience:
The strain energy stored by the body within elastic limit, when
loaded externally is called resilience.
Proof Resilience:
The maximum strain energy stored in a body up to elastic limit is
known as proof resilience.
6. Define shear strain. (N/D-13)
Shear Strain:
The stress induced in a body, when subjected to two equal and
opposite forces, which are acting tangentially across the resisting section
as a result of which the body tends to shear off across the section is
known as shearstress and corresponding strain is known as shear strain.
It is denoted by Ф.
7. What is meant by strain energy and write its unit? (N/D 2013, Nov/Dec
2012)
Strain energy is the energy absorbed or stored by a member when
work is done on it to deform it. It is denoted by U and its unit is Nm.
8. Define Hooke’s law. (May/June 2013)
Hooke’s law is stated as when a material is loaded within elastic
limit, the stress is proportional to the strain produced by stress, (or)
Stress/strain=constant.
This constant is termed as modulus of elasticity.

9. Define the term modulus of resilience. (May/June 2013, Nov/Dec 2010)


Modulus of Resilience:
The proof resilience per unit volume of a material is known as
modulus of resilience.
Modulus of resilience = σ/2E
Where σ= proof stress or maximum stress
E = young’s modulus

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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
10.Define ‘longitudinal strain’ and ‘lateral strain’. (Nov/Dec 2012)

Longitudinal strain:
Longitudinal strain is defined as the deformation of the body per
unit length in the direction of the applied load.
Longitudinal strain, e or ε = 𝑑𝐿/𝐿
Lateral Strain: εl
The strain perpendicular to the direction of the applied load is
called lateral strain

11.Define elasticity. (May/June 2012)


Elasticity is the property of a material to regain its original shape after
the removal of external load. No material is perfectly elastic till failure.

12.Give the relationship between modulus of elasticity and modulus


of rigidity. (M/J 2012,16)

The relationship between modulus of elasticity and modulus of


rigidity is given as
𝐸 = 2G (1 + μ)
Where
E - Young’s modulus,
G - Rigidity modulus,
μ – Poisson’s ratio

13.Define Volumetric Strain. (Nov/Dec 2011,Nov/Dec 2013)

Volumetric strain of a deformed body is defined as the ratio of the


change in volume of the body to the deformation to its original volume.
If v is the original volume and dv the change in volume occurred due to
the deformation, the volumetric strain ev induced is given by
ev =dv/v

14.A rod of diameter 30 mm and length 400 mm was found to


elongate 0.35mm when it was subjected to a load of 65 kN. Compute
the modulus of elasticity of the material of this rod.(May/June 2011)

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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
15.Tensile and compressive stresses are called normal
stresses. Why? (Nov/Dec 2010)

Because tensile and compressive loads produce stresses that act


across a plane, in a direction perpendicular (normal) to the plane. Hence,
Tensile and compressive stresses are called normal stresses.

16.Differentiate Elasticity and Elastic Limit. (N/D-15)


Elasticity
The property by virtue of which certain materials return back
to their original position after the removal of the external force.
Elastic limit
The limit up to which the body regains its original position,
after removal of external force.

17.State Principle of Superposition (N/D-15)


The total change in length will be addition of all the individual changes
in length.

δl = δl1 + δl2 + δl3

18.Define Modulus of Elasticity. (N/D-16)

When a body is stresses, within its elastic limit, the ratio of tensile
stress to the corresponding tensile strain is constant. This ratio is known
as Young’s modulus. It is denoted by E.
E = σ/e

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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
19.Define Modulus of Rigidity

When a body is stressed, within its elastic limit, the ratio of


shearing stress to the corresponding shearing strain is constant. This ratio
is known as Modulus of rigidity.
G = τ/φ

20.Define Factor of Safety.


It is defined as the ratio of ultimate stress to the permissible stress
(Working stress).

Factor of Safety = Ultimate Stress / Permissible Stress

Stress on Inclined Plane

21.What is meant by principal planes and principal stresses? (M / J


2014,16 Nov/Dec 2013,May/June 2013, May/June 2012, May/June 2011,N/D-16,)

Principal Planes:
The planes on which no tangential or shear stresses are acting are
called as Principal planes.
Principal Stress:
The normal stress acting on principal planes is called principal
stress.

22.What are the uses of a Mohr’s circle? (Nov/Dec 2011)


Mohr’s circle method is a graphical method used to find
1. Normal stresses
2. Tangential stresses and
3. Resultant stresses on an oblique plane.
23.Write a note on Mohr’s circle of stresses. (Nov/Dec 2010,M/J-17,)
Mohr’s circle is a graphical method of finding normal, tangential
and resultant stresses on an oblique plane. Mohr’s circle will be drawn for
the following cases:
i. A body subjected to two unequal and like direct stress
ii. A body subjected to two unequal and unlike direct stress
iii. A body subjected to two direct stress accompanied by simple
shear stress.

24.Define Obliquity.

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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
The angle made by the resultant stress with the normal of the
oblique plane is known as obliquity.
tanφ = σt/σn

25.What do you understand by ‘An element in a state of simple


shear’? (Nov/Dec 2010)
If the plane of an element which carries the maximum shear stress
and zero normal stress, is said to be an element in a state of simple shear.

26.Draw the Mohr’s circle for the state of pure shear in a strained body
and mark all salient points in it. (May/June 2015)

27.Draw a Mohr’s circle for pure shear stress of 50 N/mm at a


point. (Nov/Dec 2012)

28.What does the radius of Mohr’s circle refer to? (A/M-17)


The radius of the Mohr’s circle refers to the maximum shear stress
induced in the plane.

UNIT – II
TRANSVERSE LOADING ON BEAMS AND STRESSES IN BEAM
Part – A
Shear force and Bending Moment Diagram
1. Define (May/June 2015, Nov/Dec 2012)
a) Shearing Force and b) Bending moment.
Shearing Force:
The algebraic sum of the vertical force at any section of a beam to
the right or left of the section is known as shear force.
Bending moment:
The algebraic sum of the moments of all the force acting to
the right or left of the section is known as bending of the beam.
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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
2. Draw SFD for a 6m cantilever beam carrying a clockwise moment of
6kN-m at free end. (Nov/Dec 2014)

3. Discuss the fixed and hinged support. (M/J - 16)


In fixed support all the degrees of freedom are arrested,
But in hinged support only two degrees of freedom are arrested

4. Draw the shear force diagram and bending moment diagram for the
cantilever beam carries uniformly varying load of zero intensity at
the free end and w kN/m at the fixed end. (N/D-16)

5. Draw shear force diagram for a simply supported beam of length 4m


carrying a center point load of 4 kN. (A/M-17)

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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
6. Draw a typical shear force and bending moment diagram of a simply
supported beam of span ‘l’, carrying a point load ‘P’ at mid
span.(May /
June 2014,M/J-17)

7. What are the types of beam and draw a neat sketch for each type?
(Nov/Dec 2013, May/June 2012, Nov/Dec 2011,N/D-15,10)

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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
8. Mention and sketch any two types of supports and cording for the
beams. (May/June 2011)

9. What do you mean by contraflexure? Is the point of contraflexure


and point of inflexion different? (Nov/Dec 2010, May/June 2013, May/June
2012)

It is the point where the bending moment is zero where it change


sign from positive to negative or vice –versa. No, the point of
contraflexure and point of inflexion are not different. Both are same.

Bending Stress and Shear Stress Distribution


10.What is neutral axis of a beam section? How do you locate it when a
beam is under simple bending?(May/June 2015, Nov/Dec 2012)
The line of intersection of the neutral surface on a cross-section is
called the neutral axis of a cross-section. There is no stress at the axis.
Neutral axis is the centroidal axis of the cross section of the beam.
11.What are flitched beams?(Nov/Dec 2014)

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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
A flitch beam (or flitched beam) is a compound beam used in the
construction of houses, decks, and other primarily wood-frame structures.
Typically, the flitch beam is made up of a steel plate sandwiched between
two wood beams, the three layers being held together with bolts.

12.Mention the assumptions made in the theory of simple bending.(May /


June 2014,N/D-16,ND-15)
1) The material of the beam is perfectly homogeneous and
isotropic.
2) The beam material is stressed, within its elastic limit and thus
obeys Hooke‘s law.
3) The transverse sections, which were plane before bending,
remain plane after bending also.
4) Each layer of the beam is free to expand or contract,
independently, of the layer, above or below it.

13.Write down an equation for shear stress distribution across the cross
section of a beam and draw a typical shear stress distribution
diagram for an I-section. (Nov/Dec 2013)

τ = FA ỹ/ bI
Where,
τ = Shear Stress
F = Shear Force
A = area of the section above the fibre.
ỹ = distance of the C.G. of the area A from N.A.
b = actual width at the fibre
I = moment of inertia of the section about N.A.

14.What are the advantages of flitched beams? (M/J - 16)


Advantages of flitched beams:
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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
a) flitch beams are significantly stronger than wood alone
b) they require less depth than a wood-only beam of the same strength,
c) Flitched beams are much lighter than a steel beam of the same size,
d) it can still be nailed to the rest of a wooden structure.

15.What is meant by shear flow? (May/June 2013)


Shear Flow is defined as the horizontal shear force per unit area.

16. Sketch the shear stress distribution on a solid circular shaft due to
torsion. (Nov/Dec 2012,M/J-17)

17. What is meant by shear centre? (Nov/Dec 2011)


The point where a shear force can act without producing
any twist in the section. In general not the centroid, but a point through
which a force transverse to the axis of a beam section can act and not
cause any twisting of the beam section.

18. Sketch the bending stress as well as shear stress distribution for a
beam of rectangular cross section. (May/June 2011.M/J-17)

19. Prove that the shear stress distribution over a rectangular section
due to shear force is parabolic? (A/M-17)

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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
UNIT – 3
TORSION

Part A
Torsion on Shafts

1. What is meant by torsional stiffness?(May/June 2015)

Torsional Stiffness is defined as the torque per unit angle of twist.


T/θ = GJ/L

2. What is meant by Torsional rigidity?(Nov/Dec 2014, Nov/Dec 2010,


May/June 2012,N/D-16)

Torsional Rigidity is defined as the torque per unit angle of twist


for unit length. It is also defined as product of modulus of rigidity and
polar moment of inertia.
T = GJ

3. Define Torsion and give at least two practical examples for it. (May /
June 2014)

The twisting of shafts when subjected to torque or twisting


moments isknown as Torsion. Torsion will cause shearing stresses in the
shaft.
examples:
Propeller Shaft, Engine shaft, turn a key in a lock

4. Draw and discuss the shafts in series and parallel. (M/J - 16)

5. The shearing stress is a solid shaft is not to exceed 40 N/mm2 when


the torque transmitted is 20000 N-m. Determine the minimum
diameter of the shaft. (N/D-15)
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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
6. Write down the equation of torsion showing the various terms
involved in it.(Nov/Dec 2013,Nov/ Dec 2011,May/June 2011)

T/J = τmax/R=Gθ/L
Where
T – Torque,
J – Polar moment of inertia,
τmax – Max. Shear stress,
R – Radius of shaft,
G – Rigidity modulus,
θ – angle of twist,
L – Length of shaft.

7. Compute the torsional rigidity of a 100mm diameter, 4m length shaft


C=80kN/mm2.(May/June 2013)

Polar moment of inertia, J = πd4/32


J = 3.14 * 1004 / 32 = 9.82 x 106 mm4
Torsional Rigidity = GJ
= 80 x 103 (9.82 x 106)
Torsional Rigidity = 7.86 x 1011 N-mm2

8. List the loads normally acting on a shaft. (Nov/Dec 2011)

Torsional load
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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
Bending load
Axial load
Combination of above three loads.

Torsion on Springs

9. What are the uses of helical springs?(May/June 2015,May/June


2013,May/June 2012)

The helical spring is used to store energy due to resilience and


subsequently release it, to absorb shock, or to maintain a force
between contacting surfaces.

10.Differentiate open coiled and closely coiled helical springs.(Nov/Dec


2014,M/J 2013)

11.Write short notes on types of springs.(May / June 2014,N/D-15,N/D-16)

Helical springs
a. Closed-coiled spring b. open-coiled helical spring
Leaf spring
a. full-elliptic b.semi elliptic ,c. cantilever
Torsion spring
Circular spring
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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
12.What is meant by spring constant? (A/M-17)

The spring constant is defined as the force required for stretching


the spring by unit length

Unit of the spring constant is N/m

13.List out the stresses induced in the helical and carriage springs. (M/J -

 Compressive stress
 Tensile stress
 Shear stress

14.What is a spring? Name the two important types of springs. (N/D-16)

Spring is an energy storing device, it is of two types

 Leaf spring
 Helical spring

15.A closely coiled helical spring is to carry a load of 500N. Its mean
coil diameter is to be 10times that of the wire diameter. Calculate
these
diameters if the maximum shear stress in the material of the spring
are to be 80 MN/m2.(Nov/Dec 2013)

Shear Stress,
τ = 16WR/πd 3
80 = 16*500*5d/πd 3
80 = 40000/πd 2
d2 = 0.00628
d = 0.0792 mm
16.What are the two types of shear stresses induced in a helical spring?
(Nov/Dec 2012)

Bending Stress
Shear stress

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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
17.Define stiffness of spring and mention its unit in SI system. (May/June
2011,Nov/Dec 2010)

The spring stiffness or spring constant is defined as the load


required per unit deflection of the spring.
K= W/y
Where
W –load and
y – Deflection

UNIT – IV
DEFLECTION OF BEAMS

Part – A
1. What are the advantages of Macaulay’s method over other methods
for the calculation of slope and deflection?(May/June 2015)
The advantages are
 It is very convenient for cases of discontinuous and/or discrete
loading.
 It is easy to solve partial uniformly distributed loads (u.d.l.)
problems
 It is easy to solve problems on uniformly varying loads (u.v.l.)
over the span
 A number of concentrated loads are conveniently handled using
this technique.

2. What are the limitations of double integration method?(Nov/Dec 2014)


In double integration method, if there are more loads at different
sections, then more functions will be needed to represent the bending
moment and hence additional constants and a corresponding number of
equations will be required resulting in rather lengthy computations
3. Define strain energy.(Nov/Dec 2014)
Work done against the resistance to deformation of member will be
stored by the member as energy and is called strain energy or resilience.

Strain Energy, U = Pδ/2


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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
Where

P – Load in N, δ – deflection in m

4. What is the equation used in the case of double integration method?


(N/D-15)
EI d2y/dx2=Mx
Where
E= young’s modulus
I=moment of inertia
Mx=Bending moment

5. How the deflection and slope is calculated for the cantilever beam by
conjugate beam method?(N/D-16)

6. Write down the equation for the maximum deflection of a cantilever


beam carrying a central point load 'W'. (A/M-17)

7. State the Mohr’s theorem I and II.(May / June 2014)

Mohr’s Theorem I:
The change in slope of a deflection curve between two points of a beam is
equal to the net area of the B.M diagram between those two points dived
by EI
Mohr’s Theorem II:
The total deflection between any two points is equal to the moment
of the area of B.M diagram between the two points about the last point
divided by EI.

8. Write down the relationship between slope, deflection and radius of


curvature. (Nov/Dec 2013)

1/R = d2y/dx2
R = M/EI
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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
where
R – Radius of curvature
M – Bending Moment
E – Young’s modulus
I – Moment of inertia

9. Describe the double integration method.(May/June 2013,N/D-15)

Double-integration method is a method of finding deflection and


slope of a beam. In this method the differential equation of curvature of
bent beam, EI (d2y/dx2) = M is integrated once to get slope and twice to
get deflection. Here the constants of integration C1 and C2 are evaluated
from known boundary conditions.

10.Write down the boundary conditions for a cantilever beam to find


out the equations for deflection and slope.(Nov/Dec 2012)
The boundary conditions for a cantilever beam to find out the
equations for deflection and slope are
At fixed end, x = 0, y = 0
x = 0, dy/dx = 0
11.Give the expression for deflection of a simply supported beam
carrying a point load at the center. (May/June 2012)

The maximum deflection,


ymax = Wl3/48EI
where
W - load in N
l - length of beam in mm
E - Young’s modulus in N/mm2
I - moment of inertia in mm4

12.Write the expression for the deflection at the free end of a


cantilever of length ‘L’ carries an UDL of w kN/m. Assume uniform
cross section throughout. (Nov/Dec 2011)

The maximum deflection,


ymax = Wl3/8EI
where
W - load in N
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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
l - length of beam in mm
E - Young’s modulus in N/mm2
I - moment of inertia in mm4

13.List any four methods of determining slope and deflection of loaded


beam. (May/June 2011,N/D-15,N/D-16)
a. Double integration method
b. Moment area method
c. Macaulay‘s method
d. Conjugate beam method
14.State Maxwell’s Reciprocal Theorem.(N/D-16,M/J 16)

The Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem state that, “The work done by


the first system of loads due to displacement caused by a second
system of loads equals the work done by the second system of loads
due to displacements caused by the first system of loads”.

15.In a cantilever beam, the measured deflection at free end was8 mm


when a concentrated load of 12 kN was applied at its mid-span. What
will be the deflection at mid-span when the same beam carries a
concentrated load of 7 kN at the free end.(May/June 2015)

UNIT – V
THIN AND THICK SHELLS
Part – A
1. Distinguish between thin and thick shells.(May/June 2015,M/J 2014,M/J 1

Thin Cylinder:
If the thickness of the wall of the cylinder vessel is less than 1/20
of its internal diameter, the cylinder vessel is known as thin cylinder.
Thick Cylinder:
If the thickness of the wall of the cylinder vessel is greater than
1/20 of its internal diameter, the cylinder vessel is known as thick
cylinder.

2. What is meant by circumferential stress and Longitudinal


stress?(Nov/Dec 2014,M/J 2013,N/D-15)

Circumferential Stress:

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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
The stress acting along the circumference of the cylinder is called
circumferential stress (or hoop stress)
Circumferential Stress,
σc = pd/2t
Longitudinal Stress:
The stress acting along the length of the cylinder is known as
longitudinal stress.
Longitudinal stress,
σ2= pd/4t

3. On what basis, a cylinder is considered as thin one?(Nov/Dec 2012)

If the thickness of the wall of the cylinder vessel is less than 1/20 of its
internal diameter, the cylinder vessel is known as thin cylinder.

4. List out the stresses induced in thin cylindrical shell due to internal
pressure.(May/June 2012,N/D 2011,N/D-16)

Circumferential stress (or hoop stress )


Longitudinal stress.

5. What are assumptions involved in the analysis of thin cylindrical


shells. (May/June 2011)
The stress distribution is assumed uniform over the thickness of the
wall.
The internal forces exerted on a given portion of wall are tangent to
the surface of the vessels.

6. State the expression for maximum shear stress in a cylindrical shell?


(N/D-15)
τmax= σ1 +σ2/2
where
σ1=circumferential stress
σ2=longitudinal stress

7. How does a thin cylinder fail due to internal fluid pressure? (A/M-17)

Thin cylinders fail due to the following stress


 Circumferential stress (or hoop stress )
 Longitudinal stress.

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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech
8. Calculate the thickness of metal required for a cast-iron main 800
mm in diameter for water at a pressure head of 100 m if the
maximum permissible tensile stress is 20 MN/m3.(Nov/Dec 2013)
Pressure, p = ρgh
= 1000*9.81*100
p = 9.81 x 105 N/mm2
Assuming given stress as circumferential stress,
σc = 20 MN/m2 = 20 x 106 N/m2
Circumferential Stress,
σc = pd/2t
t = pd/2 σc
t = 9.81 x 105 (0.8)/2(20 x 106 )
t = 0.01962 m
t =1.962 cm
9. Write down lame’s equations.(Nov/Dec 2014,M/J-17,16)
The lame’s equations are
pr = (b/r2) – a
σc = (b/r2) + a
where
pr – radial pressure
σc - circumferential stress or hoop stress
r - radius of thick cylinder

10.State the assumptions made in Lame’s theorem for thick analysis.


(May/June 2015)
a. The material is homogeneous and isotropic.
b. Plane sections perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the cylinder
remain plane after the application of internal pressure.
c. The material is stressed within the elastic limit.
d. All the fibres of the material are to expand or contract
independently without being constrained by the adjacent fibres.

11.Define radial pressure in thin cylinder. (N/D-16)


The pressure exerted by the fluid on the wall of the cylinder is
Known as radial pressure

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CE 6306 Strength of Materials (R2013) Mr.G.Manoj Kumar AP/Mech