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UNITS

Measurements of physical quantities take place by means of a comparison with a standard. For example: a meter stick, a weight of 1 kilogram, etc. The base units that will be used in this course are:

• • •

meter (m): One meter is equal to the path length traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second. kilogram (kg): One kilogram is the mass of a Platinum-Iridium cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Paris. second (s): One second is the time occupied by 9,192,631,770 vibrations of the light (of a specified wavelength) emitted by a Cesium-133 atom.

A unit that is being used as a base unit must be both accessible and invariable. The original meter bar kept in Paris was not very accessible (this is still true for the kilogram). In addition, the length of the standard bar is temperature dependent. The definition of the meter in terms of the number of wavelengths of a particular atomic transition in Krypton-86 made the meter more accessible; the transition is characteristic for Krypton-86, and is the same for each Krypton-86 atom. However, Doppler shifts due to the thermal motion of the atoms can slightly change the wavelength, and produce a small uncertainty in the definition of the meter. The current definition of the meter in terms of the speed of light is not affected by thermal motion: the speed of light in vacuum is constant, independent of temperature and velocity of observer and/or source. Example: how to measure the distance d from the earth to the moon ? APOLLO astronauts placed a mirror on the moon. It can be used to measure the distance between the earth and the moon very accurately. The reflection of a laser beam aimed at this mirror reaches the earth after 2.495 s. The distance can then be calculated:

The definition of the standard mass makes it very inaccessible. In principle, the weight of individual nuclei can be used as a standard; nuclear weight does not depend on location, temperature, pressure, etc. However, counting the number of nuclei in a standard (or assembling a fixed number of nuclei) is an almost impossible task.

Note: 1. Improved definitions of base units must be defined such that it matches the previous definition as closely as possible (no need to change all meter sticks in 1983). 2. Speed of light is now defined as 299,792,458 m/s. All physical quantities are expressed in terms of base units. For example, the velocity is usually given in units of m/s. All other units are derived units and may be expressed as a combination of base units. For example (see Appendix A):

**Other examples are:
**

• •

density: kg/m3 area: m2

When dealing with very small or large numbers, it is convenient to use prefixes (see Table 1.1, and Table 1-2 on page 3 in Halliday, Resnick, and Walker).

Factor 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 Prefix Symbol exaE petaP tera T gigaG megaM kilok millim microu nanon picop femtof attoa

Table 1.1. SI Prefixes Example: 2.35 10-9 s = 2.35 ns

In many cases, the data are not supplied in the correct units, and one needs to convert units (see Appendix F in Halliday, Resnick, and Walker). Examples: 1" = 2.54 x 10-2 m 55 miles = 88 x 103 m 1 h = 3600 s 55 miles/h = 88 x 103/3600 m/s = 24.4 m/s

**2. MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
**

In mechanics we are interested in trying to understand the motion of objects. In this chapter, the motion of objects in 1 dimension will be discussed. Motion in 1 dimension is motion along a straight line.

2.1. Position

The position of an object along a straight line can be uniquely identified by its distance from a (user chosen) origin. (see Figure 2.1). Note: the position is fully specified by 1 coordinate (that is why this a 1 dimensional problem).

Figure 2.1. One-dimensional position.

x vs. the human 100 meter. the position of the object at time t = 0 is often chosen as the origin. t graph corresponds to a higher velocity. the origin can be chosen at whatever point is convenient. .Figure 2. See for example Figure 2.2. the human in 30 s. t graphs for various velocities. the cheetah has covered a distance of 310 meter. The position of the object will in general be a function of time: x(t).3. and the pig requires 60 s. For a given problem. After 10 seconds. For example.2. Figure 2. It is clear that a steeper slope of the curve in the x vs. and for objects moving to the left and to the right. A similar conclusion is obtained when we consider the time required to cover a fixed distance. The slope of the curve in the position versus time graph depends on the velocity of the object. the cheetah has the highest velocity. and the pig 50 meter. The cheetah covers 300 meter in 10 s. Obviously. shows the position as a function of time for an object at rest.

Figure 2.3. x vs. t graphs for various creatures.

2.2. Velocity

An object that changes its position has a non-zero velocity. The average velocity of an object during a specified time interval is defined as:

If the object moves to the right, the average velocity is positive. An object moving to the left has a negative average velocity. It is clear from the definition of the average velocity that depends only on the position of the object at time t = t1 and at time t = t2. This is nicely illustrated in sample problem 2-1 and 2-2. Sample Problem 2-1 You drive a beat-up pickup truck down a straight road for 5.2 mi at 43 mi/h, at which point you run out of fuel. You walk 1.2 mi farther, to the nearest gas station, in 27 min (= 0.450 h). What is your average velocity from the time you started your truck to the time that you arrived at the station ? The pickup truck initially covers a distance of 5.2 miles with a velocity of 43 miles/hour. This takes 7.3 minutes. After the pickup truck runs out of gas, it takes you 27 minutes to walk to the nearest gas station which is 1.2 miles down the road. When you arrive at the gas station, you have covered (5.2 + 1.2) = 6.4 miles, during a period of (7.3 + 27) = 34.3 minutes. Your average velocity up to this point is:

Sample Problem 2-2 Suppose you next carry the fuel back to the truck, making the round-trip in 35 min. What is your average velocity for the full journey, from the start of your driving to you arrival back at the truck with the fuel ? It takes you another 35 minutes to walk back to your car. When you reach your truck, you are again 5.2 miles from the origin, and have been traveling for (34.4 + 35) = 69.4 minutes. At that point your average velocity is:

After this episode, you return back home. You cover the 5.2 miles again in 7.3 minutes (velocity equals 43 miles/hour). When you arrives home, you are 0 miles from your origin, and obviously your average velocity is:

The average velocity of the pickup truck which was left in the garage is also 0 miles/hour. Since the average velocity of an object depends only on its initial and final location and time, and not on the motion of the object in between, it is in general not a useful parameter. A more useful quantity is the instantaneous velocity of an object at a given instant. The instantaneous velocity is the value that the average velocity approaches as the time interval over which it is measured approaches zero:

For example: see sample problem 2-5.

The velocity of the object at t = 3.5 s can now be calculated:

2.3. Acceleration

The velocity of an object is defined in terms of the change of position of that object over time. A quantity used to describe the change of the velocity of an object over time is the acceleration a. The average acceleration over a time interval between t1 and t2 is defined as:

Note the similarity between the definition of the average velocity and the definition of the average acceleration. The instantaneous acceleration a is defined as:

From the definition of the acceleration, it is clear that the acceleration has the following units:

A positive acceleration is in general interpreted as meaning an increase in velocity. However, this is not correct. From the definition of the acceleration, we can conclude that the acceleration is positive if

This is obviously true if the velocities are positive, and the velocity is increasing with time. However, it is also true for negative velocities if the velocity becomes less negative over time.

2.4. Constant Acceleration

Objects falling under the influence of gravity are one example of objects moving with constant acceleration. A constant acceleration means that the acceleration does not depend on time:

Integrating this equation, the velocity of the object can be obtained:

you brake a Porsche from 75 km/h to 45 km/h over a distance of 88m. on a second trial with the acceleration calculated in (a) above and a different initial velocity. you bring your car to rest after traversing 200 m. Note 1: verify these relations by integrating the formulas for the position and the velocity. a) What is the acceleration.5 m/s * x(t = 0) = x0 = 0 m (Note: origin defined as position of Porsche at t = 0 s) * x(t1) = 88 m . how much time would elapse in bringing the car to rest from 75 km/h ? d) In (c) above. the position of the object as function of time can be calculated: where x0 is the position of the object at time t = 0. From the velocity.8 m/s * v(t1) = 45 km/h = 12. Note 2: the equations of motion are the basis for most problems (see sample problem 7). what distance would be covered ? e) Suppose that. assumed to be constant ? b) What is the elapsed time ? c) If you continue to slow down with the acceleration calculated in (a) above. Sample Problem 2-8 Spotting a police car.where v0 is the velocity of the object at time t = 0. What was the total braking time ? a) Our starting points are the equations of motion: (1) (2) The following information is provided: * v(t = 0) = v0 = 75 km/h = 20.

(2): (9) e) The following information is provided: * v(t3) = 0 m/s (Note: Porsche at rest at t = t3) .* a = constant From eq.(5)) into eq.(4) we can obtain the acceleration a: (5) b) Substitute eq.(3): (8) d) Substitute t2 (from eq.(5) into eq.(8)) and a (from eq.(1) we obtain: (3) Substitute (3) in (2): (4) From eq.(5) into eq.(3): (6) c) The car is at rest at time t2: (7) Substituting the acceleration calculated using eq.

and the positive position along the y-axis corresponds to upward motion.6 m/s2 Eq.(2): (11) The time t3 can now easily be calculated: (12) 2. Gravitational Acceleration A special case of constant acceleration is free fall (falling in vacuum). The equations of motion for free fall are very similar to those discussed previously for constant acceleration: where y0 and v0 are the position and the velocity of the object at time t = 0.8 m/s2 (along the negative y-axis).1.(1) tells us: (10) Substitute eq. The acceleration due to gravity (g) equals 9.(10) into eq. In problems of free fall. Example .5. the direction of free fall is defined along the y-axis.* x(t = 0) = x0 = 0 m (Note: origin defined as position of Porsche at t = 0) * x(t3) = 200 m * a = constant = .

with an initial speed of 25 m/s. At that point.6 s (see Figure 2. a) Our starting points are the equations of motion: The initial conditions are: * v(t = 0) = v0 = 25 m/s (upwards movement) * y(t = 0) = y0 = 0 m (Note: origin defined as position of ball at t = 0) * g = 9.A pitcher tosses a baseball straight up. Figure 2.8 m/s2 The highest point is obtained at time t = t1. (a) How long does it take to reach its highest point ? (b) How high does the ball rise above its release point ? (c) How long will it take for the ball to reach a point 25 m above its release point.4). .4. Vertical position of baseball as function of time. the velocity is zero: The ball reaches its highest point after 2.

This Equation can be easily solved for t: Using the initial conditions specified in (a) this equation can be used to calculate the time at which the ball reaches a height of 25 m (y = 25 m): t = 1.6 s can be easily calculated: c) The quation for y(t) can be easily rewritten as: where y is the height of the ball at time t.4 s t = 3.5): v(t = 1.7 s Figure 2.5. The velocities of the ball at these times are (see also Figure 2.b) The position of the ball at t1 = 2. Velocity of the baseball as function of time.3 m/s .4 s) = + 11.

1. the ball reaches its highest point (v = 0). 3. but also its direction: velocity is a vector. Its velocity is either positive or negative: positive velocity corresponds to a motion to the right while negative velocity corresponds to a motion to the left. we need to specify not only the magnitude of its velocity.4 s. 3. Commutative Law of Vector Addition.6 s. A quantity not involving a direction is a scalar. If is added to .1. We will start discussing vector addition by using the graphical method.11. VECTORS The motion of a particle in one dimension is simple.7 s) = . There are two methods for vector addition: the graphical method and the analytical method. In this Chapter we will discuss the various vector operations that will be used in this course. The graphical method Assume two vectors and are defined. At t = 2.1.1. pressure and time. . a third vector is created (see Figure 3. the ball starts falling down (negative velocity). but now moves downwards.3 m/s At t = 1.7 s the ball is located again at y = 25 m. To describe the motion of an object in 3 dimensions.v(t = 3. the ball is at y = 25 m with positive velocity (upwards motion). Vector Addition One important vector operation that we will frequently encounter is vector addition. At t= 3. 3. Examples of scalars are temperature. Figure 3.6 s.1). After t = 2.

Inspection of the resulting vector shows that vector addition satisfies thecommutative law (order of addition does not influence the final result): Vector addition also satisfies the associative law (the result of vector addition is independent of the order in which the vectors are added.3): + (.There are however two ways of combining the vectors and (see Figure 3.= + (.2): Figure 3.2.) . Associative Law of Vector Addition.4): = . Vector and The opposite of vector is a vector with the same magnitude as but pointing in the opposite direction (see Figure 3.3.) = 0 Subtracting from is the same as adding the opposite of to (see Figure 3. Figure 3.1). see Figure 3.

3. we limit ourselves to 2 dimensions. The length of each of the components can now be easily calculated: and the vector can be written as: . and . Define a coordinate system with an x-axis and yaxis (see Figure 3. We can always find 2 vectors.4. These two vectors. Figure 3.5).1.Figure 3. Vector Subtraction. In actual calculations the graphical method is not practical. are called the components of . and . The analytical method To demonstrate the use of the analytical method of vector addition. and by definition satisfy the following relation: Suppose that [theta] is the angle between the vector and the x-axis.2. whose vector sum equals . and the vector algebra is performed on its components (this is the analytical method).4 also shows that + = . The 2 components of are defined such that their direction is along the x-axis and yaxis.

For example. they are perpendicular in every coordinate system). Note: in contrast to Halliday. the components of are: ax = a ay = 0 . The physics (and the relation between physical quantities) is also not affected by the choice of the coordinate system. and Walker we use and to indicate the unit vectors along the x. In two or three dimensions. relations between vectors are not affected by the choice of the coordinate system (for example.Figure 3. and we usually choose the coordinate system such that our problems can be solved most easily. we can usually choose the coordinate system such that one of the vectors coincides with one of the coordinate axes.and y-axis. Resnick. Resnick.6). if the coordinate system is defined such that the direction of is along the x-axis. j. and Walker use i. respectively (Halliday. The decomposition of vector into 2 components is not unambiguous.5. Although the decomposition of a vector depends on the coordinate system chosen. This was already demonstrated in Chapter 2. where the origin of the coordinate system was usually defined as the position of the object at time t = 0. and k which is harder to write). Decomposition of vector . if two vectors are perpendicular in one coordinate system. It depends on the choice of the coordinate system (see Figure 3.

We have just described how to find the components of a vector if its magnitude and direction are provided. we can also calculate its direction and magnitude. their components are related as follows: These relations describe vector addition using the analytical technique (and similar relations hold for vector addition in three dimensions).6. we can conclude that since is equal to . Suppose the components of vector . If the components of a vector are provided.az = 0 Figure 3. Vector algebra using the analytical method is based on the following rule: "Two vectors are equal to each other if their corresponding components are equal" Applying this rule to vector addition: Comparing the equations for and . Decomposition of vector in different coordinate systems.

any calculator will return the solution between [pi]/2 and [pi]/2. the solution is [theta] = 135deg.[pi]/2 < [theta] < [pi]/2 if ax < 0: [pi]/2 < [theta] < 3[pi]/2 Figure 3. while for vector . Example of angle ambiguity.7 can be written as: It is clear that for both vectors: atan([theta]) = 1. .5): Note: one should exercise great care in using the previous relation for [theta]. the solution is [theta] = 45deg. For vector .along the x-axis and y-axis are ax and ay.7. Note that ax = 1 > 0. and bx = -1 < 0.. The length of the vector can be easily calculated: The angle [theta] between the vector and the positive x-axis can be obtained from the following relation (see also Figure 3.. respectively. Atan(ay/ax) has 2 solutions. The correct solution will depend on the sign of ax: if ax > 0: . Example: The two vectors shown in Figure 3.

3.8). The magnitude of the new vector is the magnitude of multiplied by the absolute value of s.2. This procedure can be summarized as follows: Figure 3. Since two vectors are only equal only if their corresponding components are equal. Multiplying a vector by a scalar.Multiplying a Vector by a Scalar The product of a vector and a scalar s is a new vector. we obtain the following relation between the components of and the components of : The following relations are summarizing the relations between the magnitude and direction of the vectors and : . Multiplying Vectors . whose direction is the same as that of if s is positive or opposite to that direction if s is negative (see Figure 3.8.

9. Multiplying Vectors .3. The scalar product of and (represented by . The angle between these two vectors is [phi]. ) is defined as: In a coordinate system in which the x. Scalar Product of vectors and . y and z-axes are mutual perpendicular. y and z-axes: Note that in deriving this equation. the following relations hold for the scalar product between the various unit vectors: Suppose that the vectors and are defined as follows: Figure 3.3. we have applied the following rule: .9.Scalar Product Two vectors and are shown in Figure 3. The scalar product of and can now be rewritten in terms of the scalar product between the unit vectors along the x.

The components of and are given by: Figure 3. and . their relative angle equals 90deg. = 0..10. ax = a cos(a) ay = a sin(a) bx = b cos([beta]) by = b sin([beta]) The scalar product can now be obtained as follows: What is so useful about the scalar product ? If two vectors are perpendicular. Alternative Derivation of Scalar Product.An alternative derivation of the expression of the scalar product in terms of the components of the two vectors can be easily derived as follows (see Figure 3.10). Suppose and are defined as follows: These two vectors are perpendicular since: . The scalar product therefore provides an easy test to determine whether two vectors are perpendicular.

• The direction of is perpendicular to the plane defined by and . . that the following relation holds: x =. since sin([phi]) = sin(2[pi] . It is clear from the definition of the vector product that the order of the components is important. MOTION IN A PLANE . Multiplying Vectors . It can be shown. < 0) 3.In a similar manner we can easily determine whether the angle between the two vector is less than 90deg. However. by applying the right hand rule. and the direction (up or down) is determined using the right-hand rule. the vector product is different for these two angles.Vector Product The vector product of two vectors and . (in which case .[phi]). > 0) or more than 90deg. written as x .x The following expression can be used to calculate x if the components of and are provided: 4. is a third vector with the following properties: • the magnitude of is given by: where [phi] is the smallest angle between and . (in which case . Note: the angle between and is [phi] or 360deg.[phi].4.

its velocity and its acceleration as function of time. In two or three dimensions.2. In general. and most graphs will show for example the trajectory of the object (without providing direct information concerning the time). The discussion about motion in two or three dimensions is more complicated. we can write the position vector in terms of its components: Figure 4. Definition of Position Vector. Note: In Chapter 2 we got used to plotting the position of the object. In three dimensions one needs to specify three coordinates. To specify the position of an object the concept of the position vector needs to be introduced. 4. Velocity The velocity of an object in two or three dimensions is defined analogously to its definition in Chapter 2: .4. this is much more difficult.1. Position In Chapter 2 we discussed the motion of an object in one dimension. one needs to specify two coordinates.1). Using the techniques developed in Chapter 3. The position vector is defined as a vector that starts at the (user defined) origin and ends at the current position of the object (see Figure 4. The motion of this object could be described in terms of scalars. To answer the question "where am I ?" in two dimensions. the position vector will be time dependent (t).1. Its position was unambiguously defined by its distance (positive or negative) from a user defined origin.

3. Again. the velocity vector can be decomposed into its three components: The components of (t) can be calculated from the corresponding components of the position vector (t): We conclude: 4.This equation shows that the velocity of an object in two or three dimensions is also a vector. Acceleration The acceleration of an object in three dimensions is defined analogously to its definition in Chapter 2: This equation shows that the acceleration of an object in two or three dimensions is also a vector. which can be decomposed into three components: The components of (t) can be calculated from the corresponding components of the position vector (t) and the velocity vector (t): We conclude: .

In this limit: The magnitude of the velocity for small time intervals can be written as: From this formula we can conclude: . the change in the velocity vector will be small. y and z direction. we can write down the following equations of motion: vx(t) = vx0 + ax t vy(t) = vy0 + ay t vz(t) = vz0 + az t The magnitude of the velocity as function of time can be calculated: If we look at a very small time interval.Assuming a constant acceleration in the x.

The position vector of the rabbit at time t can be expressed as: From the equations of motion for x(t) and y(t) we can calculate the velocity and acceleration: The acceleration of the rabbit is constant (independent of time). The scalar product of the velocity and the acceleration will tell us something about the change of velocity of the rabbit: From this equation we conclude that for t < 14. while for t > 14.6 s (negative scalar product) the rabbit will slow down. if you substitute t in seconds.6 s (positive scalar product) the rabbits . x and y are in meters.Sample Problem 4-2 .4-4 A rabbit runs across a parking lot on which a set of coordinate axes has. strangely enough. The path is such that the components of the rabbit's position with respect to the origin of the coordinate frame are given as function of time by The units of the numerical coefficients in these equations are such that. been drawn.

the equations of motion for the projectile are: . while the acceleration in the y-direction is equal to the free-fall acceleration: ax = 0 ay = . Note that axonly affects vx and not vy. In describing the motion of the projectile. To check this prediction. we can obtain the velocity and position of the projectile using the procedure outlined in Chapter 2: where x0 and y0 are the x and y position of the object at t = 0 s.8 m/s2 In this case. The coordinate system that will be used to describe the motion of the projectile consist of an x-axis (horizontal direction) and a y-axis (vertical direction). 4. Projectile Motion We will start considering the motion of a projectile in 2 dimensions. Assuming that we are dealing with constant acceleration. and ay only affects vy.4. we calculate the magnitude of the velocity of the rabbit: The velocity of the rabbit has a minimum at t = 14. we will assume that there is no acceleration in the x-direction.speed will increase.g = . and vx0 and vy0 are the x and y components of the velocity of the object at time t = 0.9.6 s.

In this case: The time t can be eliminated from these two equations: Substituting this expression for t into the equation of motion for y. the total velocity v0 of the object at time t = 0 s and the angle [theta] between the direction of the projectile and the positive x-axis is provided. The coordinate system in which we will analyze the trajectory of the projectile is chosen such that x0 = y0 = 0.The trajectory of the projectile is completely determined by the equations of motion x(t) and y(t). From this information the components of the velocity at time t = 0 s can be calculated: . the following relation between x and y can be obtained: We can conclude that the trajectory of the projectile is described by a parabola. Note: Often.

Figure 4. y(t) = 0. Projectile Motion. Example: Suppose a projectile is launched with an initial velocity v0 and an angle [theta] with respect to the x-axis (see Figure 4.2). What is its range R ? We start with defining the coordinate system to be used in this problem: x(t = 0) = x0 = 0 y(t = 0) = y0 = 0 The position of the projectile at any given time t can be obtained from the following expressions: At impact.2. The time of impact can therefore be obtained by requiring that y(t) = 0 and solving for t: This equation has two solutions: .

+ [Delta][theta] and 45deg. Before he attempts the jump.[Delta][theta] (sin(2[theta]) is symmetric around [theta] = 45deg. Note: in all our calculations we have neglected air resistance. Resnick and Walker). . If we look at the equation of the range R. we observe that the velocity component parallel to the x-axis is unchanged. the following initial conditions apply: x0 = 0 m . Can he make the jump if his maximum rooftop speed is 4.). we observe that the for each value of R (less than Rmax) there are two possible launch angles: 45deg. he wisely asks you to determine whether it is possible. The velocity of the projectile on impact can be calculated using the equations for vx(t) and vy(t): Comparing the velocity on impact with the velocity at t = 0. The x-coordinate at that time can be obtained by substituting the expression for t into the expression for x(t): The maximum range is obtained when sin(2[theta]) = 1. to land on the roof of the next building (see Figure 4-16 in Halliday. while the component along the y-axis changed sign.The first solution corresponds to the time that the projectile was launched.5 m/s ? The coordinate system is chosen such that the origin is defined as the position of the stunt man at the moment he starts his jump from the roof (this is also defined as time t = 0). while the second solution gives us the time that the projectile hits the ground again. which corresponds to [theta] = 45deg. In this case.. Sample Problem 4-7 A movie stunt man is to run across a rooftop and then horizontally off it. The time of flight for the two cases are however different: a larger launch angle corresponds to a longer time of flight (time of flight is proportional to sin([theta])).

2 m horizontally.2 km from the gun. . Unless the stunt man wants to commit suicide. how long should the gun crew wait before firing if they are to hit the tank. the tank crew sees the gun and starts to move directly away from it with an acceleration of 0. above the horizontal. the stunt man should have moved 6. The gun crew sights an enemy tank stationary on the plain at a horizontal distance of 2.g The equations of motion describing the trajectory of the stunt man can now be written as: The time at which the stunt man has dropped 4. If the antitank gun fires a shell with a muzzle speed of 240 m/s at an elevation of 10deg. At the same moment.5 m/s vy0 = 0 m/s ax = 0 m/s2 ay = .90 m/s2. to reach the next building. Example An antitank gun is located on the edge of a plateau that is 60 m above the surrounding plain.8 m can be calculated from the equation for y(t): The horizontal distance traveled by the stunt man during this time interval can be calculated from the equation of motion for x(t): However.y0 = 0 m vx0 = + 4. he should not jump.

Using this information we can calculate v0x and v0y: v0x = v0 cos([theta]) = 236 m/s v0y = v0 sin([theta]) = 42 m/s .Our starting point are the equations of motion of the shell. (1) (2) Our coordinate system is defined such that the shell is launched at t = 0 s and its location at that instant is specified by x = 0 m and y = h. (2) by requiring that on impact y(t1) = 0 m. x0 = 0 m and y0= h. Therefore. Thus (3) The solutions for t1 are (4) Since the shell will hit the ground after being fired (at t = 0) we only need to consider the positive solution for t1.(1): (5) The problem provides the following information concerning the firing of the projectile: h = 60 m v0 = 240 m/s [theta] = 10deg. The range R of the shell can be obtained by substituting t1 into eq. In order to determine the trajectory of the shell we first determine its time of flight between launch and impact. This time t1 can be obtained from eq.

5 s after the shell has landed.9 m/s2. This can be easily verified by calculating the distance of this object to the origin: (9) .8) s = 6.3 . The path of this object will be circular. The period of the periodic motion is obviously T. 4. The time t2 it takes for the tank to travel to the impact point can be found by solving the following equation: (6) This shows that (7) If the shell is fired at the same time that the tank starts to move. Circular Motion Suppose the motion of an object as function of time can be described by the following relations: (8) The equations in (8) describe a periodic motion: the position of the object at time t and at time t + T are identical.9.(4) and eq.5 s before firing the antitank gun if they are to hit the tank.Substituting these values in eq.8 s R = 2320 m The distance between the impact point and the original position of the tank is 120 m.5. This means that the gun crew has to wait 6.(5) we obtain: t1 = 9. the tank will not reach the impact point until (16. The tank starts from rest (v = 0 m/s) and has an acceleration of 0.

Definition of trajectory.(8): (10a) (10b) The direction and magnitude of the velocity vector are: Figure 4. the distance of the object to the origin is constant (independent of time). See Figure 4.Clearly.3. The velocity of the object can be easily calculated using the relations in eq. (11) (12) .3.

In a very similar manner the acceleration of the object can be calculated: (13a) (13b) The direction and magnitude of the acceleration vector are: (14) (15) Equation (14) shows that the direction of the acceleration is in the radial direction (opposite to the position vector). Direction of velocity and acceleration. but it .4. Note: Equation (12) shows that the magnitude of the velocity of the object is constant (independent of time).4. See also Figure 4.Figure 4. It is clear that this non-zero acceleration does not change the magnitude of the velocity. Equation (11) shows that only its direction changes with time. Equation (11) shows that the direction of the velocity is perpendicular to the position vector. Note: Equation (15) shows that the acceleration is non-zero.

5). the following relation is obtained for the velocity of the car measured by observer A and by observer B: vCA = vBA + vCB where vCA is the velocity of the car measured by observer A. the distance between observer A and observer B equals xBA. A man standing along a highway observes cars moving with a velocity of + 55 miles/hour. The position of the car measured by observer A.6. If our observer would be traveling in one of these cars with a velocity of + 55 miles/hour he would see the other cars moving with a velocity of 0 miles/hour. and the position of the car measured by observer B. Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4.changes its direction. and vBA is the velocity of observer B measured by observer A. are related as follows: xCA = xBA + xCB If we differentiate this equation with respect to time. xCB. Figure 4. vCB is the velocity of the car measured by observer B. The snapshot shown in Figure 4. If observer A and observer B do not move with . xCA.5 shows that at that instant. This demonstrates that the observed velocity of an object depends on the motion of the observer. The acceleration will be non-zero if either the magnitude or the direction of the velocity changes. Relative Motion in 1D The description of the motion of an object depends on the motion of the observer. Suppose a moving car is observed by an observer located at the origin of frame A.5. We will start our discussion with relative motion in one dimension. and by an observer located at the origin of frame B (see Figure 4.

The velocity of P.vBA = (.78 km/h vBA = 52 km/h vPB = vPA . the acceleration measured in frame A is equal to the acceleration measured in frame B: aCA = aCB Sample Problem 4-12 Alex. parked by the side of an east-west road. a) If Alex measures a speed of 78 km/h for car P. Both observe a car P. driving east at a speed vBA = 52 km/h. In a similar fashion. Take the easterly direction as positive. VPA (measured by Alex). which is moving in a westerly direction. is watching car P.130 km/h . The velocity of car P measured by Barbara can be calculated as follows: vPA = vBA + vPB vPA = . what velocity will Barbara measure ? This problem involves three cars that are located somewhere along a highway running from east to west. watches the same car. we can obtain a relation between the acceleration of the car measured by observer A and the acceleration measured by observer B: aCA = aBA + aCB If the observer in frame B is moving with a constant velocity with respect to the observer in frame A (vBA = constant and aBA = 0 m/s2). is . Alex is sitting in a car parked along the side of the highway (frame A) and Barbara is driving east with a velocity vBA (measured by Alex) equal to + 52 km/h.78 .52) km/h = .6). Our coordinate system is chosen such that a positive velocity corresponds to motion towards the east while a negative velocity corresponds to motion towards the west.respect to each other (vBA = 0 m/s). the velocity of the car measured by observer A is equal to the velocity of the car measured by observer B.78 km/h (see Figure 4. Barbara.

7. Figure 4.7. b) If ALEX sees car P brake to a halt in 10 s. The corresponding velocity diagram is shown in Figure 4. Alex can calculate the acceleration of car P: v(t) = v0 + a t The initial conditions are: v0 = v(t = 0) = . Velocity Diagram Measured Relative to Alex.6.52 km/h.21.7 m/s The final conditions are: v(t = 10 s) = 0 m/s Assuming a constant acceleration. and the resulting velocity is .The velocity of Alex measured by Barbara can be calculated in a similar manner.78 km/h = . what acceleration (assumed constant) will he measure for it ? Alex observes that car P brakes to a halt in 10 s. a can be calculated as follows: . Velocity Diagram Measured Relative to Barbara. Figure 4.

8 shows two reference frames in two dimensions.14. At time t = 0 she observes car P moving with a velocity equal to v0 = . Reference Frames in Two Dimensions.52 km/h (. Barbara can also calculate the acceleration of car P: Both Alex and Barbara measure the same acceleration of car P. Figure 4. The vectors rPA and rPB are the position vectors of object P in reference frame A and in reference frame B.130 km/h (. 4. Vector rBA is the position of observer B (located at the origin of reference frame B) in frame A.8. The position vector of the object P in reference frame B can be obtained from the position vector in reference frame A: Figure 4.c) What acceleration would Barbara measure for the braking car ? Barbara also observe that car P slows down during this 10 s interval. she observes car P moving with a velocity equal to v(t = 10 s) = .36. After 10 s.7. Relative Motion in 2D The description of the motion of an object in two or three dimensions depends on the choice of the coordinate system. respectively. The velocity and acceleration of the object P in reference frame B can be obtained by differentiating the position vector of P in reference frame B with respect to time: . This is what we expected since Barbara moves with a constant acceleration with respect to Alex.4 m/s).1 m/s).

an object will accelerate. FORCE AND MOTION . For problems on the scale of atomic structure we must replace Newtonian mechanics by quantum mechanics. We state that the surroundings exert a force on the object studied. The laws of motion are subsequently used to calculate the acceleration of the object under influence of the force. If the speed of the objects involved is an appreciable fraction of the speed of light. 5. The force laws allow us to calculate the force acting on a body from the properties of the body and its environment. and the force needed to overcome the friction force will be less. We need to keep pedaling if we want to keep a bicycle going with constant speed. we can always find an interaction between that object and its surroundings that is responsible for this change. unless the friction force is canceled by the force supplied by our legs. our engine. Under the influence of a force. In the limit of no friction. the moving object will take longer to slow down. In this course we will be discussing the laws of motion obtained by Newton. and no force need to be applied. This is called Newtonian mechanics.1. the acceleration of the object P measured by observer A will be the same as the acceleration measured by observer B. In all these cases.1 When an object all of a sudden changes its velocity and/or direction. etc. This conclusion is summarized in Newton's first law: . unless we apply a force to them. It should be realized that Newtonian mechanics does not always provide correct answers. we must replace Newtonian mechanics by Einstein's special theory of relativity. 5. If we reduce friction.If the observer in reference frame B is moving with a constant velocity with respect to an observer in reference frame A. Newtons First Law All around us we observe that all moving objects will come eventually to rest. we need to have our engine running if we want to keep driving with a speed of 55 miles/hour. our object will keep moving with a constant velocity. friction will ultimately stop any moving object.

produces an acceleration of 1 m/s2. The force is applied such that the resulting acceleration of 3 m/s2 is upwards (positive y-direction). We conclude that indeed the force is . Rotating reference frames are not inertial reference frames. The total force is 5 N and is equal to the magnitude of the sum vector of the two forces (if we assume that the direction of the force is equal to the direction of the acceleration). In addition. Strictly speaking. we will observe different accelerations. however. Experiments have shown that the force is a vector. one can throw a baseball significantly further (and faster) than a ball of similar size made of lead. we apply a force of 3 N to our standard object (mass 1 kg)." Consider a body on which no net force acts. and a force of 1 N is defined as the force that when applied to an object with a mass of 1 kg. we apply a force of 4 N in the horizontal direction (this force is applied such that the standard object will accelerate with an acceleration of 4 m/s2 in the direction of the positive x-axis if this is the only force applied). If the body is at rest. if the body does not remain at rest. " Newton's first law is really a statement about reference frames in that it defines the kinds of reference frames in which the laws of Newtonian mechanics hold. If you put a bowling ball at rest on a merry-go-round. it will remain at rest. If the reference frame is an inertial frame. Suppose.2. the earth is therefore also not an inertial frame. the reference frame is not an inertial frame. the body will remain at rest. Reference frames in which Newton's first law applies are called inertial reference frames. Force If we exert the same force on several objects with different mass. If the body is moving with constant velocity. This can be shown by demonstrating that the force has a magnitude and a direction. and the direction of the acceleration coincides with the direction of the vector sum of the two forces. 5. If both forces are acting on the standard mass simultaneously. the corresponding acceleration is 2 m/s2. The situation is illustrated in Figure 5. the acceleration of the object is measured to be 5 m/s2. but it does not remain at rest. The unit of force is the Newton (N). If we apply a force equal to 2 N. only if we consider large scale motion such as wind and ocean current do we need to take into account the non inertial character of the rotating earth. One way to test whether a reference frame is an inertial reference frame.1. no identifiable forces act on the ball. For example. is to put a test body at rest and arrange things so that no net force acts in it. it will continue to do so.

3. A force acting on an object produces an acceleration. The acceleration produced by a certain force depends on the mass of the object. If we decompose both the force and the acceleration into their individual components along the x. we obtain the following relations: . The Acceleration of the standard body under the influence of two forces. The following list summarizes what we have learned so far about forces: 1.1.a vector and that both the force and the corresponding acceleration have the same direction. For a given force. The conclusions are summarized in Newton's second law:' where [Sigma]F is the vector sum of all forces acting on an object with mass m. the resulting acceleration of a body with a mass twice that of the standard mass. is half that of the acceleration of the standard mass under the influence of the same force. Force is a vector. 2. Figure 5. The direction of the acceleration is the same as the direction of the force applied. The acceleration of an object with twice the mass of the standard mass under the influence of a certain force is half that of the acceleration of the standard mass due to the same force. y and z-axis. and is the resulting acceleration (note: the sum includes only external forces).

The coordinate system is defined such that the origin coincides with the position of the sled at time t = 0 s. This is a one-dimensional problem.2. Coordinate System Sample Problem 5-1. Sample Problem 5-1 A student pushes a loaded sled whose mass is 240 kg for a distance of 2. the time at which the sled has covered a distance d can be calculated: . and the force is applied in the positive direction (see Figure 5.3 m).3 m over the frictionless surface of a frozen lake.2). what is its final velocity ? Figure 5. He exerts a horizontal force equal to 130 N. the equation of motion can be written as follows: From this equation. the resulting acceleration a is also constant. In the coordinate system chosen. and can be calculated by applying Newton's second law: The constant acceleration is only applied over a distance d (= 2.Newton's second law includes a formal statement of Newton's first law: if there is no net force acting on an object ([Sigma]F = 0 N) the acceleration is zero (and the velocity of the object is constant). If the sled starts from rest. Since the force is constant.

FC and [theta] in the first equation. Alex. Alex pulls with a force FA = 220 N and Charles with a force FC = 170 N. which is a view from above. With what force must Betty pull in order to keep the tire stationary ? Since the tire is stationary. the net force on the tire must be zero. we can calculate [phi]: Substituting this value for [phi] into the second equation we can calculate FB: .and the velocity of the sled at that time is equal to Sample Problem 5-2 In a two dimensional tug war.3. This also means that the net force along the x and y direction must be zero: Substituting the known values for FA. Betty and Charles pull on ropes that are tied to an automobile tire. The ropes make angles as shown in Figure 5.

or in interstellar space. These two forces are equal in magnitude and oppositely directed: " Note: Since the two members of an action-reaction pair always act on different bodies. Force Diagram Sample Problem 5-2. 5.Figure 5. Newtons Third Law If a hammer exerts a force on a nail. Mass is an intrinsic property of a body. The weight of a body with mass m is defined as: where g is the free-fall acceleration at the location of the body. Since the freefall acceleration varies from point to point. its SI unit the kilogram.4. The equal-arm balance is designed for this purpose (see Figure 5. they can not cancel each other.3.4). The mass m of a body is a scalar.4.3. and is described by Newton's third law:' " Suppose a body A exerts a force (FBA) on body B. The mass of a body can be determined by comparing it to the standard kilogram. its SI unit in the Newton. The equalarm balance is balanced if the force on the left equals the force on the right: . This is true in general. 5. the nail exerts an equal but oppositely directed force on the hammer. in an orbiting satellite. Measuring Mass The mass of a body can be determined via comparison with the standard mass. and is therefore not an intrinsic property of a body. it is the same on the earth's surface. Experiments show that in that case body B exerts a force (FAB) on body A. Mass and Weight The mass of a body and the weight of a body are totally different properties. The weight of a body is a vector. 5. on Mars.1. the weight of an object depends on its location.

or in an accelerating elevator). In general. Equal-Arm Balance.8 m/s2.Figure 5. There is a one-to-one relation between the stretch of the spring and the applied force (responsible for the stretch).4. the equal-arm balance determines the relative mass of two objects by comparing their weight.5). However.4. Therefore. Measuring Weight The measurement of the weight of an object can be carried out using a spring scale (see Figure 5. These two forces are the gravitational forces acting on m1 and m2 and can be calculated easily: If the free-fall acceleration is constant at the location of the balance. spring scales are calibrated and show the mass of the object. . The spring scale uses a spring to measure the weight of the object. a spring scale will only indicate the correct mass if it is used at a location at which the free-fall acceleration is equal to that at the calibration site (note: a spring scale will incorrectly determine the mass of an object if it is used on the moon. and in this process it is assumed that the free-fall acceleration equals 9. it should be stressed that the mass of the object is obtained from the measured weight. we can conclude that if the arms are balanced: m 1 = m2 Therefore. 5.2.

6).6 shows a block of mass m = 15 kg hanging from three cords. Since the system is at rest. we conclude that cord C exerts a force on the knot whose magnitude is equal to mg (and pointed in the direction shown in Figure 5.5.5. Applying Newton's third law. Since the mass is at rest. 5. cord C must provide an opposing force equal to mg. What are the tensions in these cords ? The mass m experiences a gravitational force equal to mg. the net force on the knot must be equal to zero: This vector equation can be rewritten in terms of its components along the xaxis and y-axis. using the following information: .Figure 5. Applications Sample Problem 5-7 Figure 5. Spring Scale.

Figure 5. the tensions in the cords are: TA = 100 N . we can now calculate TA: In the case of sample problem 5-6. Using these expressions we can write down the equations for the x and ycomponents of the net force: The first expression can be used to express TA in terms of TB: Substituting this expression into the equation for [Sigma]Fy we obtain: from which we can calculate TB: Knowing TB. Sample Problem 5-7.6.

Two forces act on the block: the gravitational force exerted by the earth on the block.7. In order to determine the acceleration of the block we have to determine the total force acting on the block along the inclined plane. called the normal force exerted by the plane on the block (see Figure 5. Since the normal force is normal to the inclined plane it does not have a component along it.TB = 140 N TC = 150 N Problem Figure 5. tilted by an angle [theta].7 shows a block with mass m on a frictionless plane. This force must be present since in its absence mass m will experience free fall (instead of sliding motion). The component of the gravitational force along the inclined plane is given by The acceleration produced by this force can be determined from Newton's second law .8). What is the acceleration of the block ? Figure 5. Mass m on an inclined plane. and a force.

This problem can be solved easily if the coordinate system is chosen carefully. the net force on it must be zero: Due to the choice of the coordinate system.9 shows a block with mass m held by a cord on a frictionless plane. both N and T only have components along the y-axis and x-axis. Forces acting on mass m.8.9. respectively: . tilted by an angle [theta]. The best choice of coordinate system is shown in Figure 5. What is the tension in the cord ? What force does the plane exert on the block ? Figure 5.10. Sample Problem 5-8 Figure 5.Figure 5. Sample Problem 5-8. Since the block is at rest.

11. Coordinate System # 2 used in Sample Problem 5-8. Coordinate System # 1 used in Sample Problem 5-8. Figure 5.The mass will stay at rest if all components of the net force are zero: From these equations we can obtain N and T: Figure 5.10. .

the acceleration of mass m has to be equal to the acceleration of mass M. However. the solutions for N and T are identical to those derived previously.11) would have made the problem significantly more difficult. but the derivation is harder. Since the cord is assumed to rigid. N and T can be obtained by solving the following equations: Of course. the direction of the acceleration of mass m is opposed to the direction of the acceleration of mass M. N and T have component along both the x and y direction: In this case. The blocks are moving with a constant acceleration.12). Find the tension in the cord and the (common) acceleration. we obtain: . since the pulley reverses the direction of motion. In this coordinate system. For each of the masses we can write down the following force equations: The first equation can be used to express T in terms of a: Substituting this expression for T into the second equation. Sample Problem 5-10 Two blocks are connected by a cord that passes over a (weightless) pulley (see Figure 5.The standard choice of coordinate system with the x-axis coinciding with the horizontal direction and the y-axis coinciding with the vertical direction (see Figure 5.

a) What is the acceleration of each block ? b) What is the tension in the cord ? . The tension in the cord can now be calculated: Problem A block of mass m1 on a smooth inclined plane of angle [theta] is connected by a cord over a small frictionless pulley to a second block of mass m2 hanging vertically (see Figure 5. Setup Sample Problem 5-10. The acceleration is zero if m = M.13). This of course agrees with what our expectations.12.Figure 5. The acceleration a can now be calculated: Note that a is positive when M > m. and a is negative when M < m. The mass of the cord and the pulley can be neglected.

The components of the net force acting on m1 are given by (1) (2) . the net force acting on m1 will be non-zero and m1 will have a nonzero acceleration. This force is exerted by the surface of the inclined plane on the mass and is pointing in a direction perpendicular to the inclined it. * The normal force N. This force is pointing downwards in the vertical direction. In general. * Tension T.14): * The gravitational force W1 = m1 g. In order to determine the acceleration and the tension.14) and is defined to be positive if the acceleration is in the same direction as the tension T. The acceleration will be along the x-axis (see Figure 5.Figure 5. we have to identify all forces acting on both masses. Its direction is parallel to the inclined plane. The cord exerts this force on the mass. Inclined plane and pulley.13. The following forces act on m1 (see Figure 5.

15). the direction of the acceleration on m2 will be along W2 (see Figure 5. The tension in the cord is the same at each point.14. Forces acting on m2. The cord exerts this force on the mass. If the direction of the acceleration of m1 is along T.Figure 5.15. and the magnitude of this force is therefore equal to the one acting on m1 although it points in a different direction. This force is pointing downwards along the vertical. * The tension T. This force is pointing upwards along the vertical. Since m1 and m2 are connected via a cord. None of the forces acting on m2 has a component along the x-axis and we will therefore only consider the net force along the y-axis: . The net force on m2 will be non-zero and the mass will accelerate. Figure 5.15): * The gravitational force W2 = m2 g. The following forces act on m2 (see Figure 5. Forces acting on m1. they will have the same acceleration.

This force f is called the friction force. and it must be pointing in the opposite direction.(3) Equations (1) and (3) are two equations with two unknown (T and a). and can be solved. This means that the net force on the block in the horizontal direction is zero. The force f must have a strength equal to F. FORCE AND MOTION . the block will not move. besides the applied force F. and because the block does not move. Experiments have shown that the force of static friction is largely independent of the area of contact and proportional to the normal force N acting between the block and the surface.1. we are dealing with static friction. Therefore. The static friction force is . Equation (3) can be rewritten as (4) Substituting equation (4) for T in equation (1).II Figure 6.1. Static Friction. As long as the applied force F is less than a certain maximum force (Fmax). we can determine a: (5) Substituting equation (5) into equation (4) we obtain the tension T: (6) 6. 6.1). there must be a second force f acting on the block. Static and Kinetic Friction Suppose that a horizontal force F is applied to a block resting on a rough surface (see Figure 6.

The coefficient of static friction is approximately constant (independent of N). a car can be stopped fastest if we prevent the wheels from locking up. When the wheels lock up. Coordinate System used in Sample Problem 1. Figure 6. The equation for fk is not a vector equation since fk and N do not point in the same direction.2 shows a mass m on an inclined slope. In this situation we are dealing with kinetic friction and the friction force fk is given by fk = u k N where uk is the coefficient of kinetic friction. but always points in the opposite direction. At a certain angle [theta] the mass begins to slide down the slope. the friction force is changed to kinetic friction (the tires and the ground are moving with respect to each other) thereby reducing the acceleration and increasing the time and length required to bring the car to a halt. the force F needed to keep it in motion with a constant velocity is usually less than the critical force needed to get the motion started. The maximum force that can be applied without moving the block is Fmax = us N Once the block has been set in motion. Calculate the coefficient of static friction.2.f <= us N where us is the coefficient of static friction (which is dimensionless). The kinetic friction force is independent of the applied force. . This friction is crucial when you try to stop a car. Sample Problem 6-1 Figure 6. Since the maximum static friction force is larger than the kinetic friction force. Note: The friction between car tires and the road is static friction.

Free-Body Diagram for Sled. Note that with this choice of coordinate system. the friction force has reached it maximum value: Since the object is at rest.Figure 2 shows the coordinate system used in this problem. Figure 6. N is directed along the y-axis and f is directed along the x-axis.3. It is harder to drive uphill or downhill when the roads are slick than it is to drive on leveled surface. Since this is the maximum angle at which the object will remain at rest. the normal force N and the friction force f have each only one component. the net force on the object equals zero: In terms of the components of the net force along the x-axis and the y-axis: The coefficient of static friction can be easily obtained from these two equations: Note The friction force between car tires and the road is reduced when the car travels uphill or downhill. .

However.4. In the previous two sample problems. this is not always true.3). The coefficient of kinetic friction between the runners and the snow is uk and the angle between the rope and the horizontal axis is [phi] (see Figure 6. the net force acting on it must be zero (and therefore. For example. we obtain the following equations of force: The second equation can be used to eliminate N: Substituting this expression in the first equation we obtain: The tension T can now be calculated: The normal force N is always perpendicular to the surface.Sample Problem 6-3 A woman pulls a loaded sled (mass m) along a horizontal surface at constant speed. what is the minimum force that I need to apply in order to prevent the eraser from slipping ? This situation is shown schematically in Figure 6. What is the tension in the rope ? Since the sled is moving with a constant velocity. I ask myself. suppose I am pressing an eraser against the blackboard. Decomposing the net force into its components along the x-axis and the y-axis. the net force on the sled must be zero. the normal force N was proportional to the weight of the object. the components of the net force in both the x and the y-direction must be equal to zero): . Since the eraser is at rest.

This example also illustrates a situation in which the normal force is not related to the mass of the object.Figure 6. Figure 6. Problem 25P.4. Eraser on the Black Board. In order to prevent the eraser from slipping. This implies the following for the normal force N: However. the normal force N is equal to the applied force F. The second equation tells us that the static friction force fs must be equal to W. the force F will need to exceed a minimum threshold: This relation shows that if the mass of the eraser is increased. Problem 25P . the applied force needed to prevent the eraser from slipping will increase (the minimum force is proportional to the mass).5.

In Figure 6.5, A, and B are blocks with weights of 44 N and 22N, respectively. (a) Determine the minimum weight of block C that must be placed on A to keep it from sliding if us between A and the table is 0.20. (b) Block C is suddenly lifted off A. What is the acceleration of block A, if uk between A and the table is 0.15 ? A weight (block C) is placed on top of block A and prevents it from sliding. The acceleration of the system is therefore 0 m/s2. Consequently, the net force on each block is equal to 0 N. In order to determine the minimum weight of block C required to accomplish this, we start evaluating the net force on each block. The forces acting on block B, the weight WB and the tension T, are schematically indicated in Figure 6.6. The net force acting on block B is directed along the y-axis and has a magnitude equal to

Figure 6.6. Forces acting on block B.

Since the net force acting on block B must be zero we conclude that T = WB The forces acting on block A and block C are indicated in Figure 6.7. The net force acting in the y-direction is zero and thus N = WA + WC Since the system remains at rest, the net force acting on block A and C along the x-direction must also be zero. This means that the static friction force fs must be equal to the tension T. Experiments show that fs has a maximum value which is determined by the normal force N and the static friction coefficient us fs <= us N = us (WA + WC)

The minimum weight of block C that will prevent the system from slipping can be found by requiring that us (WA + WC) >= fs = T = WB and thus

Figure 6.7. Forces acting on block A and C. When block C is removed the static friction force is changed (since the normal force is changed). The maximum static friction force is now us WA = 8.8 N which is less than the weight of block B. Obviously block A will slip and both blocks will accelerate. At this point the friction force acting on block A is the kinetic friction force fk whose magnitude is equal to fk = uk N = uk WA The net force acting on block A is given by

The net force acting on block B is given by

Eliminating the tension T from these last two equations we obtain for the acceleration a

Figure 6.8. Problem 36P. Problem 36P Two masses, m1 = 1.65 kg and m2 = 3.30 kg, attached by a massless rod parallel to the inclined plane on which they both slide (see Figure 6.8), travel along the plane with m1 trailing m2. The angle of incline is 30deg.. The coefficient of kinetic friction between m1 and the incline is u1 = 0.226; that between m2 and the incline is u2 = 0.113. Compute (a) the tension in the rod and (b) the common acceleration of the two masses. (c) How would the answers to (a) and (b) change if m2 trailedm1 ? The forces acting on mass m1 are schematically shown in Figure 6.9. The x and y-components of the net force acting on m1 are given by

Figure 6.9. Forces acting on m1.

10.62 m/s2.In the coordinate system chosen. The normal force N1 must therefore be equal to m1 g cos([theta]). Forces acting on m2. The friction force f2k acting on mass m2 can be determined easily (see calculation of f1k): f2k = u2k N2 = u2k m2 g cos([theta]) The x-component of the net force acting on mass m2 is given by and is related to the acceleration a of mass m2 Figure 6. there is no acceleration along the y-axis. This fixes the kinetic friction force f1k = u1k N1 = u1k m1 g cos([theta]) Mass m1 will accelerate down hill with an acceleration a. Eliminating the tension T from these two equations we obtain the following expression for a Substituting the values of the parameters given we find that a = 3.10. The tension T in the rod can now be determined easily . We now have two equations with two unknown (a and T). The acceleration a is related to the x-component of the net force acting on mass m1 The forces acting on mass m2 are schematically shown in Figure 6.

Because of the drag force. [rho] is the density of air and v is the speed of the object.5 and 1. but the tension in the rod will be negative (which means that the rod is being compressed).11. C is a dimensionless drag coefficient that depends on the shape of the object and whose value generally lies in the range between 0. The force that tends to reduce the velocity of objects moving through air is very similar to the friction force.06 N. Drag Force The friction force we have discussed so far acts when two surfaces touch. Drag Force. When the object is moving with its terminal velocity vt the net force on it must be zero (no change in velocity means no acceleration).2.which is equal to 1. we will still obtain the same acceleration. Figure 6. If mass m1 and mass m2 are reversed. this force is called the drag force. 6. This occurs when D = mg.0. and the terminal velocity vt has to satisfy the following relation: . the so called terminal velocity vt. a falling body will eventually fall with a constant velocity. The direction of the drag force is opposite to the direction of the velocity. The drag force D acting on an object moving through air is given by where A is the effective cross-sectional area of the body.

and r is the radius of the circle. This force must be directed towards the center of the circle. The object will obtain this velocity independent of whether its initial velocity is larger or smaller than the terminal velocity (see Figure 6. with a magnitude equal to where v is the velocity of the particle. a centripetal force must be acting on this object. To account for the centripetal acceleration. directed towards the center of the circle. 6. The velocity of the moon. the moon covers a total distance equal to 2[pi]r. vm. The terminal velocity of an object is the final velocity it obtains during free fall. Suppose the period of this motion is T.and vt is calculated to be The equation for vt shows that the terminal velocity of an object increases with a decreasing effective area.11). Uniform Circular Motion In chapter 4 we have seen that when a particle moves in a circle. it experiences an acceleration a. and can be calculated from Newton's second law: An example of uniform circular motion is the motion of the moon around the earth.3. What does this tell us about the distance r between the earth and the moon ? During one period. can be calculated: The corresponding centripetal force is . The acceleration a is called the centripetal acceleration.

Here we assumed that mm is the mass of the moon.98 x 1024 kg.3 days (2. The centripetal force is supplied by the gravitational attraction between the earth and the moon. In Chapter 15 we will see that the strength of the gravitational interaction can be calculated as follows: where G is the gravitational constant and me is the mass of the earth. The distance between the moon and the earth can therefore be calculated: r = 3. The measured period of the moon is 27. For a constant circular motion. the gravitational force must provide the required centripetal force: The distance between the earth and the moon can therefore be calculated: The constant of gravity is known to be G = 6.3 x 106 s). .67 x 10-11 m3/(s kg) and the mass of the earth is known to be me = 5.82 x 108 m which agrees nicely with the distance obtained using other techniques (for example the measurement of the time it takes for light to travel from the earth to the moon and back).

This can be easily understood if we consider the forces that act on a car while it is making a turn.12. This requires that the normal force N is equal to the weight of the car: N=mg When the car rounds the curve it carries out uniform circular motion. 6.Figure 6. The corresponding centripetal acceleration of this motion is given by In order for the car to carry out this circular motion there must exist a radial force with a strength equal to This force can only be supplied by the static friction force and therefore we require that . Suppose that the car in question make a turn with radius R and velocity v.12 shows the forces acting on the car.4. Figure 6. Forces acting on a car while rounding an unbanked curve. There is no motion in the vertical direction and the net force in this direction must therefore be equal to zero. Rounding a Curve Friction is critical if we want to round a curve while driving a car or bicycle.

the net force along the vertical axis must be zero.The static friction force fs has a maximum value equal to us N and this limits the velocity and the radius of curvature of the curve that the car can take: We conclude that the car will be able to make a turn with radius R and velocity v if the coefficient of static friction between the tires and the road is Figure 6. Figure 6. Since there is no motion along the vertical direction. This requires that and fixes the normal force N . The effect of banking the curves can be easily understood. The normal force N has components both along the radial and the vertical axes. We assume that there is no friction between the tires and the road. If the road is frictionless (us = 0) because of a cover of ice.13 shows the forces acting on an automobile when it is rounding a curve on a banked highway. In order to avoid problems like this.13. curves on highways are usually banked. Forces acting on a car while rounding an banked curve. the car will not be able to round any curve at all.

Since the pendulum is carrying out a uniform circular motion.14. Since the horizontal component of the force is always directed towards the center we will be using an r-axis (rather than an x-axis). The coordinate system chosen is such that the origin coincides with the center of the circle describing the motion of the pendulum. The y-axis coincides with the vertical direction (see Figure 6. What is the period of the pendulum ? The pendulum is shown schematically in figure 6. the acceleration in y-direction must be zero. The cord makes an angle [theta] with the vertical.The radial component of the normal force is given by This component of the normal force can produce the radial acceleration required to allow the car to round the curve. we require that or This last equation shows that the banking angle of a highway curve is designed for a specific velocity and radius of curvature. If the car has to round a curve with radius R and with velocity v. even in the absence of friction. the acceleration of the pendulum has to point toward the center of the circle (direction along the position vector r) and the magnitude of the acceleration equals v2/r. The net force in this direction must therefore be zero: . Since the y-coordinate of the bob is constant. The net force in the horizontal plane should therefore be always directed towards the center of the circle and have strength determined by Newton's second law. where v is the velocity of the pendulum and r is the radius of the circle.14). Sample Problem 6-9 A conical pendulum whirls around in a horizontal circle at constant speed v at the end of a cord whose length is L.

7 m and [theta] = 37deg.14. the period T = 2. Sample Problem 6-10 . Sample Problem 6-9. the velocity of the object can be calculated: The period T can be calculated from the known velocity v and radius R: For L = 1.This expression allows us to calculate the tension T: The net force in the radial direction can now be determined: Figure 6.3 s. The centripetal acceleration a can now be calculated: From the radius R of the trajectory and the centripetal acceleration a.

the minimum value of the coefficient of static friction is 0.15. The situation is schematically shown in Figure 6. the centripetal force is provided by the static friction force.21.A Cadillac with mass m moves at a constant speed v on a curved (unbanked) roadway whose radius of curvature is R. the maximum static friction force must exceed the required centripetal force: The minimum coefficient of static friction can be obtained from this equation: If the velocity of the car is 72 km/hr (20 m/s) and the radius of curvature R = 190 m. Sample Problem 6-10.15. the net force in this direction must be zero: The centripetal force Fc is given by: In this situation. Note that . What is the minimum coefficient of static friction us between the tires and the roadway ? Figure 6. Since there is no acceleration in the y-direction. If no slipping occurs.

The net radial force Fr acting on the car is equal to Figure 6.N Since the normal force N is always directed along the positive y-axis. and the friction coefficient is therefore the same for all objects moving with the same velocity. The maximum velocity of the car can now be found easily .the mass of the car does not enter in the calculation. Forces acting on the car. the radial force will never exceed the weight W of the car. The only radial forces acting on the car are the gravitational force and the normal force (see Figure 6. This therefore also limits the centripetal force and therefore the speed of the car. The minimum coefficient of static friction scales with the square of the velocity. a reduction of the velocity by a factor if two.16. the cross section of which can be approximated by a circle of radius 250 m. Problem 58E A stunt man drives a car over the top of a hill. Fr = W . will reduce the minimum friction coefficient by a factor of four.16). What is the greatest speed at which he can drive without the car leaving the road at the top of the hill ? The car will not leave the road at the top of the hill if the net radial force acting on it can supply the required centripetal acceleration.

We conclude that or Problem 60P A small object is placed 10 cm from the center of a phonograph turntable. If one revolution is completed during a time T. The normal force N can now be calculated and will be a function of the velocity v. It is observed to remain on the table when it rotates at 33 1/3 revolutions per minute but slides off when it rotates at 45 revolutions per minute. The net radial force acting on the car is equal to W . the static friction coefficient needs to satisfy the following relation: . During one revolution the object covers a distance 2[pi]R.N. The friction force fs has a maximum value given by If the object remains on the table. If the car carries out a uniform circular motion than we know that a net radial force must be acting on it and that its magnitude is equal to mv2/R. Between what limits must the coefficient of static friction between the object and the surface of the turntable lie ? The object is located a distance R away from the rotation axis.Suppose the car is driving with a velocity less than 178 km/h. the linear velocity of the object can be obtained using the following equation: In order for the object to carry out such a uniform circular motion it must provide a radial force with magnitude equal to The only radial force acting on the object is the static friction force.

1. The resulting displacement is indicated by the vector d. The work done by the force F on the object as it undergoes a displacement d is defined as The work done by the force F is zero if: * d = 0: displacement equal to zero * [phi] = 90deg.80 s. 7. This implies that the coefficient of static friction must be at least 0. This implies the coefficient of static friction is less than 0. and a linear velocity of 0. Figure 7. Both the force F and the displacement d are vectors who are not necessarily pointing in the same direction (see Figure 7.: force perpendicular to displacement .12. These tools will significantly simplify the manner in which certain problems can be solved.1.22 7. This corresponds to 1 revolution per 1.1). The block remains on the table when the table rotates at 33 1/3 rev/min.In this problem the distance to the rotation axis is 0. A force F acting on a body. WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY In this chapter we will introduce the concepts of work and kinetic energy. Work: constant force Suppose a constant force F acts on a body while the object moves over a distance d.35 m/s.1 m. When the table rotates at 45 rev/min the block leaves the table.

the speed of the object will decrease and the work done by the force on the object is negative.2. From the definition of the work it is clear that: 1 J = 1 N m = 1 kg m2/s2 . the speed of the object will increase and the work done by the force on the object is positive. suppose we have an object moving with constant velocity. a force F is applied. the object will either increase or decrease its speed depending on whether or not the velocity v and the force F are pointing in the same direction (see Figure 7. work is a scalar. Note that for the friction force (F * v) < 0 (always) and the speed of the object is always reduced ! Per definition. If F is the only force acting on the body. If (F * v) = 0 we are dealing with centripetal motion and the speed of the object remains constant. Positive or Negative Work. For example. The unit of work is the Joule (J). If (F * v) < 0. The work done by the force F can be positive or negative. If (F * v) > 0.2). At time t = 0 s. depending on [phi].Figure 7.

The coefficient of friction between the bottom of the safe and the floor is uk. Identify all the forces acting on the safe and calculate the work done by each of them. Since the safe is moving with constant velocity. and the net force acting on it is zero The components of the net force along the x-axis and along the y-axis must therefore also be zero The second equation shows that N = W = m g. Sample Problem 7-2 A safe with mass m is pushed across a tiled floor with constant velocity for a distance d.Figure 7.3 shows all the forces that act on the safe.3. What is the total work done ? Figure 7. Forces acting on the safe. The force that is applied to the safe can now be calculated The work done on the safe by each of the four forces can now be calculated: The total work done on the safe is therefore . its acceleration is zero.

Example Problem 1. Example Problem 1 A crate with mass m is pulled up a slope (angle of inclination is [theta]) with constant velocity. Since the crate is moving with a constant velocity. The coordinate system that will be used is shown in Figure 4. the net force in the x and y direction must be zero. Figure 7. The net force in the x direction is given by and the force F required to move the crate with constant velocity is hereby fixed: This force acts over a distance d. The value of d is fixed by the angle [theta] and the height h: (see Figure 7. The work done by the force on the crate is given by The work done on the crate by the gravitational force is given by .4).4.which could be expected since the net force on the safe is zero. Calculate the amount of work done by the force after the crate has moved to a height h (see Figure 7.4).

5). and the work done by this force on the object is WF = m g h which is equal to the work done by the force on the inclined slope. the strength of the required force is very different in each of the two cases. Crate moved in vertical direction. the force F required to produce a constant velocity would be equal to F=mg This force acts over a distance h. Figure 7. Example Problem 2 .The work done on the crate by the normal force N is zero since N is perpendicular to d. Although the work done by each force is the same. We conclude that the total work done on the crate is given by which was expected sine the net force on the crate is zero. If the same crate had been lifted by a height h in the vertical direction (see Figure 7.5.

the friction force fk and the applied force F. its acceleration is equal to zero. the normal force N.A 3. Figure 7. Example Problem 2. A total of four forces act on the mass m: the gravitational force W. since the net component of the force along the x-axis must also be zero. the last equation can be used to determine the normal force N: The kinetic friction force fk is given by However. These four forces are shown schematically in Figure 7.68 N force at angle of 15deg.57 kg block is drawn at constant speed 4. above the horizontal.6. and (b) the coefficient of kinetic friction between block and floor. Compute (a) the work done by the rope on the block.06 m along a horizontal floor by a rope exerting a 7.6. the kinetic friction force fk is also related to the applies force in the following manner . Since the velocity of the mass is constant. The x and y-components of the net force acting on the mass are given by Since the net force acting on the mass must be zero.

Combining these last two expressions we can determine the coefficient of kinetic friction: The work done by the rope on the mass m can be calculated rather easily: The work done by the friction force is given by The work done by the normal force N and the weight W is zero since the force and displacement are perpendicular. 7. The total work done on the mass is therefore given by This is not unexpected since the net force acting on the mass is zero. However. By reducing the size of the displacement (for example by reducing the time interval) we can obtain an interval over which the force is almost constant.2. in many cases this is not a correct assumption. Work: variable force In the previous discussion we have assumed that the force acting on the object is constant (not dependent on position and/or time). The work done over this small interval (dW) can be calculated The total work done by the force F is the sum of all dW Example: The Spring .

where k is the spring constant (which is positive and independent of x).7). The spring is stretched if x > 0 and compressed if x < 0.7. The larger the spring constant. Relaxed.An example of a varying force is the force exerted by a spring that is stretched or compressed. The work done by the spring on an object attached to its end can be calculated if we know the initial position xi and final position xf of the object: If the spring is initially in its relaxed state (xi = 0) we find that the work done by the spring is . the stiffer the spring. Stretched and Compressed Springs. The SI units for the spring constant is N/m. Suppose we define our coordinate system such that its origin coincides with the end point of a spring in its relaxed state (see Figure 7. The force exerted by the spring will attempt to return the spring to its relaxed state: if x < 0: F > 0 if x > 0: F < 0 It is found experimentally that for many springs the force is proportional to x: F=-kx Figure 7.

Work in 2D Consider the pendulum shown in Figure 7.8. .8. The pendulum is moved from position 1 to position 2 by a constant force F.9. The angle between the applied force F and the vector sum Ft is a. The mass of the pendulum is m.Figure 7.9 shows that the following equations relate F to Ft and Fg to Ft: Figure 7. pointing in the horizontal direction (see Figure 7.8).Difficult The vector sum of the applied force and the gravitational force is shown in Figure 7. Pendulum in x-y plane 7. Vector sum Ft of Fg and F.3.9. What is the work done by the sum of the applied force and the gravitational force to move the pendulum from position 1 to position 2 ? Method 1 . Figure 7.

we need to know the angle between the total force and the direction of motion. Figure 7. the angle between dr and Ft will not change. and [theta] = [theta]max. The distance dr is a function of d[theta]: For a very small distance dr. Angle between sum force and direction.In order to calculate the work done by the total force on the pendulum.10 shows that if the angle between the pendulum and the y-axis is [theta] . The work done by Ft on the pendulum is given by The total work done by Ft can be obtained by integrating the equation for dW over all angles between [theta] = 0deg. The total work done is . the angle between the total force and the direction of motion is [theta] + a. The maximum angle can be easily expressed in terms of r and h: Figure 7.10.

Using one of the trigonometric identities (Appendix.4. These two quantities can be calculated easily: And the total work is which is identical to the result obtained using method 1. Kinetic Energy The observation that an object is moving with a certain velocity indicates that at some time in the past work must have been done on it. Ft sin(a).Easy The total work done on the pendulum by the applied force F and the gravitational force Fg could have been obtained much easier if the following relation had been used: The total work W is the sum of the work done by the applied force F and the work done by the gravitational force Fg. Suppose our object . page A15) we can rewrite this expression as Using the equations shown above for Ft cos(a). r cos([theta]max) and r sin([theta]max) we can rewrite this expression and obtain for W: Method 2 . 7.

.Ki This indicates that the change in the kinetic energy of a particle is equal to the total work done on that particle by all the forces that act on it. it is called its kinetic energy K: If the kinetic energy of a particle changes from some initial value Ki to some final value Kf the amount of work done on the particle is given by W = Kf .has mass m and is moving with velocity v. the mass will keep moving with a constant velocity equal to v. This distance d can be found easily from the equations of motion: The work done by the force F on the mass is given by The work is independent of the strength of the force F and depends only on the mass of the object and its velocity. Since this work is related to the motion of the object. In order to calculate the work done by the force F on the mass. we need to know the total distance over which this force acted. Its current velocity is the result of a force F. For a given force F we can obtain the acceleration of our object: Assuming that the object was at rest at time t = 0 we can obtain the velocity at any later time: Therefore the time at which the mass reaches a velocity v can be calculated: If at that time the force is turned off.

What is its velocity at that point ? Since the object is initially at rest. The work done by the force F on the mass m as the particle moves from its initial position xi to its final position xf is From the definition of a we can conclude Substituting this expression into the integral we obtain Example Problem 3 An object with mass m is at rest at time t = 0.11). its initial kinetic energy is zero: Ki = 0 J The force acting on the object is the gravitational force Fg = m g . It falls under the influence of gravity through a distance h (see Figure 7.Alternative Derivation Consider a particle with mass m moving along the x-axis and acted on by a net force F(x) that points along the x-axis.

The work done by the gravitational force on the object is simply W = Fg h = m g h The kinetic energy of the object after falling a distance h can be calculated: W = m .Ki = Kf and its velocity at that point is .11.Figure 7. Falling Object. g . h = Kf .

Suppose the baseball reaches a height h. Power In every day life.12. Example Problem 4 A baseball is thrown up in the air with an initial velocity v0 (see Figure 7. The work done on the baseball by the gravitational force can be obtained: W = Kf . the average power for this time-interval is .5. The quantity of interest is power. Projectile motion.12). At that point the work done on the baseball is W=-mgh The maximum height h can now be calculated: 7. For example: the explosive effect of dynamite is based on its capability to release large amounts of energy in a very short time.Figure 7.Ki = . The power tells us something about the rate of doing work. and therefore its kinetic energy is equal to zero. What is the highest point it reaches ? The initial kinetic energy of the baseball is At its highest point the velocity of the baseball is zero. In general it is more important to know the time within which a certain amount of work can be done. The same amount of work could have been done using a small space heater (and having it run for a long time) but the space heater would cause no explosion. If an amount of work W is carried out in a time interval [Delta]t.Ki In this case the direction of the displacement of the ball is opposite to the direction of the gravitational force. the amount of work an apparatus can do is not always important.

3. h = (103 W) (3600 s) = 3.The instantaneous power can be written as The SI unit of power is J/s or W (Watt).6 MJ We can also express the power delivered to a body in terms of the force that acts on the body and its velocity. Thus for a particle moving in one dimension we obtain In the more general case of motion in 3 dimensions the power P can be expressed as 8. The conservation laws in physics can be expressed in very simple form: " Consider a system of particles. completely isolated from outside influence. hour. .1. As the particles move about and interact with each other.6 x 106 J = 3. THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 8. This is equivalent to 7.1. there are certain properties of the system that do not change " In short we can express this as X = constant in which X is the conserved property. For example. our usage of electricity is always expressed in units of kilowatt . Conservation laws In this chapter we will discuss conservation of energy. kW .

[Delta]K = . Conservation of mechanical energy A mass hanging from the ceiling will have a kinetic energy equal to zero. but has the potential to reappear as kinetic energy. The stored energy is called potential energy.2. the sum of kinetic and potential energy must be constant. If the cord breaks. The unit of potential energy is the Joule (J).8. and in this case. Conservation of energy tells us that the total energy of the system is conserved.W which will be the definition of the potential energy. The potential energy U can be obtained from the applied force F and . This kinetic energy was somehow stored in the mass when it was hanging from the ceiling: the energy was hidden. the mass will rapidly increase its kinetic energy. This means that every change in the kinetic energy of a system must be accompanied by an equal but opposite change in the potential energy: [Delta]U + [Delta]K = 0 and E = U + K = constant The work-energy theorem discussed in Chapter 7 relates the amount of work W to the change in the kinetic energy of the system W = [Delta]K The change in the potential energy of the system can now be related to the amount of work done on the system [Delta]U = .

it will compress the spring. and x is the amount by which the spring is stretched (x > 0) or compressed (x < 0). the potential energy function U(x) is known.2. andwe are free to assign the arbitrary value of zero to the potential energy of the system when it is in its reference configuration. As the spring is compressed. The potential energy of the spring in its relaxed position is defined to be zero. The spring force The force exerted by a spring on a mass m can be calculated using Hooke's law F(x) = . Conservation of energy tells us Note that the amount of work done by the spring on the block after it returns to its original position is zero.k x where k is the spring constant. The force responsible for this potential can then be obtained We will continue with discussing some example of conservation of energy. While the object is slowing down.where U(x0) is the potential energy of the system at its chosen reference configuration. come to rest momentarily. the kinetic energy of the block is gradually transferred to the spring where it is stored as potential energy.1). It turns out that only changes in the potential energy are important.1. When a moving object runs into a relaxed spring it will slow down. before accelerating in a direction opposite to its original direction (see Figure 8. . Sometimes. 8. The potential energy of the spring in any other state can be obtained from Hooke's law Suppose the total energy of the ball-spring system is E.

Since the system is initially at rest.1. With what speed will the ball leave the barrel once the gun is fired ? Suppose Ei is the mechanical energy of the system when the spring is compressed. Sample Problem 8-4 A spring of a spring gun is compressed a distance d from its relaxed state. and its potential energy is zero. The total energy at that point is therefore just the kinetic energy of the moving mass: Conservation of energy requires that Ei = Ef. This means . the total energy is just the potential energy of the compressed spring: At the moment that the ball leaves the barrel. the spring is in its relaxed position. Conversion of kinetic energy into potential energy and vice-versa. A ball if mass m is put in the barrel.Figure 8.

1 has an initial velocity v0 and a mass m. Gravitational force A ball moving upwards in the gravitational field of the earth will lose its kinetic energy and come momentarily to rest at its highest point. what is the maximum compression of the spring ? In the initial situation.2. the spring is in its relaxed position (U = 0). The total energy of the ball-spring system is given by The maximum compression of the spring will occur when the ball is at rest. steadily regaining its kinetic energy that was lost on the way up. At this point the kinetic energy of the system is zero (K = 0) and the total energy of the system is given by Conservation of energy tells us that Ei = Ef.We can now calculate the velocity of the ball Example Problem 1 Suppose the ball in Figure 8. The ball than reverses its direction.2. The potential energy due to the gravitational force can be calculated . When the ball arrives at its starting point it will have a kinetic energy equal to its initial kinetic energy. If the spring constant is k. The work done by the gravitational force on the ball is negative during the upwards motion while it is positive on the way down. The work done when the ball returns to its original position is zero. and thus and 8.

only the displacement in the vertical direction needs to be considered. Conservation of energy for the earth-ball system now shows This equation holds also for a ball moving in two or three dimensions. Sample Problem 8-3 A child with mass m is released from rest at the top of a curved water slide. and the final energy consist only out of kinetic energy Conservation of energy requires that Ei = Ef Thus or . a height h above the level of a pool. the work done by this force on the ball is zero for a displacement in the x and/or the z-direction. The initial energy consist only out of potential energy (since child is at rest the kinetic energy is zero) Ei = m g h where we have taken the potential energy at pool level to be zero. Since Fg is perpendicular to the horizontal direction. What is the velocity of the child when she is projected into the pool ? Assume that the slide is frictionless. In the calculation of the change in the gravitational potential energy of an object. At the bottom of the slide.where the potential energy at y = 0 is defined to be zero. the potential energy is zero.

otherwise.2. An example is the friction force. otherwise. Particle on a round trip from A to B back to A. For example. The directed long-scale motion of the block has been transformed into kinetic energy of the randomly directed moving atoms that make up the block and the plane. The requirement of zero work for a round trip is not met by the friction force. WAB. We can not associate a potential energy with the friction force. This means that Figure 8. If a potential energy can not be associated with a force. Conservative and non-conservative forces If a potential energy can be associated with a force. the force is non conservative. Test 1 and test 2 are equivalent.2) is zero. 2. A force is conservative if the work it does on a particle that moves through a round trip is zero. 8.3.8. it is non-conservative.2. Friction force A block of mass m projected onto a rough surface will be brought to rest by the kinetic friction force. assume that the work done for the round trip from A to B and back to A (see Figure 8. we call the force conservative. Examples of conservative forces are the spring force and the gravitational force. A force is conservative if the work done by it on a particle that moves between two points is the same for all paths connecting these points.3. and from A to B via 2 different routes. we call that force non-conservative. There is no way to get back the original kinetic energy of the block after the friction force has brought it to rest. Alternative tests of the conservative nature of a force are: 1.1 + WBA.2 = 0 .

For any motion in the horizontal plane. What is the work done on the object by the gravitational force for trajectory 1 and for trajectory 2 ? The work done if the mass is moved along route 1 is equal to The alternate route (route 2) consist out of a motion in the horizontal direction followed by one in the vertical direction. For the motion along the vertical.2 which is exactly what test 2 states (the work done by the force on the object depends only on the initial and final position of the object and not on the path taken). the gravitational force is perpendicular to the displacement.1 = WAB.1 = .or WAB.3 shows two possible trajectories to get from A to B.WBA. Figure 8.2 The work done by the force on each segment reverses sign if we revert the direction WAB. the gravitational force is opposed to the motion. Two possible trajectories to get from A to B. The work done by the gravitational force is Figure 8.3. .WBA. The work done by the gravitational force is therefore zero.2 = .2 This relation than can be used to show that WAB.

Because of the frictional force. By differentiating U(x) we can obtain the force acting on the object In the absence of friction the conservation of mechanical energy holds and U(x) + K = E Since the kinetic energy can not be negative.12 in Halliday. small displacements in either direction will result in a force that pushes the particle back towards the position of stable equilibrium). 8. The total work done on the system is . 8.U is zero or positive. The points at which E .5. Points of unstable equilibrium appear as maxima in the potential energy curve (if the particle is displaced slightly from the position of unstable equilibrium. A point is a position of stable equilibrium if the potential energy has a minimum at that point (in this case. oscillating on a rough surface. If we look at a system on which several conservative forces act. in addition to the friction force. The potential energy curve (Figure 8. Resnick and Walker). The force at each of these maxima and minima is zero.4. Potential energy curve A plot of the potential energy as function of the x-coordinate tells us a lot about the motion of the object (see for example Figure 8.12 in Halliday. the mechanical energy is no longer conserved. the forces acting on it will tend to push the particle even further away).U = K = 0 are called the turning points.The total work done by the gravitational force on the object when it is moved from A to B via route 2 is therefore which is equal to W1. the particle can only be in those regions for which E . Non-conservative forces If we look at a block-spring system. Resnick and Walker) shows several local maxima and minima. we will see that the amplitude of the motion decreases continuously.

Conservation of energy In the presence of non-conservative forces. " Sample Problem 8-8 A ball bearing whose mass is m is fired vertically downward from a height h with an initial velocity v0 (see Figure 8. It buries itself in the sand at a depth d. What average upward resistive force f does the sand exert on the ball as it comes to rest ? .4). the work-energy theorem can be rewritten as which is the law of conservation of energy. In words " Energy may be transformed from one kind into another in an isolated system but it can not be created or destroyed.6.Wf With this definition of the internal energy. mechanical energy is converted into internal energy Uint (or thermal energy): [Delta]Uint = . the total energy of a system always remains constant. 8.which is equal to the change in the kinetic energy of the system (work-energy theorem). Each conservative force can be identified with a potential energy and We can now rewrite the expression for the change in the kinetic energy of the system The work done by the friction force is equal to the change in the mechanical energy of the system.

The work done by the friction force f is given by The initial mechanical energy of the system is given by The final mechanical energy of the system consist only out of the potential energy (Kf = 0) Ef = Uf = m g (.d) = . Sample Problem 5.4.Figure 8.m g d The change in mechanical energy is which must be equal to the work done on the bearing by the frictional force The friction force f can now be calculated .

and then slides back down to the bottom of the plane. comes momentarily to rest.5.Example Problem 2 A block whose mass is m is fired up an inclined plane (see Figure 8. The final mechanical energy (at maximum height) is just the potential energy of the block at height h: Ef = m g h = m g d sin([theta]) The change in mechanical energy is The work done on the block by the friction force is . It travels a distance d up the plane. What is the magnitude of the kinetic friction force that acts on the block while it is moving ? What will the velocity be when the block returns at its original position.5) with an initial velocity v0. The potential energy at the origin is taken to be zero. The work done by the friction force is equal to the change in the mechanical energy of the system. Therefore. the initial mechanical energy of the system is just the kinetic energy of the block Figure 8. Example Problem 2.

there is no change in its potential energy. . Center of mass The motion of a rotating ax thrown between two jugglers looks rather complicated. The total work done by the friction force on the block is now Wf = . SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 9. The change in the mechanical energy of the system is due to a change in the velocity of the block: The final velocity of the block can now be calculated 9. Experiments have shown that one point of the ax follows a trajectory described by the standard equations of motion of a projectile. the friction force has again done work on the block. This special point is called the center of mass of the ax.f d and must be equal to [Delta]E. Thus The friction force f can now be obtained When the block returns to the origin.2 f d This must be equal to the change in mechanical energy of the system.1. and very different from the standard projectile motion discussed in Chapter 4.Wf = . When the block returns at the origin.

closest to the heavier mass. The position of the center of mass is now Figure 9. the position of the center of mass will satisfy the following relation The definition of the center of mass in one dimension can be easily generalized to three dimensions or in vector notation . located at position x1 and x2. In general.1). is defined as Since we are free to define our coordinate system in whatever way is convenient.The position of the center of mass of a system of two particles with mass m1 and m2. Position of the center of mass in 1 dimension.1. for a system with more than two particles. we can define the origin of our coordinate system to coincide with the left most object (see Figure 9. respectively. This equation shows that the center of mass lies between the two masses.

Location of 4 masses. . m3 and m4. Figure 9. respectively.2.For a rigid body. m1. located at x1. The position of the center of mass of m1 and m2 is given by The position of the center of mass of m3 and m4 is given by The position of the center of mass of the whole system is given by This can be rewritten as Using the center of mass of m1 and m2 and of m3 and m4 we can express the center of mass of the whole system as follows Figure 9. the summation will be replaced by an integral Suppose we are dealing with a number of objects. x3 and x4. m2. x2.2 shows a system consisting of 4 masses.

object C consist out of object X and a disk with radius R centered on the x-axis at x = . Symmetry arguments immediately tell us that the center of mass of object X is located on the x-axis. Sample Problem 9-3 Figure 9. The new object (object C. For example.3b) is symmetric around the origin of our coordinate system.This shows that the center of mass of a system can be calculated from the position of the center of mass of all objects that make up the system. and that point is therefore the center of mass of object C. Note: • • The center of mass of an object always lies on a point/line/plane of symmetry (for homogeneous objects).3a shows a circular metal plate of radius 2R from which a disk if radius R has been removed. the position of the center of mass of a system consisting out of several spheres can be calculated by assuming that the mass of each sphere is concentrated in the center of that sphere (its center of mass). Let us call it object X. Figure 9.R (this disk is called object D). However. Suppose the hole in object X is filled with a disk of radius R. Locate the center of mass of object X. The center of mass of an object does not need to lie within the body of that object (for example: the center of a donut is its center of mass even though there is no mass at that point). The center of mass of this system (consisting out of object X and object D) can be easily calculated: This equation can be rewritten as For a homogeneous disk (with density [rho]) the masses of object X and D can be calculated .

Figure 9.3. Sample Problem 9-3. The position of the center of mass of object X is given by

Example Problem 9-1 Figure 9.4 shows a one-dimensional rod. The density of the rod is position dependent : [rho](x) = a - bx + cx2. Determine the location of the center-ofmass of the rod.

Figure 9.4. Position Dependent Density. The mass of a fraction of the rod (length dx) is given by dm = [rho](x) dx The position of the center of mass of the rod can be determined as follows

After evaluating the integral we obtain

The total mass of the rod can be obtained easily

**9.2. Motion of the Center of Mass
**

The definition of the center of mass of a system of particles can be rewritten as

where M is the total mass of the system. Differentiating this equation with respect to time shows

where vcm is the velocity of the center of mass and vi is the velocity of mass mi. The acceleration of the center of mass can be obtained by once again differentiating this expression with respect to time

where acm is the acceleration of the center of mass and ai is the acceleration of mass mi. Using Newton's second law we can identify mi ai with the force acting on mass mi. This shows that

This equation shows that the motion of the center of mass is only determined by the external forces. Forces exerted by one part of the system on other parts of the system are called internal forces. According to Newton's third law, the sum of all internal forces cancel out (for each interaction there are two forces acting on two parts: they are equal in magnitude but pointing in an opposite

direction and cancel if we take the vector sum of all internal forces). See Figure 9.5.

Figure 9.5. Internal and External Forces acting on a System of Particles. The previous equations show that the center of mass of a system of particles acts like a particle of mass M, and reacts like a particle when the system is exposed to external forces. They also show that when the net external force acting on the system is zero, the velocity of the center of mass will be constant. Example Problem 9-2 The center of mass of an exploding rocket will follow the trajectory of a projectile. although its individual pieces can follow a quit complex trajectory. The forces of the explosion are internal to the system, and the only external force acting on the system is the gravitational force. Example Problem 9-3 A ball of mass m and radius R is placed inside a spherical shell of the same mass m and inner radius 2R (see Figure 9.6a). The ball is released and moves back and forth before coming to rest at the bottom of the shell (see Figure 9.6b). What is the displacement of the system ?

Figure 9.6. Example Problem 9-3. The only external forces acting on the system are the gravitational force and the normal force. Both act in the y-direction. The x-component of the total external force acting on the system is zero. The x-component of the acceleration of the center of mass is therefore equal to zero. The velocity of the center of mass in

the x-direction is initially equal to zero, and will therefore remain zero. We conclude that the position of the center of mass along the x-axis will not change. In the initial configuration (Figure 9.6a) the x-position of the center of mass is given by

After the ball comes to rest, the x-coordinate of the center of mass of the system coincides with the x-coordinate of the center of the sphere (symmetry axis). Originally the center of the sphere was located at x = 0, and we conclude that the system is displaced over a distance R/2, to the left.

9.3. Linear Momentum

The linear momentum p of an object with mass m and velocity v is defined as

From this definition it is clear that the unit of momentum is (kg m/s) or (N s). Since this momentum is related to the linear motion of the object, it is called linear momentum. In Chapter 11 we will be discussing angular momentum which is the momentum related to the angular motion of the object. Under certain circumstances the linear momentum of a system is conserved. The linear momentum of a particle is related to the net force acting on that object:

The rate of change of linear momentum of a particle is equal to the net force acting on the object, and is pointed in the direction of the force. If the net force acting on an object is zero, its linear momentum is constant (conservation of linear momentum). The total linear momentum p of a system of particles is defined as the vector sum of the individual linear momenta

This expression can be rewritten as

If the block is free to slide across the table (without friction). Consider the closed system shown in Figure 9. " If we differentiate linear momentum of the center-of-mass with respect to time we obtain This expression shows that if the net external force acting on a system of particles is zero (Fext = 0 N). no particles leave or enter the system. and we can conclude that the linear momentum in the x-direction is conserved. The total linear momentum in the x-direction is therefore . The rate of change of its linear momentum is therefore equal to the net external force. This is an isolated system. all external forces (normal and gravitational force) act in the y-direction. We conclude that " The linear momentum of a system of particles is equal to the product of the total mass M of the system and the velocity of the center of mass. Example Problem 9-4. each moving with speed v. and the wooden block which is at rest.7 consist initially out of n bullets. In this system.7. The system shown in Figure 9. the linear momentum of the system is conserved.7.where M is the total mass of the system. Example Problem 9-4 A stream of bullets with mass m is fired horizontally with speed v into a large wooden block with mass M that is initially at rest on a horizontal table. what speed will it acquire after it has absorbed n bullets ? Figure 9.

Note: we did not have to consider what happened when the bullets hit the block since these forces are internal forces. What fraction of the total kinetic energy will each block have at any later time ? Figure 9. Sample Problem 9-10. . The x-component of the linear momentum at that point is therefore Since the linear momentum along the x-axis is conserved we conclude or The final velocity V of the wooden block will always be less than the velocity of the bullets (independent of how many bullets we fire).8 shows a schematic of the system.8. The velocities of mass m1 and mass m2 are defined to be positive when they are directed towards the right in Figure 9. The blocks are pulled apart and then released from rest.8 (in Figure 9.After the n bullets strike the wooden block. Figure 9. Sample Problem 9-10 Two blocks with mass m1 and mass m2 are connected by a spring and are free to slide on a frictionless horizontal surface. its mass is increased to (M + n m) and its velocity is V.8 the velocity of m2 is negative).

The total linear momentum at that time is then given by Since the linear momentum along the x-axis is conserved. The net force along the x-axis is zero. and therefore. The velocity v2 of mass m2 can now be expressed in terms of m1 and v1: This shows that the velocity of mass m1 and of mass m2 always have opposite sign. Both these forces are directed vertically.Consider the system consisting of the two masses and the spring. Suppose at a later time mass m1 has a velocity equal to v1 and mass m2 has a velocity equal to v2. This is a closed system. both masses are at rest. linear momentum is conserved along the x-axis. Initially. pf must be equal to 0. The only external forces acting on the system are the gravitational force and the normal force. The kinetic energy of mass m1 and mass m2 can now be calculated The total kinetic energy of the system is If f1 is the fraction of the total kinetic energy that is carried by mass m1 we obtain the following equation for f1: Problem 43P . and the total linear momentum along the xaxis is zero.

Problem 39P. Since the vessel is initially at rest. Two pieces. This implies that the total linear momentum of the system is conserved. breaking into three pieces. Figure 9. the final linear momentum of the system must also be zero. having equal mass. What is the direction and magnitude of its velocity immediately after the explosion ? The vessel is an isolated system on which no external forces are acting. the initial linear momentum of the system is zero. The problem states that m1 = m2 and that m3 = 3 m1. fly off perpendicular to one another with the same speed of 30 m/s.9.A vessel at rest explodes. Conservation of linear momentum along the x-axis and along the y-axis requires . Assuming that the total mass of the system is conserved we conclude that Figure 9. or The problem also states that v1 = v2 = 30 m/s. Since the total linear momentum is conserved.9 shows schematically the direction of the three fragments in which the vessel explodes. The third piece has three times the mass of each of the other pieces.

The total linear momentum of the system along the x-axis (the horizontal axis) is given by (see figure 9. The external forces acting on the shell and cannon are the gravitational force and the normal force. (a) What is the speed of the shell with respect to the earth ? (b) At what angle with the ground is the shell projected ? The mass of the cannon is M. The velocity of the cannon and the shell in with respect to the earth is vc and vs. Since there is no external force acting on the shell along the x-axis. The firing angle is [theta] and the muzzle speed is v0. respectively. which fires a 70 kg shell with a muzzle speed of 556 m/s. is set at an elevation of 39deg. above the horizontal.10) .These two equations can be rewritten in the following manner These two equation can be combined to give tan ([theta]) = 1 or [theta] = 45deg. The velocity of the third fragment can now be obtained easily Problem 48P A 1400 kg cannon. so that it recoils freely. The cannon is mounted on frictionless rails. and the mass of the shell is m. the linear momentum of the system along the x-axis is conserved. These forces are directed along the y-axis. The angle of projection of the shell with respect to the earth is a.

11. This implies that The muzzle speed provided in this problem is measured with respect to the muzzle. Since the cannon is not at rest.10.11. Velocity diagram of shell. The first equation can be used to eliminate vc Using the last two equations. this expression can be rewritten as .Figure 9. the speed of the shell with respect to the earth will be different than the speed of the shell with respect to the muzzle. The figure clearly shows the following relations between the various velocities and firing angles: Figure 9. The relation between these velocities and the firing angles is schematically shown in Figure 9. Velocity diagram of shell and canon.

[Delta]M is negative. During a time interval [Delta]t.4.[Delta]M) U .or We conclude that a = 40. we are dealing with a closed system. Suppose a rocket is flying through deep space (no friction force and no gravitational force). Since there are no external forces acting on the system.. the total linear momentum of the system is conserved.4deg. It is burning fuel. The result of the burning of fuel is a change in the velocity of the rocket: v(t + [Delta]t) = v(t) + [Delta]v If we consider our system to consist of the rocket and the exhaust generated during the time interval [Delta]t. The rocket The motion of a rocket is a nice example of a system with a variable mass in which nevertheless conservation of linear momentum can be applied. Suppose at some time t the mass of the rocket is M. The velocity of the shell with respect to the earth is given by 9. the mass of the rocket changes by [Delta]M: M(t + [Delta]t) = M(t) + [Delta]M Since the rocket is burning fuel.[Delta]M. The initial linear momentum of the system (at time t) is given by pi = M(t) v(t) The final linear momentum of the system is given by pf = (M(t) + [Delta]M) (v(t) + [Delta]v) + (. The mass of the exhaust products is .

[Delta]M U0 We conclude [Delta]M U0 = M(t) [Delta]v Dividing each side by [Delta]t gives Now: • • • dM/dt = . U0 = .U0 = v(t) + [Delta]v Using this expression we can rewrite the expression for conservation of linear momentum as follows M(t) v(t) = (M(t) + [Delta]M) (v(t) + [Delta]v) + (. After making these substitution we obtain the "first rocket equation" Ru=Ma . the exhaust velocity is a function of both U0 and the velocity of the rocket U . Conservation of linear momentum therefore requires that M(t) v(t) = (M(t) + [Delta]M) (v(t) + [Delta]v ) + (. In the frame of reference in which the rocket is moving.where U is the velocity of the exhaust.[Delta]M) U The exhaust velocity of the rocket depends on the design of the rocket engine.[Delta]M) (v(t) + [Delta]v + U0) or M(t) v(t) = M(t) (v(t) + [Delta]v) .R where R is the rate of fuel consumption.u where u is the (positive) velocity of the exhaust gasses relative to the rocket. Suppose that for the engine used the velocity of the exhaust relative to the engine is measured to be U0. dv/dt is the acceleration of the rocket.

10. Note: • • external forces are small (and are ignored) during the collision particles before and after the collision can be different (for example: nuclear reactions) . A great deal can be learned about the interactions between the colliding particles from the observed collision products. In order to find the velocity of the rocket (after burning some fuel) we return to the differential equation previously discussed or Integrating both sides gives We conclude which is the "second rocket equation".The mass used in the "first rocket equation" is of course time dependent (related to R). strong mutual forces act between a few particles for a short time. often allows us to predict the outcome of a collision. These internal forces are significantly larger than any external forces during the time of the collision.1. COLLISIONS 10. Introduction In a collision. The laws of conservation of linear momentum and energy. applied to the "before" and "after" situations.

s. It is called the collision impulse J: The unit of the impulse is N . the ball travels in the opposite direction with a speed vf. The change in momentum dp is related to the collision force F as The total change in the of momentum during the collision is given by The right hand side of this equation is a measure of both the strength and the duration of the collision force. The result of the collision force will be a change in the momentum of the particles involved.2. After leaving the bat. Impulse Suppose a force F acts during a collision.• the collision force does not need to be a contact force 10. The amount of change depends not only on the average value of the force. the impulse J is equal to Fav [Delta]t = J Sample Problem 10-1 A baseball of mass m in horizontal flight with speed vi is struck by a batter. From the definition of the impulse J we see that the relation between the impulse and the change of momentum is given by If the average collision force Fav acts during a time period equal to [Delta]t. but also on the time period during which it acts. What impulse J acts on the ball while it was in contact with the bat ? .

If the impact time is [Delta]t. Collisions are called elastic collisions if the total kinetic energy of the system is conserved. If there are no external forces acting on this system (consisting of the two masses) the total momentum of the system is conserved. Applying conservation of linear momentum to the collision shown in Figure 10.3.1.1 gives Conservation of the total kinetic energy gives We now have two equations with two unknown (v1f and v2f) which can be solved. what is the average force that acts on the baseball ? What is the average acceleration of the baseball during this period ? 10. The first class of collisions we will discuss are the elastic collisions. Collisions in One-Dimension Consider the collision shown in Figure 10. The first equation can be rewritten as The second equation can be rewritten as The final velocity of mass m1 can now be calculated by dividing the last two expressions .

Collision in One-Dimension. depending on the masses of the two objects: v1f is negative if m2 > m1. .1. In Chapter 9 we have shown that the motion of the center of mass is unaffected by the collision. The velocity of the center of masscenter of mass velocity can be calculated easily It can be easily verified that the velocity of the center of mass after the collision is the same as it was before the collision (as it should be of course since there are no external forces acting on the system). This gives The final velocity of m1 can now be obtained The final velocity of mass m2 can also be obtained It is clear that the velocity of m2 is always positive. and positive if m2 < m1. The velocity of m1 can be either positive or negative.Figure 10.

Using the previously derived expressions for v1f and v2f we obtain The projectile simply bounces back and the final velocity of the target will be a very small fraction of the initial velocity of the projectile. 10.5. Motion of the Center of Mass The collision force acting between the target and the projectile is an internal force of the system under consideration consists of these two objects. . The previously derived equations show that in this case v1f = 0 m/s v2f = v1i In head-on collisions.Some Special Cases • Equal Mass: m1 = m2. • Massive Projectile: m1 >> m2. Using the previously derived expressions for v1f and v2f we obtain The velocity of the projectile is almost unchanged while the target will move with twice the initial velocity of the projectile. The motion of the center of mass of a number of objects is solely determined by the external forces acting on the system (see Chapter 9). • Massive Target: m2 >> m1. particles of equal mass simply exchange velocities.

Its final velocity.9 % . v1f. By what fraction is the kinetic energy of a neutron (mass m1) reduced in a head-on collision with a nucleus of mass m2 (initially at rest) ? Suppose v1i is the initial velocity of the neutron. can be obtained using one of the previously derived equations: The initial kinetic energy of the neutron is given by The final kinetic energy of the neutron is given by The fraction of the kinetic energy of the neutron lost in the collision is given by This is equal to Since the mass units in the equation for f cancel. Sample Problem 10-4 In a nuclear reactor.019 = 1. we can use atomic mass units: mass Pb: 206 amu => f = 0. newly-produced fast neutrons must be slowed down before they can participate effectively in the chain-reaction process. the velocity of its center of mass is constant.This equation shows that if no external forces act on the system.

Example Problem 10-1 A glider whose mass is m2 rests on an air track. A second glider. approaches the target glider with a velocity v1i and collides elastically with it. whose mass is m1.00 = 100 % We conclude that any compound that contains large amounts of H will be a good moderator. At what distance from the end of the air track will the second collision occur ? The velocity of m1 and m2 after the first collision are given by Suppose the second collision occurs a distance x from the end of the track (see Figure 10.x) after the first collision and mass m2 has traveled a distance (d + x). At that point. The target glider rebounds elastically from the end of the track and meets the projectile glider a second time (see Figure 10.mass C: 12 amu => f = 0.2). Both masses must cover these distances of course in the same time This can be rewritten as or . mass m1 has traveled a distance (d .2).28 = 28 % mass H: 1 amu => f = 1.

thermal energy. its momentum is conserved. Collisions in One-Dimension: Inelastic If no external forces act on a system.6. The two masses stick together. which is initially at rest (see Figure 10. and what is the change in the kinetic energy of the system ? . Note: v1f = 0 m/s and v2f = v1i. we obtain A special case occurs when m1 = m2. This type of a collision is a completely inelastic collision (of course. The lost kinetic energy is converted into another form of energy: for example. Example Problem 10-1.3). energy of deformation etc. 10.2.Figure 10.) Example Problem 10-2 Suppose a mass m1 is moving with an initial velocity vi and collides with a mass m2. kinetic energy is not always conserved. Substituting the expressions for v1f and v2f in the expression for x. the total energy is conserved. An example of an inelastic collision is a collision in which the particles stick together (after the collisions). x = d. even in a completely inelastic collision. In this case. However. What is the final velocity of the system.

3.Figure 10. Completely Inelastic Collision. The initial kinetic energy of the system is The final kinetic energy of the system is . The initial momentum of the system is p i = m1 v i The final momentum of the system is pf = (m1 + m2) vf Conservation of linear momentum implies m1 vi = (m1 + m2) vf or The final velocity of the combined system will always be less than that of the incoming object.

the block plus bullet swings upwards (maximum height is h). What is the velocity of the bullet ? Suppose the velocity of the bullet is vi. since the motion of the center of mass must still be present. the mechanical energy of the block plus bullet is equal to Conservation of mechanical energy implies that . Only if our reference frame is chosen such that the center-of-mass velocity is zero. even in a completely inelastic collision. the total mechanical energy of the block plus bullet must be conserved. Suppose a bullet of mass m1 hits a large block of wood of mass m2. The initial momentum of the system is p i = m1 v i The final velocity of the block plus bullet is vf. The final momentum is pf = (m1 + m2) vf Conservation of linear momentum implies m1 . vi = (m1 + m2) vf or The initial kinetic energy of the block plus bullet is Since it is assumed that the block plus bullet swing frictionless. As a result.Note: not all the kinetic energy can be lost. will the final kinetic energy in a completely inelastic collision be zero. At its highest point. Sample Problem 10-5: The ballistic pendulum.

undergoes a collision with a mass m2 (which is initially at rest). Collisions in Two-Dimensions Suppose a mass m1.7. as shown in Figure 10. kinetic energy also needs to be conserved: Figure 10. The variables are: . The particles fly of at angles [theta]1 and [theta]2. with initial velocity v1i.or The velocity of the bullet can now be calculated 10. Since no external forces act on the collision system.4.4. linear momentum is conserved (in both x and y direction): and If the collision is elastic. A Collision in Two Dimensions.

.5. Example Problem 10-3.• • • mass: m1 and m2 velocity: v1i.5. Conservation of linear momentum along the y-axis requires The last equation can be rewritten as Figure 10. Example Problem 10-3 A beam of nuclei with mass m1 and velocity v1 is incident on a target nucleus with mass m2 which us initially at rest. v1f and v2f angle: [theta]1 and [theta]2 If 4 of these variables are defined. the remaining 3 can be calculated by applying conservation of energy and linear momentum. particle 3 and particle 4. The velocity and scattering angles of both reaction products is measured. p3 and p4 are the momenta of particle 1. Determine the masses of the reaction products and the change in kinetic energy. respectively. The collision is schematically shown in Figure 10. Conservation of linear momentum along the x-axis requires where p1.

with a mass of 4 kg. One part. A second fragment. owing to an internal explosion. moves away from the point of explosion with a speed of 100 m/s along the positive y-axis.Substituting this in the first equation we obtain This immediately shows that or This relation can be used to find p4 and m4 The change in the kinetic energy of the system can now be calculated Example Problem 10-4 A 20 kg body is moving in the direction of the positive x-axis with a speed of 200 m/s when. a). it breaks into three parts. moves along the negative x-axis with a speed of 500 m/s. whose mass is 10 kg. What is the speed of the third (6 kg) fragment ? b) How much energy was released in the explosion (ignore gravity) ? .

The problem is schematically illustrated in Figure 10.6. The energy supplied by the explosion is now easy to calculate: Figure 10. . Conservation of linear momentum along the x-axis requires Conservation of linear momentum along the y-axis requires These equations can be rewritten as Squaring both equations and adding them gives Solving this equation gives v3 = 1014 m/s.6. the total momentum of the system will be conserved. Example Problem 10-4. Since the force of the explosion is an internal force. We therefore can apply this conservation law both along the x-axis and along the y-axis.

Rotational variables In this chapter we will be dealing with the rotation of a rigid body about a fixed axis. For the situation shown in Figure 11. Each part of the rigid body moves in a circle around the z-axis. During one complete revolution point A covers a distance equal to 2[pi]r.1 the reference line connects the origin of the coordinate system and point A. Suppose the z-axis of our coordinate system coincides with the axis of rotation of the rigid body. the angle of rotation can be easily calculated: In describing the rotation of a rigid body we have to choose a reference line with respect to which the angle of rotation is being measured. Relation between s and [theta]. The angular velocity [omega] is defined as . whose center lies on the axis of rotation. If the angle of rotation [theta] is time dependent. The x-axis and the y-axis are taken to be perpendicular to the z-axis.1). it makes sense to introduce the concept of angular velocity and angular acceleration. ROTATION 11. Figure 11.1).1.1.11. and every point experiences the same angular displacement during a particular time interval. Suppose a given point A on the body covers a linear distance s during the rotation (see Figure 11. Every point of the body moves in a circle. In that case.1. In figure 11. the angle of rotation is equal to 2[pi] radians. The angle of rotation is the angle between the reference line and the x-axis (as is shown in Figure 11.

The unit of the angular velocity is rad/s. The direction of the velocity vector is parallel to the rotation axis and the right-hand rule needs to be used to determine whether the vector points upwards or downwards. The magnitude of the angular velocity vector is equal to the absolute value of the angular velocity for rotation around a fixed axis (as defined above). To solve this problem. In order to describe rotation around a point (rather than a fixed axis) the concept of an angular velocity vector is introduced. we start with looking at the relation between the angular acceleration and the angular velocity This relation can be rewritten as Substituting the given angular acceleration we obtain for the angular velocity The angle of rotation is related to the angular velocity . The angular velocity can be positive (counterclockwise rotation) or negative (clockwise rotation). The angular accelerationa is defined as The unit of the angular acceleration is rad/s2. Problem 7P A wheel rotates with an angular acceleration a given by where t is the time and a and b are constants. If the wheel has an initial angular velocity [omega]0. write the equations for (a) the angular velocity and (b) the angle turned as function of time.

0 s interval ? (b).0 rad/s2. Constant angular acceleration If the angular acceleration a is constant (time independent) the following equations can be used to calculate [omega] and [theta] at any time t: Note that these equations are very similar to the equations for linear motion. During a certain 3. What was the angular velocity of the wheel at the start of the 3.0 s interval ? Time t = 0 s is defined as the moment at which the wheel is at rest. The rotation angle at any later time is measured with respect to the position of the body at time t = 0 s: [theta]0 = 0 rad. rotates with a constant angular acceleration of 2. Problem 19P A wheel starting from rest.Substituting the derived expression for [omega](t) the angle of rotation can be calculated and therefore 11.0 s interval it turns through 90 rad.0 s interval will depend on time: . The equations of rotation are now given by The angle of rotation during a 3. (a) How long had the wheel been turning before the start of the 3.2. [omega]0 = 0 rad/s. Therefore.

Relation between linear and angular variables An example of the relation between angular and linear variables has already been discussed. is related to the radius of the circle and the angle of rotation The velocity of point A can be obtained by differentiating this equation with respect to time To derive this equation we have assumed that for rotations around a fixed axis the distance r from point A to the rotation axis is constant (independent of time) which is true for a rigid body. The magnitude of the radial component. the rotation [Delta][theta] during a period [Delta]t is given. Figure 1 illustrates how the distance s. we have seen that an object carrying out a circular motion also experiences a radial acceleration. related to the change in the magnitude of the velocity of point A. ar. covered by point A. However. The acceleration of point A can be determined as follows The acceleration at is the tangential component of the linear acceleration.In our problem. is .3. The time that the wheel has been turning before the time period [Delta]t can be easily calculated The angular velocity of the wheel at the beginning of this period is 11.

every part of the body has the same angular velocity [omega] and the same angular acceleration a. We can conclude that when a rigid body is rotating around a fixed axis. Figure 11. Components of the acceleration of point A.4.2. but points that are located at different distances from the rotation axis have different linear velocities and different linear accelerations.2 shows the direction of both the radial and the tangential components of the acceleration of point A. we can rewrite the radial component of the acceleration as follows Figure 11. 11.Using the previously derived expression for v in terms of [omega] and r. The quantity in parenthesis tells us . The radial component is always present as long as [omega] is not equal to zero. Kinetic energy of rotation The total kinetic energy of a rotating object can be found by summing the kinetic energy of each individual particle: To derive this equation we have used the fact that the angular velocity is the same for each particle of the rigid body. the tangential component is only present if the angular acceleration is not zero.

parallel to it. Using this definition. Calculation of rotational inertia To calculate the moment of inertia of a rigid body we have to integrate over the whole body If the moment of inertia about an axis that passes through the center of mass is known. can be found by applying the parallel-axis theorem where Icm is the moment of inertia about an axis passing through the center of mass.how the mass of the rotating body is distributed around the axis of rotation. the moment of inertia about any other axis. though its center of mass (see Figure 11. This quantity is called the moment of inertia (or rotational inertia) The unit for I is kg m2.5. M is the total mass of the body. and h is the perpendicular distance between the two parallel axes. The mass dm of an element of the rod with length dx is .3). we can write the kinetic energy of the rotating object as Note: in many previous problems we have assumed to be dealing with massless pulleys. The mass per unit length of the rod is m/L. This assumption assures that by applying conservation of mechanical energy we do not have to consider the kinetic energy related to the rotation of the pulley. Sample Problem 11-8 Determine the moment of inertia of a uniform rod of mass m and length L about an axis at right angle with the rod. 11.

4) can now be calculated using the parallel axes theorem Figure 11. Sample Problem 11-8. Sample Problem 11.The contribution of this mass to the total moment of inertia of the rod is The total moment of inertia of the rod can be determined by integrating over all parts of the rod: The moment of inertia of the rod around its end point (see Figure 11.4. .3.8. Figure 11.

Example: Moment of Inertia of Disk Figure 11. we first look at a small section of the disk (see Figure 5). The density of the disk is given by To calculate the moment of inertia of the whole disk. Moment of inertia of a disk. The area of the ring located at a distance r from the center and having a width dr is The mass of this ring is The contribution of this ring to the total moment of inertia of the disk is given by The total moment of inertia can now be found by summing over all rings: Substituting the calculated density we obtain . A uniform disk has a radius R and a total mass M.5.

the concept of torque is introduced. Torque Suppose a force F is applied to point A (see Figure 11. To describe the effect of the force. Point A is part of a rigid body with an axis of rotation going through the origin. The force F can be decomposed into two components: one parallel to the position vector and one perpendicular to the position vector.6. The magnitude of the component of the force perpendicular to the position vector is given by Figure 11. the actual angular velocity will depend not only on the applied force but also on the distance between the axis of rotation and point A. Suppose the angle between the force F and the position vector r is [phi]. will produce a tangential acceleration a t The torque [tau] can be rewritten as .6.11. Torque The tangential component of the applied force F will produce a rotation of the object. It is obvious that the component parallel to the position vector can not cause a rotation of the rigid body.6). The tangential component of F. Ft.

g must exceed the tension T in the cord. The disk is mounted on a fixed axle. the angular acceleration of the disk. The torque exerted by the tension T of the cord on the disk is .The tangential acceleration at is related to the angular acceleration a We conclude that This is just Newton's second law for rotation.8. Figure 11. The linear acceleration of the mass m is defined to be positive if it points down: The uniform disk rotates as a result of the presence of mass m. and the tension of the cord. Sample Problem 11-11 Figure 11. A block with mass m hangs from a light cord that is wrapped around the rim of the disk.7. Find the acceleration of the falling block. The forces acting on the mass and the disk are shown in Figure 11. the gravitational force m . Since the mass m is moving downward.7 shows a uniform disk with mass M and radius R. Sample Problem 11-10.

the linear acceleration of the cord is a. Sample Problem 11-10. The moment of inertia of the disk is given by The angular acceleration a is equal to However. The linear acceleration of the rim and the angular acceleration a are related as follows Combining this expression with the previous expression we can conclude that If we combine this expression with a previously derived expression for a .8. and therefore the linear acceleration of the rim of the disk must also be a.The resulting angular acceleration a of the disk can be obtained from the torque or Figure 11.

9.7. Work done by a force.9). The work done by the force F is determined by the tangential component of F Here r d[theta] is the length of the arc traversed by the particle. Work Figure 11. The total work done by the force during a finite rotation (from [theta]i to [theta]f) is given by . The angular acceleration a can be obtained from 11. the system rotates through an angle [Delta][theta] (see Figure 11. Suppose a particle with mass m is connected to the end of a rod (with negligible mass). Under the influence of a force F. but approaches g when the mass of the disk becomes much smaller than the mass m.we can calculate a and T: We see that the acceleration of the falling block is always less than the gravitational acceleration.

ROLLING. TORQUE AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM 12. Rolling Motion Figure 12. 12.1.1. Rotational Motion of Wheel .This equation is very similar to what we have derived for linear motion: The total work done can now be calculated or This can be rewritten as This relation shows that the work done by the torque acting on a rigid body is equal to the change in rotational kinetic energy of that body.

This implies that besides a rotational motion the wheel experiences a linear motion with a velocity equal to + vcm (see Figure 12. Suppose the angular velocity of the wheel is [omega]. The corresponding linear velocity of any point on the rim of the wheel is given by where R is the radius of the wheel (see Figure 12.A wheel rolling over a surface has both a linear and a rotational velocity. 12. Motion of wheel around axis through P.2.1). Figure 12.3). An alternative way of looking at the motion of a wheel is by regarding it as a pure rotation (with the same angular velocity [omega]) about an instantaneous stationary axis through the bottom of the wheel (point P. its bottom part is at rest with respect to the ground.3. Kinetic Energy The kinetic energy of the wheel shown in Figure 12.2. When the wheel is in contact with the ground. Motion of wheel is sum of rotational and translational motion.2).3 can be calculated easily using the formulas derived in Chapter 11 . We conclude that the top of the wheel moves twice as fast as the center and the bottom of the wheel does not move at all. Figure 12. Figure 12.

The rotational inertia around an axis through P. The kinetic energy of the disk can now be rewritten as . What is its final velocity at the bottom of the plane ? The disk is released from rest. and [omega] is the rotational velocity of the wheel. Its total mechanical energy at that point is equal to its potential energy When the disk reaches the bottom of the plane.where IP is the rotational inertia around the axis through P. The mass is released from a height h. The kinetic energy of the disk will consist out of rotational and translational kinetic energy: The moment of inertia of the disk is given by where R is the radius of the disk. all of its potential energy is converted into kinetic energy.4 shows a disk with mass M and rotational inertia I on an inclined plane. IP. is related to the rotational inertia around an axis through the center of mass. Example Problem 12-1 Figure 12. Icm The kinetic energy of the wheel can now be rewritten as where the first term is the kinetic energy associated with the rotation of the wheel about an axis through its center of mass and the second term is associated with the translational motion of the wheel.

In this case the final kinetic energy can be written as Conservation of energy now requires that or We conclude that in this case. . Conservation of mechanical energy implies that Ei = Ef. or This shows that the velocity of the disk is given by Consider now two different disks with identical mass M but different moments of inertia.4. Mass on inclined plane. the disk with the smallest moment of inertia has the largest final velocity.Figure 12.

5. having been released from rest somewhere along the straight section of the track. From what minimum height above the bottom of the track must the marble be released in order not to leave the track at the top of the loop.5. Problem 15P A small solid marble of mass m and radius r rolls without slipping along a loop-the-loop track shown in Figure 12.Figure 12. The moment of inertia of the marble is given by . The marble will not leave the track at the top of the loop if the centripetal force exceeds the gravitational force at that point: or The kinetic energy of the marble at the top consists out of rotational and translational energy where we assumed that the marble is rolling over the track (no slipping). Problem 13P.

6. What is its linear acceleration ? .6 shows a schematic drawing of a yo-yo. The yo-yo.Using this expression we obtain for the kinetic energy The marble will reach the top if The total mechanical energy of the marble at the top of the loop-the-loop is equal to The initial energy of the marble is just its potential energy at a height h Conservation of energy now implies that or Example Problem 12-2: the yo-yo Figure 12. Figure 12.

The acceleration of the system depends on these two forces: The rotational motion of the yo-yo is determined by the torque exerted by the tension T (the torque due to the gravitational force is zero) The rotational acceleration a is related to the linear acceleration a: We can now write down the following equations for the tension T The linear acceleration a can now be calculated Thus. . The acceleration can be made smaller by increasing the rotational inertia and by decreasing the radius of the axle. and the gravitational force.There are two forces acting on the yo-yo: an upward force equal to the tension in the cord. the yo-yo rolls down the string with a constant acceleration.

the torque exerted by this force on the mass.4. According to the definition of the vector product.7). 12. A particle with mass m moves in the x-y plane (see Figure 12. Torque defined in this way has meaning only with respect to a specified origin. the vector [tau] lies parallel to the z-axis. The direction of the torque is always at right angles to the plane formed by the vectors r and F. or directly towards it. The torque is zero if r = 0 m. Motion of particle P in the x-y plane.3. Angular Momentum The angular momentum L of particle P in Figure 12. the angular momentum associated with this .7. with respect to the origin of our coordinate system. A single force F acts on the particle and the angle between the force and the position vector is [phi].12. Per definition. is given by and where r[invtee] is called the arm of the force F with respect to the origin. and its direction (either up or down) can be determined using the right-hand rule. with respect to the origin. F = 0 N or r is parallel or anti-parallel to F. is defined as This definition implies that if the particle is moving directly away from the origin.7. Torque Figure 12.

Figure 12.motion is zero. A particle moving in a circle will have an angular momentum (with respect to the center of the circle) equal to Again we notice the similarity between the definition of linear momentum and the definition of angular momentum.8. Angular momentum of particle P. For example. A particle will have a different angular momentum if the origin is chosen at a different location. The angular momentum of particle P. with respect to the origin. The change in the angular momentum of the particle can be obtained by differentiating the equation for l with respect to time We conclude that . is given by Figure 12. A particle can have angular momentum even if it does not move in a circle.8 shows the location and the direction of the momentum of particle P.

What is its angular momentum. is given by The angular momentum of object P is given by Therefore which is equal to the torque of the gravitational force with respect to the origin.9. Example Problem 12-3 Figure 12. Figure 12. Free fall and angular momentum .9 shows object P in free fall.This equation shows that if the net torque acting on the particle is zero. with respect to the origin. its angular momentum will be constant.9. as function of time ? The velocity of object P. as function of time. The object starts from rest at the position indicated in Figure 12.

The internal torques come in pairs. Action . Figure 12. FAB and FBA are related as follows The torque exerted by each of these forces. with respect to the origin. Newton's third law states that forces come in pairs: if B exerts a force FAB on A. some are external. than A will exert a force FBA on B.Figure 12. these two torques add up to zero . and the vector sum of these is zero.10 shows the particles A and B which interact via a central force. This is illustrated in Figure 12.reaction pair. If we look at a system of particles. can be easily calculated and Clearly.10.10. the total angular momentum L of the system is the vector sum of the angular momenta of each of the individual particles: The change in the total angular momentum L is related to the change in the angular momentum of the individual particles Some of the torques are internal.

Only if the rotation axis is a symmetry axis of the rigid body will the total angular momentum vector coincide with the rotation axis. The linear momentum of each mass element is parallel to the x-y plane.The net torque for each action-reaction pair. and perpendicular to the position vector. Angular Momentum of Rotating Rigid Bodies Suppose we are dealing with a rigid body rotating around the z-axis. . is equal to zero. We conclude that This equation is another way of expressing Newton's second law in angular quantities. The magnitude of the angular momentum of this mass element is The z-component of this angular momentum is given by The z-component of the total angular momentum L of the rigid body can be obtained by summing over all mass elements in the body From the definition of the rotational inertia of the rigid body we can conclude that This is the projection of the total angular momentum onto the rotation axis. 12. The rotational inertia I in this equation must also be calculated with respect to the same rotation axis. with respect to the origin.5.

Conservation of Angular Momentum If no external forces act on a system of particles or if the external torque is equal to zero.6. What is the ratio of the new rotational kinetic energy to the initial rotational kinetic energy ? The final rotational inertia If is related to the initial rotational inertia Ii as follows No external forces act on the system. no matter what changes take place within the system. the total angular momentum of the system is conserved.12. The angular momentum remains constant. Problem 54E The rotational inertia of a collapsing spinning star changes to one-third of its initial value. and the total angular momentum is conserved The initial rotational kinetic energy is given by The final rotational kinetic energy is given by .

Figure 12. The cockroach finds a bread crumb on the rim and.11) and its angular momentum is pointing along the negative z-axis. Note that since the rotation is clockwise. The direction of the z-axis is chosen such that the angular momentum of the cockroach coincides with the positive z-axis. with respect to the origin. (a) What is the angular speed of the lazy Susan after the cockroach stops ? (b) Is mechanical energy conserved ? Assume that the lazy Susan is located in the x-y plane (see Figure 12. The lazy Susan is moving clockwise (see Figure 12. [omega]0 is less than zero. The total angular momentum of the system is given by . The angular momentum of the cockroach. The cockroach's speed (with respect to the earth) is v. is given by The direction of the angular momentum can be found using the right-hand rule. Problem 61P. Problem 61P A cockroach with mass m runs counterclockwise around the rim of a lazy Susan (a circular dish mounted on a vertical axle) of radius R and rotational inertia I with frictionless bearings. of course. The linear momentum of the cockroach is m . Its angular momentum is given by where I is the rotational inertia of the dish. whereas the lazy Susan turns clockwise with angular speed [omega]0.11.11). stops. v.

.The rotational inertia of the dish plus cockroach is given by Since the external torque acting on the system is zero. and we conclude that mechanical energy is not conserved. The rotational velocity of the system after the cockroach stops is given by The initial kinetic energy of the system is equal to The final kinetic energy of the system is equal to The change in kinetic energy of the system is The change in the kinetic energy of the system is negative. The loss of mechanical energy is due to the work done by the friction force between the surface of the lazy Susan and the legs of the cockroach. the total angular momentum is conserved.

see Figure 12. For any point on the rotation axis of the top. The Precessing Top Figure 12. The external torque causes a change in the angular momentum of the system This equation shows that the change in the angular momentum dL that occurs in a time dt must point in the same direction as the torque vector. The result is a rotation of the angular momentum vector around the z-axis.12. The precession angle d[phi] is related to the change in the angular momentum of the system: This shows that the precession velocity is equal to .7. This also implies that the torque is perpendicular to the angular momentum of the spinning top. it can not change the magnitude of L. the position vector is parallel to the angular momentum vector. will rotate slowly about the vertical axis.12). but it can change its direction. Since the torque is at right angle to L. The magnitude of this torque is The direction of the torque is perpendicular to the position vector and to the force. A top. The weight of the top exerts an external torque about the origin (the coordinate system is defined such that the origin coincides with the contact point of the top on the floor. This motion is called precession. The precessing top.12. set spinning.

Requirements for Equilibrium If a body is in translational equilibrium then dP/dt = 0.1.This equation shows that the faster the top spins the slower it precesses. the precession is zero if g = 0 m/s2 and the precession is independent of the angle [theta].2. the following equations must be satisfied for an object in static equilibrium . 13. Equilibrium An object is in equilibrium if the linear momentum of its center of mass is constant and if its angular momentum about its center of mass is constant: P = constant L = constant An object is in static equilibrium if its linear momentum and angular momentum is equal to zero: P = 0 kg m/s L = 0 kg m2/s 13. In addition. or If a body is in rotational equilibrium then dL/dt = 0. or In summary. EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY 13.

independent of the orientation of the object. If the body is in equilibrium. which is the point upon which the balancing force acts.1 shows a body of arbitrary shape balanced by a single force. Weight of an object balanced by a single force. the net force acting on it must be zero. Figure 13. Equilibrium and the Force of Gravity Figure 13. The origin of the coordinate system is defined such that it coincides with the center of gravity of the object. Figure 13.If we restrict ourselves to two dimensions (the x-y plane) the following equations must be satisfied: 13.3.1 shows that Since the body is in equilibrium and therefore .1. An object that is supported at its center of gravity will be in static equilibrium.

Sample Problem 13-1 A uniform beam of length L whose mass is m.In obtaining this result we have assumed that the gravitational acceleration is the same for every point of the body. the net force and net torque must be zero. its center one-fourth away from the beam's left end. For the system to be in equilibrium.2 shows that . rest with its ends on two digital scales (see Figure 13. What do the scales read ? Figure 13. We conclude that for a body to be in equilibrium. A block whose mass is M rests on the beam. Sample problem 13-1. Figure 13. The net torque acting on the body is given by Since the body is in static equilibrium and therefore This shows that rcm = 0 or rcm is parallel to g. its center of mass must coincide with its center of gravity.2).2.

is frictionless. with respect to O (which is the contact point between the ladder and the ground).Here we have replaced the force acting on the beam with a single force acting on its center of gravity. Assume that the wall. it exerts no vertical force. Its upper end is a distance h above the ground (see Figure 13. is This shows immediately that From the equation of the net force we obtain Sample Problem 13-3 A ladder with length L and mass m rests against a wall. The ground exerts a force Fg on the ladder with a horizontal component Fgx and a vertical component Fgy. A firefighter with mass M climbs halfway up the ladder. The center of gravity of the ladder is one-third of the way up the ladder. with respect to the left scale. but not the ground. If these two components were not present.3). What is the force exerted on the ladder by the wall and by the ground ? The wall exerts a horizontal force FW on the ladder (the normal force). is given by . the system would not be in equilibrium. The net force in the x and y directions is given by and The net torque. The net torque of the system.

In this case Fgx is given by If the coefficient of static friction between the ladder and the ground is us.3. Sample Problem 13-3 This immediately shows that We can now calculate the force Fg: and We observe that Fgx depends on the position of the firefighter. than the maximum distance the firefighter can climb is reached when or This shows that . Suppose that the firefighter is a distance f L up the ladder.Figure 13.

The normal force N acting on the whole contact area between the top and the bottom block is replaced by a single force N acting on a point a distance d away from the rotation axis O. Stacking Blocks Two bricks of length L and mass m are stacked. Since the system is in equilibrium. If the top block is on the verge of falling down. it will rotate around O.4. The torque of the normal force and the gravitational force with respect to O is given by The net torque acting on the top brick is given by .4. Using conditions of static equilibrium we can determine the maximum overhang of the top brick (see Figure 13. the net force acting along the y-axis must be zero. We conclude that Figure 13.13. Two stacked bricks. The two forces acting on the top brick are the gravitational force Fg and the normal force N. exerted by the bottom brick on the top brick. The torque exerted by the two external forces with respect to O can be easily calculated (see Figure 13. The gravitational force Fg acting on the whole block is replaced by a single force with magnitude m g acting on the center of mass of the top block.4).5). Both forces are directed along the y-axis.

We conclude that the system can not be in equilibrium if the center of mass of the top brick is located to the right of the edge of the bottom brick. Newton proposed that the magnitude of this force is given by .5. but it is the force of gravity that controls the evolution of the universe.If the system is in equilibrium. or This equation shows that the system can never be in equilibrium if a > L/2 (since d < 0 in that case). The Gravitational Force Gravity is the weakest force we know. the system will be on the verge of losing equilibrium if the center of mass of the top brick is located right over the edge of the bottom brick. This implies that Figure 13.1. Finally. GRAVITY 14. then the net torque acting on the top brick with respect to O must be zero. Every body in the universe attracts every other body. Forces acting on top brick. In this case. d = 0. the system will be in equilibrium. if the center of mass of the top brick is located to the left of the edge of the bottom brick. The system will be on the verge of losing equilibrium if a = L/2. 14.

The net force between the . The radius of the shell is R and its mass is M. r is the distance between them and G is a universal constant whose value is G = 6. theshell theorem can be used: "A uniform shell of matter attracts an external particle as if all the shell's mass were concentrated at its center" Proof: Figure 14. The gravitational force. and form an action-reaction pair (see Figure 14. The mass density of the shell is given by All points on the small hoop indicated in Figure 14. instead we are dealing with extended objects.2 shows a shell located a distance r from a particle with mass m. The magnitude of the gravitational attraction between any of these points and the mass m is therefore the same.67 x 10-11 N m2/kg2 The gravitational forces between two particles act along the line joining them.1.2 have the same distance to the particle m.1). In real life we are not dealing with point particles. Figure 14.where m1 and m2 are the masses of the particles. To evaluate the gravitational force between extended objects.

Shell theorem.2. The area of the hoop is given by Figure 14.hoop and mass m acts along the axis connecting the center of the shell and mass m. and its mass m is equal to The net force is equal to The angles [theta] and a can be eliminated by using the following relations: and Differentiating the first of these two equations with respect to [theta] we obtain or .

The gravitational constant G The strength of the gravitational force depends on the value of G. are placed in the location indicated in Figure 14. The lead spheres will attract each other. each of mass M. In the equilibrium position the gravitational torque is just balanced by the torque exerted by the twisted fiber. Two small lead spheres of mass m are connected to the end of a rod of length L which is suspended from it midpoint by a fine fiber.2. forming a torsion balance.3. exerting a torque on the rod. In a similar fashion we can proof that a uniform shell of matter exerts no gravitational force on a particle located inside it . The torque exerted by the twisted wire is given by . The value of the gravitational constant can be determined using the Cavendish apparatus.Further more we see that The total force acting on mass m can now be obtained easily The shell theorem immediately shows that a sphere of uniform density (and mass M) attracts an external particle as if all the mass of the sphere is concentrated in its center. 14. Two large lead spheres.

the net torque acting on the rod is zero. is sufficient to determine the torque [tau] acting on the torsion balance due to the gravitational force. and the system will start to oscillate. Thus All of a sudden the large spheres are rotated to a new position (position B in Figure 14. The Cavendish Apparatus. . The period of oscillation is related to the rotational inertia and the torsion constant [kappa] The angle between the two equilibrium positions is measured to be 2[theta]. This. If the system is in equilibrium. Measurements show that G = 6.Figure 14. The net torque acting on the twisted fiber is now not equal to zero.67 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2.3).3. combined with the measured torsion constant. The torque exerted by the gravitational force is given by where R is the equilibrium distance between the center of the large and the small spheres.

In reality. This can suggest the presence of salt domes (which often indicated the presence of oil). consider a mass m located on a scale at the equator (see . To illustrate the effect of the rotation of the earth on the gravitational acceleration. we can easily calculate the net gravitational force acting on a particle of mass m. Free-fall Acceleration If the mass density of the earth depends only on the distance from the center of the earth (homogeneous shells).98 x 1024 kg.37 x 106 m gives which is in good agreement with the accepted value of 5. a distance r from the center of the earth: where M is the mass of the earth. the gravitational force is given by We conclude that the free-fall acceleration depends on the mass of the earth and its radius: The measured value of g = 9. The earth is rotating. The earth is an ellipsoid.14.3. The centripetal acceleration will change the freefall acceleration. the situation is more complicated: • • • The earth's crust is not uniform. The free-fall acceleration is larger at the poles than it is at the equator. r = Re. It is flattened on the poles and bulging at the equator (difference in radius is 21 km). For a particle on the earth surface.8 m/s2 and Re = 6. The earth is not a sphere. located at an external point. Precise measurements of the variations of the free-fall acceleration give information about nonuniformaties in the density of the earth.

The gravitational force m g0 (downwards) 2. The force W exerted by the scale on the mass (upwards) The net force acting on the mass must be equal to the centripetal force required for the circular motion: Figure 14. g0 . obtained from the measured weight W.4).034 m/s2 . Mass located at equator. The effective free-fall acceleration.g = 0. The mass m will carry out a uniform circular motion with a period T equal to 24 hours. The corresponding centripetal acceleration is given by The following forces act on the mass: 1.4.Figure 14. The radius of the circle is equal to the radius of the earth Re. is given by For the earth.

The work done by the gravitational force can be calculated as follows (note that the force F and the position vector r are pointed in an opposite direction. The work done is negative if the force and the displacement are pointing in the opposite direction. separated by a distance r. The potential energy U(r) is now given by The potential energy is always negative and is a property of the two masses together rather than of either mass alone. if the force and the displacement are pointing in the same direction the work is positive Therefore the net work done if we travel along the radial direction back-and-forth (initial and final points coincide) is zero.). Suppose the two masses are brought together (distance r) from infinity. The only segments that contribute to the work done are those segments along the radial direction. The work done by the gravitational force on the baseball along the arcs is zero since the force and displacement are perpendicular. We can now easily show that the net work done by the gravitational force on the baseball is just determined by its initial radial position and its final radial position. along the path connecting the centers of the two masses.14. For example. . We can verify our calculation by using U(r) to calculate the gravitational force which is of course equal to Newton's law of gravity.5). Consider two particles of masses m1 and m2. a baseball travels from point A to point B (see Figure 14. In the gravitational field it is convenient to define the zero potential energy configuration to be one in which the two particles are separated by a large distance (infinity). and not on the actual path followed. and the angle between them is 180deg.4. The work done by the gravitational force depends only on its initial and its final position. Gravitational Potential Energy In chapter 8 we have discussed the relation between the force and the potential energy.

In calculating the total potential energy of a system of particles one should take great care not to double count the interactions. The total potential energy of the system shown in Figure 14. The total potential energy is the amount of work that needs to be done to separate the individual parts of the system and bring them to infinity.6.6 can be easily calculated: The total potential energy of a system of particles is sometimes called the binding energy of the system. In this case we consider each pair and the total potential energy is equal to the sum of the potential energies of each pair.6 for a system consisting of 3 particles.5. Suppose a projectile of mass m has a speed v. Example The gravitational potential can be used to calculate the minimum initial speed that a projectile must have to escape from the earth.Figure 14. the principle of superposition applies. Work done by the gravitational force. A system of three particles. This is illustrated in Figure 14. Figure 14. Its initial kinetic energy if given by . If the system contains more than two particles.

5.The initial potential energy of the projectile is given by and its initial mechanical energy is equal to In deep space the potential energy of the projectile will be zero. Therefore and This initial speed is called the escape speed.1 x 104 m/s 14. The gravitational force between the sun and the planet is given by This is the force that keeps the planet in its circular orbit and its magnitude should therefore be equal to the centripetal force FC: . We conclude that the minimum mechanical energy of the projectile must be zero. whose mass is M. and its minimum kinetic energy will also be equal to zero. For the earth we obtain vcrit = 1. Motion of planets Suppose a planet with mass m is in a circular orbit around the sun. The radius of the orbit is r.

and the semi-major axis is equal to the radius of the circle. The parameter b is called the semi-minor axis of the ellipse (if a > b). their orbits are elliptical. It is easy to see that this distance is given by Rp = a (1 .y=0) and the trajectory. the square of the period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the radius of the orbit (law of periods). The shortest distance between the focus and the ellipse is called the perihelion distance Rp.This implies that or This shows that for circular orbits. a distance (e a) away from the center of the ellipse. In reality none of the planets carry out a circular orbit.7): each focus is located on the x-axis.7) The parameter a is called the semi-major axis of the ellipse (if a > b). The general equation of an ellipse is given by (see Figure 14. An ellipse has two focuses (see Figure 14. The constant depends only on the mass of the sun (M) and the gravitational constant (G). The parameter e is called the eccentricity of the ellipse and is equal to We see that for a circle the eccentricity is equal to zero. It corresponds to the longest distance between the center of the ellipse (x=0.e) . It corresponds to the shortest distance between the center of the ellipse (x=0.y=0) and the trajectory.

also holds for elliptical orbits.Figure 14. provided we replace r by a. Under certain conditions the trajectory will be hyperbolic and the planet will approach the sun only once in its lifetime. Examples of hyperbolic trajectories are the trajectories of satellites that use the gravitational fields of the planets to change direction. The ellipse. the semi-major axis of the ellipse. The elliptical shape of the trajectory of the planet is a result of the 1/r2 nature of the gravitational force and the initial conditions.8). The largest distance between the focus and the ellipse is called the aphelion distance Ra which is given by Ra = a (1 + e) Figure 14.8. Trajectory of planet around sun. previously derived for the special case of circular orbits. The planets move about the sun in an elliptic path with the focus at the position of the sun (see Figure 14. The law of periods.7. .

Sample Problem 14-8 Comet Halley has a period of 76 years and. The Law of Areas The trajectory of a planet about the sun is described by an ellipse with the sun in one of its focuses. The width of the wedge is related to r and [Delta] [theta]: .6. (a) What is the aphelion distance ? (b) What is the eccentricity of the orbit of Comet Halley ? The semi-major axis of the orbit of Comet Halley can be found using the law of periods: where • • • M is the mass of the sun (= 1. The perihelion distance Rp is related to the semi-major axis a and the eccentricity e: Rp = a (1 . The area. The shaded wedge shows the area swept out in the time [Delta]t. [Delta]A. [Delta]w.7 x 1012 m. times its height r. Figure 14. in 1986.4 x 109 s).9 shows the position of the planet at two instances (t and t + [Delta]t).67 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2) T is the period (= 2.99 x 1030 kg) G is the gravitational constant (= 6. has a distance of closest approach to the sun of 8.e) This equation shows that the eccentricity of the orbit can be calculated easily: The aphelion distance can now be calculated 14.9 x 1010 m. Substituting these numbers we obtain a = 2. is approximately one-half of its base.

9.Figure 14. [Delta]w = r [Delta][theta] We conclude that the area [Delta]A is given by If the time interval [Delta]t approaches zero. The instantaneous rate at which the area is being swept out is The rate at which the area is being swept out depends on the velocity of the planet and is also related to its angular momentum L. Area swept out by planet during a time [Delta]t. The angular momentum of the planet can be calculated as follows Figure 14.10. the expression for [Delta]A becomes more exact. Angular momentum of planet. . Figure 14.10 shows how to calculate the angular momentum of the planet.

We conclude that " A line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal time " This shows that the velocity of the planet will be highest when the distance between the sun and planet is smallest. 14. The potential energy of the satellite is given by The velocity of the satellite can be found by requiring that the magnitude of the gravitational force is equal to the centripetal force: The kinetic energy can therefore given by The total mechanical energy can now be calculated . This immediately indicates that dA/dt also remains constant. Orbits and Energy Suppose a satellite of mass m is in orbit around the earth (mass M). The radius of the orbit is given to be r. The slowest velocity of the planet will occur when the distance between the sun and the planet is largest.7.Substituting this in the expression obtained for dA/dt we conclude that Since no external torques are acting on the sun-planet system. The kinetic and potential energy of the satellite can be easily expressed in terms of r. the angular momentum of the system is constant.

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