You are on page 1of 32

ABSTRACT

Indian railroads are the world's fourth biggest railroad is beside USA, Russia and China.
India is confronting numerous issues identified with train crash. In this manner, the
fundamental point of the Indian Railways is the solace and wellbeing of travellers. This
work is focused on foreseeing the real reason for railroad mishaps that is a crash on a
similar track. The essential objective of this hostile to impact framework is to recognise
crash indicates and report these blunder cases to the primary control room, close-by
station and in addition matrix control stations. The work in this venture is avoiding train
crash anticipation framework utilising RF signals. Here we utilise RF transmitter and RF
recipient which are joined to motors, tracks, and also different trains altogether.
Consequently now by executing these segments, we can get the data about track in which
it is running and stores it in the microcontroller. A similar system is done in every one of
the trains. Furthermore, if any two trains the transmitted RF flag is same (when they are
on a similar track) then the train stops.

So that if any impact prone to happens then this framework will dodge such conditions by
giving a caution to concern units. A protected separation of 1 Km has been kept up
between two trains in the wake of applying the crisis brake in the event of impact
discovery. In view of the reviews, it is watched that notwithstanding for two trains going
at 140kmph, the protected separation after programmed braking under typical conditions
is around 920m. It is normal that if this framework is executed generally, train impacts
and mischances can be maintained a strategic distance from. The up degree is
additionally done by taking after checking fell association of the compartments in
succession way. The principle favourable position of utilising this sort of a framework is
that it can be introduced specifically into the current engineering of the Indian Railway
systems.

[Type text] Page 1


INDEX

1. Literature Survey

2. CHAPTER 1

● Introduction
● Hardware

3. CHAPTER 2

● Indian railways and safety


● The present state of accidents
● Current Technologies used

4. CHAPTER 3

● Proposed System
● Transmitter and Receiver section
● Program used
5. CHAPTER 4

● Future scope using:

[Type text] Page 2


● Zig-Bee
● Vehicle Positioning Systems Extend GPS Capabilities for
Vehicle Navigation
6. References

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
The railroads give an eco benevolent, temperate and well known methods for
transportation in many parts of the world. Being the second biggest in rail organize, the
principle need of our country, India is to make it a sheltered and dependable method of
transportation. Because of blunder of human and machine disappointment the mishaps by
and large happen. Likewise amid winter season numerous cancelation of train happen and
because of this reason huge measure of cash is squandered. Likewise amid winter season,
running of train is more troublesome. The primary driver of this issue is mist and our
Indian Railway has done many inquires about on numerous advances to overcome from
the above issue of event. The past has seen various train mishaps because of reasons, for
example, human mistake, machine disappointments and so forth. Train impacts have
made questions about its unwavering quality, creating loss of valuable human life.
Likewise the Indian Railways spends a gigantic sum over these debacles. These
indisputably focuses towards the requirement for a dependable, steady and sparing
methods for train impact shirking framework, likewise simple in its usage. Various
against impact gadgets have been created throughout the years yet a steady framework
has not come into usage. The Anti Collision Device in view of GPS and Microprocessor.
GPS used to track the train current position however climate conditions may make data
assembled to be inaccurate. The ACD framework is observed to be ineffectual in light of
the fact that it doesn't considering any dynamic contributions from existing Railway sign
framework. Geological sensors have furthermore been utilized that makes utilization of
satellite for correspondence making the framework confused to actualize. In this

[Type text] Page 3


proposed framework we build up a train crash shirking framework utilizing the RFID
incorporated with the implanted framework. In numerous developments they need to
check the issue of train impact of hindrance identification

Indian Railways in brief


Indian Railways is a state-owned railway company, responsible for rail transport in India.
It is owned and operated by the Government of India through the Ministry of Railways. It
is fourth largest railway network in the world comprising 119,630 kilometres (74,330 mi)
of total track and 92,081 km (57,216 mi) of running track over a route of 68,525 km
(42,579 mi) with 7,216 stations at the end of 2015-16.[2] In 2015-16, IR carried 8.107
billion passengers annually or more than 22 million passengers a day and 1.101 billion
tons of freight annually.

Railways were first introduced to India in the year 1853 from Bombay to Thane. In 1951
the systems were nationalized as one unit, the Indian Railways, becoming one of the
largest networks in the world. IR operates both long distance and suburban rail systems
on a multi-gauge network of broad, meter and narrow gauges. It also owns locomotive
and coach production facilities at several places in India, with assigned codes identifying
their gauge, kind of power and type of operation. Its operations cover twenty six states
and three union territories across India, and also have international connectivity to
Bangladesh (with Bangladesh Railway) and Pakistan (with Pakistan Railways).

Indian Railways is the world's eighth biggest employer and had 1.331 million employees
at the end of 2015-16. In 2015–2016 Indian Railways had revenues of ₹1.683 trillion
(US$25 billion) which consists of ₹1.069 trillion (US$16 billion) freight earnings and
₹442.83 billion (US$6.6 billion) passengers earnings. It had operating ratio of 90.5% in
2015-16.[2] As on the end of 2015-16, IR's rolling stock comprises over 251,256 Freight
Wagons, 70,241 Passenger Coaches and 11,122 Locomotives (39 steam, 5,869 diesel and
5214 electric locomotives).

[Type text] Page 4


Indian Railways run on average 13,313 passenger trains daily in 2015-16. Mail or
Express trains, most common type, run at average speed of 50.9 km/hr on Broad Gauge
and 34.2 km/hr on Meter Gauge. The trains have a 5 digit numbering system. As of at the
end of 2015-16, of the total 68,525 km (42,579 mi) route length, 28,327 km (17,602 mi)
(45%) was electrified and 28,371 km (17,629 mi) (37%) was Double or Multiple line
routence 1960, almost all electrified sections on IR use 25,000 volts AC traction through
overhead catenary delivery.

Engineering data of Indian Railways

1.1 Indian Railways & Safety


Indian Railways are the world's second-biggest railroad, with 6,853 stations, 63,028
kilometres of track, 37,840 traveller mentors and 222,147 cargo autos. Yearly it conveys

[Type text] Page 5


approximately 4.83 billion travellers and 492 million tonnes of cargo cars.Of the 11
million travellers who move on board, one of 8,520 trains every day, around 550,000
have saved lodging. Safe transportation of travellers is the key business target of any
transportation framework. Railroads are perceived as the most secure method of mass
transportation and Safety has been perceived as the key issue for the rail routes and one
of its exceptional qualities. All business procedures radiate from this subject and
endeavour to accomplish Accident-Free System. Security is, thusly, the key execution list
which the top administrations need to screen and make preventive strides in view of
patterns of mischances which are the signs of a portion of the perilous practices on the
framework.

Indian Railway network

1.2 Collisions
Crashes are the most feared mishaps. It is extremely hard to stop such crashes on account

[Type text] Page 6


of speed of moving trains, which require a lead separation to stop. Impacts occur because
of human mistakes or potentially broken hardware.

[Type text] Page 7


1.2.1 Head-On & Rear-End-Collisions

A head-on impact is one where the front closures of two boats, trains, planes
or vehicles hit each other, rather than aside-crash or backside crash.. With
rail, a head-on crash frequently infers an impact on a solitary line railroad

Figure 1. Head On Collision

Figure 2. Rear End Collision

1.3 Current Technologies Used


[Type text] Page 8
The Anti-Collision Device (ACD) is a self acting microchip based information
specialized gadget planned and created by Kankan Railway. The framework comprises of
Loco ACD with a support (message show) for the driver (in each Loco Engine), Guard
ACD with remote (fitted in Guard Van), Station ACD with comfort (fitted in Station
Masters' Cabin), Manned and Unmanned Gates ACD with hooters and flashers (in every
area) and Repeater ACDs (fitted at areas having checks in radio correspondence, for
example, sloping regions) which work in show to keep the accompanying sorts of
impacts and mishaps like-Head on crashes ,Rear end crashes ,Collisions because of
wrecking, Collisions at the level intersection doors .

1. The Anti-Collision Device (ACD) has been produced by Konkan railroad and they
utilize GPS innovation for following the train in risky position. This is more useful in
southern railroad they are under practice

2. This ACD utilizes the GPS framework and installed controls for counteracting train
impact. In view of nature component we can't utilize this GPS strategy procedure.
Additionally the issue may happen because of extensions collapsation and these issues
can't be overcome.

In this venture, the framework utilizes RFID innovation for anticipating train crash. RFID
is utilized to avert head-on impacts of trains. It doesn't require viewable pathway. In risky
circumstance following of train is simple and read various labels at the same time. It has
favorable circumstances with the end goal that convenient database, information
transmission in more prominent range, precision is better. We need to settle RFID tag
between the tracks so that the train will get the data of track's points of interest. Each
track has novel ID. In view of ID we need to settle RFID tag. Settle RFID peruser under
the motor. This data put away in microcontroller. It will transmit to the encoder change
over parallel data into serial information. From encoder the information transmit to RF

[Type text] Page 9


transmitter. Each train has one of a kind RF transmitter and RF recipient. From
transmitter it will transmit into climate recurrence. From the air, the information is gotten
by the RF collector in the close-by train. At that point it will transmit into decoder which
changes over serial information into parallel information. The information is then given
to the microcontroller. Microcontroller analyzes RF beneficiary and its extraordinary ID.
On the off chance that they are match, microcontroller alarms the loco pilot on the
circumstance. RFID is utilized to detect the track data which is imparted among the
trains, conveyed data is then traind by the microcontroller and it offers guidelines to take
activities, for example, speed diminishment, train stoppage.

Chapter 2

Literature Survey

● In paper [1], The essential objective of this hostile to crash framework is to recognize
impact indicates and report these mistake cases to primary control room, adjacent
station and additionally matrix control stations. So that if any impact liable to happens
then this framework will dodge such conditions by giving an alert to concern units. A
sheltered separation of 1 Km has been kept up between two trains in the wake of
applying the crisis brake if there should be an occurrence of crash discovery. In view of
the reviews, it is watched that notwithstanding for two trains going at 140kmph, the

[Type text] Page 10


protected separation after programmed braking under typical conditions is roughly
920m. All sub modules have been composed and mimicked utilizing Proteus electronic
recreation bundle and the model is executed.

● In Paper[2], The essential objective of proposed framework is to distinguish


conceivable train impact early and to send the answer to the primary control room or
driver before crash happens. At a present, there is no answer for maintaining a strategic
distance from train impact. Every train is furnished with a mechanised observation
framework. The train tracks in railroad system are separated into various casings and
each fragment has 10 km separation and given with unmistakable track numbers which
are perused by observation framework inside the train. Consequently, the track id
should have been given at 10 km remove the traind track. This tracking number will be
imparted to the base station by utilising Radio Frequency Communication framework

● In paper [3], Allotment of stage to number of trains in less time interim is very
troublesome with the token framework since this is done just on figure which is not that
much proficient and besides, a minor slip-up in estimation may prompt a mishap which
may bring a great deal of lives into risk. We utilized RFID tag and ZIGBEE interfaced with
MSP430 to send train's one of a kind id to server room and server room will apportion
the stage which can be at long last shown on LCD screen and some other basic data
which is set before train driver and there is zero chance of misstep in assessing the
landing time of train.

● In paper [5] (CAG report), The CAG has found that out of aggregate 552 ACD
introduced at stations and level intersections both kept an eye on and unmanned, 188
were either imperfect or were not working in record of burglary of sun oriented board
accommodated charging the batteries of the gadgets.

● In paper [7], This paper received a changing rationale procedure to meet the

[Type text] Page 11


difficulties of the following framework. This work likewise centered to delineate train
around the show screen. On the off chance that the train moving near the level
intersection framework the flagging framework causes to discharge the green flag that
causes to close the rail entryway to maintain a strategic distance from the unapproved
passage on the rail track. The framework comes about dynamic reaction while following
the position of the train. The outcomes are recorded and broke down. The proposed
framework may keep alarm the observing instrument. Thus, the crash of the train and
startling human blunders can be limited.

● In paper [8], This paper plans to lessen the quantity of street mishaps because of
human carelessness which are the main source of mischances on the planet. For this a
LCD can be hand crafted to fit into a vehicle's dashboard and is utilized for showing the
Status of vehicle. The venture has two separate units, i.e. transmitter unit and
beneficiary (speed show and control) unit. Once the zone speed data is gotten from the
RF transmitter, the recipient acknowledges the flag and the vehicle's implanted unit
consequently cautions the driver to lessen the speed as per the zone in the event that
he didn't decrease the speed then the driver unit naturally diminishes the speed of the
electric vehicle to the zone speed.

● In paper [9], Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) presents a strong approach for
deciding vehicle position. By introducing radio recurrence recognizable proof labels
encoded with street name, particular path, heading of travel, and separation from a
known reference, vehicles going with RFID perusers can decide exact position. Vehicle
units speak with sensors and actuators in different vehicles to refresh position between
nearby labels. RFID labels are favorable for astute transportation frameworks by
controlling movement and turn path signals, encouraging entry of crisis vehicles, and
deciding separation went on toll approaches to compute the proper toll.

● In paper [10], The train tracks in railroad system are divided and given with

[Type text] Page 12


particular track numbers which are perused by observation framework inside the train.
This track number will be imparted to neighbor trains utilizing Radio Frequency
Communication by the observation framework. The framework then contrasts its track
number and neighbor train track numbers. On finding same track numbers, steps are
taken by the reconnaissance framework to alert the concerned motorman with a
specific end goal to stop the train and stay away from setbacks. The paper proposes
particular method for numbering the train tracks in fragments.

Hardware

● Microcontroller
● RFID Module
● RF Transmitter-Reciever
● Encoder Decoder Pair

A. Microcontroller: ( Atmega16, Atmega8)

[Type text] Page 13


Figure 1- Atmega 16

[Type text] Page 14


Atmega 16 - Pin Diagram

ATmega16 is an 8-bit high performance microcontroller of Atmel’s Mega AVR


family with low power consumption. Atmega16 is based on enhanced RISC
(Reduced Instruction Set Computing). Most of the instructions execute in one

[Type text] Page 15


machine cycle. Atmega16 can work on a maximum frequency of 16MHz.

ATmega16 has 16 KB programmable flash memory, static RAM of 1 KB and


EEPROM of 512 Bytes. The endurance cycle of flash memory and EEPROM is
10,000 and 100,000, respectively.

ATmega16 is a 40 pin microcontroller. There are 32 I/O (input/output) lines


which are divided into four 8-bit ports designated as PORTA, PORTB, PORTC
and PORTD.

ATmega16 has various in-built peripherals like USART, ADC, Analog


Comparator, SPI, JTAG etc. Each I/O pin has an alternative task related to in-built
peripherals. The following table shows the pin description of ATmega16.

[Type text] Page 16


Atmega 8
A microcontroller has features of micro processor’s internal memory, timer/counter, I/O
ports. Use of microcontroller is to control the operation of a machine using a program
that is fixed which is stored in the ROM. For example, the microcontroller chip in
calculator calculates the function of calculation alone. The microcontroller has 62% of its
total instruction as multi byte instruction. The program is compact and run faster to
accomplish similar tasks. The features of the above microcontroller are its external
processor along with internal memory and I/O components, circuit is small, cost of the
system is low, number of registers. Speed upto 33MHz are used in this microcontroller.

[Type text] Page 17


Atmega 8 - Pin Diagram

[Type text] Page 18


RFID Module

Radio Frequency Identification is one of the families of AIDC used to describe a system
that transmit the identity of the object or people wirelessly without physical contact. The
RFID system typically consists of a tag that is made up of a chip of small size nearly
micro with an antenna, and a reader, which is embedded with a single chip processor and
an antenna. The purpose of an RFID system is to enable the data to be transmitted by a
tag, which is read by an RFID reader and process according to the what the application
needs. Moreover, the data transmitted by the tag may provide trains location or
identification or it specifics about the product, for examples price, colour, date code etc.
Also, RFID systems can be employed for tracking objects as an invasion of privacy.
In short, RFID tag is used for carrying data and it serve as agent for data transfer. A
reader in range of the tag’s signal will receive the information, decrypt it, and forward it
to the host computer for storing all the collected data within a database.

[Type text] Page 19


RF Transmitter-Receiver

Figure 3- Transmitter- Receiver


Each train has unique RF transmitter and RF receiver with a frequency of 433.92 MHz
and frequency of 315 MHz respectively .The transmitter converts parallel data to
frequency signal at atmosphere frequency of 433.92 MHz through antenna. The receiver
receives the frequency signal at a frequency of 315 MHz through antenna and converts it
to digital data and gives it to the decoder.

[Type text] Page 20


CHAPTER 3
PROPOSED SYSTEM

▶ The proposed Train Anti-Collision and Level Crossing Protection System comprises

of a self-acting microcontroller and against crash procedure which works round-the-clock


to turn away train impacts and mishaps at the level crosses.

▶ It improves security in train operations by giving an NON-SIGNAL extra wellbeing

overlay over the current flagging framework.

[Type text] Page 21


▶ The framework works without supplanting any of the current flaggings and no place

influences the essential working of the present security frameworks sent for train
operations.

▶ The framework gets information from the vibration sensor. The effectiveness of the

framework is relied upon to be impressively expanded as the proposed framework takes


contributions from the sensor and furthermore from the level intersection doors.

▶ As more pertinent information are incorporated, it is normal that the present

framework may help loco drivers in turning away mischances effectively. As no change
is important to be made to the foundation of the current framework, the cost of usage of
this framework is additionally less. The framework has been composed and mimicked
utilising PROTEUS ongoing reenactment programming.

Transmitter section

In the transmitter section first the serial communication is initialized and the lcd display
is initialized with the system name. Then after it transmits the track number if any train
searching for the same track number and for any rail breakages of the train if everything
is correct then the motor starts running.

Receiver section

In the receiver module the same process takes place as that in the transmitter section up to
the lcd initialization. Here this module receives if any train searching for the same track
number if everything is correct then the engine starts running. Whenever any connection

[Type text] Page 22


failure between the bogie occurs, an intimation to train is given .The connection failure
between any two corresponding bogies is sent to the microcontroller,which in turn gives
the information to the LCD.The LCD displays the number of the corresponding bogie
which is failed.

PROGRAM USED

#define F_CPU 1000000


#include<avr/io.h>
#include<util/delay.h>
// PC3=right, PC2=left
int main(void)
{
int a=1,b=0,c=0,d=0,e,f,g,h;
//DDRC=~_BV(PC0);DDRC=~_BV(PC1);DDRC=~_BV(PC2);DDRC=~_
BV(PC3); // PC0 as input pin
//PORTC=0x00;
DDRB=0xff;
DDRC=0x00;
PORTC=0xff;
PORTB|=(1<<PB1);
/* while(1){
PORTB|=(1<<PB1);
_delay_ms(500);
PORTB&=~(1<<PB1);
_delay_ms(500);

[Type text] Page 23


}*/
if(bit_is_set(PINC,PC2))
e=1;
else
e=0;
if(bit_is_set(PINC,PC3))
f=1;
else
f=0;
if(bit_is_set(PINC,PC4))
g=1;
else
g=0;
if(bit_is_set(PINC,PC5))
h=1;
else
h=0;
//PORTB|=((1<<PB0)|(1<<PB1));
while(1)
{
if(bit_is_set(PINC,PC2))
e=1;
else
e=0;
if(bit_is_set(PINC,PC3))
f=1;
else
[Type text] Page 24
f=0;
if(bit_is_set(PINC,PC4))
g=1;
else
g=0;
if(bit_is_set(PINC,PC5))
h=1;
else
h=0;
if(a==e&&b==f&&c==g&&d!=h)
{
PORTB|=(1<<PB1);
//PORTB&=~(1<<PB1);
_delay_ms(100);}
else
{
//PORTB|=(1<<PB0);
PORTB&=~(1<<PB1);
_delay_ms(1000);
PORTB|=(1<<PB1);
//PORTB&=~(1<<PB0);
_delay_ms(500);}
}
return 0;
}

[Type text] Page 25


CHAPTER 4

Future Scope using Zig-Bee

Train Anti Collision System comprises of a self-acting smaller scale controller and two-
way Zig-Bee based information correspondence framework which works round-the-clock
to turn away train impacts. Hence upgrades security in train operations by giving an
NON-SIGNAL extra wellbeing overlay over the current flagging framework. The
framework works without supplanting any of the current flaggings and no place
influences the crucial working of the present security frameworks conveyed for train
operations. The proposed framework moves information from the Trains, Control-
Centers/Stations, flagging Posts.

The effectiveness of the framework is required to be impressively expanded as the


proposed framework takes contributions from the flag posts. As more important
information are incorporated, it is normal that the present framework may help loco
drivers in deflecting mishaps effectively. As no change is important to be made to the
framework of the Mr N. Sambamurthy et al Int. Diary of Engineering Research and
Applications.

[Type text] Page 26


Existing framework, the cost of usage of this framework is additionally less. The
framework has been composed and mimicked utilising proteus continuous reproduction
programming. Models of the rail activity frameworks have likewise been made and tried.
Different sub-modules speak with each other and with a focal checking station where
whole information is put away and observed.

Next, we manage the proposed framework specifying the schematic chart for different
sub Modules. The figure demonstrates review of the proposed framework. The proposed
Train Anti-Collision of a microcontroller and full duplex ZigBee-based information
correspondence framework. The whole Network comprises of versatile sub-modules (on
Locomotives and Guard's Brake Vans), submodule in stations, sub-module in and the
sub-module in railroad flag posts. Loco subsystem imparts to different locos inside a
sweep of 3000 meters utilising radio recurrence. The framework speaks with the closest
flag posts, control stations to constantly screen different signs touching base in the
control focus and taking choices in light of the got data.

Zig-Bee modem speaks with different subsystems giving a work interconnection between
all subsystems. The control station controls and screens all submodules in the whole
system. At whatever point an impact like circumstance is identified by nature, the gadget
will naturally take consideration and keeps the crash.The entire framework is probably
going to forestall 'head-on' and 'backside' crashes in waists, crashes at 'fast' in 'station
territory', 'Train Approach' cautioning, alert and discovery of 'Door Open'. Train sub-
modules additionally give 'Station Approach' cautioning to loco pilots. In addition,
utilising manual switches on the traind sub-module, Drivers, Guards and Station Masters
can likewise "stop" trains when any bizarre is identified. Distinctive submodules when
introduced on Locomotives (alongside their Auto-Braking Units), Guard Vans, and
Railway flag posts, Stations, shape a canny undeniable outcome recognition and
anticipation.

[Type text] Page 27


The proposed demonstrate makes utilisation of Zig-Bee convention as a medium of
exchanging data.

Vehicle Positioning Systems Extend GPS Capabilities


for Vehicle Navigation
Vehicle Positioning Systems complement and extend the capability GPS devices by
removing the reliance on satellite signals. One of the main faults of GPS systems is the
requirement for direct line-of-sight signal paths to three satellite signals at all times.

Traveling in urban areas, signals are easily corrupted by tall buildings, bridges, and traffic
congestion. Removing problems associated with temporary signal loss of GPS systems,
the Vehicle Positioning System enables many transit applications including headway
control of bus platoons, lane change assistance, rear-end collision avoidance, and bay
mark-up applications.

The Vehicle Positioning System allows vehicle navigation to continue in places where
GPS signals are unreliable.

FEATURES OF VEHICLE POSITIONING SYSTEMS


WITH RFID
● Accurate--RFID tags in road lanes and other vehicles communicate with the
Vehicle Positioning System to accurately communicate precise vehicle position.
● Reliable--unlike GPS devices, the Vehicle Positioning System removes satellite
outages due to signal corruption/obstruction and provides continuous vehicle

[Type text] Page 28


navigation.
● Inexpensive-- robust, novel, affordable approach for intelligent transportation
systems.
● Robust Vehicle Positioning System-- ability to control traffic and turn lane
signals, facilitate the passage of emergency vehicles, and determine distance
traveled on toll-ways.

[Type text] Page 29


[Type text] Page 30
CHAPTER 5

References
1. Prevention of Train Accidents Using Wireless Sensor Networks - Mr. N.
Sambamurthy, Sk. Hasane Ahammad

2. Trains Collision Avoidance System by Using RFID and GSM Technology -


Smita S. Bhavsar,, A. N. Kulkarni

3. RFID ZIGBEE Based Interplatform Train Tracking System - India


Educators' Conference (TIIEC), 2013 Texas Instruments

5. As per the CAG report the ACD is not foolproof and has inherent deficiencies. -

6. Report of High Level Safety Review Committee (Report). New Delhi -


Government of India Ministry of Railways. Retrieved 2014-10-11.

7. Train Tracking and the Signaling System using Infrared and Radio Frequency
Technology - International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 119 – No.23, June 2015

8. Zonal Based Control of Vehicle using Radio Frequency - International Journal of


Engineering Research & Technology.

9. Detecting Vehicle Position using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) -


Max Donath, PhD, Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Director of Intelligent Transportation Systems Institute

[Type text] Page 31


10. RF based train collision avoidance system - India Conference (INDICON), 2013 Annual
IEEE

[Type text] Page 32