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Block diagram

- Transformer: Transforming the AC voltage U1 to the AC voltage U2 that we desire. In some

cases, we can use U1 directly without transforming.
- Rectifier: Changing the AC voltage U2 to the DC voltage UT having pulsating value. This
pulsation depends on type of rectifier.
- Filter: Reducing the pulsation of UT and make it become DC voltage U01.
- Regulator: Stabilizing the output voltage U02 when U01 changes.

1.1. Transformer
It transforms the AC voltage of electricity network to a AC voltage suitable with
rectifier’s input and separate rectifier from AC network.

NP and NS are the number of turns in primary coil and secondary coil respectively
We have a ratio:
1.2. Rectifying block
There are half-wave rectifier and full-wave rectifier. The full-wave bridge rectifier has
most advantages.

Operational principle:
- In positive semi-period (+): current from positive terminal goes to diode D1 -> Resistor R ->
diode D3 and goes to negative terminal. D2 and D4 is inactive.
- In negative semi-period (-): current from positive terminal goes to diode D2 -> Resistor R ->
diode D4 and goes to negative terminal. D1 and D3 is inactive.

Average output voltage in load:

VDC = 2Vm/π = 0.636Vm

With UV = Umsin(ᴪt+δ)
1.3. Filtering by capacitor

Due to capacitor parallel with load, the voltage is less pulsating and the current become
The ripple factor r is calculated as:
f = 2f0
with f: frequency of the signal
f0: frequency of the AC current

Filter affects more when C and R increase (R consumes small current). With frequency of
50Hz or 60Hz, C has value from some µF to thousands of µF.

1.4. Regulator

We use IC 7805 to stabilize the positive output voltage. That IC has:

-Vin: Input
-Ground: connects to ground
-Vout: output
2. Calculation
Input: 220V AC, 50Hz
Output: 5V DC, 0.2A
- Calculating ratio of primary coil’s turns and secondary coil’s turns
We have voltage in primary coil UP = 220V
We choose voltage in secondary coil Us = 5V

𝑈𝑃 𝑁𝑃 220
= = = 22
𝑈𝑆 𝑁𝑆 10
- Due to Iout = 0.2A, we choose diode bridge having:
I = 1A ÷ 2A
V ≥ 10V
- We choose capacitor in order that ripple factor r ≤ 10%
Iout ≤ 0.2A -> R ≥ 25Ω
 r max when R min
f = 2 f0 = 100Hz
1 1
 𝑟=4 =4 = 577.35 × 10−6 (𝐹)
√3𝑓𝑅𝐶 √3×100×25×0.1

In real life, there is no capacitor having that value, so we choose C = 1000µF

- Choose diode zener
Transistor has voltage of 0.6V-0.7V. To get Uout = 5V, we choose Uz = 5.6V