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 Ustad Ahmad Lahauri

Shah Jahan's court histories emphasise his personal involvement in the construction and it is true
that, more than any other Mughal emperor, he showed the greatest interest in building new
magnificent buildings, holding daily meetings with his architects and supervisors. The court
chronicler Lahouri, writes that Shah Jahan would make "appropriate alterations to whatever the
skilful architects had designed after considerable thought and would ask the architects competent
In writings by Lahauri's son Lutfullah Muhandis, two architects are mentioned by name; Ustad
Ahmad Lahauri and Mir Abd-ul Karim.Ustad Ahmad Lahauri had laid the foundations of the
Red Fort at Delhi (built between 1638 and 1648). Mir Abd-ul Karim had been the favourite
architect of the previous emperor Jahangir and is mentioned as a supervisor, together with
Makramat Khan, for the construction of the Taj Mahal.

Ustad Ahmad Lahouri was the chief architect of the Taj Mahal built between 1632 and 1648. He
was a courtier of the Moghul Emperor Shah Jehan. The Taj Mahal is one of the seven wonders of
the world. Ustad Ahmad Lahouri also laid down the foundation of the Red Fort in Lahore,
Pakistan. The TajMal is a marble mausoleum, and it is located in Agra City of India. Moghul
Emperor Shah Jehan built it in remembrance of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, and it is considered an
icon to love. The Taj Mahal was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983.The Taj
Mahal is considered the most beautiful of all the Moghul architecture.


 Leandro Locsin
Life and Career

He was born Leandro Valencia Locsin on August 15, 1928, in Silay, Negros Occidental,
a grandson of the first governor of the province. He later studied at the De La Salle
Brothers in 1935 before returning to Negros due to the Second World War. He returned
to Manila to study Pre-Law before shifting to pursue a Bachelor's Degree in Music at the
University of Santo Tomas. Although he was a talented pianist, he later shifted again to
Architecture, just a year before graduating. He married Cecilia Yulo, and one of their two
children is also an architect.

An art lover, he frequented the Philippine Art Gallery, where he met the curator,
Fernando Zóbel de Ayala y Montojo. The latter recommended Locsin to the Ossorio
family that was planning to build a chapel in Negros. When Frederic Ossorio left for the
United States, the plans for the chapel were canceled.

However, in 1955, Fr. John Delaney, S.J., then Catholic Chaplain at the University of the
Philippines - Diliman, commissioned Locsin to design a chapel that is open and can
easily accommodate 1,000 people. The Church of the Holy Sacrifice is the first round
chapel in the Philippines to have an altar in the middle, and the first to have a thin shell
concrete dome. The floor of the church was designed by Arturo Luz, the stations of the
cross by Vicente Manansala and Ang Kiukok, and the cross by Napoleon Abueva, all of
whom are now National Artists. Alfredo L. Juinio served as the building's structural
engineer. Today, the church is recognized as a National Historical Landmark and a
Cultural Treasure by the National Historical Institute and the National Museum,

On his visit to the United States, he met some of his influences, Paul Rudolph and Eero
Saarinen. It was then he realized to use concrete, which was relatively cheap in the
Philippines and easy to form, for his buildings. In 1969, he completed what was to be his
most recognizable work, the Theater of Performing Arts (Now the Tanghalang
Pambansa) of the Cultural Center of the Philippines. The marble façade of the building is
cantilevered 12 meters from the terrace by huge arching columns at the sides of the
building, giving it the impression of being afloat. A large lagoon in front of the theatre
mirrors the building during daytime, while fountains are illuminated by underwater lights
at nighttime. The building houses four theaters, a museum of ethnographic art and other
temporary exhibits, galleries, and a library on Philippine art and culture.

In 1974, Locsin designed the Folk Arts Theater, which is one of the largest single-span
buildings in the Philippines with a span of 60 meters. It was completed in only seventy-
seven days, in time for the Miss Universe Pageant. Locsin was also commissioned to
build the Philippine International Convention Center, the country's premiere international
conference building and now the seat of the Vice Presidency.
He was also commissioned in 1974 to design the Ayala Museum to house the Ayala art
collection.It was known for the juxtaposition of huge blocks to facilitate the interior of
the exhibition. Locsin was a close friend of the Ayalas. Before taking the board
examination, he took his apprenticeship at Ayala and Company (Now the Ayala
Corporation) and was even asked to design the first building in Ayala Avenue, and
several of their residences. When the collection of the Ayala Museum was moved to its
current location, the original was demolished with Locsin's permission. The current
building was dedicated in 2004, and was designed by the L. V. Locsin and Partners, led
by Leandro Y. Locsin, Jr.

Locsin also designed some of the buildings at the UP Los Baños campus (UPLB). The
Dioscoro Umali Hall, the main auditorium, is clearly an example of his distinct
architecture, with its large canopy that makes it resemble the main theatre of the Cultural
Center of the Philippines (CCP). Most of his work is concentrated on the Freedom Park,
with the Student Union Building which was once damaged by a fire, the Carillon, the
Continuing Education Center and the auditorium. He also designed the SEARCA
Residences, and several structures at the National Arts Center (housing the Philippine
High School for the Arts) at Mt. Makiling, Los Baños, Laguna.

Most of Locsin's work has been within the country, but in 1970, he designed the
Philippine Pavilion of the World Expo in Osaka, Japan. His largest single work is the
Istana Nurul Iman, the official residence of the Sultan of Brunei. In 1992, he received the
Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize from Fukuoka.

Ironically, Locsin's last work was also a church in Malaybalay, Bukidnon. Leandro V.
Locsin died early morning on November 15, 1994, at the Makati Medical Center in
Makati after suffering from stroke ten days earlier.The campus of De La Salle-
Canlubang, built in 2003 on a land donated by his family, was named after him.



 Church of the Holy Sacrifice, University of the Philippines, Diliman, 1955

 Ozamis City Cathedral, 1960
 Manila Memorial Park Chapel, Paranaque, 1965 (renovated in 1990, 1995, 2000 & 2010)
 Doña Corazon L. Montelibano Chapel, Bacolod, 1965
 Church of Saint Andrew, Bel-Air Village, Makati, 1968
 Holy Cross Memorial Chapel, Novaliches, 1969
 Church of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, UP Village, Quezon City, 1970
 Chapel of St. Alphonsus Ligouri, Magallanes Village, Makati, 1970 (destroyed by fire in
2004, now replaced and rebuilt by Arch. Dominic Galicia in 2007.)
Cadiz Church, Negros Occidental, 1972
 St. Joseph the Worker Parish Church, Bacnotan, La Union, 1994
 Church of the Monastery of the Transfiguration,[6] Malaybalay, Bukidnon, 1996

Public Buildings

• Renovation of the Old Manila International Airport Terminal, Phase 1, Pasay, 1972
(site is now occupied by NAIA Terminal 2)
• Design Center of the Philippines, CCP Complex, Manila, 1974
• SEARCA Dormitory, U.P. Los Baños, Laguna, 1974
• Fast Food Center, CCP Complex, 1976 (renovated in 1996, 2006 & 2011)
• Folk Arts Theater, CCP Complex, 1976 (now occupied by Day By Day Christian
Fellowship in 2005)
• Philippine Center for International Trade and Exhibitions, CCP Complex, Manila,
1976 (now demolished in 1995, replaced by an amusement park)
• Davao International Airport Terminal Building, Davao City, 1980
• Rizal Park Amphitheater (1981)
• Girl Scouts of the Philippines Headquarters, Manila, 1993
• Original Ayala Museum (Demolished, now replaced a new bigger museum and
designed by his son, Arch. Leandro "Andy" Locsin, Jr. in 2004)
• Complex of Social Welfare Agencies
• Population Center
• Nutrition Center of the Philippines
• Asian Center for Training and Research for Social Welfare
• Cultural Center of the Philippines - Folk Arts Theater
• National Arts Center, Mt. Makiling, Los Baños, Laguna
• Cultural Center of the Philippines - Philippine Center for International Trade and
• Cultural Center of the Philippines - Philippine International Convention Center
• Cultural Center of the Philippines - Theatre of Performing Arts
• Expo '70 - Philippine Pavilion
• Citibank Makati
• Istana Nurul Iman, Brunei Darussalam
• Makati Stock Exchange Building
• Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 1
• U.P. Diliman - UP Film Institute
• U.P. Los Baños - Rizal Memorial Centenary Carillon
• U.P. Los Baños - Continuing Education Center
• U.P. Los Baños - Dioscoro L. Umali Hall
• U.P. Los Baños - Main Library
• U.P. Los Baños - SEARCA Dormitory and Hotel
• U.P. Los Baños - Student Union Building
• U.P. Los Baños - Men's Residence Hall

• Davao Insular Hotel, Davao City, 1960
• InterContinental Manila, Ayala Avenue, Makati, 1969 (closed on December 31, 2015
[Hotel site redevelopment is being studied with Locsin's firm L. V. Locsin and
Partners according to Ayala Land])
• Hyatt Regency Hotel (now occupied by Midas Hotel & Casino Manila in 2011)
• Mandarin Oriental Manila (closed on September 9, 2014 [Hotel site redevelopment is
being studied with Locsin's firm L. V. Locsin and Partners according to Ayala Land])
• Manila Hotel (New Building)
• Philippine Plaza Hotel, 1976 (now Sofitel Philippine Plaza Hotel)
Commercial Buildings
• Ayala Building 1, Ayala Ave, Makati, 1958
• Filipinas Life Assurance Company Building, Ayala Avenue, Makati, 1958
• Commercial Credit Corporation Building, Buendia Avenue, Makati, 1962
• Integrated Realty Building, Buendia Avenue, Makati, 1962
• Philamlife Company Building, Cagayan de Oro, 1963
• Sarmiento Building, Ayala Avenue, Makati, 1965
• American International Underwriters Building, Ayala Avenue, Makati, 1965
• Sikatuna Building, Ayala Avenue, Makati, 1966
• J.M. Tuason Building, Ayala Ave, Makati, 1966
• Locsin Building, EDSA, Makati, 1966
• Filipinas Life Assurance Co. Building, Iloilo City, 1969
• Philippine Bank of Commerce, Ayala Avenue, Makati, 1969
• Magnolia Dairy Products Plant, Aurora Boulevard, Quezon City, 1969
• Amalgamated Building, Makati, 1969
• Filipinas Life Assurance Co. Building, Mandaue, Cebu, 1969
• Union Carbide Philippines, Mandaue, Cebu, 1970
• Filipinas Life Assurance Co. Building, Naga, 1970
• Filipinas life Assurance Co. Building, Cagayan de Oro, 1971
• Filipinas Life Executive Center, Mandaue, 1971
• Romago Building, Mandaluyong, 1971
• Filipinas Life Assurance Co. Building, Batangas City, 1971
• Filipinas Life Assurance Co. Building, Dagupan, 1971
• Filipinas Life Assurance Co. Building Annex, Ayala Avenue, Makati, 1972
• Filipinas Life Assurance Co. Building, Davao City, 1972
• Asian Reinsurance Pool Building, Legaspi Village, Makati, 1972
• Philippine Commercial & Industrial Bank Building, Greenhills, Mandaluyong, 1972
• Filipinas Life Assurance Co. Building, Tacloban, 1976
• Filipinas Life Assurance Co. Building, Cabanatuan, 1976
• EEI building, Pasig, Metro Manila, 1978
• Canlubang Golf & Country Club, Canlubang, Laguna, 1978
• Valle Verde Country Club, Pasig, Metro Manila, 1978
• Philippine Commercial & Industrial Bank Building, Batangas City, 1978
• Canlubang Sports Complex, Canlubang, Laguna, 1979
• PLDT Building (Ramon Cojuangco Building), Makati Avenue, Makati, 1982
• Greenbelt Square Cinema, Paseo de Roxas, Makati, 1982 (now renovated in 2002 and
now renamed s Greenbelt 1 Ayala Center)
• Philippine Commercial & Industrial Bank Tower 1; Philippine Commercial
International Bank (PCIBank), Makati Avenue cor H.V. Dela Costa, Makati, 1983
(now BDO Corporate Center North Tower)
• Philippine Commercial & Industrial Bank Tower 2; Philippine Commercial
International Bank (PCIBank), Makati Avenue cor H.V. Dela Costa, Makati, 1992
(now BDO Corporate Center South Tower)
• Benguet Center, Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, 1983 (now demolished in 2011); BDO
Ortigas Center
• Island Development Bank, Brunei, 1983
• L.V. Locsin Building, Makati Avenue, Makati, 1987
• Samba-Likhaan AILM, Quezon City, 1992
• Ayala-Laguna Technopark Administration Building, Sta Rosa, Laguna, 1993
• Hi-Cement Administration Building, Norzagaray, Bulacan, 1994
• Business World Publishing Corporation Building, 1994
• Bacnotan Cement Plant Administration Building, Bacnotan, La Union, 1995
• Philippine Stock Exchange Plaza, Ayala Ave, Makati, 1995
• Ayala Triangle Tower one, Ayala Avenue, Makati, 1996
• Ayala Avenue Pedestrianization Underpass, Ayala Avenue, Makati, 1966

Sets for Theatrical Production

• Sets for Various Ballets by Ricardo Casell, 1954
• Lady Be Good production by Frederico Elizarde, 1954
• Noche Buena, CCP Dance Co., 1970
• Jewels, CCP Dance Co., 1970
• Madame Butterfly, CCP Dance Co., 1972
• Lucifer, Martha Graham Dance Co., for its 50th Anniversary Celebration, New York,
• Adoration, Martha Graham Dance Co., New York, 1976
• Point of Crossing, Martha Graham Dance Co., New York, 1976
• Larawan ng Pilipino Bilang Artista, CCP, 1989
• La Traviata, CCP, July 1990
• Madame Butterfly, CCP 1994
• Midsummer Night’s Dream, Ballet Philiipines, 1994
• Suite for Lindy, from Ballet Philippines’ Ellias, CCP, 1995

Interior Design

• Leandro V. Locsin Residence, Forbes Park, Makati, 1963

• Locsin Architectural Offices, Edsa, Makati, 1966
• Laguna Estate and Development Corp. Office, Makati, 1966
• Theater for the Performing Arts, Cultural Center of the Philippines, Roxas Blvd.,
Manila, 1969
• C.J. Yulo and Sons Executive Offices, Pasong Tamo, Makati, 1970
• Philippine Bank of Commerce Executive Suites, Ayala Avenue, Makati, 1971
• U.S.I. Executive Offices, Makati Stock Exchange Building, Ayala Avenue, Makati
• Filipinas Life Assurance Co. (Annex) Executive, Makati, 1971
• Ayala Corporation Offices and Penthouse, Makati Stock Exchange Building, Ayala
Avenue, Makati, 1972
• Leandro V. Locsin Beach House, Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro, 1972
• Kodak Philippines Ltd. Offices, Pasong Tamo, Makati, 1974
• Ayala Museum Executive Offices, Makati Avenue, Makati, 1974 (now renovated in
2004 by his son Arch. Andy Locsin)
• Population Center, Makati, 1974
• Nutrition Center of the Philippines, Makati, 1975
• Asian Center and Research for Social Welfare, Makati, 1976
• Philippine International Convention Center, CCP Complex, Manila, 1976
• Philippine Plaza Hotel, CCP Complex, Manila, 1976 (now Sofitel Philippine Plaza
• Manila Hotel, Luneta, Manila, 1976
• Locsin Offices, Locsin Building, Ayala Avenue, Makati, 1989
• Supreme Court Building, Taft Avenue, Manila, 1991
• French Embassy Headquarters, Makati, 1992
• Phinma Group of Companies HRD, Makati, 1994
• Hi-Cement Administration Building, Norzagaray, Bulacan, 1994
• Philippine Stock Exchange Plaza, Makati, 1994
• Filipinas Heritage Library (formerly Nielsen Tower), Makati Avenue, Makati, 1996
• Philippine Stock Exchange Plaza, Makati, 1994
• Filipinas Heritage Library (formerly Nielsen Tower), Makati Avenue, Makati, 1996

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