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Project Report

Programme code:

Course code:

Enrolment no:

2 0 1 7 2 0 1 8 3 1

Study Center code:

Regional Center

Air & Noise pollution in Industrial Areas Resources & Management.

Case study of types of industrial pollution and its effect.

Project report submition to Indira Gandhi national open university in partial


fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the satificat course of environment
study.

Signature of candidate:

Name of candidate:

Institutional address:

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INTRODUCTION

Chapter.1

1.1.1: AIR

1.1.2: AIR POLLUTION

1.1.3: Effect of Air Pollutants

1.1.4: Environmental effects

1.1.5: Effects of Oxides of Nitrogen

1.2: INTRODUCTION TO NOISE POLLUTION & Effects on Environment

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CHAPTER – 1

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1: INTRODUCTION TO AIR POLLUCTION

1.1.1 : AIR

The air around us is a mixture of gases, mainly Nitrogen (N2 78.08), Oxygen (O2
20.95), Argon (Argon 0.93), Carbon dioxide (CO2 0.033), Neon (Ne 0.0018), Helium (He 0.00052),
Methane (CH4 0.0002), Krypton (Kr 0.00011), Di-nitrogen oxide (N2O 0.00005), Hydrogen (H2
0.00005), Xenon (Xe 0.0000087), Ozone (O3 0.00000), and very small amounts of other gases.
Air also contains suspended dust, spores, and bacteria. Because of the action of wind, the
percent composition of air varies only slightly with altitude and location. The table indicates the
composition of a typical sample of air after all water vapor and suspended particles have been
removed. The amount of water in the air varies tremendously with location, temperature, and
time. In deserts and at low temperatures, the content of water vapor can be less than 0.1% by
volume. In warm, humid zones, the air may contain over 6% water vapor.

1.1.2: AIR POLLUTION

Air pollution is a most serious problem of the current time all over the world especially in the
large cities because of the huge level of industrialization. The release of such air pollutants in
heavy concentrations such as smog, particulates, solid materials, etc are getting settled over the
city, causing air pollution and health hazards to the people. Lots of dirty wastes produced by
people on daily basis especially in the big cities polluting the whole atmospheric air to a great
extent.The release of gaseous pollutants from burning fuel of motor vehicles, industrial
processes, burning of garbage, etc are contributing to the air pollution. Some natural pollutants
like pollen, dust, soil particles, natural gases, etc are also the source of air pollution.

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Air is the commercial source for many of the gases it contains. It is separated into its
components by fractional distillation of liquefied air. Before air is liquefied, water vapor and
carbon dioxide are removed, because these substances solidify when cooled and would clog the
pipes of the air liquefaction plant. The dry, CO2-free air is compressed to about 200
atmospheres. This compression causes the air to become warm, and the heat is removed by
passing the compressed air through radiators. The cooled, compressed air is then allowed to
expand rapidly. The rapid expansion causes the air to become cold, so cold that some of it
condenses. By the alternate compressing and expanding of air, most of it can be liquefied.

1.1.3: Effect of Air Pollutions

Effects of Sulphour dioxide (SO2):

During the process of oxidation in the atmosphere this gas forms Sulphates or
salts that can be transported in the breathable particulate material (PM10) that in presence of
humidity forms acids. Later these acids are an important part of the secondary particulate
material or finest particulate material (PM2, 5). The exposure to Sulphates and the exposure to
acids derived from SO2 is extremely risky for people's health because these compounds enter
the circulatory system directly through the airways.

Health effects:
The SO2 is hygroscopic, when it is in the atmosphere it reacts with humidity and
forms sulphuric and sulphurous aerosol acid that is later part of the so-called acid rain. The
intensity in the formation of aerosols and the permanence of them in the atmosphere depend
on the meteorological conditions and the quantity of catalytic impurities (substances that
accelerate the processes) present in the air. But in general, the average time of permanence in
the atmosphere is around 3-5 days, so it can be transported to greater distances.

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The air pollution by SO2 has the following effects on human beings:
1. Corneal haze
2. Breathing difficulty
3. Airways inflammation
4. Eye irritation
5. Psychic alterations.
6. Pulmonary edema.
7. Heart failure.
8. Circulatory collapse.
9. Sulphurdioxide is also associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis, morbidity and
mortality increase in old people and infants.

Environmental effects:

When sulfur dioxide combines with water and air, it forms sulfuric acid, which is the
main component of acid rain. Acid rain can:

1. Cause deforestation
2. Acidify waterways to the detriment of aquatic life
3. Corrode building materials and paints.

1.2.1: Effects of Oxides of Nitrogen:

Mostly the oxides of nitrogen are not so dangerous, but the role they play in
photochemical oxidation etc. constitute the most harmful effect

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Effects on Environment:

Oxides of nitrogen reach to the environment and react with ozone and finally create
HNO3 which is a acid so NO2 are responsible for Acid Rain and Ozone depletion.

Effects on human:

1. NO2 has irritating effect on mucous membrane.


2. The concentration of NO2, 50 to 100 ppm, causes inflammation of lung tissue 30 to 50
minute for a period of 5 to 8 weeks
3. Higher doses of NO2 cause bronchitis and respiratory problem.
1. 4.150 to 200 ppm NO2 results in “Bronchitis Fibrosa obliterans” a dangerous disease
which occurs 3 to 5 weeks after the exposure.
4. 500 to 600 ppm of NO2 for 2 to 10 days after results in the death of victim.
5. NO and NO2 boath are firmly toxic at low concentrations. Limit value of NO and NO2 are
25 to 5 ppm respectively .
6. The effects of particulate are largely dependent on particle size . Air borne particles i.e.
dust, mist, fumes and soot are potentially dangerous for human health.
7. Particulate pollutants have a bearing on the penetration of particles beyond the
respiratory passage into the lungs. Nasal passage prevents coarser particulates bigger
than 5 microns from entering into the respiratory system. Particles with a size of about 1
micron enter into lungs easily and damage the lungs tissue.
8. The aerosol (less than 1 micron ) is soluble in blood and absorbed from alveoli and
create toxicity on respiratory system

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Effects on plant:

1. Higher concentration of NO2 damage the leaves of plant retard the photosynthetic
activity and causes chlorosis.
2. The secondary pollutants as PAN which produce from the photochemical activity of NO 2
cause the damage of vegetation.

Effects on materials:

NO2 fades away a number of textile dyes like cotton , rayon, acetate and viscose rayon , it
was found that NO2 reaches 1 to 2 ppm during the combustion of natural gas which is use to
heat the dryers.

Effects of particulate matter:

Particulate pollutants are present in troposphere and lower stratosphere where they
stay for a long period. These pollutants are absorbed on the water surface, soil, vegetation and
building etc. posing several health hazard on the living biota.

Effects on plant:

1. Plants are adversely affected by gaseous pollutants and deposition of particulate on soil.
The deposition of toxic metals on soil makes the soil unsuitable for plant growth.
2. Particulate such as dust, fog, mist, fumes and soot deposited on plant leaves and
blocked the stomata of plant thus the inhibiting the rate of transpiration .

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3. Metallic particulate pollutants along with the atmospheric SO2 in soil killed vegetation in
an area of 260 km2 and retarded plant growth over 320 km2 of land in sacraments on
valley of California.

Effects on materials:

1. Particulate affects a variety of material in various ways they cause damage to buildings,
plants and furniture etc. painted surfaces of very susceptible to damage in the wet
conditions. Particulate fumes and mists reacts directly with any painted surface and
cause cracks in it.
2. Particulates including fumes, dusts, soot, mists and aerosol can bring about severe
damage to soil, buildings, sculpture and monuments.

3. Particulate pollutants are responsible for polluted cloud formation, rain and snow in
which the particles acts as nuclei upon which water droplets condense

Air quality standard:

The recommended air quality standards for sulfur dioxide are:

1. 0.20 parts per million (ppm) for a 1-hour exposure period


2. 0.08ppm for a 24-hour exposure period
3. 0.02ppm for an annual exposure period.

4. These standards are designed to protect sensitive individuals, such as children and
asthmatics.

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1.2: INTRODUCTION TO NOISE POLLUTION

Noise pollution has become one of the big problems in India affecting the human lives in
many ways. We all should know the causes, effects and most importantly the preventive
measures of the noise pollution in order to get prevented from the effects of it. School students
generally get this topic to write something according to their own view during the competitions
like essay writing, etc. We have provided below some easily written essay on noise pollution
under different words limit for students. You can select any noise pollution essay according to
your need and requirement.

Noise pollution is considered as the environmental pollution caused in the environment


by the excess level of noise through many sources. Noise pollution is also known as the noise
disturbance. Excessive noise is harmful to the health and cause imbalance to the human or
animal life. It has been a massive environmental issue in India which needs a proper attention to
be solved however it is less dangerous than the water, air and soil pollution. Outdoor noise is
hugely caused by the sources like machines, transportation systems, poor urban planning
(construction of side-by-side industrial and residential buildings), etc. Indoor noise sources are
household machines, building activities, loud music, etc. The most common impairment caused
by the noise pollution is the permanent hearing loss due to ear drum damage.

Unwanted sound generally interferes with the daily routine activities like sleep in night,
conversation, hearing ability, feeling of well being, etc. Water animals are also affected by the
noise pollution created by the noise of submarines and big ships in the ocean. Forest animals
have been affected to a great extent due to the chain-saw operations (create extreme noise) by
timber companies. Common sources of the noise pollution are household gadgets, transport
vehicles, jet planes, helicopters, industrial machines, etc. According to the World Health
Organization, industries must limit their sound production by 75 dB.

The noise level of 60 db is considered as the normal noise however, noise level of 80 db or
above become physically painful and harmful to the health. Cities having high noise quantum are
Delhi (80 db), Kolkata (87 db), Bombay (85 db), Chennai (89 db), etc. Limiting the amount of

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noise to a safe level has become very necessary for the life on the earth as undesired noise
affects the health of human beings, plants and animals too. It is possible through the general
awareness among public about the noise pollution, its main sources, it’s dangerous effects, as
well as all the possible preventive measures to get prevented from the noise pollution .

Causes of Noise Pollution:


1. Industrialization is putting our health and life at risk because all the (big or small)
industries are using big machines producing high pitch sound in large amount. Other
equipments (compressors, generators, exhaust fans, grinding mills) used in the factories
and industries also produces big noise.
2. Regular social events like marriages, parties, pub, club, disc or place of worship, temples,
etc create nuisance in the residential area.
3. Increasing transportation in the cities (vehicles, aero planes, underground trains, etc)
produces heavy noise.
4. Regular construction activities (including mining, bridges, building, dams, stations, roads,
flyovers, etc) involve big equipments creating high level of noise.
5. Use of household appliances in our daily life is also the main reason noise pollution.

Effects of Noise Pollution:


1 Noise pollution causes various hearing problems (damage to ear drums and loss of
hearing) because of the unwanted sound.
2 It reduces ear sensitivity to the sounds required to regulate body rhythm.

3. It affects the psychological health and causes the occurrence of aggressive behavior,
sleep disturbance, stress, weakness, fatigue, hypertension, cardio-vascular diseases
including other severe and chronic health issues in later life.

4. It creates communication problems and lead to misunderstanding.

5. Affects wildlife and makes pets more aggressive.

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Preventive Measures:
General awareness should be increased among people and all the rules should be
followed seriously by everyone in order to control the unsafe sound level in the environment.
Unnecessary use of things generating high pitch sound should be reduced in the home or
outside the home like clubs, parties, bars, discos, etc.

1. To prevent and control noise pollution it is necessary to create public awareness. Only
law is not sufficient. People must be made aware of the harmful consequences of noise
pollution.
2. People should be made aware that excessive noise beyond certain limits may cause
deafness.
3. They should know that injuries caused by sound pollution are often irreversible.
4. There should be minimum use of sound producing instruments. There should be proper
regulations for the use of loudspeakers and other devices that produce noise beyond
that are beyond the toleration limits of human-beings.
5. The Pollution Control Board and the High Court have already taken effective measures to
bring sound pollution under control. Adequate measures should be taken to ensure that
noise related restrictions are not violated.
6. Anti-pollution laws should be enacted and enforced.
7. Ban of fire crackers should be imposed and electric horns should be replaced by bulb
horns.
8. The use of microphones should be controlled and regulated.

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