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 A phenomenon that is associated with the presence and motion of electrons

and other charged particles


 composed of atoms which are made up of nucleus around which an
infinitesimal charge revolves
 a substance consisting of electrons, protons and neutrons
 substances consisting of atoms of only one kind
 Combination of 2 or more different atoms or elements.
 smallest part of a compound that retains the properties of the compound

Particles of an Atom
 basic quantity for a negative charge
 can be valence electron being the electrons of the outermost shell
 can be bound electrons being the electrons of the inner bands
 can be free or conduction electrons being electrons that are free to move
 basic quantity for positive charge
 neutral particle in atom

Particle Charge,Coulomb Mass, kilogram

electron -1.602x10-19 9.109x10-31

proton +1.602x10-19 1.673x10-27
neutron none 1.673x10-27
Table1. Elementary Particles

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Bohr Model
 planetary-like structure of representing an atom



N= 2n2 N = no. of electrons in each orbit

n = Orbital number 1 for K-shell, 2 for L-shell,
3 for M-shell and so on.


 materials with less than 4 valence electrons
 allows electrical current to flow easily
 Example: Cu, Al, Au, Ag…
 Materials with more than 4 valence electrons
 prevents the flow of electrical current
 Plastics, glass, ceramics, rubbers etc
 with exactly 4 valence electrons
 have electrical characteristics in between conductor and insulator


Energy Gap
 energy difference between the valence and conduction band
 1.1eV for Si ; 0.67eV for Ge
Valence Band
 region of the valence shell and valence electrons
Conduction Band
 region where free electrons are said to be present
Forbidden Band

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 region where no electron exist


1. CHARGE (Q or q)

 static electricity at rest, without any motion

 the result of work done in separating electrons to its atoms
 coulomb(C), unit for electrical charge named after Charles Coulomb
18 -
 1 coulomb = 6.25x 10 electrons (e )

Laws of Electric Charges

a. Unlike or dissimilar charges attract each other
b. Like or similar charges repel each other

Coulomb’s Law
“The force between charges is proportional to the amount of charges and
inversely proportional to the square of the distance between charges”

kQ1Q 2
Q1 and Q2 = point charges
k = 8.98 x 109 Nm2/C2 (SI)
r = distance or separation

2. CURRENT (I or i)

 rate of charge in motion

 a continuous flow of free electrons
 I = Q / t : 1 ampere = 1 coulomb/second
 Ampere(A) is the base unit of current, named in honor to the French physicist
Andre Marie Ampere
 DC current flows only in 1 direction
 AC current flows in alternate direction periodically

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 force that is used to move the charged particles such as electrons

Electric Potential
 the ability of a charged body to do work on charged particles such as

Voltage (V)
 A potential energy difference (or simply, P.D.) that exists across two points
which tend to cause a flow of electrons.
 Volt (V) is the unit of potential difference and named after Italian physicist
Alessandro Volta. 1 volt will push 1 ampere of current through 1 ohm
 V=W/Q
i.e., Volt = 1 Joule / Coulomb or
1 Newton – meter / Coulomb

4. RESISTANCE (R or r)
 a property of electric circuit, material, and substance that:
1. tends to limit the amount of current that can be produced by the
applied voltage
2. converts electrical energy into heat energy
 Ohm(Ω), the basic unit of resistance named after George Simon Ohm
 1Ω= 1V/1A

Resistance Law
“The resistance of a conducting material is directly proportional to its length (R 
L) and inversely proportional to its cross – sectional area (R  I/A).”


Where: R = wire resistance in Ω

ρ = resistivity in Ω-cm
(10-6 Ω-cm for copper)
L =length of the wire
A =cross-sectional area

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Resistance with Temperature

R2 = R1 [1 + 1 (T2 – T 1)]

R (| T |  T2 )
R2= 1 0
(| T0 |  T1 )

2 = 1 [1 + 1 (T 2 – T 1)]

R2 = resistance at temperature T1
R1 = resistance at temperature T2
1 = temperature coefficient of resistance=1/ ( IToI+T1)
To = inferred absolute zero temperature coefficient
= - 234.5C Annealed copper
= - 242C Hard drawn copper
= - 236C Aluminum

Temperature Coefficients
1. Positive Temperature Coefficient
 Resistance increases as temperature increases
 Pure metals
2. Negative Temperature Coefficient
 Resistance decreases as its temperature increases
 Semiconductors and Metal oxides
3. Zero Temperature Coefficient
 Resistance remains constant even there is change in temperature.
 Alloys

 Conductivity () is the reciprocal of resistivity.
 Siemen (S), unit of conductance formerly known as mho

6. Impedance, Admittance, Reactance and Susceptance

Impedance (Z)
 Combination of resistance and reactance in AC circuit
Admittance (Y)
 Reciprocal of impedance
Reactance (X)
 Opposition to current offered by capacitive and inductive elements
Susceptance (B)

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 Reciprocal of reactance
7. Work, Power and Energy

Work (W)
 The accomplishment of motion against the action of a force which tends to
oppose the motion.
 Joule, SI unit of work or energy
 1 Joule = 1 Newton-meter = 1 Coulomb / Volt
 Electronvolt (eV), unit of energy for single electron
 1eV=1.6x10 J

Power (P)
 rate of producing work or consuming energy
 P = W / t = VI = I2R = V2 / R
 Watts – the S.I. unit of electric power named after James Watt
 Horsepower (Hp) – power rating of electric motor
 1 Hp = 746 Watts or 0.746 KW

 Ability to do work
 For heat energy: 1 Kcal=4180 J , 1BTU=778.16 ft-lb

Q = mC∆T where: Q = heat

M = mass
C = specific heat
∆T= change in temperature

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 device having known specific values of resistance in ohms(Ω) that limits the
amount of current flowing through it
 can divide the voltage in a circuit
 with power rating that show how much power can be safely dissipated

a. Types:

Fixed Resistors:
1. Nichrome Wire
 offers few ohms of resistance
 resistance wire
2. Carbon Composition
 1/8 W to 2W in rating, and its ohmic rating can be determined by its color
3. Wire - Wound
 they are very accurate and its ohmic and wattage (above 2W) is painted on
its covering. Can be made from a nichrome wire wound around a ceramic
 Wattage ranges from 5W to 100 W
4. Metal Film
 use a thin film of metal or a metal particle mixture to achieve various

Variable Resistors
1. Rheostat
 two terminal variable resistor
 in series with the load to vary current
2. Potentiometer (“pot”)
 three terminal variable resistor
 Connected in a circuit to vary the voltage.
 Taper of a potentiometer refers to the way in which the resistance changes in
relation to the position of its slider
3. Trimmer/ Trimpots
 a potentiometer equipped with a plastic thumbwheel, or a slot for a
screwdriver, for occasional adjustment.

Non-Linear or Non-Ohmic Resistors

1. Thermistors
 Temperature sensitive resistors.
 Uses: protective device, temperature measurement or control.
2. Varistors, or Voltage Dependent Resistors (VDR)

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 Voltage sensitive resistors.

3. Photoresistors, or Light Dependent Resistors (LDR)
 Light sensitive resistors.
 Use: sensing light, sense people or items passing a point, adjust television
picture brightness to match room light.

b. Carbon Resistor Color Coding

First significant digit

Second Significant Digit

Tolerance Multiplier

COLOR BAND1 BAND2 Multiplier Tolerance

Black 0 0 100 --
Brown 1 1 101 1%
Red 2 2 102 2%
Orange 3 3 103 3%
Yellow 4 4 104 4%
Green 5 5 105 --
Blue 6 6 106 --
Violet 7 7 107 --
Gray 8 8 108 --
White 9 9 109 --
Gold -- -- 0.1 5%
Silver -- -- 0.01 10%
No Color -- -- 20%
Table 2: Resistor Color Code

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 opposes change in current
 allows DC but blocks AC
 stores energy by concentrating the magnetic field of current
 also known as choke
 termed as solenoid for coil with more than one turn

a. Inductance (L)
 property of a circuit that opposes the change in current expressed in
 for a N-turn coil wound around a certain core, it is defined as the amount of
flux linkage of the coil per unit current through the coil
 1H=1Weber/A

 0 r AN2
L= Where: μr = relative permeability
µ0 = material permeability
A = area
N = no. of turns
L = length

b. Time Constant (λ)

 One time constant is the amount of time for an inductor to energize and de-
energize up to 63.2 %
λ= where: L- inductance
R- resistance

c. Instantaneous Current of an inductor

 The amount of current flowing through the inductor at certain time instant
I (t) = (1+e- (t/λ))

d. Voltage across an inductor

V inductor = L( ) : di/dt = rate of change in current
V induced = N( ) where: N = number of turns
dø/dt = rate of change in flux

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e. Energy stored in an inductor

W= ½LI2 where: W- stored energy
I – current

f. Inductive Reactance

XL = 2πfL where: XL = inductive reactance

f = frequency

g. Total Inductance

L series = L1 + L2 +… +Ln

1 1 1 -1
L parallel = ( + + …+ )
L1 L 2 Ln

With mutual inductance:

L aiding = L1 + L2 + 2M

L opposing = L1 + L2 - 2M

M = k L1L2 Where: M = mutual inductance

k = coefficient of coupling

h. Types of inductor:

Air-core Inductor
 Used for radio frequency applications
 Inductance in μH to mH
 Typical coefficient of coupling from 0.05 to 0.3

Iron-Core Conductor
 Used for 60-Hz and audio frequency applications
 Inductance from 1H to 25H
 Typical coefficient of coupling equals 1

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 Stores electric energy
 Previously called as condenser (deprecated)
 Essentially consists of two conducting plates called electrodes separated by
a layer called dielectric.

a. Capacitance(C)
 The electrical size of the capacitor
 A measure of how much electric energy a capacitor can store expressed in
Farads (F)
 Previously called capacity (deprecated) and permittance (obsolete)
 Permittivity(ε) is a measure of how well a dielectric will permit the
establishment of flux lines within the dielectric

Dielectric Material


C= where:
C = capacitance in farad, F
Q = charge stored in Coulomb, C
E = voltage across the capacitor in volt, V

 o r A
C= where:
εo = absolute permittivity
= 8.854 x 10-12 F/m
εr = dielectric constant
A = area of parallel plates, m2
d = plate separation, m

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Dielectric Dielectric Constant

Air or Vacuum 1
Polyvinyl 3.3
Aluminum Oxide 7
Glass 8
Tantalum 25
Paper 2 to 6
Mica 3 to 8
Ceramic 80 to 1200
Table 3: Dielectric constants of material

For multi-plate construction of capacitor:

 o r A
C = (n-1) where: n = no. of plates

b. Elastance (S)
 The reciprocal of capacitance
 Has a unit of daraf

c. Uses of Capacitor
 Blocks DC
 Couples AC
 Filter
 Tuning
 Signal Generation
 Energy Storage

d. Time Constant (λ)

 One time constant is the amount of time for an inductor to energize and de-
energize up to 63.2 %

λ= RC where: C = capacitance
R = resistance

e. Charging and Discharging Equations

V charging = E (1 - e-t/RC) where: E = source voltage

V discharging = E (e-t/RC) t = time instant

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f. Current through Capacitor

Ic = C ( ) where: Ic = current in a capacitor
dv/dt = rate of change in voltage

g. Energy Stored in a Capacitor

W= ½CV2 where: W = stored energy

V = voltage

h. Capacitive Reactance

Xc = where: Xc = inductive reactance
f = frequency

i. Total Capacitance

1 1 1 -1
C series= ( + + …+ )
C1 C 2 Cn

C parallel = C1 + C2 +… +Cn

j. Types of capacitor:

Fixed Capacitors
a. Mica
 Capacitance values range approximately 1pF to 0.1μF
 Used over a wide temperature range (-55 to +150°C)
b. Paper
 Packaged as a “rolled sandwich”
 Variety of values, 500pF to 50µF
 Operating ambient temperatures is as high as 125°C
c. Plastic Film
 Plastics used include polystyrene, polycarbonate, and polyester (Mylar)
 Available in typical ranges 500pF to 10μF
d. Ceramic
 Low-k ceramic capacitor is widely used in temperature compensation
 High-k ceramic capacitor change their value appreciably with temperature, dc
voltage and frequency

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e. Electrolytic
 Can be aluminum and tantalum and either polarized or non-polarized
 Used where large value of capacitance in a small volume is required.

Variable Capacitors
a. Air variable
 Capacitance values ranges from a few picofarads up to 500pF
 Maximum voltage rating is 9kV
b. Trimmer
 Utilized for fine tuning and in hybrid microelectronics circuit

Chip Capacitors
 No larger than a match head
 Volumetric efficient

k. Capacitor Failures

 A short circuit caused by dielectric breakdown or an open circuit caused by
connection failure
 Results in a gradual decrease in leakage resistance and hence gradual
increase in leakage current

l. Other Parameters

Voltage Rating
 Specifies the maximum DC voltage that can be applied without the risk of
Temperature Coefficient
 Indicates the amount and direction of a change in capacitance value with
Leakage Current
 The current that result in the total discharge of a capacitor if the capacitor is
disconnected from the charging network
Working Voltage
 The voltage that can be applied across a capacitor for long period of time

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 A natural phenomenon in which some material (ferromagnetic) can be
attached by a magnet but not other material (non-magnetic).

1. ATOMIC THEORY of Magnetism

 Magnetism is the effect of moving charged particles such as the motion of

electrons in an atom
 In atoms in most elements, the magnetic forces produced by its charged
particles, electrons and protons cancel its other. They are called
nonmagnetic material.
 The common elements whose magnetic forces do not cancel completely are
called magnetic material.
 Domains are completely magnetized.


 A substance that attracts pieces of iron (and its compound), steel, nickel,
 Natural magnet exhibits permanent magnetism
 Lodestone, a natural magnet
 Artificial magnets produce by exposing or subjecting a magnetic material into
a magnetizing force
 Alnico, permanent magnet often used in speakers
 Hipernik is used in high power transformers
 Keeper, placed across poles to maintain strength during storage
 Air gap, air space between poles of magnet
 Degaussing, another name of demagnetization
 Curie temperature, temperature where materials lose magnetism
600° C - ferrite
280° C – broadline
100° C – YIG (Yttrium-Iron-Garnet)

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Magnetic Field flux

1. FLUX (ø)
 Known as the magnetic lines of force
 Represent the lines which seem to emanate from north and terminates to
South Pole.
 Maxwell (Mx), cgs unit of flux named after Scottish physicist, James Clerk
 Weber (Wb), SI unit of flux and named after German physicist Wilhelm

Characteristic of Magnetic Lines of Force:

- They possess a positive direction
- They always form a complete loop
- They tend to become as short as possible
- They repel one another
- Like poles repel one another
- They arrange to set up their maximum number


 Specifies the amount of magnetic lines per unit area(A)
 Gauss (G), cgs unit and name after Johann Karl Freidrich Gauss(1777-
 Tesla(T), SI unit and named after Croatian engineer Nikola Tesla(1856-


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 Amount of magnetizing force or magnetic potential
 Coercive force, needed to reduce flux density to zero
 Domain, arrangement of atoms under mmf
 Gilbert(Gb), cgs unit and named after William Gilbert(1540-1603)
 Ampere-turn, Si unit

mmf = IN where: I = current , N = no. of turns


 Amount of magnemotive force per unit length
 Oersted (Oe), cgs unit and named after Danish physicist Hans Christian
 Ampere-turn per meter, SI unit


Magnetic Units Conversion

Quantity SI cgs Relation

Flux Weber Maxwell 1 Wb =108 Mx

(ø) (Wb) (Mx)
Flux Density Tesla Gauss 1T= 10 G
(β) T(Wb/m2) G(Mx/cm2)
Magnetomotive Ampere-turn Gilbert 1A-t=1.2157 Gb
force (mmf) (A-t) (Gb)
Field Strength Ampere-turn/meter Oersted 1A-t/m=0.01257 Gb/cm
(H) Oe(Gb/cm)
Table 3: Units Conversion


Permeance (P)
 Property that concentrates the magnetic flux
 A measure of the ability of a magnetic circuit to permit the setting up of flux.
 Counterpart of Conductance in an electric circuit.
 Reluctance, reciprocal of permeance which is the limiter of the magnetic
circuit to the establishment of a magnetic flux.

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Materials According to Permeability

 With very high relative permeability from 50 to 5000
 Strongly magnetized in the same direction as magnetizing force
 Examples: alnico, cobalt, iron, nickel, steel, ferrites

 With relative permeability slightly greater than 1
 Weakly magnetized in the same direction as the magnetizing force
 Examples: aluminum, chromium, manganese, platinum

Non- Magnetic
 With permeability equals to space or vacuum permeability which is equals to
4π x 10-7 H/m
 With relative permeability equals to 1
 do allow magnetism to pass through them, but they never become
magnetized to any noticeable degree

 with relative permeability slightly less than 1
 weakly magnetized in opposite direction as magnetizing force
 examples: antimony, bismuth, copper, gold, mercury, silver, zinc

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 the delayed reaction of the magnetization of a ferromagnetic material with the
change of the magnetizing force

Plot of magnetic field B as magnetizing force H is applied

2. MAGNETIC Analysis

 When ferromagnetic material is completely demagnetized, there is no

magnetic field within its surroundings
 When a magnetizing force H is applied to it magnetic field rises. As H is
continuously increased, it will come to a point that the material saturates.
 Upon saturation, any increase in H will have very little increase in B.
Practically this is the point of maximum flux density or magnetic field.
 The magnetic field of flux density B left after removal of the magnetizing force
(H=0) is called the remanence or residual magnetism.
 To completely demagnetize the material, the residual magnetism must be
counteracted by the opposite magnetizing force. The amount of force that
can bring the residual magnetism to zero is called the coersive force.
 Retentivity is the ability of the material to retain magnetism when magnetizing
force was removed
 Permanent magnets are constructed from material with good retentivity,
while temporary magnets, with low retentivity.

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3. LAWS/PRINCIPLES on Electromagnetic Induction

a. Faraday’s Law
“The amount of induced voltage is directly dependent on the number of
turns of a coil and on the rate a flux cuts the conductor”

Broken into two Laws:

Faraday’s First Law of Electromagnetic Induction
“States that electromotive force is induced whenever a conductor cuts a
magnetic flux”

Faraday’s Second Law of Electromagnetic Induction

“The magnitude of the induced emf is proportional to the relative rate of
change of flux”, mathematically expressed as:

V induced = N( ) where: N = number of turns
dø/dt = rate of change in flux

b. Lenz’ Law
“States that the direction of the induced current produces magnetic field
that opposes the action that produced the induced current”

c. Biot Savart Law

 At any point, the magnetic field intensity produced is proportional to the
product of current, magnitude of differential length and sine of the angle lying
between the filament and line connecting the filament to a point P where the
field intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance to the
point P

d. Hall Effect
 the concept whereby a small voltage is generated whenever a conductor with
current in an external magnetic field is known

e. Wiegand Effect
 the effect that describes the ability of a mechanically stressed ferromagnetic
wire to recognized rapid switching of magnetization when subjected to a DC
magnetic field

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Basic Electricity and Magnetism 1-21

Review Questions

1. What composes all matter whether a liquid, solid or gas?

a. Atoms
b. Electrons
c. Protons
d. Neutrons

Answer a. Atoms

2. Protons are about____ heavier than electrons.

a. 1800 times
b. Less than thrice
c. Less
d. Twice

Answer a. 1800 times

3. In the periodic table, all elements are arranged in the order according to their (April, 2004)
a. Atomic number
b. Valence
c. Nucleus
d. Characteristics

Answer a. Atomic number

4. What do you call the subatomic particle that has a mass approximately equal to that of the
proton, but it has no electrical charge? (April, 2004)
a. Atom
b. Proton
c. Electron
d. Neutron

Answer d. Neutron

5. The nucleus of an atom is made up of_____ (April, 2004)

a. Protons and electrons
b. Electrons only
c. Electrons and neutrons
d. Protons and neutrons

Answer d. Protons and neutrons

6. Refers to the atom that losses an electron (November, 2003)

a. Positive ion
b. Negative ion
c. Emf
d. Neutron

Answer a. Positive ion

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7. What is the symbol for carbon dioxide? (November, 2005)

a. CO
b. C2O
c. CO2
d. Co2

Answer c. CO2

8. The definite discrete amount of energy required to move an electron from lower shell to another
shell (November, 1999)
a. Negative energy
b. Positive energy
c. Quantum
d. Quanta

Answer c. Quantum

9. The force between two magnetic poles in relation to their pole strength is________ (November,
a. Not related
b. Inversely proportional
c. Directly proportional
d. Independent

Answer c. Directly proportional

10. How are static charges created? (November, 2003)

a. By motion
b. By friction
c. By immersion
d. By conduction

Answer b. By friction

11. Very few metals are now used in their pure state. A mixture of two or more metals or a mixture
of metal and another material is called? (November, 2003)
a. Alloy
b. Colloid
c. Compound
d. Amalgam

Answer a. Alloy

12. Which of the following statement is true for metals? (November, 2003)
a. An increase in the temperature does not affect the resistance
b. An increase in temperature lowers the resistance
c. An increase in temperature increases the resistance
d. An increase in temperature doubles the resistance

Answer c. An increase in temperature increases the resistance

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Basic Electricity and Magnetism 1-23
13. It exhibits positive temperature coefficient (April, 2004)
a. Conductor
b. Glass
c. Semiconductor
d. Superconductor

Answer a. Conductor

14. Which material has more free electrons? (November, 1999)

a. Mica
b. Dielectric
c. Insulators
d. Conductor

Answer d. Conductor

15. Which of the following is not a good conductor of electricity (April, 2004)
a. Silver
b. Copper
c. Aluminum
d. Mica

Answer d. Mica

16. An insulator is a substance that

a. Offers a resistance to current flow
b. Offers a low resistance to current flow
c. Absorbs electricity
d. Forms a condenser

Answer a. Offers a resistance to current flow

17. The total resistance of two similar wire conductors connected in parallel is _____. (November,
a. Same resistance of 1 wire
b. Double the resistance of 1 wire
c. One half the resistance of 1 wire
d. Resistance of 1 wire multiplied by 4

Answer c. One half the resistance of 1 wire

18. A rheostat is a device that regulates the strength of an electric current by (November, 2003)
a. Increasing the magnetic field in the circuit
b. Varying the voltage in the circuit
c. Varying the resistance in the circuit
d. Varying the current in the circuit

Answer c. Varying the resistance in the circuit

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19. The reciprocal of capacitance is called________(November,1995)

a. Elastance
b. Permitivitty
c. Permeability
d. Conductance

Answer a. Elastance

20. Which of the following describes the action of capacitor (April, 1998)
a. Converts AC to DC
b. Creates a DC resistance
c. Stores electrical energy
d. Opposes change in current flow

Answer c. Stores electrical energy

21. The following are the factors that affect the inductance of a coil (April, 2004)
1. The number of turns in a coil
2. The diameter of a coil
3. The coil length
4. The number of layers of windings in the coil
5. The type of core material
a. 1,2,3 and 4 only
b. 1,2,3 and 5 only
c. 1,2,3,4 and 5
d. 1,2,4 and 5 only

Answer c. 1,2,3,4 and 5

22. Inserting a soft iron core into a coil has what effect on the inductance of the coil? (November,
a. Increase inductance
b. Decrease inductance
c. Does not affect the inductance
d. None of these

Answer a. Increase inductance

23. Which of the following characterizes inductance? (April, 1998)

a. Tends to oppose DC
b. Tends to oppose change in current
c. Tends to oppose change in voltage
d. Opposes all frequencies equally

Answer b. Tends to oppose change in current

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Basic Electricity and Magnetism 1-25
24. What law in electronics where an induced current will be in such a direction that its own
magnetic field will oppose the magnetic field that produces the same?
a. Electromagnetic law
b. Norton’s law
c. Lenz’s law
d. Maxwell’s law

Answer c. Lenz’s law

25. What is the unit of magnetic flux in SI system?

a. Weber
b. Maxwell
c. Tesla
d. Gauss

Answer a. Weber

26. Materials with permeabilities slightly less than that of free space are referred to as
a. Diamagnetic
b. Ferromagnetic
c. Non-magnetic
d. Paramagnetic

Answer a. Diamagnetic

27. Solve for flux density (in gauss) from a magnetic flux of 5,000 Mx through a perpendicular area
of 2 cm x 5 cm.
a. 5,000 G
b. 500 G
c. 10,000 G
d. 50 G

Answer b. 500 G
5000Mx Mx
Flux Density (gauss) =  500  500G
2cmx5cm cm2

28. What is the law that determines polarity of an induced voltage?

a. Norton’s law
b. Thevenin’s law
c. Lenz’s law
d. Faraday’s law

Answer c. Lenz’s law

29. The natural magnet refers to (November, 1999)

a. Steel
b. Soft iron
c. Magnesia
d. Lodestone

Answer d. Lodestone

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30. It is the air space between poles of magnet .

a. Air gap
b. Vacuum
c. Free zone
d. Free space

Answer a. Air gap

31. Where do you classify hydrogen as a material? (November, 1999)

a. Diamagnetic
b. Paramagnetic
c. Non-magnetic
d. Ferromagnetic

Answer c. Non-magnetic

32. What is the law whereby the attraction or repulsion between two magnetic poles is directly
proportional to their strength? (April, 1998)
a. Coulomb’s law
b. Newton’s law
c. Coulomb’s first law
d. Norton’s law

Answer c. Coulomb’s first law

33. _________ is the property of magnetic materials which retain magnetism after magnetizing
force is withdrawn.
a. Reluctivity
b. Resistivity
c. Retentivity
d. Conductivity

Answer c. Retentivity

34. Permeability is the _________ (April, 2004)

a. Power found in the electromagnet
b. Power found in the magnetic field
c. Ease with which metals maybe magnetized or demagnetized
d. Power found in the transformer

Answer c. Ease with which metals maybe magnetized or demagnetized

35. Electric energy refers to __________.

a. Joules divided by time
b. Volt-Coulomb
c. Volt-Ampere
d. Watt

Answer b. Volt-Coulomb

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36. Electric power refers to________ (November, 1997)
a. Joule
b. Volt-ampere
c. Watt-second
d. Volt-coulomb

Answer b. Volt-ampere

37. The current of electric circuits is analogous to __________ parameter of a magnetic circuit.
a. Flux density
b. Reluctivity
c. Mmf
d. Flux

Answer d. Flux

38. Which of the following refers to the point where the intensity of magnetic lines of force is
a. Magnetic pole
b. Weak pole
c. North pole
d. Great circle

Answer a. Magnetic pole

39. Which one is the paramagnetic material? (November, 1997)

a. Copper
b. Oxygen
c. Carbon
d. Bismuth

Answer c. Carbon

40. What is the term used to express the amount of electrical energy stored in an electrostatic
a. Volts
b. Watts
c. Coulombs
d. Joules

Answer d. Joules

41. When you demagnetize properly by applying an AC field and then gradually reduced it to zero,
it is called______ (November, 1997)
a. Damping
b. Decaying
c. Degaussing
d. Gaussing

Answer c. Degaussing

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42. What is the flux density in gauss (G) having a flux of 12,000 Mx through a perpendicular area
of 6 cm squared?
a. 2000 G
b. 72000 G
c. 72 G
d. 200 G

Answer a. 2000 G
Flux Density =  2000G

43. What is another term for magnetic lines of force?

a. Flux
b. Magnetic pole
c. Armature
d. Lodestone

Answer a. Flux

44. A magnet that is heated will _____ (November, 2003)

a. Increase in magnetism
b. Decrease in magnetism
c. Not change in magnetism
d. Become demagnetized

Answer b. Decrease in magnetism

45. What is the name of the effect of some of the magnetic field leaking off due to less than 100
percent coupling?
a. Eddy currents
b. Electromagnetic effect
c. Leakage reactance
d. Self inductance

Answer c. Leakage reactance

46. The difference between the charges in the conductor is equal to the difference in potential.
This voltage caused in the moving magnetic field is called (November, 2003)
a. Electromagnetic force
b. Induced voltage
c. Electromotive force
d. Counter-electromotive force

Answer b. Induced voltage

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47. The basic unit of measuring electrical power (November, 2003)
a. Watt
b. Watt-hour
c. Volt
d. Ampere

Answer a. Watt

48. Which of the following does not refer to electric energy?

a. Joule
b. Watt second
c. Volt coulomb
d. Volt ampere

Answer d. Volt ampere

49. It is composed of a series of energy levels containing the valence electrons. (November, 1999)
a. Conduction band
b. Forbidden band
c. Side band
d. Valence band

Answer d. Valence band

50. It has a unit of electron volt

a. Charge
b. Energy
c. Current
d. Potential difference

Answer b. Energy

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