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- Research on Smarandache Problems in Number Theory, edited by Zhang Wenpeng
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Proof:

Let a and b be even integers. By definition of even we have that a = 2n and b = 2m.

Consider the sum a + b = 2n + 2m = 2(n + m) = 2k where k = n + m is an integer.

Therefore by definition of even we have shown that my hypothesis is true.

Proof:

Let a be an arbitrary even integer and by definition a = 2n for some integer n. Now

consider the -(2n) = 2(-n) = 2k where k = -n is an integer. Therefore by definition -2n

is also an even integer.

Proof:

Let a and b be odd integers. By definition of odd we have that a = 2n + 1 and

b = 2m + 1. Consider the sum a + b = (2n + 1) + (2m +1) = 2n + 2m +2 = 2k, where

k = n + m + 1 is an integer. Therefore by definition of even we have shown that

a + b is even and my hypothesis is true.

Counter example: Let n = 3 then (3)2 = 9 is also odd

Proof:

Let n and m be two odd integers. By definition of odd we have that n = 2a + 1

and m = 2b + 1. Consider the product nm = (2a + 1)(2b +1) = 4ab + 2a + 2b +1=

2( 2ab + a + b) + 1 = 2k + 1, where k = (2ab +a +b ) is an integer. Therefore by

definition of odd we have shown that the product of two odd integers is also odd.

Counter example: Let n = 5 then n2 = 25 which is not prime

Proof:

Consider 2n – 1 = 2n -2 + 1 = 2(n – 1) + 1 = 2k + 1 where k = n-1 is an integer and

2n -1 is odd by definition.

Proof:

Let a = 2n be an even integer by definition of even and b = 2k + 1 by definition

of odd and n and k are integers.

Consider a – b = 2n –(2k + 1) = 2(n – k) -1 = 2p-1 where p = n – k is an integer

And where 2p – 1 is odd by proof in problem 7).

9) The sum of two rational numbers is rational:

Proof: Let r and w be two rational numbers. By definition of rational

a c

r= and w = where a,b,c,d are integers and b≠0 and d≠0

b d

a c ad + bc

Consider r + w = + = where bd ≠ 0 is an integer and ad +bc is an

b d bd

integer. Therefore the sum is rational by definition.

Proof: Let r and w be two rational numbers. By definition of rational

a c

r= and w = where a,b,c,d are integers and b≠0 and d≠0

b d

a c ac

Consider rw = * = where bd ≠ 0 is an integer and ac is an

b d bd

integer. Therefore the product is rational by definition.

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