You are on page 1of 144



4th Year
Translation Course


This book is designed for upper-intermediate and advanced Arabic-speaking

English-major students who need to improve their communicative skills in

translation and in the English language in general. The passages are drawn from a

wide variety of sources, so as to give our students representative samples of the

various styles and registers found in contemporary English. Some passages are

taken from Abu Yousef, E. et al. (2005), Principles and Basics of Translation.

Other passages are translated through Google Translate for practice and training.

Table of Contentents

1. What is Translation? 4
2. Translation Problems 15
3. Legal Translation 26
4. ‫خص حٌظَؿّش‬١ٓ‫ أٓخ‬ٟ‫يس ف‬١‫ّ ِـــف‬ٍٚ‫ ٍٍٓٔش ى‬67
5. ‫ش‬١‫ حٌظَؿّش حٌؼَر‬ٟ‫ أهطخء ٗخثؼش ف‬72
6. ‫ش‬١‫ حٌٍغش حٌؼَر‬ٌٝ‫ حٌظَؿّش ا‬ٟ‫ أهطخء ٗخثؼش ف‬75
7. ‫ حٌظَؿّش‬ٌٝ‫أػَ٘خ ا‬ٚ ‫ش‬١‫ حٌؼَر‬ٟ‫ع ف‬ٛ١ٗ ‫هطخء‬٤‫ش ح‬٠ٛ‫ حٌٍغ‬80
8. ‫ش‬١‫ُِخص حٌٍفظ‬٩‫( طَؿّش حٌّظ‬Collocations) 97
9. Translated texts from English into Arabic 104
10. ‫ حٌظَؿّش‬ٟ‫مخص ف‬١‫ ططز‬124
11. ‫ش‬١‫ أىر‬ٜٙٛٔ 129

What is Translation?

The following definitions and ideas about translation and its theory are taken from:
1. Bassnett, Susan. Translation Studies. 1980. Revised edition 1991. London:
Routledge. 2. Venuti, Lawrence. Ed. The Translation Studies Reader. London:
Routledge, 2000.

Etymologically, ‗translate‘ means to carry across. In context, it could mean

carrying across a message or a text. It has also been defined as a process of
communication that involves a sender and a receiver. Like any other form of
communication, the sender sends a message that is coded in a certain way. This
code is received and analyzed or decoded by the receiver before it is understood.

Catford (1965: 20), defines translation as "… the replacement of textual material in
one language by equivalent textual material in another language. In this definition,
the most important thing is equivalent textual material. Yet, it is still vague in
terms of the type of equivalence. Culture is not taken into account.

Nida and Taber (1969) state that "Translating consists of reproducing in the
receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message,
first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style."

Brislin (1976: 1) defines translation as "the general term referring to the transfer of
thoughts and ideas from one language (source) to another (target), whether the
languages are in written or oral form; whether the languages have established
orthographies or do not have such standardization or whether one or both
languages is based on signs, as with sign languages of the deaf." Pinhhuck (1977:

38) maintains that "Translation is a process of finding a TL equivalent for an SL

The study of proper principle of translation is termed as translation theory. This

theory, based on a solid foundation on understanding of how languages work,
translation theory recognizes that different languages encode meaning in differing
forms, yet guides translators to find appropriate ways of preserving meaning, while
using the most appropriate forms of each language. Translation theory includes
principles for translating figurative language, dealing with lexical mismatches,
rhetorical questions, inclusion of cohesion markers, and many other topics crucial
to good translation.

Katharina Reiss has defined translation as a ―bilingual mediated process of

communication, which ordinarily aims at the production of a TL text that is
functionally equivalent to an SL text (2 media: SL and TL+1 medium: the
translator, who becomes a secondary sender; thus translating: secondary
communication)‖ (Venuti 160).

In other words, translation is a process of communication that involves two

languages and in which the translator acts as a mediator. Since the translator is the
one who is originally sending the message s/he becomes a ‗secondary sender‘ and
therefore translation becomes ‗secondary communication‘. Thus, translation also
goes through many stages before its conclusion. According to Eugene Nida the SL
message undergoes analysis by the translator before it is transferred to the TL. It is
then restructured according to the TL pattern before it is comprehended. In other
words, a message is first decoded by the receiver and then recoded by him/her.
The cultural differences between sender and receiver also complicate matters.
Susan Bassnett gives an example of how complicated the translation of even

ordinary prosaic words can become. The good translator has to be aware of all
minute cultural differences even before starting off on the process of translating
even a simple word like ‗yes‘ (Bassnett, 16-17).

The complicated process that goes into the translation of ‗yes‘ into French,
according to the Nida model is this:

 a) The sender‘s message (code) is ‗yes‘

 b) This is analysed (decoded) by the receiver
 c) The context in which the message is sent is taken into account and then
 d) The recoded message of ‗oui‘ or ‗si‘

Roman Jakobson arrived at three forms of translation:

 Intralingual translation: Translation within a language which would

involve explaining it in words of the same language
 Interlingual translation: Translation from one language into another or
reinterpretation of the message in another linguistic code
 Intersemiotic translation: Translation from one linguistic system to another
which means the transference of meaning from a verbal to a non-verbal
system or from one medium to another


Since all translations are inevitably reader-oriented or listener-oriented,

equivalence becomes very important. Ultimately the SL text should make sense for
the TL reader/listener and for that the translator has to take into account all or more
of the factors that we have already discussed.

Idiomatic language becomes another knotty issue in translation. Idioms in any
language are rooted in the cultural/social milieu of the community and will be
difficult to relocate to a completely different soil. Anton Popovič identifies four
types of equivalence in translation:

1. Linguistic equivalence: Similarity between words of the SL and TL. This

occurs in ‗word -for- word‘ translation
2. Paradigmatic equivalence: Similarity between grammatical components
3. Stylistic equivalence: Similarity in the meaning or impact of the expressed
4. Textual (syntagmatic) equivalence: Similarity in the structure and form of
the texts

When it comes to idioms and metaphors, the translator will have to aim for stylistic
equivalence where, there is ―functional equivalence of elements in both original
and translation‖ (qtd by Bassnett 25).

Eugene Nida categorizes equivalence into two—formal and dynamic. In formal

equivalence there is complete correspondence between the two texts in terms of
structure and content, and it will try to convey as much about the SL text as is
possible. A faithful translation would be characterized by formal equivalence.
Dynamic equivalence aims at creating a similar impact as the SL text on its
readers or to recreate a similar relationship between the reader/listener and the text.
Both forms of equivalence have their pros and cons, and are relevant according to
the contexts of translation.

Lost in Translation

Along with the concept of equivalence is the notion of loss and gain in translation.
Implicit in most of translation theories is the assumption that something is lost
when you carry across a text from one language into another. There is the

possibility of miscommunication in the act of communication that is translation; if
the receiver goes slightly out of line in the decoding, the chances are that the
message will not be carried across correctly. Certain elements can be added or
left out. The translator, it is assumed, cannot ever hope to capture the ‗meaning‘ of
the original SL which tends to fall through the gaps of the TL. Some translators
can also inadvertently pad up the text by adding more to it than is necessary with
the result that the translation might have more allusions in it than was originally
thought of.

The problem of loss and gain is again due to the cultural dissimilarity between two
linguistic groups. Something that is very common in a particular community might
be rare in another. It is said that the language of the Eskimos has more than one
hundred words to describe ‗snow‘. These subtle distinctions they make between
various types of snow cannot be brought out in a single Hindi word. The reverse is
also applicable.

This is one of the major challenges facing a translator who is translating a literary
work. Literary language, besides being informative and factual, is also allusive and
elliptical. The translator has to be vigilant to these resonances in the SL text and
attempt to recapture it for the TL reader as best as s/he can, without any palpable
loss or gain in the process.


Sometimes it is not just cultural differences that pose hurdles for translation
activity. It could be a grammatical construction that becomes the problem. For
example the Hindi ―Yahaan ka mahaul achcha hain‖ cannot be translated using the
same word order in English. If we do so it would become ―Here‘s atmosphere is

good‖ which is wrong in English. To have the correct English equivalent we use
―The atmosphere here is good‖. Similarly ―Aap ka shubh naam‖ often gets
converted to ―your good name‖ in English. These gaps in translation often have
(unintentional) hilarious results. Be on the lookout for such gaffes the next time
you watch a movie or song in your mother tongue with English subtitles!

Catford identifies two types of untranslatability – linguistic and cultural.

Linguistic untranslatability occurs when there are no grammatical or syntactic
equivalents in the TL. Cultural differences pave the way for cultural

Popovič also differentiates between two types of problems.

1. ―A situation in which the linguistic elements of the original cannot be

replaced adequately in structural, linear, functional or semantic terms in
consequence of a lack of denotation or connotation‖.
2. "a situation where the relation of expressing the meaning i.e. the relation
between the creative subject and its linguistic expression in the original
does not find an adequate linguistic expression in the translation‖ (qtd in
Bassnett 34).

Does this mean that translation is an impossibility? This is not so. Georges
Mounin, a French linguist felt that dwelling on the problems of untranslatability
will not yield any positive results. According to him, there are certain areas of
personal experience that are basically beyond translation. This is because each
individual‘s private domain is exclusively her/his own and anything, especially
literature, that deals with it is also bound to be individualistic and might not yield
to recapturing of its essence.

Problems in translation also occur because of fundamental differences between two
language systems that differ in their very basic sense. For example, it will be more
difficult to translate from English (an Indo-European language) into Malayalam (a
Dravidian language) because they differ in all linguistic aspects. But Mounin
believed that communication through translation is possible if we try to understand
it in context. When we come to the problem of translatability and the fine
hairsplitting that go with it, we have to pause and remember a few basic facts.

Cultural Turn in Translation

This is a relatively new term in translation studies marking the reciprocal

relationship between translation and a given cultural environment. The underlying
principle of this approach is that translation cannot be dissociated from its socio-
cultural moorings and viewed as a purely linguistic activity. Mary Snell-Hornby
went so far as to say that a good translator has to be not only bilingual but bi-
cultural. Today the field is informed by this perspective, as is evident in the diverse
ways in which cultural theories have seeped into the study of translation.

Basically there are two competing theories of translation. In one, the predominant
purpose is to express as exactly as possible the full force and meaning of every
word and turn of phrase in the original, and in the other the predominant purpose is
to produce a result that does not read like a translation at all, but rather moves in its
new dress with the same ease as in its native rendering. In the hands of a good
translator neither of these two approaches can ever be entirely ignored.

Conventionally, it is suggested that in order to perform their job successfully,

translators should meet three important requirements; they should be familiar with:

 the source language

 the target language
 the subject matter

Based on this premise, the translator discovers the meaning behind the forms in the
source language and does his best to produce the same meaning in the target
language - using the forms and structures of the target language. Consequently,
what is supposed to change is the form and the code and what should remain
unchanged is the meaning and the message. (Larson, 1984)

Translation Theory and Practice

Translation is a process based on the theory that it is possible to abstract the

meaning of a text from its forms and reproduce that meaning with the very
different forms of a second language. Translation, then, consists of studying the
lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of
the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then
reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon and grammatical structure
which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. (Larson
l998, p. 3)

Diagram from Larson l998, p. 4

The ideal translation will be accurate as to meaning and natural as to the receptor
language forms used. An intended audience who is unfamiliar with the source text
will readily understand it. The success of a translation is measured by how closely
it measures up to these ideals.

The ideal translation should be…

 Accurate: reproducing as exactly as possible the meaning of the source text.

 Natural: using natural forms of the receptor language in a way that is
appropriate to the kind of text being translated.
 Communicative: expressing all aspects of the meaning in a way that is
readily understandable to the intended audience.

In practice, there is considerable variation in the types of translations produced by

translators. Some translators work only in two languages and are competent in
both. Others work from their first language to their second language, and still
others from their second language to their first language. Depending on these
matters of language proficiency, the procedures used will vary from project to
project. In most projects in which SIL is involved, a translation team carries on the
project. Team roles are worked out according to the individual skills of team
members. There is also some variation depending on the purpose of a given
translation and the type of translation that will be accepted by the intended


Translation (or the practice of translation) is a set of actions performed by the

translator while rendering the source (or original) text (ST) into another language.
Translation is a means of interlingual communication. The translator makes
possible an exchange of information between the users of different languages by
producing in the target language (TL or the translating language) a text which has

an identical communicative value with the source (or original) text (ST). This
target text (TT) is not fully identical with ST as to its form or content due to the
limitations imposed by the formal and semantic differences between the source
language (SL) and TL.

Nevertheless the users of TT identify it, to all intents and purposes, with ST-
functionally, structurally and semantically. The functional identification is revealed
in the fact that the users (or the translation receptors - TR) handle TT in such a way
as if it were ST, a creation of the source text author. The structure of the translation
should follow that of the original text: there should be no change in the sequence of
narration or in the arrangement of the segments of the text. The aim is maximum
parallelism of structure which would make it possible to relate each segment of the
translation to the respective part of the original. Of major importance is the
semantic identification of the translation with ST. It is presumed that the
translation has the same meaning as the original text. No exchange of information
is possible if there is discrepancy between the transmitted and the received
message. The presumption of semantic identity between ST and TT is based on the
various degrees of equivalence of their meanings.

The translator usually tries to produce in TL the closest possible equivalent to ST.
The translating process includes two mental processes – understanding and
verbalization. First, the translator understands the contents of ST, that is, reduces
the information it contains to his own mental program, and then he develops this
program into TT.

The process of translating presumably consists in the translator getting beyond the
original text to the actual situation described in it. This is the first step of the
process, i.e. the break-through to the situation. The second step is for the translator

to describe this situation in the target language. Thus the process goes from the text
in one language through the extralinguistic situation to the text in another

The translator first understands what the original is about and then says ―the same
things‖ in TL. The translating process may be described as a series of
transformations. The transformational model postulates that in any two languages
there is a number of nuclear structures which are fully equivalent to each other.

Each language has an area of equivalence in respect to the other language. The
translator does the translating in three transformational strokes. First – the stage of
analysis – he transforms the original structures into the nuclear structures, i.e. he
performs transformation within SL. Second – the stage of translation proper – he
replaces the SL nuclear structures with the equivalent nuclear structures in TL.
And third – the stage of synthesis – he develops the latter into the terminal
structures in the text of translation.

Translation Problems

1. Problems arise not only with idioms but with other kinds of expressions.

2. A word-for-word translation results in wrong arrangement of text and lack of

clarity and understanding.

3. Problems of ambiguity: these originate from structural and lexical differences

between languages and multiword units like idioms and collocations.

4. Problems of grammar: there are several constructions of grammar with rules

that are poorly understood.
5. Problems of language: these include idiom terms and neologisms, slang difficult
to understand, respect to punctuation conventions and proper name of people,
organizations and places.
6. Problems of source text: These are illegible text, spell incorrectly.
7. The difficulty of translating poetry is twofold: the words and meaning on the
one hand, the flow and rhythm (or rhyme) on the other. Most translations of
poetry are bad. This is mainly because the translator knows the foreign language
too well and his or her language too poorly.
8. Grammatical problems in translation:
 English and Arabic belong to two different language families, their
grammar are sharply different . Several grammatical features of English
create variable problems of translation into Arabic. Experience shows that
one of the primary mistakes committed by the student of translation is their
presupposition that English grammar and Arabic grammar can translate
each other in a straightforward way.
 Literal translation of ― am, is, are, was, were‖ When these verbs are the
main and only verbs in the sentence, they are translated by many students

literally into ( ٌٕٞ٣ ), which is poor translation. And the same thing when
used as auxiliary verbs to form the present progressive tense and the
present passive voice. A good number of students translate them literally;
For example: ―She is kind‖ (‫زش‬٤١ ٌٕٞ‫ ط‬٢ٛ) ―I am leaving now‖ ( ‫ٕ ٓـخىٍح‬ًٞ‫أٗخ أ‬
ٕ٥‫― )ح‬They are put in the same situation‖ (ٚٔ‫هق ٗل‬ُٞٔ‫ ح‬٢‫ٖ ك‬٤‫ػ‬ٟٞٞٓ ٌٕٞٗٞ٣ ْٛ)
SOLUTION: In the first, it can be omitted altogether here thus changing
verbal sentence into Arabic nominal ones‖ i.e. into a topic and a comment
each. Therefore, verb ―be‖ in the present simple is used to connect as much
as equate between two words. And usually dropped in Arabic, both as
main as well as auxiliary, it mostly unacceptable and poor in Arabic
grammar and word order. Also, ―- ing‖ ending for the main verbs have no
equivalent in Arabic grammar. ٚٔ‫هق ٗل‬ُٞٔ‫ ح‬٢‫ٖ ك‬٤‫ػ‬ٟٞٞٓ ْٛ ٕ٥‫ٓـخىٍ ح‬
ٌ ‫زش أٗخ‬٤١ ٢ٛ
 There are two exceptions which they used the past simple of ― be‖, are
translated literally into ‖ ٕ‫ ―ًخ‬both as well as auxiliary which is writing as a
main verbs and as auxiliary in the past progressive but in the past passive
voice sentence we should dropped them: As the main verbs: ― the child
was ill ‖ = ― ‫خ‬٠٣َٓ َ‫ ‖ ًخٕ حُطل‬As auxiliary: the past progressive : ― Our
guests were playing ‖ = ― ٕٞ‫ِؼز‬٣ ‫ك٘خ‬ٞ٤ٟ ٕ‫ ‖ ًخ‬BUT as the past passive voice :
― The food was eaten ‖ = ― ّ‫‖ أًُــَ حُــطـؼـخ‬
 Translation of verb Do and Did: as main verbs (do & did) doesn‘t pose any
grammatical problems. However, as an auxiliary, poses more than one
problem. Verb ―Do‖ is used in English to form the negative of all verbs
except ―be‖, ―have‖ and the modal verbs. Do & Does used with the present
simple, whereas ―Did‖ with past simple. All these form meaningless in
Arabic , they have the function of indicating the tens of the verb( past or
present) , and what is translated into Arabic is negative particle ―not‖( , ُْ ,
‫ ٓخ‬, ‫ ) ال‬except in the questions it implies the question particle ― ‫ـَ ؟‬ٛ ‖
whether in the present or in the past. 1- Do in the negative : means ( ‫ ) ال‬,
for example: ― Some people (do not) smile‖ = ‖ ّ‫ حُ٘خ‬ٞ‫ٕ ) ال ( رؼ‬ٞٔٔ‫زظ‬٣― 2-
Did in the negative: usually translated into ( ُْ ) with the present , and
occasionally into ( ‫ ) ٓخ‬with the past ; for example: ―She (did not) eat
much‖ = ― ( ُْ ) ًَ‫ طؤ‬/ ( ‫ أًِض ) ٓخ‬... ‫َح‬٤‫ ‖ ًؼ‬3- Do in question; means ( َٛ ) ―
(Do) you sleep early?‖ = ― َ‫ـ‬ٛ ‫( ― ‖ طـ٘ـخّ رـخًـَح‬Did) Ali visit you yesterday?‖
= ― َ‫ـ‬ٛ ‫ رخألْٓ؟‬٢ِ‫‖ ُحٍى ػ‬
 Translate ― Do ‖ as main verb: 1- as main verb ―do‖ is meaningful in
translation, usually it is translated as ― َ‫لؼ‬٣ ‖ for example: ― I will do my
best ‖ = ― َ‫ ّ أكؼ‬٢‫ٓؼ‬ٞ‫ ‖ ٓخ ر‬2- or it can be translated as ― write‖ = ― ‫ٌظذ‬٣ ‖…
― Some student do their homework‘s quickly‖ = ― ْٜ‫حؿزخط‬ٝ ‫ حُطِز ِش‬ٞ‫ٌظذ رؼ‬٣
‫ ‖ رَٔػش‬At translating verb ―Do‖ as an auxiliary verb, it has NO lexical
meaning in Arabic, but implies the grammatical question particle ― َٛ ‖ .
However, as a main verb, it has a full lexical meaning.
 Translation of verb ―Have‖: As a main verb, it can pose a few problems to
the student of translation, it take different meanings. What helps students
distinguish between these meanings of ―have‖ is the consideration of the
word immediately after it ―its object‖. Together with its object , ―have‖
make especial combination in Arabic . A- ― She had a nice holiday‖ = ―
‫ِش‬٤ٔ‫ض ػطِش ؿ‬٠‫ ‖ ه‬B- ―The students have left early today‖ = ― ‫ؿخىٍ حُطالد رخًَح‬
ّٞ٤ُ‫ ‖ ح‬C- ―She has the tablets on time‖ = ― ‫هض حُٔليى‬ُٞ‫ ح‬٢‫د ك‬ٞ‫ٍ حُلز‬ٝ‫ ‖ طظ٘خ‬D-
―she has money‖ = ― ‫ى‬ٞ‫خ ٗو‬ٜ‫ُط‬ٞ‫ ك‬٢‫ ‖ ك‬/ ― ‫ى‬ٞ‫ ‖ طِٔي ٗو‬/― ٢ٛ ( ‫ى‬ٞ‫خ ٗو‬ٜ٣‫ ‖) ُي‬we
cannot say ― ‫حء‬ٝ‫ِٔي ى‬٣ ‖ َ‫ ― ر‬4 ” ‫حء‬ٝ‫ٍ ى‬ٝ‫ظ٘خ‬٣. Translation of Modals‖ Because
there are many auxiliary verbs in English, so they create several problems
of translation for two major reason: A- they don‘t have one-to-one single
semantic equivalent in Arabic, and there is no grammatical class of verbs

called Modal Auxiliary in Arabic. B- they have several complex and
complicated function in English.
 ― will, would, shall,‖ are not verbs in Arabic, these modals are used to
refer to future either in present ―will, shall‖ or in the past ―would‖ it
translated into ― ‫ف‬ٞٓ ‖ or ― ‫ ‖ ٓــ‬regardless of the possibility of the
reference of the latter to the near for example: ― They will forgive us‖ = ‖
‫ٕ ُ٘خ‬َٝ‫ـل‬٤ٓ ― 2-‖can, may, must, could, might, ‖: usually translated by
students to mean one word each. BUT the case is NOT so. They imply two
words. Problem becomes clearer when students translate them from Arabic
into English, they‘re translated into ― ٕ‫ٌٖٔ أ‬٣ , ٕ‫ـذ أ‬٣ , ٕ‫غ أ‬٤‫ٔظط‬٣ ‖ because ٕ‫أ‬
is implied in these verbs and needed in such combination in Arabic for e.g.
: ―we can walk‖ = ― ٢٘ٔٗ ٕ‫غ أ‬٤‫ ‖ ٗٔظط‬but we cannot say # 3 ٢٘ٔٗ ‫غ‬٤‫ٗٔظط‬-The
confusion of ―must have‖ and ―should have‖ the students understand these
as having the same meaning in the past but it the opposites. MUST HAVE
= action which took place, whereas SHOULD HAVE =―action didn‘t take
place‖ …. e.g. ―They must have finished work‖ = ― َٔ‫ح حُؼ‬ٜٞٗ‫ْ أ‬ٜٗ‫― ‖ الري أ‬
They should have finished work‖ = ― َٔ‫ح حُؼ‬ٜٞ٘٣ ٕ‫ْ أ‬ٜ٤ِ‫‖ ًخٕ ػ‬
 Translating of Question: Questions in English are formed in two ways
only: A) The conversation of the subject and verbs when one of the
following verbs is used: ― be, have, and modal verbs‖ B) The use of the
auxiliary verb ―do‖ with the rest of the verbs in English. The problems
could arise at translating the different types of question, both is called ―Yes
or No question‖ because they are answered by them. The first problem
appear in the possibility of imitating the question form: so the students will
find this not possible because simply there are NO such equivalents in
Arabic but just one word for all questions it is( َ‫ــ‬ٛ ). e.g. : ―Are you
playing tennis?‖/ ―Have you played tennis?‖/ ―Do/Did you play tennis?‖
OR the disappearance of ( َٛ ) with WH-question : when ―do‖ and the
subject –verb conversation are used in WH-question, they are meaningless.
― َٛ ‖ is on longer used in the Arabic translation here e.g. ―what have you
said?‖ = ― ‫ٍ؟‬ٞ‫ ― ‖ ٓخًح طو‬why they are crying?‖ = ― ‫ٕ؟‬ٌٞ‫ز‬٣ ‫‖ ُٔخًح‬
 Translation of negation she cannot pay money. ‫ى‬ٞ‫غ إٔ طيكغ حُ٘و‬٤‫ ال طٔظط‬. she
will not pay money. ‫ى‬ٞ‫ ُٖ طيكغ حُ٘و‬. she has not money. ‫ىح‬ٞ‫ ال طِٔي ٗو‬. All that
glitters isn't gold. ‫زخ‬ًٛ ‫ِٔغ‬٣ ‫ْ ًَ ٓخ‬٤ُ . Do not, does not = ‫ ال‬Did not = ُْ Many
people do not play chess ‫َ ٖٓ حُ٘خّ حُ٘طَٗؾ‬٤‫ِؼذ حٌُؼ‬٣ ‫ ال‬. The children did not
sleep early yesterday ْٓ‫لخٍ رخًَح رخأل‬١‫ْ٘ حأل‬٣ ُْ . ‗ Not‘ has more than one
equivalent Negation in English includes the following words "not , do not ,
does not , did not , never , neither , nor & no ". Do not, does not, did not
 ُٖ + ‫ أريح‬/ ‫ ال‬+ ‫ أريح‬/ ُْ + ‫ أريح‬we never give up. ‫ ُٖ ٗٔظِْٔ أري‬. Neither…nor = .. ‫ال‬
‫ال‬ٝ Either..or = ٝ‫ أ‬.. ‫ آخ‬I like neither lying nor cheating. ٖ‫ال حُـ‬ٝ ‫ ال أكذ حٌٌُد‬.
You can either come with me or stay here. ‫٘خ‬ٛ ‫ حُزوخء‬ٝ‫ أ‬٢‫ّ ٓؼ‬ٝ‫ رخٓظطخػظي حُوي‬.
Never Neither…nor, either…or No ‫ع‬ٞ٘ٔٓ / ‫ ال‬/ ْ٤ُ No smoking. ٖ٤‫ع حُظيه‬ٞ٘ٔٓ
. She has no money. ‫ى‬ٞ‫خ ٗو‬ٜ٣‫ْ ُي‬٤ُ / ‫ىح‬ٞ‫ ال طِٔي ٗو‬.

Grammatical Problems

Grammatical problems are the result of complicated SL grammar, different TL

grammar or different TL word order. Among the most frequent grammatical

a. The translation of verbs ―be‖, ―have‟ and ―modals‖.

b. The translation of tenses and articles.

c. The translation of adjectives and personal pronouns.

d. The translation of nominal, verbal and conditional sentences.

Stylistic Problems

The style, or the way of writing, of a particular SL text may pose different
problems for the translator. One of these problems is fronting, in which a word, a
phrase or a clause is stated at the beginning of a sentence in an unusual way. For
instance, „suicide he committed‟ instead of „he committed suicide‟. The purpose
behind such a fronting is to emphasize on the fronted word, or to draw attention to
its importance to the meaning of the whole sentence. Other stylistic problems may
include parallelism, ambiguity, redundancy, and nominalization vs. verbalization
(Ghazala, 1995:18-24).

Lexical Problems

Lexical problems usually occur when a word or an expression is not understood,

misunderstood or totally unknown to translators. Synonymy, polysemy and
monosemy, collocations, metaphors and idioms are considered as the most
common lexical problems (Ghazala, 1995:24). Idioms which are special phrases
with special meanings will be discussed in details in the second part.

Cultural Problems

A number of problems may be raised in cross-cultural translation. According to

Yowelly and Lataiwish (2000:107), ―the greater the gap between the source and
target culture, the more serious difficulty would be‖. Translation between English
and Arabic which belong to two different cultures (the Western and the Oriental
cultures), and which have a different

background is a best example of such problems. Cultural problems may include

geographical, religious, social and linguistic ones. Hence, the expression

―summer‘s day‖ in „Shall I compare thee to a summer‟s day‟ will be best
translated into Arabic as „spring‘s day‟ to convey the same meaning.

Youssef, Sameh (2013) discusses the problem of allegory in literary translation in

Naguib Mahfouz‘s Awlad Haretna, which is written in 1959. Consider the
following examples from his study:

Example 1

،ً١‫حٌٕو‬ٚ ِ١ّ‫حٌـ‬ٚ ‫ص‬ٛ‫خ أٗـخٍ حٌظ‬ّٙ‫ طِك‬ٟ‫ش حٌظ‬١ِ‫مش حٌّظَح‬٠‫ حٌلي‬ٌٝ‫ٕظَ ا‬٠ َ١‫ حٌزخد حٌىز‬٢ٓٚ ‫لف‬ٚٚ
‫خس‬١‫مش رخٌل‬٠‫ـض حٌلي‬ٟ .َ١‫خف‬ٜ‫خ ِِلِلش حٌؼ‬ٜٙٔٛ‫ق غ‬ٛ‫طؼذ ف‬ٚ ،ٓ١ّٓ‫خ‬١ٌ‫ح‬ٚ ‫خ حٌلٕخء‬ٙ‫ ؿٕزخط‬ٟ‫طؼظَٕ ف‬ٚ
)11 .ٙ( .ٛٙ‫ّض رخٌز‬ٌٜ‫ٓ ٓخى ح‬١‫ ك‬ٍٝ‫حٌغٕخء ػ‬ٚ

Gabalawi (…) stood in front of the great door, gazing out at the vast garden
crammed with mulberry, sycamore and palm trees flanked by bowers of henna and
jasmine, above whose branches the twittering of birds could be heard. The garden
rang with life and song, while the chamber was shrouded in silence. (P. 9)

Example 2

ِٓ ‫) فىخْ اًح فَؽ‬...( ،‫مش ٌِٕ ىٍؽ‬٠‫ وخْ ػخٗمخ ً ٌٍلي‬.‫مش‬٠‫ حٌلي‬ٟ‫ ف‬٨‫ّ ا‬ٍٛ‫ذ ٌٗ حٌـ‬١‫ط‬٠ ٓ‫ى‬٠ ٍُ‫أِخ أىُ٘ ف‬
‫ طلض‬ٝ‫ حٓظٍم‬ٚ‫ أ‬،‫ِس‬١ّ‫ ؿ‬ٚ‫ ؿٌع ٔوٍش أ‬ٌٝ‫َٖ ا‬ٙ‫إٔٓي ظ‬ٚ ،‫ي‬ٚ‫ كخفش ؿي‬ٍٝ‫لف حفظَٕ ٓـخىس ػ‬ٌٛ‫ ح‬ٟ‫ػٍّٗ ف‬
.ٙ( !َ‫ّخ‬١ٌ‫ ح‬ٍٝ‫ِخ أك‬ٚ َ‫ّخ‬١ٌ‫ظخرغ ح‬٠ ٚ‫َ! أ‬١‫خف‬ٜ‫ِخ أوؼَ حٌؼ‬ٚ َ١‫خف‬ٜ‫ حٌؼ‬ٌٝ‫ ا‬َٛٔ٠ ‫ٍحف‬ٚ ،ٓ١ّٓ‫خ‬١ٌ‫٘ ش ح‬٠َ‫ػ‬

Adham could only relax sitting in the garden. He had loved the garden (…). If he
finished up his work early, he spread out a carpet by the edge of a stream and
leaned his back against the trunk of a palm or sycamore tree, or lay flat on a bower
of jasmine to rest, gazing at the sparrows and doves. (P. 15)

Example 3
)...( ...‫لف‬ٌٛ‫ ربىحٍس ح‬َٞ١‫َ غ‬ٛ‫م‬٠ ْ‫ ِٓ حٌّٔظلٔٓ أ‬ٍٜ‫ أ‬-

) 12 .ٙ(..ٟ‫لف طلض اَٗحف‬ٌٛ‫َ ح‬٠‫ي‬١ٌ ُ٘‫ىُ أى‬١‫ أه‬ٍٝ‫ ػ‬ٍٞ‫خ‬١‫لغ حهظ‬ٚ ‫لي‬ٚ -

"I think it right that someone else should take over managing the property."

"I have chosen your brother Adham to look after the property under my
supervision," continued Gabalawi. (pp. 9-10)

Example 4

ٌٍْٛ‫ح‬ٚ ُ‫حٍق حٌلـ‬ٛ‫خٍ ف‬ٜ‫ر‬٥ٌ ٍٓ‫ؼ‬١ٌ ٌِّٛ٘‫ه ح‬٠‫حٔظفن وخٌي‬ٚ ،ُ٘‫ك أى‬ٛ٩٠ ‫ وخى‬ٝ‫حص كظ‬ٛ‫ْ) هط‬٠ٍ‫فخٔيفغ (اى‬
:٢‫خر‬ٟ َ١‫ك ػٕي حٌؼطْ رغ‬٠ٌَ‫ٕطٍك ٔؼخٍ ح‬٠ ‫ٗ وّخ‬١‫َ ِٓ ف‬٩‫حٔطٍك حٌى‬ٚ ،ٗ١‫ٓ أه‬١‫ر‬ٚ ٕٗ١‫خء ر‬ٙ‫حٌز‬ٚ

)13 .ٙ( ..‫ىحء‬ٛٓ ‫ش‬٠ٍ‫ أِخ ٌ٘ح فخرٓ ؿخ‬.‫َس حٌٕٔخء‬١‫ أرٕخء ٘خُٔ ِٓ ه‬ٟ‫أٗمخث‬ٚ ٟٔ‫ ا‬-

(Idris) took a few steps until he was almost touching Adham, puffed up like a
haughty rooster to show everyone the differences in brawn, complexion and beauty
between him and his brother, and spoke up with the randomness of a shower of
spittle drops from a thirsting mouth. "My full brothers and I are the sons of a
respectable lady – he's the son of a black slave woman!" (pp. 10-11)

Example 5

.ٙ( ..‫حٌلٔخد‬ٚ ‫ ػٍُ رخٌىظخرش‬ٍٝ‫ ػُ أٗ ػ‬،ُٙ‫ؼَف أوؼَُ٘ رؤّٓخث‬٠ٚ ،ٓ٠َ‫ش رطزخع حٌّٔظؤؿ‬٠‫ ىٍح‬ٍٝ‫ أىُ٘ ػ‬-

"Adham knows what kind of people the tenants are, and he knows most of them by
name. And he can read and do sums." (P. 11)

Example 6

‫ْ؟‬ٛ‫خ ٍِؼ‬٠ ٞ‫ طيٍن ػخلزش حٌظلي‬٨‫ أ‬-

..‫ش‬٠ٍ‫ْ كمخ ً حرٓ حٌـخ‬ٛ‫ حٌٍّؼ‬-

:‫ي‬ٛ‫م‬٠ ٛ٘ٚ ٓ١٠َ‫ٓ أه‬١‫ط‬ٛ‫ هط‬ٞٚ٩‫طميَ حٌـز‬ٚ )...(

‫حٓؼش‬ٚ ٍٝ٤‫ أِخِه ح‬،‫ طخرغ‬٨ٚ ‫ أم‬٨ٚ ٗ١‫ أَ ٌه ف‬٨ٚ ،‫ظه‬١‫ض ر‬١‫ ٌ٘ح حٌز‬٨ٚ ،‫ن‬ٛ‫ أٔخ أر‬٨ٚ ،ٟٕ‫ أٔض حر‬٨ -
ٟ‫ِخ ً ِٓ ػطف‬َٚ‫ه ِل‬ٙ‫ؿ‬ٚ ٍٝ‫ُ ػ‬١ٙ‫أٔض ط‬ٚ ‫مش ليٍن‬١‫خَ كم‬٠٤‫ٓظؼٍّه ح‬ٚ ،ٟ‫ٌؼٕظ‬ٚ ٟ‫ز‬٠‫رخ ً رغ‬ٛ‫ل‬ِٜ ‫فخً٘ذ‬
)16-15 .ٙ( !ٟ‫ظ‬٠‫ٍػخ‬ٚ

"Don't you know the punishment of defying me, you fiend?"

"The real fiend is the son of a slave."

(…) Gabalawi took two steps closer to him.

"You are not my son and I am not your father. This is not your house, and you
have no mother, brother or friend here. The world is before you – go forth with my
anger and my curse. Time passing will teach you your true worth as you wander
forlornly, having lost my love and protection!" (pp. 12-13)

Translation Strategies

The term strategy refers to a method or a procedure used by a translator to solve a

particular problem while translating. Baker (1992:36) summarizes the translation
strategies as follows:

Translation by a Superordinate

This strategy is used to solve the problem of non- equivalence in all languages,
because the hierarchical structure of semantic fields is not language specific.

Translation by More Neutral and Less Expressive Word

This method deals with the differences in expressive meaning. For example, if
there is no direct equivalent for a particular SL item in the TL, the translator may
use near equivalent items which are both less expressive and more formal.

Translation by Cultural Substitution

This strategy is based on replacing a culture-specific item or expression with a TL

one that has not the same exact meaning, but has equivalent effect on the target

Translation by Using Loan Words:

This technique works well when dealing with culture-specific items, modern
concepts and buzz words. When using loan words, it will be better to follow them
with explanations, especially if they are repeated many times in a text.

Translation by Paraphrase Using Related Words

It will be useful to use this strategy when a SL term has an equivalent in the TL,
but in a different form, and when it is more used in the source language than the
target one.

Translation by Paraphrase Using Unrelated Words

This strategy is highly used in case where a source language item is not lexicalized
at all in the target language. It is mainly based on the modification of a
superordinate or the unpacking of the source item meaning.

Translation by Omission

This technique is used when a particular word has no equivalent in the TL, and it
plays a little role in the development of the source text (i.e., its omission does not
alter the meaning of the text) (Baker 1992:28-36).

Translation by Compensation

By compensation, Newmark (1982) means playing down a particular feature at the
point it occurs in the ST, and introducing it elsewhere in the target text.

Legal Translation

What is Legal Translation?

Trying to understand what is involved in legal translation? It is more complex than

standard or regular translation that needs straightforward (transposition) writing.

Legal translation is required to use the official language of the pertinent

jurisdiction, thus it covers a wide variety of texts. It can be identity documentation,
financial documents, official reports, transcripts, filed patents, precedents and legal
rulings and witness statements. Legal translation is also needed for immigration
documents, litigation papers, articles of incorporation, wills and trusts.

Translation services for legal documents must only be done by specialists/subject

matter experts (SMEs) with deep knowledge of the laws of the source and target
countries/languages to avoid mistranslations.

Regulations for Legal Translators

Each country has its own set of regulations for legal translators. In many countries,
legal translators must have a degree in business and legal translation. In Argentina
and Brazil, legal translators must be certified by the state. Countries like The
Netherlands, Sweden and Spain require translators to swear legal oaths. Moreover,
they are regularly examined to ensure their good practice and proficiency. They are
also centrally regulated. In Italy however, all legal translations must be
certified/notarized by a professional legal practitioner.

The situation is different in the United Kingdom and the United States. These two
countries are not very strict about accreditation of legal translators. Many language
services providers (LSPs) provide certificates of accuracy if requested by the
client. Some join trade associations and independent bodies that offer membership
and qualifications, to signify accreditation. It is also used as a quality benchmark.

What Makes Legal Translation Different?

Still in the dark as to what legal translation is? As mentioned, it is one of document
translation's most complex forms. Mistakes, ambiguity or misinterpretation, no
matter how small, have no place in legal translation because the translated

document can become void. Further, there are huge legal and financial
complications that can result due to even a simple error.

Adding to the complexity of legal translation is its unique terminology, coupled

with cultural factors and difference in language. In legal translation, it is not just
about replacing a word with another. The translator must transpose the legal
concepts into another language. Because of difference in legal expressions and
traditions, the translator must be very specific about what language to use within
the target jurisdiction.

There is a specific type of language in legal text and if a judge or a lawyer sees that
wrong words were used, the entire translation may no longer be trusted. Moreover,
the translator must fit the purpose of the legal translation. There is a difference
between legally binding legalese and legal translation for public consumption.

Anyone familiar will legal text understands that legalese is wordy. Legal English
contains different subjects and the sentence structures are usually compound and
complex. The tone for legal English is very formal and it is usual for legal
documents to be written in the passive voice. It can be challenging for a translator
to translate a passive voice to an active voice, as some foreign languages are.

The Difficulties of Legal Translations Explained

Translating consists of a lot more than simply taking a text written in a language
and converting the text to a completely different language. In order for it to make
sense and flow in a clear and accurately conveyed legal language, the translator
must command a deep knowledge of the legal systems referred.

It is simply not enough to be simply proficient in two languages to do specialized

translations in the legal field. Specialized legal knowledge is an absolute
requirement and involves years of study.

Numerous skills are at play when you are translating, and legal documents, in
particular, demand a lot from the translator. Serious challenges are often faced by
translators when assigned a legal project. With such texts, there is simply no room
for error: the smallest of errors can have very serious consequences and can be
very expensive for the client.

Challenges in Legal Translation

The nature of the legal language and the law accounts for most of the difficulties
and complexities involved in legally translating a document. Legal translation is a
difficult niche within the translation field because each country has its own unique
legal system and legal terminology that must be accurately conveyed in the target
language of a translation.

In addition, aptly referring and explaining the two legal systems and the standard
linguistic and cultural differences between the societies of the two languages
makes the translation task more arduous for the legal translator.

Legal systems are representative of the societies they were founded in; each
society, in turn, is built on unique social, cultural and linguistic structures. In other
words, the law and legal language of a country reflect the overarching legal
system, which in turn reflects the history, culture and evolution of the country. The
incongruence of the two legal systems the legal translation refers to constitute the
core of the challenges in translating a legal document.

The Terminologies Are Too Different

The legal terminologies between the source and target languages often vary widely
– this is the standard difficulty faced by legal translators. When translating, the
translator must constantly compare the two legal systems of the two languages s/he
is tackling.

Differences in Culture
The legal language and law of a country reflects its culture. The legal translator
must understand the cultural differences of the legal systems of the two societies
s/he is addressing in his/her legal translation.

Legal Style
All legal languages are distinct languages unto themselves – each is highly
specialized with its own style, shaped by the legal traditions and culture of the
relevant country.

Degrees of Difficulty
The difficulty in translating a legal text depends on the two legal systems referred
to by the source and target language and the nature of the target and source

languages themselves. Legal translations are in some ways more complex than
other types of translations, although the translator's specialty should fit the project
being translated. Translating children's books or movies, for example, requires a
different skill set from legal translations.
For example, the difficulty of a legal translation may refer to:

 Two legal systems communicated in legal languages that are similar – this may
result in an easy translation.
 Two similar legal systems communicated in two legal languages that are different,
which may result in a not-too-difficult translation.
 Two completely different legal systems with two legal languages that are closely
related. Such a project would be of considerable difficulty for the translator.
 Two distinctly unrelated legal languages and systems. This pairing of two cultures
and languages is the hardest for a legal translator.
In other words, the level of difficulty in a legal translation depends completely on
the affinity level between the relevant legal systems and source and target

Qualities to Look for in a Legal Translator

Because legal translation is one of the most difficult and complex translation
projects to undertake, it's vital that the translator has the following skills:

 Be fully acquainted with the legal writing style of the target language.
 Be knowledgeable of the legal systems of the two countries of the source and
target languages.
 Be able to research the legal concept of a term in the source language when the
equivalent term in the target language is not obvious.
 Be acquainted with the original document's terminology.
 Be capable of, first, decoding the source language text when it's difficult to find an
exact translation of a segment of the document, and second, convey the original
meaning of the text segment in the target language as much as possible.
 Be fully cognizant of the purpose and intended use of the translated document.
This influences both the translation and the translator's approach to it. The
translation's terminology, tone, phraseology, syntax and other aspects of the
translation depend on the purpose of the translation.
 Be detail-oriented and faithful to the meaning and length of the document to be
translated. In legal discourse, details are important and should be properly
conveyed in the translation. Translators should not consider cutting text or

shortening the number of words that may come across as redundant, as length and
repetition are stylistic features of the original legal text and serve a vital purpose.
Types of Legal Translations
A professional translating a legal document must be knowledgeable about its legal
background and terminology specific to the referred field of law. The typical kinds
of legal translations are the following:

 Personal identity, individual record and social status papers that legally establish
the education or work or identity of an individual. These documents include
references or work testimonials, police reports, educational certificates or
diplomas, birth certificates, divorce decrees, and others.
 Court documents that detail trials or penal proceedings, the translation of which is
often requested for international judicial assistance cases. Translators must be able
to distinguish between the systems of civil and criminal proceedings as these are
not the same despite the terminologies being similar.
 Trade contracts approved by foreign courts; these are necessary for the selling of
goods or the granting of a trade license. A company looking to do business in a
foreign country must have its Shareholder Books or Articles of Incorporation
translated on top of its commercial registration documents.
 International treaties that apply the rule of international law, rules and regulations
in the signatory countries. Because the original language document must have the
same legal effect as its official translation in a second language, legal translators
here must make sure the text in the target language accurately and transparently
conveys the same legal effects in practice.
Legal translations can be difficult to undertake but translators play a critical role in
all civilized societies. Because the law affects every area of our lives, from
accepting a company's terms and conditions when downloading software onto your
computer or smart phone to withdrawing money from a cash machine, translated
legal terms defining what a government or company or individual can or cannot do
has gross implications for modern human society.

Because all law shapes the very underlying structure of our societies, the legal
translator must have a strong understanding of relevant legal concepts, terms and
systems when accepting an important legal document to translate.
Notwithstanding, a legal translation can be very difficult, a fact I hope to have
properly explored in this article.

Human Translators Required

Legal translation requires a very high degree of accuracy, which cannot be
delivered by machine translation. It's because legal documents are used as official
papers for any legal documentation, e.g., for scholarly writings, contracts, birth
certificates, affidavits and court evidence.

Translation automation is not advised because of the complexity of the two legal
systems involved. Direct translations are not possible because these may not make
sense to the target reader. The legal translator must ensure that the titles, reasoning
and technical terms are valid legally.

The legal expressions in the source language many not have specific equivalent in
the target language. In such cases, conceptual equivalents are used, which
machines cannot produce. There may be instances when the exact legal expression
from the source language must be included in the translation, along with the
paraphrase of the expression for emphasis.

Legal translation takes time to produce, as it is not the easiest form of translation
work. It requires the highest degree of accuracy. It is important for the client to
work with a professional language services provider that has legal translation
expertise as well as years of experience in the subject.

Tags: legal translation, legal translators, what makes legal translation


‫ش‬١ٔٛٔ‫ًؽ ٌظَؿّش لخ‬ّٛٔ ُ١١‫طم‬

This agreement is made between :ٖٓ ًَ ٖ٤‫ش ر‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ‫أُرَٓض‬

1. Al Areef Marine Contracting ٢ٛٝ ،‫ش‬٣َ‫الص حُزل‬ٝ‫ق ُِٔوخ‬٣َ‫ ٓئٓٔش حُؼ‬.1
Establishment, a sole establishment .‫ د‬.ٙ ٢‫خ ك‬ٜٗ‫ح‬ٞ٘‫وغ ػ‬٣ ،‫ش‬٣‫ٓئٓٔش كَى‬
having its address at P.O. Box 33519, ‫ش حُٔظليس‬٤‫ حإلٓخٍحص حُؼَر‬،٢‫ ظز‬ٞ‫ أر‬،33519
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates ،)"‫ش‬٣َ‫ق حُزل‬٣َ‫("حُؼ‬
(―Areef Marine‖);

and ٝ

2. China Railway International ْ‫ٍط‬ٞ‫ز‬٤ٓ ٖ٣ٍ‫ٗخٍ ٓخ‬ٞ٤ٗ‫ حٗظَٗخ‬١‫ح‬ٝ َ٣ٍ ‫٘خ‬٣‫ ط٘خ‬.2
Marine Seaports Contracting ‫ش ٌُِٔي‬٤٘٤ُٜ‫ (حًَُ٘ش ح‬.ّ .ّ .ً ‫ٗظَحًظ٘ؾ‬ًٞ
L.L.C. (previously known as China .ّ .ً ‫ش‬٤ُٝ‫ش حُي‬٣َ‫حٗت حُزل‬ُٞٔ‫الص ح‬ٝ‫ش ُٔوخ‬٣‫ي‬٣‫حُلي‬
Railway International Marine ١‫ح‬ٝ َ٣ٍ ‫٘خ‬٣‫ ط٘خ‬:ْٓ‫كش ٓخروخ رخ‬َٝ‫) (حُٔؼ‬.ّ
General Contracting L.L.C.), a ).ّ .ّ .ً ‫ٗظَحًظ٘ؾ‬ًٞ ٍ‫ٖ ؿَ٘ح‬٣ٍ‫ٗخٍ ٓخ‬ٞ٤ٗ‫حٗظَٗخ‬
limited liability company having its ٢‫خ ك‬ٜٗ‫ح‬ٞ٘‫وغ ػ‬٣ ‫ش‬٤ُٝ‫ىس حُٔٔئ‬ٝ‫ ًَٗش ٓلي‬٢ٛٝ
address at P.O. Box 93872, Abu ‫ش‬٤‫ حإلٓخٍحص حُؼَر‬،٢‫ظز‬ٞ‫ رؤر‬،93872 .‫ د‬.ٙ
Dhabi, United Arab Emirates )"ٖ٣ٍ‫ي ٓخ‬٣ًَ"( ‫حُٔظليس‬
("CREC Marine");
and ٝ

3. Al Areef Transporting & Road ٢ٛٝ ،‫أػٔخٍ حُطَم‬ٝ َ‫ق ُِ٘و‬٣َ‫ ٓئٓٔش حُؼ‬.3
Works Establishment, a sole ،33519 .‫ د‬.ٙ ٢‫خ ك‬ٜٗ‫ح‬ٞ٘‫وغ ػ‬٣ ،‫ش‬٣‫ٓئٓٔش كَى‬
establishment having its address at ‫ق‬٣َ‫ش حُٔظليس ("حُؼ‬٤‫ حإلٓخٍحص حُؼَر‬،٢‫ ظز‬ٞ‫أر‬
P.O. Box 33519, Abu Dhabi, United ،)"َ‫ُِ٘و‬
Arab Emirates (―Areef Transport‖);
and ٝ

4. China Railway International ‫د‬َٝ‫ٗخٍ ؿ‬ٞ٤ٗ‫ حٗظَٗخ‬١‫ح‬ٝ َ٣ٍ ‫٘خ‬٣‫ ًَٗش ط٘خ‬.4
Group Co. Ltd., a limited liability ‫ىس ٓئٓٔش‬ٝ‫ش ٓلي‬٤ُٝ‫ ًَٗش ًحص ٓٔئ‬٢ٛٝ ، ‫ٔظي‬٤ُ
company incorporated under the laws ‫خ‬ِٜ‫ٔؼ‬٣ٝ ،‫ش‬٤‫ٖ حُ٘ؼز‬٤ُٜ‫ش ح‬٣ٍٜٞٔ‫ٖ ؿ‬٤ٗ‫ح‬ٞ‫ؿذ ه‬ٞٔ‫ر‬
of the People‘s Republic of China ٢‫خ ك‬ٜ‫ش حُٔظليس ٌٓظذ كَػ‬٤‫ حإلٓخٍحص حُؼَر‬٢‫ك‬
and represented in the United Arab ،٢‫ظز‬ٞ‫ أر‬،29603 .‫ د‬.ٙ ٕ‫ح‬ٞ٘‫ (حُؼ‬٢‫ظز‬ٞ‫أر‬
Emirates by its branch office in Abu .‫ د‬.ٙ ٕ‫ح‬ٞ٘‫ (حُؼ‬٢‫ ىر‬٢‫خ ك‬ٜ‫ٌٓظذ كَػ‬ٝ
Dhabi (address at P.O. Box 29603, )"‫ي‬٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫) ("ٓـ‬٢‫ ىر‬،413696
Abu Dhabi) and also branch office in
Dubai (address at P.O. Box 413696,
Dubai) ("CREC Group").
Each of the above parties shall be ٙ‫ٍس أػال‬ًٌُٞٔ‫َحف ح‬١‫َف ٖٓ حأل‬١ ًَ ٠ُ‫٘خٍ ا‬٣
individually referred to as a ―Party‖ and ‫ٖ رـ‬٤‫ْ ٓـظٔؼ‬ٜ٤ُ‫ا‬ٝ "‫ رـ "حُطَف‬ٙ‫رٔلَى‬
together as the ―Parties‖. ."‫َحف‬١‫"حأل‬
Introduction ‫ِميِش‬

(A) Pursuant to the agreement dated 30 ،2011 ٍّ‫ ٓخ‬30 ٢‫ش حُٔئٍهش ك‬٤‫كوخ ُالطلخه‬ٝ )‫(أ‬
March 2011, Areef Marine and ٖ٣ٍ‫ي ٓخ‬٣ًَٝ ‫ش‬٣َ‫ق حُزل‬٣َ‫ٗض حُؼ‬ًٞ ‫كوي‬
CREC Marine formed a joint ٌ٤‫خٖٓ") ُظ٘ل‬٠‫ش حُظ‬٤‫ش ("حطلخه‬٤٘ٓ‫خ‬٠‫ش ط‬٤‫حطلخه‬
venture (the ―JV Agreement‖) to ‫ ًَٗش‬/‫خُق حُٔخىس‬ُٜ ‫ش‬٤ٗ‫ش ٓي‬٤‫أػٔخٍ حٗ٘خث‬
carry out civil construction works ،3649 .‫ د‬.ٙ ،‫ش‬٤٘١ُٞ‫ش ح‬٣َ‫حُـَحكخص حُزل‬
for M/s National Marine Dredging ٞ٣ٞ‫َس طؼ‬٣ِ‫ع ؿ‬َٝ٘ٔ‫ظؼِن ر‬٣ ‫ٔخ‬٤‫ ك‬٢‫ظز‬ٞ‫أر‬
Company of P.O. Box 3649 Abu ‫لق‬ُٜٔ‫ ح‬٢‫ش رل‬٤‫٘خػ‬ُٜ‫ش ُِو٘خس ح‬٤‫ؼ‬٤‫جش حُطز‬٤‫حُز‬
Dhabi in respect of the Mussafah .)"‫ع‬َُٝ٘ٔ‫("ح‬
Industrial Channel Habitat
Compensation Island project in the

Emirate of Abu Dhabi (the

(B) Pursuant to the agreement dated 10 ٞ٣‫ ٓخ‬10 ٢‫ش حُٔئٍهش ك‬٤‫كوخ ُالطلخه‬ٝ )‫(د‬
May 2016, Areef Transport and the ‫ٌٓظذ كَع‬ٝ َ‫ق ُِ٘و‬٣َ‫ كوي أرَٓض حُؼ‬،2016
Dubai branch office of CREC ‫غ رخػض‬٤‫ ك‬،‫ي ػويح‬٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ ُٔـ‬٢‫ىر‬
Group entered into a contract ‫ حُٔؼيحص‬ٞ‫ق ُِ٘وَ رؼ‬٣َ‫ حُؼ‬ٚ‫ؿز‬ٞٔ‫ر‬
whereby Areef Transport sold ٢‫ كَع ىر‬،‫ي‬٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ ٓـ‬٠ُ‫حًَُٔزخص ا‬ٝ
certain equipment and vehicles to 2,300,000.00 ٍٙ‫ هي‬٢ُ‫رٔؼَ َٗحء اؿٔخ‬
CREC Group‘s Dubai branch for a )"‫غ‬١‫ش حٌز‬١‫ ("حطفخل‬ٟ‫ىٍُ٘ اِخٍحط‬
total purchase price of
AED2,300,000.00 (the ―Sale

(C) Areef Transport and the Dubai ‫ٌٓظذ كَع‬ٝ َ‫ق ُِ٘و‬٣َ‫(ؽ) رؼي ًُي أرَٓض حُؼ‬
branch office of CREC Group ْ‫ أؿٔط‬17 ‫ن‬٣ٍ‫ش رظخ‬٤‫ي حطلخه‬٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ ُٔـ‬٢‫ىر‬
subsequently entered into the .)"ٍ‫ـخ‬٣‫ش حإل‬٤‫٘ش ("حطلخه‬٤‫َ ٓؼيحص ٓؼ‬٤‫ ُظؤؿ‬2016
agreement dated 17 August 2016
for the lease of certain equipment
(the ―Lease Agreement‖).

(D) The Parties intend to record their ‫ش ُِظؼخَٓ ٓغ‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ َ٤‫ حُطَكخٕ طٔـ‬١ٞ٘٣ )‫(ى‬
agreement to deal with and settle all ‫حالُظِحٓخص حُوخثٔش‬ٝ ‫م‬ٞ‫غ حُلو‬٤ٔ‫ش ؿ‬٣ٞٔ‫ط‬ٝ
existing and future rights and ‫ش‬٤‫حُ٘خٗجش ػٖ حطلخه‬ٝ ‫ِش‬ٜ‫ش حُٔظ‬٤ِ‫حُٔٔظوز‬ٝ
liabilities in connection with and ‫ى‬ٞ٘‫كوخ ُز‬ٝ ٍ‫ـخ‬٣‫ش حإل‬٤‫حطلخه‬ٝ ‫غ‬٤‫ش حُز‬٤‫حطلخه‬ٝ ،ٖٓ‫خ‬٠‫حُظ‬
arising out of the JV Agreement, the .‫ش‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ
Sale Agreement and the Lease
Agreement in accordance with the
terms of this Agreement.

The Parties hereby acknowledge and ‫ ٓخ‬٠ِ‫ش ػ‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ‫ؿذ‬ٞٔ‫حكن حُطَكخٕ ر‬ٞ٣ٝ َ‫و‬٣
agree that: :٢ِ٣
1 In relation to the JV Agreement: :ٖٓ‫خ‬٠‫ش حُظ‬٤‫ظؼِن رخطلخه‬٣ ‫ٔخ‬٤‫ ك‬-1

1.1 The Project has been completed )28( َٕٝ٘‫حُؼ‬ٝ ٖٓ‫ع ٌٓ٘ حُؼخ‬َُٝ٘ٔ‫ أُٗـِ ح‬1-1
since 28th October 2013 and ‫خ هي‬ٜٗ‫ش أ‬٣َ‫ق حُزل‬٣َ‫أًيص حُؼ‬ٝ ،2013 َ‫ر‬ٞ‫أًظ‬
Areef Marine confirms that it has ٖٓ ‫خ‬ُٜ ‫حٍ ٓٔظلوش حُيكغ‬ٞٓ‫حٓظِٔض ًَ حأل‬
received all the monies payable ٖٓ ‫ش‬٤٘١ُٞ‫ش ح‬٣َ‫ ًَٗش حُـَحكخص حُزل‬/‫حُٔخىس‬
to it by M/s National Marine .‫ع‬َُٝ٘ٔ‫أؿَ اٗـخُ ح‬
Dredging Company for the

completion of the Project.

1.2 The final accounts between the ٖ٤‫ش ر‬٤‫خث‬ُٜ٘‫ش حُلٔخرخص ح‬٣ٌ٤‫ حكظٔزض حُِـ٘ش حُظ٘ل‬2-1
joint venture of Areef Marine and ٖ٣ٍ‫ي ٓخ‬٣ًَٝ ‫ش‬٣َ‫ق حُزل‬٣َ‫خٖٓ حُؼ‬٠‫ط‬
CREC Marine have been ٖٓ 15 ْ‫كوخ ُِٔخىس ٍه‬ٝ ‫خ ٓؼظٔيس‬ٜ‫حػظزَط‬ٝ
calculated and deemed approved ،‫ش‬٤‫خث‬ُٜ٘‫ حُلٔخرخص ح‬٠ِ‫ر٘خء ػ‬ٝ .ٖٓ‫خ‬٠‫ش حُظ‬٤‫حطلخه‬
by the Executive Committee ‫ٖ رٔزِؾ‬٣ٍ‫ي ٓخ‬٣ٌَُ ٖ٣‫ش طي‬٣َ‫ق حُزل‬٣َ‫كبٕ حُؼ‬
pursuant to Clause 15 of the JV .٢‫ْ آخٍحط‬ٍٛ‫ ى‬3,541,834.97 ٍٙ‫هي‬ٝ
Agreement. Based on the final .)"٢‫("حُٔزِؾ حُٔظزو‬
accounts, Areef Marine owes
CREC Marine the amount of
AED3,541,834.97 (the
―Outstanding Amount‖).

1.3 CREC Marine hereby assign and َ‫ط٘و‬ٝ ٖ٣ٍ‫ي ٓخ‬٣ًَ ٍُ‫ش طظ٘خ‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ‫ؿذ‬ٞٔ‫ ر‬3-1
transfer the Outstanding Amount ٠ُ‫ش ا‬٣َ‫ق حُزل‬٣َ‫ حُؼ‬ٚ‫ٖ ر‬٣‫ طي‬٢‫ حُظ‬٢‫حُٔزِؾ حُٔظزو‬
owed by Areef Marine to CREC :٢ُ‫ حُظخ‬ٞ‫ حُ٘ل‬٠ِ‫ي ػ‬٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ٓـ‬
Group as follows:

(a) AED2,000,000.00 payable ٢‫ْ آخٍحط‬ٍٛ‫ ى‬2,000,000.00 ٍٙ‫هي‬ٝ ‫(أ) ٓزِؾ‬

to the Abu Dhabi branch ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ ُٔـ‬٢‫ظز‬ٞ‫ٓٔظلوش حُيكغ ٌُٔظذ كَع أر‬
office of CREC Group; and ٝ ،‫ي‬٣ًَ

(b) AED1,542,834.97 payable ٍْٛ‫ ى‬1,542,834.97 ٍٙ‫هي‬ٝ ‫ٓزِؾ‬ )‫(د‬

to the Dubai branch office of ٢‫ ٓٔظلوش حُيكغ ٌُٔظذ كَع ىر‬٢‫آخٍحط‬
CREC Group. .‫ي‬٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ُٔـ‬

Areef Marine consents to the assignment ٢‫ حُظ٘خٍُ ػٖ حُٔزِؾ حُٔظزو‬٠ِ‫ش ػ‬٣َ‫ق حُزل‬٣َ‫حكن حُؼ‬ٞ‫ط‬
of the Outstanding Amount to CREC ‫ٍس‬ًٌُٞٔ‫ف طيكغ حُٔزخُؾ ح‬ٞٓٝ ،‫ي‬٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫خُق ٓـ‬ُٜ
Group and shall pay the above stated ،٢‫ْ آخٍحط‬ٍٛ‫ ى‬2,000,000.00 ٢ٛٝ ٙ‫أػال‬
amounts of AED2,000,000.00 and 4 ْ‫كوخ ُِٔخىس ٍه‬ٝ ٢‫ْ آخٍحط‬ٍٛ‫ ى‬1,542,834.97ٝ
AED1,542,834.97 in accordance with ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ ُٔـ‬٢‫ىر‬ٝ ٢‫ظز‬ٞ‫ع أر‬َٝ‫ِلش ٌٓخطذ ك‬ُٜٔ ٙ‫أىٗخ‬
Clause 4 below for the benefit of the Abu .٢ُ‫ح‬ٞ‫ حُظ‬٠ِ‫ي ػ‬٣ًَ
Dhabi and Dubai branch offices of
CREC Group respectively.
2 In relation to the Sale Agreement: :‫غ‬٤‫ش حُز‬٤‫ظؼِن رخطلخه‬٣ ‫ٔخ‬٤‫ ك‬-2

2.1 The registered ownership of the ‫ش‬٤ُ‫حًَُٔزخص حُظخ‬ٝ ‫ش حُٔٔـِش ُِٔؼيحص‬٤ٌُِٔ‫ ُٗوِض ح‬1-2
following equipment and vehicles ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ ُٔـ‬٢‫ ٌٓظذ كَع ىر‬٠ُ‫ق ُِ٘وَ ا‬٣َ‫ٖٓ حُؼ‬
have been transferred from Areef :‫ي‬٣ًَ
Transport to the Dubai branch

office of CREC Group:

Description of
RTA registration
equipment/ve Model
Manufacturer number
hicle year
‫خٗغ‬ُٜ‫ح‬ ‫جش حُطَم‬٤ٜ‫َ ر‬٤‫ٍهْ حُظٔـ‬
/‫ق حُٔؼيحص‬ٛٝ ّ‫َ ػخ‬٣‫ى‬ٞٓ
Excavator Caterpillar
2009 S60935
ٍ‫كلخ‬ َِ٤‫ًخطَر‬
Shovel Volvo
2006 S60932
‫ؿَحكش‬ ٞ‫ُل‬ٞ‫ك‬
Pick-up truck Toyota
2007 C89288
‫ي آد‬٤‫ٗخك٘ش ر‬ ‫طخ‬ٞ٣ٞ‫ط‬
Pick-up truck Toyota
2008 S60928
‫ي آد‬٤‫ٗخك٘ش ر‬ ‫طخ‬ٞ٣ٞ‫ط‬
‫ش‬٤‫ش حَُ٘ػ‬٤ٌُِٔ‫خ ح‬ٜ٣‫ق ُِ٘وَ إٔ ُي‬٣َ‫ٖٔ حُؼ‬٠‫ ط‬2-2
2.2 Areef Transport warrants that it ‫حًَُٔزخص‬ٝ ‫يس ُِٔؼيحص‬٤‫َ حُٔو‬٤‫ؿ‬ٝ ‫ش حٌُخِٓش‬٤‫حُ٘لؼ‬ٝ
had full and unrestricted legal ،ٙ‫ٍ أػال‬ًٌُٞٔ‫ش ح‬٤ٌُِٔ‫ هزَ حؿَحء ٗوَ ح‬ٙ‫ٍس أػال‬ًٌُٞٔ‫ح‬
and beneficial ownership of the ‫ش‬٤ٌِٓ ْ٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ ُٔـ‬٢‫ٍ ٌُٔظذ كَع ىر‬ٝ‫رٌُي طئ‬ٝ
above equipment and vehicles .‫حًَُٔزخص‬ٝ ‫ ُِٔؼيحص‬ٞ‫َ هخرِش ُِ٘و‬٤‫ؿ‬
prior to the above-mentioned
ownership transfer and therefore
the Dubai branch office of CREC
Group has indefeasible
ownership of the equipment and

2.3 Areef Transport and the Dubai ٢‫ٌٓظذ كَع ىر‬ٝ َ‫ق ُِ٘و‬٣َ‫حطلن حُؼ‬ٝ ‫ أًي‬3-2
branch office of CREC Group :٢ِ٣ ‫ ٓخ‬٠ِ‫ي ػ‬٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ُٔـ‬
confirm and agree that:

(a) The Sale Agreement is ٕ‫أ‬ٝ .‫ش‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ‫ؿذ‬ٞٔ‫غ ر‬٤‫ش حُز‬٤‫(أ) اُـخء حطلخه‬
hereby cancelled. Areef ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ٓـ‬ٝ َ‫ق ُِ٘و‬٣َ‫حُظِحٓخص حُؼ‬ٝ ‫م‬ٞ‫كو‬
Transport and CREC ‫حًَُٔزخص حُٔيٍؿش‬ٝ ‫ي حُٔظؼِوش رخُٔؼيحص‬٣ًَ
Group‘s rights and liabilities ٌٙٛ ٢‫ٕ ك‬٥‫حٍىس ح‬ٝ ٢ٛ ،1-2 ْ‫ حُلوَس ٍه‬٢‫ك‬
in respect of the equipment .‫ش‬٤‫حالطلخه‬
and vehicles listed in Clause
2.1 are now set out in this

(b) If not already done so, Areef ‫ـذ‬٣ ،َ‫اًح ُْ طٌٖ هي هخٓض رٌُي رخُلؼ‬ )‫(د‬
Transport shall give the ٢‫ ٌٓظذ كَع ىر‬٢‫ق ُِ٘وَ إٔ طؼط‬٣َ‫ حُؼ‬٠ِ‫ػ‬
Dubai branch office of ‫ش ُِٔؼيحص‬٣‫خُس حُٔخى‬٤‫ْ حُل‬٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ُٔـ‬
CREC Group the physical ٍ‫يس هال‬٤‫ٍس رلخُش ػَٔ ؿ‬ًٌُٞٔ‫حًَُٔزخص ح‬ٝ
possession of the said ٌٙٛ ‫غ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ن ط‬٣ٍ‫خّ ٖٓ طخ‬٣‫) أ‬10( ‫ػَ٘س‬
equipment and vehicles in .‫ش‬٤‫حالطلخه‬
good working order within
ten (10) days from its
signing of this Agreement.

(c) In consideration of Areef ‫ ٓيحى‬٠ِ‫ش ػ‬٣َ‫ق حُزـ‬٣َ‫حكوش حُؼ‬ٞٓ ٠ُ‫(ؽ) رخُ٘ظَ ا‬

Marine‘s agreement to make ،ٙ‫ أىٗخ‬4 ْ‫كوخ ُِٔخىس ٍه‬ٝ ٢‫ًخَٓ حُٔزِؾ حُٔظزو‬
full payment of the ‫ ٓزِؾ‬٠ِ‫َ ػ‬ٜ‫ق ُِ٘وَ إٔ طل‬٣َ‫لن ُِؼ‬٣
Outstanding Amount in ٖٓ ٢‫ْ آخٍحط‬ٍٛ‫ ى‬1,542,834.97 :ٍٙ‫هي‬ٝ
accordance with Clause 4 ‫ش‬٤ٌِٓ َ‫ ٗو‬ٜٙٞ‫ش رو‬٣َ‫ق حُزـ‬٣َ‫حُؼ‬
below, Areef Transport shall ْ‫ حُلوَس ٍه‬٢‫حًَُٔزخص حُٔيٍؿش ك‬ٝ ‫حُٔؼيحص‬
be entitled to the amount of )"‫ ("ٓؼَ حٌَ٘حء حٌّؼيي‬ٙ‫ أػال‬1-2
AED1,542,834.97 from
Areef Marine in respect of
the transfer of ownership of
the equipment and vehicles
listed in Clause 2.1 above
(the ―Adjusted Purchase

3 In relation to the Lease ١‫ أ‬١َ‫ ال طُـ‬،ٍ‫ـخ‬٣‫ش حإل‬٤‫ظؼِن رخطلخه‬٣ ‫ٔخ‬٤‫ ك‬-3

Agreement no lease transaction َ‫ق ُِ٘و‬٣َ‫حكن حُؼ‬ٞ‫ ط‬َٝ‫ ٌُُي حُـ‬.ٍ‫ـخ‬٣‫ٓؼخِٓش ا‬
has been carried out. Therefore, ٌٙٛ ‫ؿذ‬ٞٔ‫ي ر‬٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ ُٔـ‬٢‫ٌٓظذ كَع ىر‬ٝ
Areef Transport and the Dubai ١‫ظلَٔ أ‬٣ ‫ال‬ٝ ،ٍ‫ـخ‬٣‫ش حإل‬٤‫ اُـخء حطلخه‬٠ِ‫ش ػ‬٤‫حالطلخه‬
branch office of CREC Group ‫ي‬ٟ ‫م‬ٞ‫ كو‬١‫ أ‬ُٚ ٌٕٞ٣ ٝ‫ حُظِحّ أ‬١‫َف أ‬١
hereby consent to the cancellation ‫ش‬٤‫ظؼِن رخطلخه‬٣ ‫ٔخ‬٤‫ ك‬ٝ‫ظؼِن أ‬٣ ‫ٔخ‬٤‫هَ ك‬٥‫حُطَف ح‬
of the Lease Agreement and .ٍ‫ـخ‬٣‫ش حإل‬٤‫اُـخء حطلخه‬ٝ ٍ‫ـخ‬٣‫حإل‬
neither party shall owe any
liability to or have any right
against the other party in respect
of or in connection with the
Lease Agreement or the
cancellation of the Lease

4 Areef Marine shall pay the ٠ِ‫ ػ‬٢‫ش حُٔزِؾ حُٔظزو‬٣َ‫ق حُزل‬٣َ‫ طيكن حُؼ‬-4
Outstanding Amount as follows: :٢ُ‫ حُظخ‬ٞ‫حُ٘ل‬

4.1 AED2,000,000.00 to the Abu ٠ُ‫ ا‬٢‫ْ آخٍحط‬ٍٛ‫ ى‬2,000,000.00 ٍٙ‫هي‬ٝ ‫ ٓزِؾ‬1-4
Dhabi branch office of CREC ‫ ٓزؼش‬٠ِ‫ي ػ‬٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ ُٔـ‬٢‫ظز‬ٞ‫ٌٓظذ كَع أر‬
Group in 27 equal monthly ‫ٔش‬٤‫خ رو‬٣ٝ‫خ ٓظٔخ‬٣َٜٗ ‫) هٔطخ‬27( َٕٝ٘‫ػ‬ٝ
instalments of AED 75,000. The ٢‫ٍ ك‬ٝ‫ حأل‬٢ٔ‫ُيكغ حُو‬٣ .٢‫ْ آخٍحط‬ٍٛ‫ ى‬75,000
first instalment shall be paid on ‫ش‬٤ُ‫ حُظخ‬١‫طُيكغ حألهٔخ‬ٝ ،2018 َ٣‫٘خ‬٣ 15 َ‫ هز‬ٝ‫أ‬
or before 15 January 2018 and ٠‫َ كظ‬ٜٗ ًَ ٖٓ َ٘‫ّ حُوخْٓ ػ‬ٞ٣ ٢‫ك‬
the following instalments shall be .َٓ‫ رٌَ٘ ًخ‬ٚ‫ظ‬٣ٞٔ‫ط‬
paid on the 15th of each
consecutive month until full

4.2 AED1,542,834.97 to Areef ٠ُ‫ ا‬٢‫ْ آخٍحط‬ٍٛ‫ ى‬1,542,834.97 ٍٙ‫هي‬ٝ ‫ ٓزِؾ‬2-4

Transport as full payment and ‫ش ُٔؼَ حَُ٘حء‬٣ٞٔ‫ط‬ٝ ‫ق ُِ٘وَ ًيكؼش ًخِٓش‬٣َ‫حُؼ‬
settlement of the Adjusted َ‫ق ُِ٘و‬٣َ‫وَ حُؼ‬٣ ،‫ش‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ‫غ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫رظ‬ٝ .ٍ‫حُٔؼي‬
Purchase Price. By signing this ٍ‫ش ٓؼَ حَُ٘حء حُٔؼي‬٣ٞٔ‫ط‬ٝ ‫ حُيكؼش‬ٌٙٛ ّ‫رخٓظال‬
Agreement, Areef Transport .‫ي‬٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ ُٔـ‬٢‫خُق ٌٓظذ كَع ىر‬ُٜ
hereby acknowledge the receipt
of this payment and settlement of
the Adjusted Purchase Price for
the benefit of the Dubai branch
office of CREC Group.

5 In consideration of Areef Marine ‫ش ٌُخَٓ حُٔزِؾ‬٣َ‫ق حُزل‬٣َ‫ ىكغ حُؼ‬٠ُ‫ رخُ٘ظَ ا‬-5
making full payment of the ٠ِ‫ـذ ػ‬٣ ،ٙ‫ أػال‬4 ْ‫كوخ ُِٔخىس ٍه‬ٝ ٢‫حُٔظزو‬
Outstanding Amount in ‫ ٓطخُزش‬١‫ ػٖ أ‬٠ٟ‫ٖ إٔ طظـخ‬٣ٍ‫ي ٓخ‬٣ًَ
accordance with Clause 4 above, ‫ش‬٣ٞٔ‫ش ُِظ‬٣َ‫ق حُزل‬٣َ‫ي حُؼ‬ٟ ‫ش‬٤ُ‫رلخثيس ٓخ‬
CREC Marine shall forgo any ‫ؿذ حُٔخىس‬ٞٔ‫ش ر‬٤‫خث‬ُٜ٘‫حُٔظؤهَس ُِلٔخرخص ح‬
financial interest claim against .ٖٓ‫خ‬٠‫ش حُظ‬٤‫ ٖٓ حطلخه‬15 ْ‫ٍه‬
Areef Marine for the delayed
settlement of the final accounts
under Clause 15 of the JV

6 If Areef Marine fails to pay any ٢ٔ‫ ه‬١‫ ىكغ أ‬٢‫ش ك‬٣َ‫ق حُزل‬٣َ‫ كخُش اهلخم حُؼ‬٢‫ ك‬-6
of the instalment payments by the ‫ حُلوَس‬٢‫ٖ ك‬٤‫ حُٔز‬ٚ‫ن حٓظلوخه‬٣ٍ‫ٍ طخ‬ِٞ‫رل‬
applicable due date provided in ١‫غ حألهٔخ‬٤ٔ‫زق ؿ‬ٜ‫ ط‬،ٙ‫ أػال‬1-4 ْ‫ٍه‬
Clause 4.1 above, all remaining ‫لن‬٣ٝ ،ٍٞ‫ حُل‬٠ِ‫ش ٓٔظلوش حُيكغ ػ‬٤‫حُٔظزو‬
instalments shall become due and ٕ‫ي أ‬٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ ُٔـ‬٢‫٘جٌ ٌُٔظذ كَع ىر‬٤‫ك‬
payable immediately and the Abu ًْ‫ كٌْ ٖٓ ٓلخ‬٠ِ‫ٍ ػ‬ٜٞ‫ ُِل‬٠‫ٔؼ‬٣
Dhabi branch office of CREC :ٜٙٞ‫ش رو‬٣َ‫ق حُزل‬٣َ‫ي حُؼ‬ٟ ٢‫ظز‬ٞ‫أر‬
Group shall be entitled to seek a
judgment from the Abu Dhabi
Courts against Areef Marine for:

6.1 the total amount due (which ٌٕٞ٣ ‫ هي‬١ٌُ‫ حُٔزِؾ حُٔٔظلن (ح‬٢ُ‫ اؿٔخ‬1-6
would be AED2,000,000.00 less ٢‫آخٍحط‬ ٍْٛ‫ى‬ 2,000,000.00
any previous payments that Areef ‫ػخص ٓٔزوش هي‬ٞ‫ ٓيك‬١‫ أ‬ٚ٘ٓ ‫ٓخ‬ٜٞ‫ٓو‬
Marine may have made pursuant -4 ْ‫كوخ ُِلوَس ٍه‬ٝ ‫ش‬٣َ‫ق حُزل‬٣َ‫ٕ ُِؼ‬ٌٞ‫ط‬
to Clause 4.1); .)1

6.2 interest on the above due amount %9 ‫ ر٘ٔزش‬ٙ‫ حُٔزِؾ حُٔٔظلن أػال‬٠ِ‫ حُلخثيس ػ‬2-6
at 9% per annum to be calculated ‫ق‬٣َ‫ن طوِق حُؼ‬٣ٍ‫خ طلظٔذ ٖٓ طخ‬٣ٞ٘ٓ
from the date of Areef Marine‘s ‫ أىحء حُٔزِؾ‬٠‫ش ػٖ حُيكغ كظ‬٣َ‫حُزل‬
payment default until the receipt .َٓ‫رخٌُخ‬
of full payment; and

6.3 all legal costs and expenses for ٍٜٞ‫ش رخُل‬ٛ‫ق حُوخ‬٣ٍ‫خ‬ُٜٔ‫ح‬ٝ ‫ق‬٤ُ‫غ حُظٌخ‬٤ٔ‫ ؿ‬3-6
obtaining the court judgment. ‫ كٌْ حُٔلٌٔش‬٠ِ‫ػ‬

7 This Agreement constitutes the ‫َحف‬١‫ٖ حأل‬٤‫ش ًخَٓ حالطلخم ر‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ٌَ٘‫ ط‬-7
entire agreement between the ‫ش‬٤‫حطلخه‬ٝ ‫غ‬٤‫ش حُز‬٤‫حطلخه‬ٝ ،ٖٓ‫خ‬٠‫ش حُظ‬٤‫ظؼِن رخطلخه‬٣ ‫ٔخ‬٤‫ك‬
Parties in relation to the JV ‫ حُلوَس‬٢‫حًَُٔزخص حُٔيٍؿش ك‬ٝ ‫حُٔؼيحص‬ٝ ،ٍ‫ـخ‬٣‫حإل‬
Agreement, Sale Agreement, .1-2
Lease Agreement and the
equipment and vehicles listed in
Clause 2.1.

8 CREC Group including its Abu ‫ ًُي ٌٓظذ‬٢‫ي رٔخ ك‬٣ًَ ‫ػش‬ٞٔ‫ُ ُٔـ‬ٞ‫ـ‬٣ -8
Dhabi branch office and Dubai ٕ‫ أ‬٢‫ ىر‬٢‫خ ك‬ٜ‫ٌٓظذ كَػ‬ٝ ،٢‫ظز‬ٞ‫ أر‬٢‫خ ك‬ٜ‫كَػ‬
branch office may assign its ١‫ أ‬٠ُ‫ش ا‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ‫ؿذ‬ٞٔ‫خ ر‬ٜ‫ِلظ‬ٜٓ ٖ‫طظ٘خٍُ ػ‬
benefit under this Agreement to ٠ُ‫ رخُظ٘خٍُ ا‬٢‫َف ػخُغ ربػطخء اٗؼخٍ هط‬١
any third party by giving a ُٚ ٍُ‫ش حُٔظ٘خ‬٣ٞٛ ‫٘خ‬٤‫ ٓز‬َٟ‫َحف حأله‬١‫غ حأل‬٤ٔ‫ؿ‬
written notice of assignment to .ٍ‫ حإلٗؼخ‬٢‫ْ) ك‬ُٜ(
all other Parties stating the
identity of the assignee(s) in the

9 Each party agrees that this َ‫ش طؼظز‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ٕ‫ أ‬٠ِ‫َف ػ‬١ ًَ ‫حكن‬ٞ٣ -9
Agreement shall take effect )______( ‫ن‬٣ٍ‫ حػظزخٍح ٖٓ طخ‬٢‫ش رؤػَ ٍؿؼ‬٣ٍ‫ٓخ‬

retrospectively from [date] and ‫ش‬٤ٌُِٔ‫ ح‬٢‫ٖ ك‬٤ٗٞٗ‫خ حُوخ‬ٜ‫طِِّ هِلخث‬ٝ ‫ـذ إٔ طُطزن‬٣ٝ
shall apply and bind its respective .ْٜ‫َف ر‬ُٜٔ‫ْ ح‬ُٜ ٍُ‫حُٔظ٘خ‬ٝ ُْٜ ٍٞ‫حُٔ٘و‬ٝ
legal successors in title,
transferees and permitted

10 Failure by any party to insist ٌَ٘‫َحٍ ر‬ٛ‫ حإل‬٢‫َف ك‬١ ١‫ؼي اهلخم أ‬٣ ‫ ال‬-10
upon strict performance of any ٌٙٛ ٜٙٞٗ ٖٓ ٚٗ ١‫ أىحء أ‬٠ِ‫خٍّ ػ‬ٛ
provision of this Agreement shall ٚ‫ه‬ٞ‫ٌح حُطَف ػٖ كو‬ٛ ‫ش ط٘خُال ٖٓ ؿخٗذ‬٤‫حالطلخه‬
not be deemed a waiver by such َ٤ٜ‫ طو‬ٝ‫ ٓوخُلش أ‬١‫ ط٘خُال ػٖ أ‬ٝ‫ أ‬ٚ‫خط‬٠٣ٞ‫طؼ‬ٝ
party of its rights or remedies, or .َٟ‫َحف حأله‬١‫الكن ٖٓ هزَ حأل‬
a waiver by it of any subsequent
default by the other Party(ies).

11 No Party shall disclose in any ٖٓ ‫وش‬٣َ١ ١‫َف رؤ‬١ ١‫ق أ‬ٜ‫ل‬٣ ٕ‫ـذ أ‬٣ ‫ ال‬-11
manner the terms and conditions َ٤‫ش ُِـ‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ّ‫أكٌخ‬ٝ ١َٝٗ ٖ‫حُطَم ػ‬
of this Agreement to any third ‫َحف‬١‫غ حأل‬٤ٔ‫ش ٓٔزوش ٖٓ ؿ‬٤‫حكوش هط‬ٞٓ ٕٝ‫ري‬
party without the prior written ‫ؿذ‬ٞٔ‫خ ر‬٤ٓ‫خف اُِح‬ٜ‫ٌح حإلك‬ٛ ٌٖ٣ ُْ ‫ ٓخ‬َٟ‫حأله‬
consent of all other Parties unless ٌٙٛ ً‫ اٗلخ‬ٝ‫خ ألىحء أ‬٣ٍَٟٝ ‫زق‬ٛ‫ أ‬ٝ‫ٕ أ‬ٞٗ‫حُوخ‬
such disclosure is mandatory by .‫ش‬٤‫حالطلخه‬
law or becomes necessary for
performing or enforcing this

12 If any provision of this ‫ش‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ٜٙٞٗ ٖٓ ٚٗ ١‫ اًح حػظزَ أ‬-12

Agreement is held to be invalid, ١‫َ ٗخكٌ رؤ‬٤‫ ؿ‬ٝ‫ أ‬٢ٗٞٗ‫َ هخ‬٤‫ ؿ‬ٝ‫ أ‬١ٍ‫َ ٓخ‬٤‫ؿ‬
illegal or unenforceable in any ‫ ال‬،‫خ‬ٜ‫ٍ ر‬ٞٔ‫حثق ٓؼ‬ُٞ ٝ‫ٕ أ‬ٞٗ‫ هخ‬١‫ؿذ أ‬ٞٔ‫ٍس ر‬ٞٛ
respect under any applicable law ٌٙٛ ٢‫ٗلخً رخه‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤ٗٞٗ‫هخ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤‫الك‬ٛ َ‫ـذ إٔ طظؤػ‬٣
or regulations, the validity, .‫ش‬٤‫حالطلخه‬
legality and enforceability of the
remainder of this Agreement
shall not be affected.

13 This Agreement shall be ٖ٤ٗ‫ح‬ٞ‫كوخ ُو‬ٝ َٔ‫طُل‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ٌْ‫ طُل‬-13
governed by and construed in ‫ُٔلخًْ حإلٓخٍحص‬ٝ .‫ش حُٔظليس‬٤‫حإلٓخٍحص حُؼَر‬
accordance with the laws of the ١‫ أ‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬٢‫خث‬٠‫ حُو‬ٙ‫خ‬ٜ‫ش حُٔظليس حالهظ‬٤‫حُؼَر‬
United Arab Emirates. The ‫ش‬٤٘‫َحف حُٔؼ‬١‫ٖ حأل‬٤‫ع ر‬ٞٗ ١‫ ٖٓ أ‬ٝ‫خ ًخٕ أ‬٣‫ِٗحع أ‬
Courts of the United Arab .‫ش‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ٖ‫٘٘ؤ ػ‬٣ ٝ‫ظؼِن أ‬٣ ‫ٔخ‬٤‫ك‬
Emirates shall have jurisdiction
over any dispute whatsoever or of
any kind between the Parties
concerning or arising out of this

Each signatory below hereby warrants ‫ي‬ٜ‫ظؼ‬٣ٝ ‫ش‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ‫ؿذ‬ٞٔ‫ ر‬ٙ‫هغ أىٗخ‬ٞٓ ًَ ٖٔ٠٣
and represents that he has the full power ٌٙٛ ّ‫ش إلرَح‬٤ِٛ‫حأل‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤‫الك‬ُٜ‫ ًخَٓ ح‬ُٚ ٕ‫رؤ‬
and authority to enter into this agreement .ِٚ‫ٔؼ‬٣ ١ٌُ‫خرش ػٖ حُطَف ح‬٤ُ٘‫ش رخ‬٤‫حالطلخه‬
on behalf of the party it represents.

For and on behalf of: Signature:

Al Areef Marine Contracting Full name: Mr. Saeed Ibrahim
Establishment Mohammed Sultan Alareef Aldhaheri
Company stamp:
:‫غ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫حُظ‬ ٖ‫خرش ػ‬٤ُ٘‫رخ‬ٝ ‫خُق‬ُٜ
ٕ‫ْ دمحم ِٓطخ‬٤ٛ‫ي ارَح‬٤‫ ٓؼ‬/‫ي‬٤ُٔ‫ ح‬:َٓ‫حالْٓ رخٌُخ‬ ‫ش‬٣َ‫الص حُزل‬ٝ‫ق ُِٔوخ‬٣َ‫ٓئٓٔش حُؼ‬
١َ٤ٜ‫ق حُظ‬٣َ‫حُؼ‬ :‫هظْ حًَُ٘ش‬
For and on behalf of:
China Railway International Marine
General Contracting L.L.C.

Company stamp: Signature:

Full name
‫غ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫حُظ‬ :ٖ‫خرش ػ‬٤ُ٘‫رخ‬ٝ ‫خُق‬ُٜ
ْ‫ٍط‬ٞ‫ز‬٤ٓ ٖ٣ٍ‫ٗخٍ ٓخ‬ٞ٤ٗ‫ حٗظَٗخ‬١‫ح‬ٝ َ٣ٍ ‫٘خ‬٣‫ط٘خ‬
:َٓ‫حالْٓ رخٌُخ‬ .ّ .ّ .ً ‫ٗظَحًظ٘ؾ‬ًٞ
‫هظْ حًَُ٘ش‬
For and on behalf of: Signature:
Al Areef Transporting & Road Works
Establishment Full name: Mr. Saeed Ibrahim
Company stamp Mohammed Sultan Alareef Aldhaheri
:‫غ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫حُظ‬ :ٖ‫خرش ػ‬٤ُ٘‫خُق رخ‬ُٜ
ٕ‫ْ دمحم ِٓطخ‬٤ٛ‫ي ارَح‬٤‫ ٓؼ‬/‫ي‬٤ُٔ‫ ح‬:َٓ‫حالْٓ رخٌُخ‬ ‫أػٔخٍ حُطَم‬ٝ َ‫ق ُِ٘و‬٣َ‫ٓئٓٔش حُؼ‬
١َ٤ٜ‫ق حُظ‬٣َ‫حُؼ‬ ‫هظْ حًَُ٘ش‬
For and on behalf of: Signature:
China Railway International Group Full name:
Co. Ltd. including the Abu Dhabi and
Dubai Branch Offices
Company stamp:
‫غ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫حُظ‬ :ٖ‫خرش ػ‬٤ُ٘‫رخ‬ٝ ‫خُق‬ُٜ

– ‫ٔظي‬٤ُ ‫د‬َٝ‫ٗخٍ ؿ‬ٞ٤ٗ‫ حٗظَٗخ‬١‫ح‬ٝ َ٣ٍ ‫٘خ‬٣‫ًَٗش ط٘خ‬
:َٓ‫حالْٓ رخٌُخ‬ ٢‫ىر‬ٝ ٢‫ظز‬ٞ‫ أر‬٢‫خ ك‬ٜ‫ػ‬َٝ‫ٗخِٓش ٌٓخطذ ك‬

‫هظْ حًَُ٘ش‬


‫ش‬١ٌ‫حص ِخ‬ٚ‫ش أى‬١‫حطفخل‬ AGREEMENT

)‫حكي‬ٚ ٖ‫فَحى (حطـخ‬٤‫ش رخ‬ٛ‫فض حٌوخ‬٠ٌٛٔ‫ي ٍٓخٌش ح‬ٛ‫كم‬ٚ ‫ى‬ٕٛ‫ً ٌز‬ٜ‫َٗف ِف‬ FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
‫ ِلٕٔش‬١َٚ٘‫ثظّخْ ر‬٨
‫ٓظلمخق‬٨‫ي أؿً ح‬٠‫ ِغ طّي‬ٍٚٛ٠ ٍ‫خ‬١ٍِ FOR

‫ش‬١ٌ‫حص ِخ‬ٚ‫ش أى‬١‫حطفخل‬ AGREEMENT FOR

ٕ‫ٓش ٗويح رخٌُخَٓ الثظٔخ‬ٞ‫ش رخألكَحى ٓيػ‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ػزَ ٍٓخُش ح‬ VIA SWIFT MT-103 ONE WAY FULLY CASH
)‫ى‬ٞ٘‫ش (حُز‬٤ُ‫لض ٓظؼِوش رخُٔئٓٔخص حُٔخ‬٣ٞٓ ‫٘خى ٍٓخُش‬ٛ ْ٤ُ( (NO SWIFT MT202 WILL FOLLOW)
‫لض‬٣ُٞٔ‫حََُٔٓ ػزَ ٍٓخُش ح‬ٝ ‫ٌح‬ٛ ‫ش‬٤ُ‫حص حُٔخ‬ٝ‫ش حألى‬٤‫ي حطلخه‬ٛ َّ‫ أُر‬THIS DEED OF AGREEMENT FOR FINANCIAL
)‫ش‬٤‫خ رخالطلخه‬٠٣‫خ أ‬ٜ٤ُ‫٘خٍ ا‬٣( ‫ ٓلٔ٘ش‬١َٝ٘‫ش رخألكَحى الثظٔخٕ ر‬ٛ‫ حُوخ‬INSTRUMENTS DELIVERED VIA SWIFT
:ٖٓ ًَ ٖ٤‫ر‬ٝ ‫حٓطش‬ٞ‫ ر‬2017 َ‫كٔز‬ٞٗ ٖٓ َ٘‫ّ حُؼخُغ ػ‬ٞ٤ُ‫ٌح ح‬ٛ ٢‫ ك‬MT103 FOR CREDIT ENHANCEMENT
:‫فَحى‬٤‫ش رخ‬ٛ‫فض حٌوخ‬٠ٌٛٔ‫ً ِميَ هيِش ٍٓخٌش ح‬١ٛ‫ طفخ‬MT103 ONE WAY PROVIDER’S DETAILS:
ٍ‫ظخ‬٤‫خٕ ًخر‬٤‫ر‬ٍٝٝ‫َ أ‬٤ٔ٣َ‫ ر‬: ‫حْٓ حًَُ٘ش‬ COMPANY PREMIER EUROPEAN
،َ‫ٔض ًخٓظ‬٣‫ ٗخٍع ح‬28/27 : ٕ‫ح‬ٞ٘‫حُؼ‬ STREET LONDON,

ٍ‫ـخ‬ٜٓ ‫َحؽ‬٤٘‫ط‬ : :ٚٓ‫ٓوي‬ PASSPORT NO.: H8735200
H8735200 : َ‫حُ حُٔل‬ٞ‫ٍهْ ؿ‬ COUNTRY OF INDIA
‫٘ي‬ُٜ‫ح‬ : ٍ‫يح‬ٛ‫رِي حال‬ DATE OF 29/12/2009
2009/12/29 : ٍ‫يح‬ٛ‫ن حال‬٣ٍ‫طخ‬ ISSUE:
2019/12/28 : ‫خء‬ٜ‫ن حالٗظ‬٣ٍ‫طخ‬ DATE OF

"‫ّخ رؼي "ِميَ حٌويِش‬١‫ٗ ف‬١ٌ‫٘خٍ ا‬٠ HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AS ―THE

:‫فَحى‬٤‫ش رخ‬ٛ‫فض حٌوخ‬٠ٌٛٔ‫ً ِٔظٍُ ٍٓخٌش ح‬١ٛ‫ طفخ‬MT103 ONE WAY RECEIVER’S DETAILS:
: ‫حْٓ حًَُ٘ش‬ COMPANY
: ٕ‫ح‬ٞ٘‫حُؼ‬ NAME:
: :ٚٓ‫ٓوي‬ ADDRESS:
: َ‫حُ حُٔل‬ٞ‫ٍهْ ؿ‬ REPRESENTED
: ٍ‫يح‬ٛ‫رِي حال‬
: ٍ‫يح‬ٛ‫ن حال‬٣ٍ‫طخ‬ COUNTRY OF
: ‫خء‬ٜ‫ن حالٗظ‬٣ٍ‫طخ‬ ISSUE:
: ٍ‫خ‬ٜ‫ رخالط‬ٝٞ‫ حُٔل‬ٚ‫حُ٘و‬ DATE OF
"ٍُ‫ّخ رؼي "حٌّٔظ‬١‫ٗ ف‬١ٌ‫٘خٍ ا‬٠ ISSUE:


ٍ‫ح‬ٞٓ‫ََٓ أ‬٣ ُٖ ‫ٖ ُِٔيحى‬٤‫يحٍ حُٔؼ‬ٛ‫َحف إٔ ر٘ي حال‬١‫غ طيٍى حأل‬١‫ك‬ WHEREAS: THE PARTIES UNDERSTAND THAT
‫ش ػزَ ٍٓخُش‬٤ُ‫ كبٕ حألىحس حُٔخ‬.ِْ‫ ُِٔٔظ‬٢‫َك‬ُٜٔ‫ حُلٔخد ح‬٠ُ‫ش ا‬٣‫ٗوي‬ PROVIDER‘S NOMINATED ISSUING BANK WILL
٢‫ كو‬٢ٛ ،"‫ىحس‬٤‫ٔخ رؼي "ح‬٤‫خ ك‬ٜ٤ُ‫٘خٍ ا‬٣ ،‫ش رخألكَحى‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ح‬ NOT SEND CASH FUNDS TO RECEIVER‘S BANK
‫لض ٓظؼِوش رخُٔئٓٔخص‬٣ٞٓ ‫٘خى ٍٓخُش‬ٛ ْ٤ُ( ‫ ٓلٔ٘ش‬١َٝ٘‫حثظٔخٕ ر‬ ACCOUNT. THE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENT VIA
‫ش رخألكَحى‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ٞٓ ‫ ٓظََٓ ٍٓخُش‬.)‫خ‬ٜ‫ى) ُٔظخرؼظ‬ٞ٘‫ش (حُز‬٤ُ‫حُٔخ‬
‫ ٗخٗش حُٔؼخٓالص‬٠ِ‫َ ػ‬ٜ‫ٓظظ‬ٝ ًََٔٝ‫لض ر‬٣ٞٓ ّ‫حكي ػزَ ٗظخ‬ٝ ٙ‫حطـخ‬ FOR CREDIT ENHANCEMENT (NO SWIFT MT202
‫ش ػزَ حالٗظَٗض؛‬٤‫َك‬ُٜٔ‫ح‬ TO FOLLOW). THE SWIFT MT103 ONE WAY WILL
‫ش‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ حٓظالّ أىحس ػزَ ٍٓخُش ح‬٢‫َؿذ ك‬٣ ِْ‫غ أْ حُٔٔظ‬١‫ك‬ WHEREAS: THE RECEIVER DESIRES TO RECEIVE
‫ش‬٤ِٛ‫ رٌخَٓ حأل‬ٞٛٝ ِْ‫ئًي حُٔٔظ‬٣ .ٍ‫يح‬ٛ‫حكي ٖٓ ر٘ي حال‬ٝ ٙ‫رخألكَحى حطـخ‬ AN INSTRUMENT VIA SWIFT MT103 ONE WAY
.‫ٍ حألىحس‬ٞ‫ش هز‬٤ٗٞٗ‫ش حُوخ‬٤ُٝ‫حُٔٔئ‬ٝ FROM PROVIDER‘S ISSUING BANK. THE
‫ حٓخٓش‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬١ٌُ‫ح‬ٝ ‫ش ٓظخف‬٤ٗ‫الص حثظٔخ‬٤ٜٔ‫ حُٔٔظِْ كي ط‬ٟ‫غ أٔٗ ُي‬١‫ك‬ WHEREAS: THE RECEIVER HAS A CREDIT LINE
ٚ‫ًُي ألٗ٘طظ‬ٝ ‫ ٓلٔ٘ش‬١َٝ٘‫ٔخٕ الثظٔخٕ ر‬٠ً ‫ٔظويّ حألىحس‬٤ٓ AVAILABLE AGAINST WHICH RECEIVER WILL
،‫حٍى إلرَحّ أىحس‬ُٞٔ‫ح‬ٝ ‫ حُويٍس‬ٚ٣‫وَ رؤٕ ُي‬٣ٝ ‫ي‬ٜ‫ظؼ‬٣ ‫غ أْ ٓويّ حُويٓش‬١‫ك‬ WHEREAS: THE PROVIDER REPRESENTS AND
‫ش‬٤ِٛ‫ ًخَٓ حأل‬ٚ٣‫ُي‬ٝ ،ٍ‫خى‬ُٜٔ‫ح‬ٝ ٍ‫خ‬ٜ‫خص حالط‬ٜ‫ؿ‬ٝ ‫ٖٓ هالٍ حًَُ٘خء‬ WARRANTS THAT IT HAS THE ABILITY AND
.ّ‫ ر٘ي حالٓظال‬/ِْ‫خ ُِٔٔظ‬ٍٛ‫يح‬ٛ‫حُٔوٍَ ا‬ٝ ،‫ش‬٤ٗٞٗ‫ش حُوخ‬٤ُٝ‫حُٔٔئ‬ٝ RESOURCES TO ARRANGE THROUGH

‫ٓش‬ٞ‫ٕ ٓيػ‬ٌٞ‫َ إٔ حألىحس ٓظ‬٣ِٝ‫رش حُظ‬ٞ‫ ػو‬ٚ‫ؿز‬ٞٔ‫ؼِٖ ر‬٣ ٕ‫طش ح‬٣َٗ ASSOCIATES, CONTACTS AND SOURCES, WITH
،٢ٓ‫َ حؿَح‬٤‫يٍ ؿ‬ٜٓ ‫ًحص‬ٝ ‫لش‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝٝ ‫لش‬٤‫ٗظ‬ٝ ‫يس‬٤‫حٍ ؿ‬ٞٓ‫رخٌُخَٓ رؤ‬ FULL CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY,
‫َحف‬١‫حثي أل‬ٞ‫ك‬ٝ ‫ حػزخء‬ٝ‫ٗخص أ‬ٍٞٛ ١‫ش ٖٓ أ‬٤ُ‫هخ‬ٝ ٖٓ ‫لش‬٤‫ٕ ٗظ‬ٌٞ‫ٓظ‬ٝ INSTRUMENTS TO BE ISSUED TO THE


‫ش‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ٍٓخُش ح‬ : ‫حألىحس‬ INSTRUMENT SWIFT MT103 (ONE WAY)
َ٤ٔ‫حكي) ػ‬ٝ ٙ‫رخألكَحى (حطـخ‬ CUSTOMER CREDIT
‫ّ ٗويح‬ٞ‫حكي ٓيػ‬ٝ ٕ‫حثظٔخ‬ CONTRACT
€ 1,000,000,000.00 (ONE
َٓ‫رخٌُخ‬ AMOUNT:
ٍٝٞ٣ ٍ‫خ‬٤ِٓ : ‫ٓزِؾ حُؼوي‬ TERM: ONE YEAR AND ONE DAY
)ٍٝٞ٣ FIRST
€500,000,000.00 (FIVE
‫ي أؿَ حالٓظلوخم‬٣‫ٓغ طٔي‬ TRANCHE:
ٍٝٞ٣ ٕٞ٤ِٓ ‫هٔٔٔخثش‬ : ‫حُٔيس‬ CONSECUTIV
€500,000,000.00 (FIVE
500.000.000.00( E
ٍٝٞ٣ ٕٞ٤ِٓ ‫هٔٔٔخثش‬ : ٠ُٝ‫لش حأل‬٣َُ٘‫ح‬ ISSUING BARCLAYS BANK, U.K.PLC
500.000.000.00( 18% OF THE FACE VALUE
‫ظلن‬٣ ‫ كٔزٔخ‬ٝ‫أ‬/ٝ )ٍٝٞ٣ PAYMENT TO OF EACH TRANCHE
‫ٍس ٓظزخىُش‬ٜٞ‫ ر‬ٚ٤ِ‫ػ‬ RECEVING BY WIRE TRANSFER/TT
‫ حٌُِٔٔش‬،ِ٤ًٍِ‫ر٘ي رخ‬ : ‫ش‬٤ُ‫َٗحثق ٓظظخ‬ ACCOUNTS:
‫ش‬٤ٔٓ‫ٔش حال‬٤‫ ٖٓ حُو‬%18 : ٍ‫يح‬ٛ‫ر٘ي حال‬ FEES
‫لش‬٣َٗ ‫ٌَُ ٓزِؾ‬ DELIVERY: SWIFT MT103 ONE WAY
‫حُش‬ٞ‫ن ك‬٣َ١ ٖ‫ػ‬ : ٠ُ‫حُٔيحى ا‬ CREDIT
TT/‫ش‬٤‫َك‬ٜٓ ‫كٔخرخص‬ PAYMENT: PAYMENT WITHIN
ّ‫حالٓظوزخٍ ُٔوي‬ MAXIMUM FIVE (5)
‫حُويٓش‬ SWIFT MT103 ONE WAY
‫ٔش‬٤‫ ٖٓ حُو‬%2 ‫ٗٔزش‬ : ٍّٞٓ
‫لش‬٣َٗ ٌَُ ‫ش‬٤ٔٓ‫حال‬ ‫حالٓظ٘خٍحص‬
‫ش‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ٍٓخُش ح‬ : ْ٤ِٔ‫حُظ‬
َ٤ٔ‫حكي) ػ‬ٝ ٙ‫رخألكَحى (حطـخ‬
‫حكي‬ٝ ٕ‫حثظٔخ‬
ّ‫خ‬٣‫) أ‬5( ْٔ‫حُٔيحى هالٍ ه‬ : ‫حُٔيحى‬
‫ش ٖٓ ٍٓخُش‬٤ٌ٘‫ػَٔ ر‬
‫ش رخألكَحى‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ح‬
)‫حكي‬ٝ ٙ‫(حطـخ‬

:‫ اؿَحءحص حٌّؼخٍِش‬TRANSACTION PROCEDURE:
‫حُز٘ي‬ٝ ِْ‫خٗخص حُز٘ي حُٔٔظ‬٤‫ حُٔٔظِْ ٓأل ر‬٠ُٞ‫ظ‬٣ 1 1 RECEIVER FILLS IN ITS RECEIVING
،‫ٌح حُؼوي‬ٛ ٖ٤‫وظْ حُطَك‬٣ٝ ‫هغ‬ٞ٣ .‫حُوخثْ رخُٔيحى‬ COORDINATES. BOTH PARTIES SIGN
١ٍ‫ٔخٕ طـخ‬ٟ ‫ ػوي‬ٚ‫ؿز‬ٞٔ‫ٌَ٘ ر‬٣ ١ٌُ‫ح‬ٝ AND SEAL THIS CONTRACT, WHICH
ًَٓ٠ ،‫ حٌؼمي‬ٍٝ‫غ ػ‬١‫ل‬ٛ‫ ٓخػش ِٓ حٌظ‬24 ‫رؼي‬ 2 2. 24 HOURS AFTER CONTRACT IS
‫ش‬ٛ‫فض حٌوخ‬٠ٌٛٔ‫ِميَ حٌويِش ٍٓخٌش ح‬ SIGNED, PROVIDER TO SEND MT103
.ٍُ‫ حٌّٔظ‬ٌٝ‫فض ٔض ا‬٠ٛٓ َ‫فَحى ػزَ ٔظخ‬٤‫رخ‬ BY SWIFT NET SYSTEM TO
‫فض‬٠ٌٛٔ‫يحٍ ٍٓخٌش ح‬ٛ‫ ا‬ٍٝ‫ي ػ‬١‫رؼي حٌظؤو‬ AFTER CONFIRMATION OF
‫يٍ ِميَ حٌويِش‬ٜ١ٓ ‫فَحى؛‬٤‫ش رخ‬ٛ‫حٌوخ‬ ISSUING MT103; PROVDIER WILL
‫ٍٓخي‬٦ ٗ‫ ر‬ٙ‫يحٍ حٌوخ‬ٛ٦‫ّخص ٌزٕه ح‬١ٍ‫طؼ‬ INSTRUCT HIS ISSUING BANK TO
َ‫د) ػز‬ٛٓ‫(ٔٔوش ِٓ ٌمطش ٗخٗش حٌلخ‬ EMAIL TO RECEIVER. WITHIN 24
ْٛ٠‫ غ‬ٟ‫ ف‬.ٍُ‫ حٌّٔظ‬ٌٝ‫ ا‬َٟٔٚ‫ٌىظ‬٨‫ي ح‬٠َ‫حٌز‬ HOURS OF THE SWIFT MT103.
‫ش‬ٛ‫فض حٌوخ‬٠ٌٛٔ‫ ٓخػش ِٓ ٍٓخٌش ح‬24 3. WITHIN FIVE (5) BANKING DAYS OF
ٖٓ ‫ش‬٤‫َك‬ٜٓ َٔ‫خّ ػ‬٣‫) أ‬5( ‫ٕ هّٔش‬ٞ٠‫ ؿ‬٢‫ك‬ 3 20%( TWENTY percent ) OF THE
‫ٔيى حُز٘ي‬٣ ،‫ش رخألكَحى‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ٍٓخُش ح‬ INSTRUMENT FACE VALUE IN TO
‫ْ رخٌّخثش‬َٚ٘‫ حُٔٔظِْ ػ‬ٟ‫حُوخثْ رخُٔيحى ُي‬ INCLUDING THE two PERCENT (2%)
‫ كٔخرخص‬٠ُ‫ش ُألىحس ا‬٤ٔٓ‫ٔش حال‬٤‫) ٖٓ حُو‬%20( CONSULTING FEES TO THE RECEIVER‘S
ٍّٞٓ ‫ ًُي‬٢‫ ٓويّ حُويٓش رٔخ ك‬ٟ‫حالٓظالّ ُي‬ 4. IF NO PAYMENT IS RECEIVED WITHIN
)%2( ‫ٓ رخٌّخثش‬١ٕ‫خ حػ‬ٜ‫ٔظ‬٤‫حالٓظ٘خٍحص حُزخُؾ ه‬ THE FIVE BANKING DAYS, THE
.ِْ‫ٖ حُٔٔظ‬٣ٍ‫ ٓٔظ٘خ‬٠ُ‫ا‬ PROVIDER SHALL DEACTIVATE THE
ٍ‫ػخص هال‬ٞ‫ ٓيك‬١‫ى أ‬ٍٝٝ ّ‫ كخٍ ػي‬٢‫ك‬ 4 IT AND THE SWIFT MT103 BECOMES
‫ؼطَ ٓويّ حُويٓش ٍٓخُش‬٣ ،‫ش‬٤ٌ٘‫خّ حُز‬٣‫حُؤٔش أ‬ NULL AND VOID AND THE RECEIVER
ْ٣‫ش رخألكَحى ٖٓ هالٍ طوي‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ٞٓ CHARGES.
‫لض‬٣ُٞٔ‫زق ٍٓخُش ح‬ٜ‫ط‬ٝ ٕ‫ٌح حُ٘ؤ‬ٛ ٢‫ٓطخُزش ك‬
ِْ‫ٕ حُٔٔظ‬ٌٞ٣ٝ ‫ِش‬١‫رخ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤‫ش رخألكَحى الؿ‬ٛ‫حُوخ‬
.‫لض‬٣ُٞٔ‫ّ ح‬َٞٓ‫ِِٓٓخ ر‬
:‫ٓظمطخد‬٨‫ػيَ ح‬ NON-SOLICITATION:
ٝ‫ أ‬ٙ‫ ًَٗخإ‬ٝ‫وش إٔ ٓويّ حُويٓش أ‬٤‫ػ‬ُٞ‫ ح‬ٌٙٛ ‫ؿذ‬ٞٔ‫ؼِٖ حُٔٔظِْ ر‬٣ٝ ‫ئًي‬٣ THE RECEIVER HEREBY CONFIRMS AND
ْٜ‫ حٓظوطخر‬١َ‫ـ‬٣ ُْ ٚ٘‫خرش ػ‬٤ُ٘‫ رخ‬ٙ‫ حٗوخ‬ٝ‫ أ‬ٚ‫ ٗو‬١‫ أ‬ٝ‫ أ‬ٚ٤ِ‫ٓٔؼ‬ DECLARES THAT THE PROVIDER, ITS
ٖٓ ٌَٗ ١‫ رؤ‬ٚ٤ِ‫ ٓٔؼ‬ٝ‫ أ‬ٙ‫ ًَٗخإ‬ٝ‫ أ‬ٚ٤ٔٛ‫ ٓٔخ‬ٝ‫ أ‬،‫َف‬١ ١‫حٓطش أ‬ٞ‫ر‬ ASSOCIATES OR REPRESENTATIVES OR ANY
.‫ش‬٤ِ‫ ُٔؼخٓالص ٓٔظوز‬ٝ‫ حُٔؼخِٓش أ‬ٌُٜٙ ‫ش‬٣ٞٔ‫ ًظ‬َٙ٤ٔ‫ٌٖٔ طل‬٣ ‫حالٌٗخٍ ٓخ‬ PERSON OR PERSONS ON ITS BEHALF HAS/HAVE

:‫ حٌٔيحى‬١َٚٗ PAYMENT TERMS:

ٍّٞٓ ‫ ٓيحى‬٠ِ‫ش ػ‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ‫ؿذ‬ٞٔ‫ش ر‬٤‫خث‬ٜٗ ‫ٍس‬ٜٞ‫حكن حُٔٔظِْ ر‬ٞ٣ THE RECEIVER HEREBY IRREVOCABLY AGREES
‫حٍىس‬ُٞ‫ كٔخرخص حالٓظالّ حُؼالػش ُٔويّ حُويٓش ح‬٠ُ‫ ا‬%18 ‫ٔش‬٤‫ حُويٓش رو‬TO PAY SERVICE FEE OF 18%TO THE

ٍّٞٓ )%2( ‫ٓ رخٌّخثش‬١ٕ‫ حػ‬٠ُ‫خكش ا‬ٟ‫ رخإل‬،ٙ‫َ أىٗخ‬٤ٜ‫خ رخُظل‬ٜ‫خٗظ‬٤‫ ر‬PROVIDER‘S THREE RECEIVING ACCOUNTS
‫ي‬٣‫ ًُي طٔي‬٢‫لش رٔخ ك‬٣َٗ ١‫أ‬ٝ ٌَُ ‫ش ُألىحس‬٤ٔٓ‫ٔش حال‬٤‫ حٓظ٘خٍحص ُِو‬STATED BELOW, PLUS 2% ( TWO PERCENT)

:‫َحف‬١٤‫ن ح‬ٕٛ‫خص ر‬١‫حكيحػ‬ٚ ً١ٛ‫طفخ‬ THE PARTIES’ BANK COORDINATES:

‫ش‬ٛ‫فض حٌوخ‬٠ٛٓ ‫يحٍ ٍٓخٌش‬ٛ٦ ‫ش ٌّميَ حٌويِش‬١‫ً حٌزٕى‬١ٛ‫ حٌظفخ‬PROVIDER’S BANKING COORDINATES FOR
)‫حكي‬ٚ ٖ‫فَحى (حطـخ‬٤‫رخ‬ ISSUING SWIFT MT103 (ONE WAY):
‫ٔظي‬٤ُ ٍ‫ظخ‬٤‫خٕ ًخر‬٤‫ر‬ٍٝٝ‫َ أ‬٤ٔ٣َ‫ ر‬: ‫حْٓ حًَُ٘ش‬ COMPANY PREMIER EUROPEAN
،ٕ‫ ُ٘ي‬،َ‫ٔض ًخٓظ‬٣‫ ٗخٍع ح‬28/27 : ٕ‫ح‬ٞ٘‫حُؼ‬
.‫ حٗـِظَح‬W1W8DH STREET LONDON,
ٍ‫ـخ‬ٜٓ ‫َحؽ‬٤٘‫ ط‬: :ٚٓ‫ٓوي‬ W1W8DH ENGLAND
PLC ‫ حٌُِٔٔش حُٔظليس‬،ِ٤ًٍِ‫ر٘ي رخ‬ : ‫حُز٘ي‬ ْٓ‫ح‬ REPRESENTED CHIRAG SEHGAL
‫حٍف‬ٝ ١ٍ‫ ً٘خ‬،ْ٤ِ‫ طََ٘ٗ ر‬:1 ‫حٕ حُز٘ي‬ٞ٘‫ػ‬ : ‫حٕ حُز٘ي‬ٞ٘‫ػ‬
‫ حٌُِٔٔش حُٔظليس‬،ٕ‫ُ٘ي‬
‫ٔظي‬٤ُ ٍ‫ظخ‬٤‫خٕ ًخر‬٤‫ر‬ٍٝٝ‫َ أ‬٤ٔ٣َ‫ر‬ : ‫حْٓ حُلٔخد‬ BANK BANK ADDRESS 1
60914665 : ‫ٍهْ حُلٔخد‬ ADDRESS: CHURCHILL PLACE,
GB50 BARC 202569 60914665 : ٕ‫زخ‬٣٥‫ٍهْ ح‬ CANARY WHARF
ٍ‫ـخ‬ٜٓ ‫َحؽ‬٤٘‫ط‬ : ‫غ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫خكذ ط‬ٛ LONDON UK
BARCGB22 : ‫لض‬٣ٞٓ ‫ى‬ًٞ
: ‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫ٓٔئ‬ ACCOUNT 60914665
: ٢َٗٝ‫ي حالٌُظ‬٣َ‫حُز‬ IBAN NUMBER: GB50 BARC 202569

‫َ حٌويِش‬ٍٛٓ َ٩‫ك حٓظ‬١ٕٔ‫ ِميَ حٌويِش رظ‬ٜ‫َ ٌي‬٩‫ٓظ‬٨‫َ رٕه ح‬ٛ‫م‬٠ PROVIDER’S RECEIVING BANK COORDINATES
:)%15( ‫ّش هّٔش ػَ٘س رخٌّخثش‬١‫ رم‬TO RECEIVE FEES OF FIFTEEN PERCENT
‫ّظي‬١ٌ ٟ‫ظ‬١ٓ ْٛ١ٍ١‫ر‬ : ‫حْٓ حًَُ٘ش‬ COMPANY Billion City Limited
‫ٔظزخن‬٠ٚ ‫رٕه‬ : ‫حْٓ حُز٘ي‬ NAME OF WESTPAC BANK
،‫ٔيحي‬ٛ‫ك ر‬٠َ١ 118/1 : ‫حٕ حُز٘ي‬ٞ٘‫ػ‬ BANK:
،4217 ،ٞ‫ اي ى‬ٛ١‫ و‬،‫ٔيحي‬ٛ‫ر‬ BANK ADDRESS: 1/118 Bundall Rd, Bundall,
Qld,4217, Australia
‫خ‬١ٌ‫حٓظَح‬ ACCOUNT Billion City Trust
‫ طَٓض‬ٟ‫ظ‬١ٓ ْٛ١ٍ١‫ر‬ : ‫حْٓ حُلٔخد‬ NAME:
005739 (BSB 034 705) : ‫ٍهْ حُلٔخد‬ ACCOUNT 005739 (BSB 034 705)
ِٓ َُ٘١‫غ‬ٚ ٛ‫ٔـ‬ٌٛ ٍٞٚ : ‫غ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫خكذ ط‬ٛ
ACCOUNT Roy Lungu and other
ٓ١ٟٛ‫ حٌّف‬ٙ‫ٗوخ‬٨‫ح‬ ‫حُلٔخد‬ SIGNATORY: authorized personal

‫ش‬٤‫َك‬ُٜٔ‫حالص ح‬ٞ‫غ حُل‬٤ٔ‫ٖٔ ؿ‬٠‫طظ‬ ‫حُش‬ٞ‫ٔخص ك‬٤ِ‫طؼ‬ ALL WIRE TRANSFERS SHALL
ٙ‫حٍىس أىٗخ‬ُٞ‫ش ح‬٤ُٜ٘‫حَُٓخُش ح‬ ‫ش‬ٛ‫هخ‬ MESSAGE AND A COPY OF BANK
َ٣ٞ‫ٔش حُظل‬٤ٔ‫طََٓ ٗٔوش ٖٓ ه‬ٝ SPECIAL WIRE
٢َٗٝ‫حالٌُظ‬ ‫ي‬٣َ‫رخُز‬ ٢ٌ٘‫حُز‬ INSTRUCTION ....................................FOR
‫ ٖٓ أؿَ حُظلون‬................:٠ُ‫ا‬ LEGAL VERIFICATION AND
ٕٞٗ‫ؿذ حُوخ‬ٞٔ‫ن ر‬٤‫ػ‬ٞ‫حُظ‬ٝ ٢ٗٞٗ‫حُوخ‬ PATRIOT ACT/BANKING
.‫ش‬٤‫َك‬ُٜٔ‫حثق ح‬ُِٞ‫ ح‬/٢٘١ُٞ‫ح‬ REGULATIONS
:‫حُش‬ٞ‫ٔخص حُل‬٤ِ‫غ طؼ‬٤ٔ‫ٖٔ ؿ‬٠‫طظ‬ : ‫ش‬٤ٜٗ ‫ٍٓخُش‬ TEXT MESSAGE
‫ ًحص‬،‫لش‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝ ‫لش‬٤‫حٍ ٗظ‬ٞٓ‫"حأل‬ AND CLEAR, OF NON-CRIMINAL
‫ٓٔظلوش‬ٝ ٢ٓ‫َ حؿَح‬٤‫يٍ ؿ‬ٜٓ IMMEDIATELY UPON RECEIPT,
‫ٍ ػ٘ي‬ٞ‫ حُل‬٠ِ‫ػ‬ٝ ‫حُٔيحى ٗويح‬ TRANSACTION CODE:
:‫ى حُٔؼخِٓش‬ًٞ ،ّ‫حالٓظال‬
‫َ حٌويِش‬ٍٛٓ َ٩‫ك حٓظ‬١ٕٔ‫ ِميَ حٌويِش رظ‬ٜ‫َ ٌي‬٩‫ٓظ‬٨‫َ رٕه ح‬ٛ‫م‬٠ PROVIDER’S RECEIVING BANK COORDINATES
:)%3( ‫ػش رخٌّخثش‬٩‫ّش ػ‬١‫رم‬ TO RECEIVE FEES OF THREE PERCENT (3%):
‫ّظي‬١ٌ ٟ‫ظ‬١ٓ ْٛ١ٍ١‫ ر‬: ‫حْٓ حًَُ٘ش‬ COMPANY Billion City Limited
‫ٔظزخن‬٠ٚ ‫ رٕه‬: ‫حْٓ حُز٘ي‬ NAME OF WESTPAC BANK
،‫ٔيحي‬ٛ‫ ر‬،‫ٔيحي‬ٛ‫ك ر‬٠َ١ 118/1 : ‫حٕ حُز٘ي‬ٞ٘‫ػ‬ BANK:
‫خ‬١ٌ‫ حٓظَح‬،4217 ،ٞ‫ اي ى‬ٛ١‫و‬ BANK 1/118 Bundall Rd, Bundall,
ADDRESS: Qld,4217, Australia
‫ طَٓض‬ٟ‫ظ‬١ٓ ْٛ١ٍ١‫ ر‬: ‫حْٓ حُلٔخد‬
ACCOUNT Billion City Trust
005739 (ASB 039 919) : ‫ٍهْ حُلٔخد‬ NAME:
ِٓ َُ٘١‫غ‬ٚ ٛ‫ٔـ‬ٌٛ ٍٞٚ : ‫غ حُلٔخد‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫خكذ ط‬ٛ ACCOUNT 005739 (ASB 039 919)
ٓ١ٟٛ‫ حٌّف‬ٙ‫ٗوخ‬٨‫ح‬ ACCOUNT Roy Lungu and other authorized
WPACAU2S : ‫لض‬٣ٞٓ ‫ى‬ًٞ SIGNATORY: personal
‫ش‬٤‫َك‬ُٜٔ‫حالص ح‬ٞ‫غ حُل‬٤ٔ‫ٖٔ ؿ‬٠‫طظ‬ ‫ش‬ٛ‫حُش هخ‬ٞ‫ٔخص ك‬٤ِ‫طؼ‬ SWIFT CODE: WPACAU2S
ََٓ‫ط‬ٝ ٙ‫حٍىس أىٗخ‬ُٞ‫ش ح‬٤ُٜ٘‫حَُٓخُش ح‬ ALL WIRE TRANSFERS SHALL
‫ي‬٣َ‫ رخُز‬٢ٌ٘‫َ حُز‬٣ٞ‫ٔش حُظل‬٤ٔ‫ٗٔوش ٖٓ ه‬ SPECIAL AND A COPY OF BANK WIRE TRANSFER
َ‫ ٖٓ أؿ‬................:٠ُ‫ ا‬٢َٗٝ‫حالٌُظ‬ WIRE SLIP SHALL BE EMAILED TO:
INSTRUCTIO ....................................FOR LEGAL
‫ؿذ‬ٞٔ‫ن ر‬٤‫ػ‬ٞ‫حُظ‬ٝ ٢ٗٞٗ‫حُظلون حُوخ‬ VERIFICATION AND DOCUMENTATION
.‫ش‬٤‫َك‬ُٜٔ‫حثق ح‬ُِٞ‫ ح‬/٢٘١ُٞ‫ٕ ح‬ٞٗ‫حُوخ‬ PURSUANT TO PATRIOT ACT/BANKING
:‫حُش‬ٞ‫ٔخص حُل‬٤ِ‫غ طؼ‬٤ٔ‫ٖٔ ؿ‬٠‫ طظ‬: ‫ش‬٤ٜٗ ‫ٍٓخُش‬
ٍ‫ي‬ٜٓ ‫ ًحص‬،‫لش‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝ ‫لش‬٤‫حٍ ٗظ‬ٞٓ‫"حأل‬ MESSAGE STATE: “FUNDS ARE CLEAN AND CLEAR,
‫ٓٔظلوش حُٔيحى ٗويح‬ٝ ٢ٓ‫َ حؿَح‬٤‫ؿ‬ PAYABLE IN CASH IMMEDIATELY UPON
‫ى‬ًٞ ،ّ‫ٍ ػ٘ي حالٓظال‬ٞ‫ حُل‬٠ِ‫ػ‬ٝ RECEIPT, TRANSACTION CODE:
‫فَحى‬٤‫ش رخ‬ٛ‫فض حٌوخ‬٠ٛٓ ‫َ ٍٓخٌش‬٩‫ٓظ‬٨ ٍُ‫ش ٌٍّٔظ‬١‫ً حٌزٕى‬١ٛ‫ حٌظفخ‬RECEIVER’S BANKING COORDINATES TO
:)‫حكي‬ٚ ٖ‫(حطـخ‬ RECEIVE SWIFT MT103 (ONE WAY):
: ‫حْٓ حًَُ٘ش‬ COMPANY NAME:
: ٕ‫ح‬ٞ٘‫حُؼ‬
: ‫حْٓ حُز٘ي‬ BY:
: ‫حٕ حُز٘ي‬ٞ٘‫ػ‬ BANK ADDRESS:
: ‫حْٓ حُلٔخد‬ ACCOUNT NAME:
: ‫ٍهْ حُلٔخد‬ ACCOUNT

: ‫غ حُلٔخد‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫خكذ ط‬ٛ NUMBER:
: :‫ى‬ًٞ ‫ض‬٣ٞٓ ACCOUNT
: ‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫ٓٔئ‬ SWIFT CODE:
: ‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫خطق ٓٔئ‬ٛ BANK OFFICER:
: ‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫ ُٔٔئ‬٢َٗٝ‫ي حٌُظ‬٣َ‫ر‬ BANK OFFICER‘S

)‫ كَٗٔخ‬،ْ٣ٍ‫ش (رخ‬٤ُٝ‫ش حُي‬٣ٍ‫حػي حُـَكش حُظـخ‬ٞ‫ش ُو‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ‫غ‬٠‫ طو‬THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THE
َِٓ‫ط‬ٌٞٗ‫ش (ا‬٣ٍ‫طِلخص حُظـخ‬ُٜٔ‫َ ح‬٤ٔ‫ش ُظل‬٤ُٝ‫حػي حُي‬ٞ‫غ ُِو‬٠‫طو‬ٝ RULES OF THE INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF
.‫خ حُٔؼيُش‬ٜ‫ـظ‬٤ٛٝ )2010 COMMERCE (PARIS, FRANCE) AND SUBJECT TO
ٌٙٛ ْ‫هظ‬ٝ ‫غ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ٖ رظ‬٤ٟٞ‫ٔخ حُٔل‬ٜ٤ِ‫ػِ حُطَكخٕ ُٔٔؼ‬ٝ‫ أ‬،َ‫اػزخطخ ٌّخ طمي‬ٚ IN WITNESS THEREOF, THE PARTIES HAVE
ّ‫حالكٌخ‬ٝ ١َُٝ٘‫ ح‬٠ِ‫ح ػ‬ٞ‫حكو‬ٝٝ ‫ح‬ِٞ‫هز‬ٝ ‫ح‬ٜٞٔ‫ هي ك‬٢ُ‫رخُظخ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤‫حالطلخه‬ CAUSED THIS AGREEMENT TO BE SIGNED AND
‫ن‬٣ٍ‫ حُظخ‬٢‫ْ ك‬ٜ‫ؼخط‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ طلَٔ ط‬٢‫وش حُظ‬٤‫ػ‬ُٞ‫ ح‬ٌٙٛ ٢‫خ ك‬ٜ٤ِ‫ ػ‬ُٜٙٞ٘ٔ‫ح‬ EXECUTED BY THEIR AUTHORIZED

:‫غ‬١‫ل‬ٛ‫ٓ رخٌظ‬١ٟٛ‫حٌّف‬ AUTHORIZED SIGNATURES

2017 َ‫كٔز‬ٞٗ 13 ‫حكن‬ُٞٔ‫ّ حُـٔؼش ح‬ٞ٣ ٢‫ش ك‬٤‫هظْ حالطلخه‬ٝ ‫غ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ ط‬َٟ‫ ؿ‬SIGNED AND EXECUTED ON THIS FRIDAY,
NOVEMBER 13, 2017

‫غ‬١‫ل‬ٛ‫حٌظ‬ ‫خرش ػٓ ِميَ حٌويِش‬١ٌٕ‫رخ‬ٚ ‫خٌق‬ٌٜ ‫غ‬١‫ل‬ٛ‫ حٌظ‬SIGNED FOR AND ON BEHALF OF PROVIDER:
:ٍُ‫خرش ػٓ حٌّٔظ‬١ٌٕ‫رخ‬ٚ ‫خٌق‬ٌٜ SIGNED FOR AND ON BEHALF OF
‫ٔظي‬٤ُ ٍ‫ظخ‬٤‫خٕ ًخر‬٤‫ر‬ٍٝٝ‫َ أ‬٤ٔ٣َ‫ر‬

)ْ‫هظ‬ٝ ‫غ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫(ط‬

:ْٓ‫حال‬ ٍ‫ـخ‬ٜٓ ‫َحؽ‬٤٘‫ ط‬:ْٓ‫ حال‬NAME: CHIRAG SEHGAL

:‫ذ‬ُٜ٘ٔ‫ح‬ َ٣‫ حُٔي‬:‫ذ‬ُٜ٘ٔ‫ح‬ TITLE: MANAGER
ُ‫ح‬ٞ‫ؿ‬ H8735200 :َ‫حُ حُٔل‬ٞ‫ ٍهْ ؿ‬PASSPORT NO.: H8735200
:َ‫حُٔل‬ PASSPORT NO.

‫ىحٍس‬٦‫لَحٍ ِـٍْ ح‬ RESOLUTION OF THE BOARD OF
،‫ّظي‬١ٌ..................‫ي رؤٕ ِـٍْ اىحٍس َٗوش‬ُٜ٘٘ ‫ٌح‬ٛ THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT THE BOARD OF
‫س‬ٞ‫ّخ رؼي "حٌَ٘وش") ػوذ حُيػ‬١‫خ ف‬ٙ١ٌ‫٘خٍ ا‬٠( .................‫خ‬َٛ‫ٓو‬ٝ DIRECTORS OF ......................... CO., LIMITED
‫حؿذ الؿظٔخع ٓـِْ حالىحٍس‬ُٞ‫ ح‬ٞ‫ حُ٘ل‬٠ِ‫حالٗؼوخى ػ‬ٝ ٍ‫حإلٗؼخ‬ٝ ٠ُ‫ا‬ HAVING ITS CONTACT ADDRESS
‫ ٓوَ حًَُ٘ش‬٢‫ ك‬،2017 َ‫كٔز‬ٞٗ .. ‫ن‬٣ٍ‫ رظخ‬٢ٗٞٗ‫خد حُوخ‬ُٜ٘‫حٌُٔظَٔ ح‬ ................................(HEREINAFTER REFERREDTO
ٞ‫ حُ٘ل‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬،‫ش رخإلؿٔخع‬٤ُ‫غ حطوٌص حُوَحٍحص حُظخ‬٤‫ ك‬،ٙ‫ أػال‬ٚ٤ُ‫حُٔ٘خٍ ا‬
--------- ْ‫حُ َٓ ٍه‬ٞ‫ ؿ‬،--------------------- /‫ي‬٤ُٔ‫ ح‬:ْ‫لٍَ أ‬ RESOLVED: THAT
ٖ‫خرش ػ‬٤ُ٘‫رخ‬ٝ ‫خُق‬ُٜ ‫غ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ رخُظ‬ٝٞ‫حُٔل‬ٝ ١ٌ٤‫ْ حُظ٘ل‬٤‫ حَُث‬ٚ‫ل‬ٛٞ‫ر‬ …………………………………………………HOLDER
‫ي‬٤‫ك‬ُٞ‫ حُٔٔؼَ ح‬ٚ‫ل‬ٛٞ‫لش ٓٔظوِش ر‬ٜ‫خ رخٌُخَٓ ُِؼَٔ ر‬ٟٞ‫ ٓل‬،‫حًَُ٘ش‬ OF PASSPORT NUMBER …………………… CEO
‫ٔخ‬٤‫خرش ػٖ حًَُ٘ش ك‬٤ُ٘‫ػخثن حُالُٓش رخ‬ُٞ‫غ ح‬٤ٔ‫ ؿ‬٠ِ‫غ ػ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ًَُِ٘ش ُِظ‬ AND AUTHORIZED SIGNATORY FOR AND ON
‫ش‬٤ٌ٘‫اىحٍس حُلٔخرخص حُز‬ٝ ‫َ كظق‬٤‫ُظلؼ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤ٌ٘‫حص حُز‬ٝ‫ظؼِن رٔؼخٓالص حألى‬٣
ُٚٝ ،‫خ‬ٛ‫ي‬٣‫ طلي‬ُٚ ُٞ‫ـ‬٣ ‫ى‬ٞ٘‫ ر‬١‫ أ‬٢‫خُق حًَُ٘ش ك‬ُٜٝ ٖ‫خرش ػ‬٤ُ٘‫رخ‬ SOLE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE COMPANY TO
ٚ‫ظ‬٤‫الك‬ٛ ‫م‬ٝ ‫خ‬ٜ٘ٓ ٍ‫ح‬ٞٓ‫َف حال‬ٛٝ ٍٞ‫ هز‬،‫خ‬ٜ٤ِ‫غ ػ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ش حُظ‬٤‫الك‬ٛ EXECUTE ALL NECESSARY DOCUMENTS ON
‫كن‬ٝ ‫خ‬ٛ‫ليى‬٣ ٢‫ى حُظ‬ٞ٘‫حُز‬ٝ ٍ‫خى‬ُٜٔ‫ى ٓغ ح‬ٞ‫ حُؼو‬٠ِ‫غ ػ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫حُظ‬ٝ ،َٙ٣‫طوي‬ٝ BEHALF OF THE COMPANY IN CONNECTION
.‫ِلش ًَُِ٘ش‬ٜٓ َ٠‫ن أك‬٤‫ُظلو‬ٝ ‫خُق‬ُٜ َٙ٣‫طوي‬ WITH BANK INSTRUMENTS TRANSACTIONS AND
ٌٕٞ٣ ،‫َ حًَُ٘ش‬٣‫ ٓي‬،-----------------/‫ي‬٤ُٔ‫ إٔ ح‬:‫خ‬٠٠‫وّخ لٍَ أ‬ FURTHER RESOLVED:
‫ إٔ حُوَحٍحص‬٠ِ‫ن ػ‬٣‫ي‬ٜ‫خ ُِظ‬ٜ‫ؿ‬ٞٓٝ ‫خ‬ٟٞ‫وش ٓل‬٤‫ػ‬ُٞ‫ ح‬ٌٙٛ ‫ؿذ‬ٞٔ‫ر‬ٝ THAT…………………………………………………DI
٢ِ‫حُ٘ظخّ حُيحه‬ٝ ‫ؼخم‬٤ٓ ‫ ٓغ‬٢ٗ‫ طظٔخ‬ٙ‫خ حػال‬ٜ٤ِ‫ ػ‬ُٜٙٞ٘ٔ‫حالكٌخّ ح‬ٝ RECTOR OF THE COMPANY, BE AND HEREBY
ٌٙٛ ‫ؿذ‬ٞٔ‫ُش ر‬ٞ‫ش حُٔو‬٤‫الك‬ُٜ‫ح‬ٝ ٍ‫إٔ حُوَح‬ٝ ،‫ْ حًَُ٘ش‬٤ٓ‫ػوي طؤ‬ٝ ISAUTHORIZED AND DIRECTED TO CERTIFY
ُٜٙٞ٘ٔ‫ ح‬َٝ‫خء ٖٓ حُـ‬ٜ‫ حالٗظ‬٠‫خٕ كظ‬٣َُٔ‫ح‬ٝ ً‫خ ًخَٓ حُ٘لخ‬ُٜ ‫وش‬٤‫ػ‬ُٞ‫ح‬
.‫وش‬٤‫ػ‬ُٞ‫ ح‬ٌٙٛ ٢‫ ك‬ٚ٤ِ‫ػ‬ WITH THE CHARTER, BYLAWS AND ARTICLES
ٖٓ ‫ش‬٤‫ث‬ٞ٠ُ‫ حُ٘ٔوش ح‬ٝ‫خ إٔ حُ٘ٔوش حَُِٔٓش رخُلخًْ أ‬٠٣‫ي أ‬ٜ٘٣ ‫ًٔخ‬ IT IS FURTHER CERTIFIED THAT THIS
‫ٌُخكش‬ٝ ‫غ‬٤ٔ‫ٍ ٖٓ حُـ‬ٞ‫ٓوز‬ٝ َٛ‫ش ُأل‬٣ٝ‫ٔش ٓٔخ‬٤‫ ه‬ُٚ ‫ٌح‬ٛ ‫هَحٍ حًَُ٘ش‬ CORPORATE RESOLUTION‘S FAX OR
.ٕ‫ ٌٓخ‬١‫ أ‬٢‫ك‬ٝ ٝ‫حالؿَح‬ PHOTOCOPIES SHALL BE OF EQUAL VALUE TO
‫وخ‬٣‫ي‬ٜ‫هظْ حًَُ٘ش ط‬ٝ ٢‫ؼ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫وش ط‬٤‫ػ‬ُٞ‫ ح‬ٌٙٛ ‫ كِٔض‬،ّ‫اػزخطخ ُٔخ طوي‬ٝ IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I HAVE HEREUNTO SET

‫‪ُِ MY HAND AND SEAL OF THE COMPANY IN‬وَحٍحص ‪ٝ‬حالكٌخّ حُ‪ٞ‬حٍىس حػال‪ ٙ‬ك‪ ّٞ٣ ٢‬حالػ٘‪ٓ 18 ٖ٤‬زظٔزَ ‪.2017‬‬
‫حٌّ‪ٛ‬حفمش ‪ٚ‬حٌظ‪ٛ‬ل‪١‬غ رظخٍ‪٠‬ن ‪.2017 ..............‬‬ ‫‪AGREED AND SIGN ON ..............................., 2017.‬‬
‫__________________________________________ ‪------------------------‬‬
‫‪:‬‬ ‫‪ Name:‬حالْٓ‬
‫‪ Passport:‬ؿ‪ٞ‬حُ حُٔلَ ‪:‬‬
‫‪:‬‬ ‫‪ Nationality:‬حُـ٘ٔ‪٤‬ش‬
‫‪ Date of Issue:‬طخٍ‪٣‬ن حال‪ٛ‬يحٍ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ Date of Expiry:‬طخٍ‪٣‬ن حالٗظ‪ٜ‬خء ‪:‬‬
‫‪ٍٛٛ‬س ؿ‪ٛ‬حُ ٓفَ حٌّف‪ ٝٛ‬رخٌظ‪ٛ‬ل‪١‬غ‬ ‫‪PASSPORT COPY OF PROVIDER‘S‬‬
‫ؿّ‪٠ٍٛٙ‬ش حٌ‪ٕٙ‬ي‬
‫ٍهْ ؿ‪ٞ‬حُ حُٔلَ‪H8735200 :‬‬
‫حالْٓ‪ :‬ط٘‪َ٤‬حؽ ٓ‪ٜ‬ـخٍ‬
‫حُـ٘ٔ‪٤‬ش‪٘ٛ :‬ي‪١‬‬
‫حُـْ٘‪ًًَ :‬‬
‫طخٍ‪٣‬ن حُٔ‪٤‬الى‪1984/07/14 :‬‬
‫ٓلَ حُٔ‪٤‬الى‪ :‬ىُ‪٢ٜ‬‬
‫ٓلَ حال‪ٛ‬يحٍ‪ :‬ىُ‪٢ٜ‬‬
‫طخٍ‪٣‬ن حال‪ٛ‬يحٍ‪2009/12/29 :‬‬
‫طخٍ‪٣‬ن حالٗظ‪ٜ‬خء‪2019/12/28 :‬‬
‫(ط‪ٞ‬ه‪٤‬غ ‪ٛ‬خكذ ؿ‪ٞ‬حُ حُٔلَ)‬
‫ِٓطش ا‪ٛ‬يحٍ ؿ‪ٞ‬حُحص حُٔلَ‪ ٞ٤ٗ /‬ىُ‪٢ٜ‬‬
‫(ط‪ٞ‬ه‪٤‬غ ‪ٝ‬هظْ)‬

‫‪ٍٛٛ‬س ػمي طؤٓ‪ِ ْ١‬ميَ حٌويِش‬ ‫‪PROVIDER‘S COPY OF CERTIFICATE‬‬


‫ػمي طؤٓ‪َٗ ْ١‬وش هخ‪ٛ‬ش ِلي‪ٚ‬ىس‬

‫ٍلُ حٌَ٘وش‪06550660 :‬‬
‫‪ٜ٘٣‬ي ٓٔـَ حًَُ٘خص إلٗـِظَح ‪ ِِ٣ٝٝ‬رٔ‪ٞ‬ؿز‪ ٚ‬إٔ رَ‪ َ٤ٔ٣‬أ‪ٍٝٝ‬ر‪٤‬خٕ‬
‫ًخر‪٤‬ظخٍ ُ‪ٔ٤‬ظي‪ٔٓ ،‬ـِش ك‪ٌٛ ٢‬ح حُ‪ ّٞ٤‬رٔ‪ٞ‬ؿذ هخٗ‪ ٕٞ‬حًَُ٘خص ُؼخّ‬
‫‪ًًَ٘ 2006‬ش هخ‪ٛ‬ش ٓلي‪ٝ‬ىس حألٓ‪ٝ ْٜ‬إٔ ٓوَ حُٔوَ حَُث‪ ٢ٔ٤‬ك‪٢‬‬

.ِِ٣ٝٝ ‫حٗـِظَح‬
.2008 َ٣َ‫ٍ ٖٓ أر‬ٝ‫ن حأل‬٣ٍ‫ ٓـِْ حًَُ٘خص رظخ‬٢‫ُٓ٘لض ك‬

ِِ٣ٝٝ ‫ حٗـِظَح‬٢‫ٓـَ حًَُ٘خص ك‬

)٢َُٔٓ‫(حُوظْ ح‬

ٍُ‫ حٌّٔظ‬ٜ‫غ ٌي‬١‫ل‬ٛ‫ رخٌظ‬ٝٛ‫حُ ٓفَ حٌّف‬ٛ‫ٍس ؿ‬ٛٛ PASSPORT COPY OF RECEIVER‘S

ٍُ‫ْ حٌّٔظ‬١ٓ‫ٍس ػمي طؤ‬ٛٛ RECEIVER‘S COPY OF CERTIFICATE


‫‪ٍٛٛ‬س ػ‪ٕ١‬ش ٍٓخٌش ٓ‪٠ٛ‬فض حٌوخ‪ٛ‬ش رخ‪٤‬فَحى‬

‫طخٍ‪٣‬ن حالٍٓخٍ‪2016/12/07 :‬‬

‫‪ٞٗ--------‬ع حُ٘ٔ‪ًٞ‬ؽ ‪ٝ‬حالٍٓخٍ‪---------‬‬

‫اهطخٍ (آٍخٍ) حٍٓخٍ حال‪ َٛ‬ػزَ ٓ‪٣ٞ‬لض ٗض (‪)ACK‬‬
‫طِٔ‪ ْ٤‬حُ٘زٌش‪ :‬ػخؿَ‬
‫َٓؿغ ٓيهالص حَُٓخُش‪UBSWCHZH8980- 7780018-0992118172 :‬‬
‫َٓؿغ ٓوَؿخص حَُٓخُش‪CMBCCNBS7765-0922281-2291811716 :‬‬
‫‪------------‬طَ‪ٔ٣ٝ‬ش حَُٓخُش‪---------‬‬
‫ٓ‪٣ٞ‬لض ‪ٛ‬خىٍ‪ٍٓ :‬خُش حُٔ‪٣ٞ‬لض حُوخ‪ٛ‬ش رخألكَحى (حطـخ‪ٝ ٙ‬حكي) ػٔ‪ َ٤‬حثظٔخٕ ‪ٝ‬حكي‬
‫حََُٔٓ‪UBSWCHZH :‬‬
‫‪UBS AG :‬‬
‫حُٔٔظِْ‪CMBCCNBS :‬‬
‫ر٘ي حُ‪ ٖ٤ٜ‬حُظـخٍ‪١‬‬
‫‪ ٚٗ-----------‬حَُٓخُش‪-------------‬‬
‫كو‪ ٍٞ‬حُِحٓ‪٤‬ش َُٓخُش ٓ‪٣ٞ‬لض هخ‪ٛ‬ش رخألكَحى‪:‬‬
‫‪ٍ :‬هْ َٓؿغ حُٔؼخِٓش‪UBS/01102312/1023178141 :‬‬ ‫‪F20‬‬
‫‪ًٞ :‬ى َٓؿغ حُز٘ي ً‪ ٝ‬حُ‪ِٜ‬ش‪UBS-0119812 :‬‬ ‫‪F21‬‬
‫‪ًٞ :‬ى ط٘ـ‪ َ٤‬حُز٘ي‪CRED :‬‬ ‫‪F23B‬‬
‫‪ :‬طخٍ‪٣‬ن حُو‪ٔ٤‬ش‪ /‬حُؼِٔش‪ٓ /‬زِؾ حُظٔ‪٣ٞ‬ش ر‪ ٖ٤‬حُٔ‪ٜ‬خٍف‬ ‫‪F32A‬‬
‫‪2016/12/07 :‬‬ ‫حُظخٍ‪٣‬ن‬
‫‪ 10:04:26 :‬رظ‪ٞ‬ه‪٤‬ض ؿَ‪٘٣‬ظٖ ‪+01:00‬‬ ‫حُ‪ٞ‬هض‬
‫‪ :‬حُ‪ٍٝٞ٤‬‬ ‫حُؼِٔش‬
‫‪ٍٝٞ٣ 500.000.000.00 :‬‬ ‫حُٔزِؾ‬
‫‪ :‬حُ‪ٍٝٞ٤‬‬ ‫حُؼِٔش‬
‫‪ :‬هٔٔٔخثش ِٓ‪ٍٝٞ٣ ٕٞ٤‬‬ ‫حُٔزِؾ‬
‫‪ :‬حُؼٔ‪ٓ َ٤‬ويّ حُطِذ‬ ‫‪FS0A‬‬
‫ٓئٓٔش هطَ ُِزظَ‪ٍٝ‬‬
‫‪ :‬حُٔئٓٔش ٓويٓش حُطِذ‪FI BIC -‬‬ ‫‪F52A‬‬
‫ر٘ي ‪ ٞ٣‬ر‪ ٢‬اّ أ‪ ٚ٣‬ؿ‪٢‬‬
‫ٗخٍع رخ‪ٜٞ٘ٛ‬كٔظَحٓ‪ٍٞ٣ُ 458001 ٢‬م‪َٔ٣ٞٓ ،‬ح‬
‫أ‪٣‬زخٕ‪UBS0890112544321 :‬‬
‫ً‪ٞ‬ى ط‪٤ٜ٘‬ق‪10-07-30 :‬‬
‫ً‪ٞ‬ى ٓ‪٣ٞ‬لض‪UBSWCHZH :‬‬
‫‪ :‬كٔخد ُي‪ٓ ٟ‬ئٓٔش‪CMBCCNBS -FI BIC -‬‬ ‫‪F57A‬‬
‫حْٓ ر٘ي حالٓظالّ‪ :‬ر٘ي حُ‪ ٖ٤ٜ‬حُظـخٍ‪ - ١‬كَع ٓ٘طوش حُظـخٍس حُلَس حُظـَ‪٣‬ز‪٤‬ش ك‪٘ٗ ٢‬ـ‪ٜ‬خ‪١‬‬
‫ػ٘‪ٞ‬حٕ حُز٘ي‪ٍ :‬هْ ‪٣َ١ ،6‬ن ؿ‪ِٗٞ٤‬ؾ‪٘ٗ ،‬ـ‪ٜ‬خ‪ ،١‬حُ‪ٖ٤ٜ‬‬
‫ً‪ٞ‬ى ٓ‪٣ٞ‬لض‪CMBCCNBS :‬‬
‫حْٓ حُلٔخد‪ :‬حٓزخٕ حٗلٔظٔ٘ض ٓخٗـٔ٘ض ُ‪ٔ٤‬ظي‬
‫ٍهْ حُلٔخد‪OSA 121921259535203 :‬‬
‫حْٓ ٓٔئ‪ ٍٝ‬حُز٘ي‪ٞ٣ ٖٛ :‬حٌٗ‪٘٤‬ؾ‬
‫‪ٛ‬خطق‪ /‬كخًْ ٓٔئ‪ ٍٝ‬حُز٘ي‪+862168681239 /+862158691078 :‬‬
‫‪ :‬حْٓ حُؼٔ‪ َ٤‬حُٔٔظل‪٤‬ي‪ :‬حٓزخٕ حٗلٔظٔ٘ض ٓخٗـٔ٘ض ُ‪ٔ٤‬ظي‬ ‫‪F59‬‬
‫‪ :‬حُظلخ‪َ٤ٛ‬‬ ‫‪F79‬‬

‫ٗويّ ٗلٖ‪ ،‬ر٘ي ‪ ٞ٣‬ر‪ ٢‬اّ أ‪ ٚ٣‬ؿ‪ٗ ،٢‬خٍع رخ‪ٜٞ٘ٛ‬كٔظَحٓ‪ٍٞ٣ُ 458001 ٢‬م‪َٔ٣ٞٓ ،‬ح‪٣ ،‬ظٔظغ رخُٔٔئ‪٤ُٝ‬ش حُٔ‪َٜ‬ك‪٤‬ش حٌُخِٓش‪ ،‬ك‪ٞ‬حُش رٌ٘‪٤‬ش‬
‫ٗ‪ٜ‬خث‪٤‬ش ‪ٝ‬هخرِش ُِظل‪ٝ َ٣ٞ‬هخرِش ُِظ٘خٍُ ‪ٝ‬هخرِش ُالٓظيػخء ػزَ ٍٓخُش حُٔ‪٣ٞ‬لض حُوخ‪ٛ‬ش رخألكَحى ٓيػ‪ٓٞ‬ش ٗويح ُ‪ٜ‬خُق حٓزخٕ حٗلٔظٔ٘ض ٓخٗـٔ٘ض‬
‫ُ‪ٔ٤‬ظي‪ٍٝ ،‬هْ كٔخد ‪ٓ OSA 121921259535203‬زِؾ ٗوي‪ٝ ١‬هيٍ‪ ٙ‬هٔٔٔخثش ِٓ‪ )ٍٝٞ٣ 500.000.000.00( ٍٝٞ٣ ٕٞ٤‬رخُؼِٔش حُوخٗ‪٤ٗٞ‬ش‬
‫ُؼِٔش حالطلخى حال‪ٍٝٝ‬ر‪ ٢‬رـَ‪ ٝ‬حالٓظؼٔخٍحص‪.‬‬

‫ٗئًي رٔ‪ٞ‬ؿز‪ ٚ‬إٔ حألٓ‪ٞ‬حٍ اُ‪ ٠‬كي ػِٔ٘خ ؿ‪٤‬يس ‪ٗٝ‬ظ‪٤‬لش ‪ٝٝ‬ح‪ٟ‬لش ‪ٝ‬هخُ‪٤‬ش ٖٓ أ‪ ١‬ؿزخ‪٣‬ش أ‪ ٍٖٛ ٝ‬أ‪ ٝ‬حػزخء ‪ٝ‬هي أػزض ٓزيأ حالك‪ٜ‬خف حُظخّ رؤٗ‪ ٚ‬هي‬
‫طل‪ َٜ‬ػِ‪ ٌٙٛ ٠‬حألٓ‪ٞ‬حٍ ٖٓ حٗ٘طش أػٔخٍ طـخٍ‪٣‬ش ؿ‪ َ٤‬ؿ٘خث‪٤‬ش‪ .‬إ حُل‪ٞ‬حُش حُزٌ٘‪٤‬ش حُ٘‪ٜ‬خث‪٤‬ش ‪ٝ‬حُوخرِش ُِظل‪ٝ َ٣ٞ‬حُوخرِش ُِظ٘خٍُ ‪ٝ‬حُوخرِش‬
‫ُالٓظيػخء ػزَ ٍٓخُش حُٔ‪٣ٞ‬لض حُوخ‪ٛ‬ش رخألكَحى ‪٘ٓ ٢ٛ‬ي حهَحٍ رخُي‪ ِِّٓ ٖ٣‬حُ‪ٞ‬كخء رخٌُخَٓ ‪ٝ‬هخرِش ُالٓظيػخء ػِ‪ ٠‬حُل‪ُِٔ ٍٞ‬يحى ٗويح ك‪٢‬‬
‫طخٍ‪٣‬ن حالٓظلوخم‪.‬‬

‫إ حُل‪ٞ‬حُش حُزٌ٘‪٤‬ش حُ٘‪ٜ‬خث‪٤‬ش ‪ٝ‬حُوخرِش ُِظل‪ٝ َ٣ٞ‬حُوخرِش ُِظ٘خٍُ ‪ٝ‬حُوخرِش ُالٓظيػخء ػزَ ٍٓخُش حُٔ‪٣ٞ‬لض حُوخ‪ٛ‬ش رخألكَحى ٓخٍ‪٣‬ش حُٔلؼ‪ُٔ ٍٞ‬يس ػخّ‬
‫‪ ٖٓ ،ّٞ٣ٝ‬طخٍ‪٣‬ن حالٓظالّ ‪ ٌٖٔ٣ٝ‬حالػظٔخى ػِ‪ٜ٤‬خ ُِل‪ ٍٜٞ‬ػِ‪ ٠‬حالثظٔخٕ حُ٘وي‪ ١‬حٌُخَٓ رٔزِؾ ‪ٝ‬هيٍ‪ ٙ‬هٔٔٔخثش ِٓ‪ٍٝٞ٣ ٕٞ٤‬‬
‫(‪.)ٍٝٞ٣ 500.000.000.00‬‬

‫‪ ٢ٛ ٌٙٛ‬أىحس ط٘ل‪٣ٌ٤‬ش رخُ٘‪٤‬خرش ػٖ ر٘ي ‪ ٞ٣‬ر‪ ٢‬اّ أ‪ ٚ٣‬ؿ‪ٗ ،٢‬خٍع رخ‪ٜٞ٘ٛ‬كٔظَحٓ‪ٍٞ٣ُ 458001 ٢‬م‪َٔ٣ٞٓ ،‬ح هخ‪ٟ‬ؼش ألٗظٔش حُظل‪٣ٞ‬الص‬
‫حُٔخُ‪٤‬ش حُي‪٤ُٝ‬ش ٖٓ حُوخٗ‪ ٕٞ‬حُظـخٍ‪ ١‬حُٔ‪ٞ‬كي ُِٔيحى ك‪ ٢‬حُلٔخرخص حُٔ‪َٜ‬ك‪٤‬ش حُوخٍؿ‪٤‬ش‪َ٣ .‬ؿ‪ ٠‬آيحء حُٔ٘‪ٍٞ‬س ُِٔٔظل‪٤‬ي ٖٓ طل‪ َ٣ٞ‬أٓ‪ٞ‬حٍ رٔزِؾ‬
‫‪ٝ‬هيٍ‪ ٙ‬هٔٔٔخثش ِٓ‪ُ )ٍٝٞ٣ 500.000.000.00( ٍٝٞ٣ ٕٞ٤‬ـَ‪ ٝ‬حالٓظؼٔخٍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ٌٛ‬ح ‪٘ٓ ٞٛ‬ط‪ٞ‬م حألىحس ‪٣ ُٖٝ‬ظزغ ًُي ٗٔوش ‪ٍٝ‬ه‪٤‬ش‪.‬‬
‫ٓؼِ‪ٓٞ‬خص ٓـَ أَٓ حُٔ‪٣ٞ‬لض ‪)MAC( )PEO( )INT( CHK )PEC ENG( )DAN( :MAC ٢ٛ‬‬
‫ُ‪ٜ‬خُق ‪ٝ‬رخُ٘‪٤‬خرش ػٖ‬
‫ر٘ي ‪ ٞ٣‬ر‪ ٢‬اّ أ‪ ٚ٣‬ؿ‪٢‬‬
‫ٗخٍع رخ‪ٜٞ٘ٛ‬كٔظَحٓ‪ٍٞ٣ُ 458001 ٢‬م‬
‫حُٔٔئ‪ ٍٝ‬حُٔل‪2 ٝٞ‬‬ ‫حُٔٔئ‪ ٍٝ‬حُٔل‪1 ٝٞ‬‬
‫رخٌٓخٍ ىح‪)UBS081285( َ٣‬‬ ‫الٍّ ر‪)UBS078431( ٖٗٞ‬‬
‫ٍث‪ ْ٤‬حُؼِٔ‪٤‬خص حألؿ٘ز‪٤‬ش‬ ‫ٍث‪ ْ٤‬حُويٓخص حُٔ‪َٜ‬ك‪٤‬ش ًَُِ٘خص‬
‫‪ٓ :‬ؼِ‪ٓٞ‬خص حُل‪ٞ‬حُش ‪ /‬حؿَح‪ ٝ‬حٓظؼٔخٍحص طـخٍ‪٣‬ش‬ ‫‪70‬‬
‫‪ :‬طلخ‪ َ٤ٛ‬حَُٓ‪ :ّٞ‬هخ‪ٛ‬ش ر٘خ‬ ‫‪71A‬‬
‫‪ :‬حُٔؼِ‪ٓٞ‬خص حَُِٔٓش ٖٓ حََُٔٓ ُِٔٔظِْ‬ ‫‪72‬‬
‫ُِل‪ ٍٜٞ‬ػِ‪ ٠‬حثظٔخٕ ك‪ ١ٍٞ‬اُ‪ ٠‬كٔخد حُٔٔظل‪٤‬ي‬

‫طوَ‪ٗ َ٣‬زٌش حُلجش‬
‫‪ٝ‬هض حال‪ٛ‬يحٍ‪ 10:04:26 2016/12/07 :‬ؿَ‪٘٣‬ظٖ ‪01:00+‬‬
‫ططز‪٤‬ن ‪ٝ‬حؿ‪ٜ‬ش ٓ‪٣ٞ‬لض ٗض‬
‫ٓ٘ـَ حُ٘ظخّ‬
‫حٓظالّ (حٓؼخٍ طِٔ‪)ْ٤‬‬
‫(‪1:EUR-0116253825UBSWCGZHXXX 8876554- 00785430/CMBCCNBSXXX/012734194-82716- CMBCCNBSXXX‬‬
‫)‪(200:0) (2332;ACK) (108:Z453HN0200A1817HYRTEE11726539FTRTRWY‬‬

‫‪-------------‬حُظِٔ‪ :ْ٤‬ر٘ي حُ‪ ٖ٤ٜ‬حُظـخٍ‪-------------- CMBCCNBSXXX----------------١‬‬


‫ٍٓخٌش ٓ‪٠ٛ‬فض هخ‪ٛ‬ش رخ‪٤‬فَحى ِٓ رٕه ‪ ٛ٠‬ر‪ ٟ‬اّ‬

‫حْٓ حَُٓخُش‪ٓ :‬ظخرؼش ٍى ػِ‪ ٠‬حٍٓخٍ الٌِٓ‪٢‬‬

‫طوَ‪ َ٣‬طِٔ‪ٍٓ ْ٤‬خُش ٓ‪٣ٞ‬لض هخ‪ٛ‬ش رخألكَحى‬
‫‪USB897765BSWCHZHXXX 99807554-88755442122/UBSWCHZH/CMBCCNBSXXX-8009876-‬‬
‫ٗ‪ٞ‬ع حُؼِٔش‪ /ٍٝٞ٣ /‬ػِٔش حالطلخى حال‪ٍٝٝ‬ر‪٢‬‬
‫ٓ‪٣ٞ‬لض ٗض‪ٍٞ٣ُ /UBSWCHZH :BIC/‬م ٓ‪َٔ٣ٞ‬ح‬
‫ح‪٣ُٞٝ‬ش‪/‬طِٔ‪/ْ٤‬ػخؿَ‪ِٔٓ :‬ض‬
‫‪ /BIC/CMBCCNBSXXX‬حُ‪ٖ٤ٜ‬‬
‫حُظطز‪٤‬ن‪ٝ :‬حؿ‪ٜ‬ش ٓ‪٣ٞ‬ض‪ :‬كخُش طِٔ‪ ْ٤‬حُ٘زٌش‪:‬‬
‫ا‪ٛ‬يحٍ حٗؼخٍ حُ٘زٌش‪ :‬‬
‫حُٔزِؾ حُ‪ٜ‬خىٍ‪ :‬هٔٔٔخثش ِٓ‪.)ٍٝٞ٣ 500.000.000.00( ٍٝٞ٣ ٕٞ٤‬‬
‫طخٍ‪٣‬ن حالٍٓخٍ‪ 07 :‬ى‪ٔٔ٣‬زَ ‪11:06:29 2016‬‬
‫ٓ‪ٜ‬يٍ حََُٔٓ ‪ :RMP‬ر٘ي ‪ ٞ٣‬ر‪ ٢‬اّ أ‪ ٚ٣‬ؿ‪ٍٞ٣ُ ٢‬م ٓ‪َٔ٣ٞ‬ح‬
‫ٓ‪ٜ‬يٍ حُٔٔظِْ ‪ :RMP‬ر٘ي حُ‪ ٖ٤ٜ‬حُظـخٍ‪١‬‬
‫حُلـْ‪ٍ 0201 :‬ه‪ٜ‬ش ‪MPL‬‬
‫ِٓو‪ٟٝ /090077655432458765421 :ٚ‬غ‪TX :‬‬
‫ٍهْ حُٔؼَف حَُث‪AZWE46688654RCGHYT890554 :٢ٔ٤‬‬
‫ً‪ٞ‬ى حُظظزغ‪UBS-DS556443ER2111GTRR77688900KUYT :‬‬
‫ً‪ٞ‬ى حُظظزغ ر‪ ٖ٤‬حُز٘‪ٞ‬ى‪BD3326667889IIUYT11256 :‬‬
‫طوَ‪ َ٣‬حُ٘زٌش‪ :‬حٓظالّ ر٘ي حُ‪ ٖ٤ٜ‬حُظـخٍ‪ًٞ ١‬ى ٓ‪٣ٞ‬لض‪CMBCCNBSXXX :‬‬
‫‪ٛ‬ق حَُٓخُش ‪ SN :A‬ر‪ٞ‬حٓطش‪:‬‬ ‫‪١‬خرؼش‪:‬‬
‫ٓلظخف هخػيس حُز‪٤‬خٗخص‪ٓ UBS22361TGRTA227FFTRGTHHHEUUETW :‬لظخف حالٓظويحّ‪211883928763525 :‬‬
‫حُ٘خٗش حٍُِهخء حُؼخُٔ‪٤‬ش" ٍهْ طٔـ‪ َ٤‬حُ‪٣َ٠‬زش ‪589012305316‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬هض حالٓظالّ (‪١‬زخػش ٖٓ ‪ 07 :)UTC‬ى‪ٔٔ٣‬زَ ‪11:06:29 2016‬‬

‫رقم الحساب‬ ‫نوع التعليمات‪ -MT-103 :‬تعليمات استالم داخلي‬ ‫رقم شاشة ‪GBS‬‬
‫‪UBS089011254432‬‬ ‫نوع التعليمات الفرعي‪ :‬رسالة السويفت الخاصة باألفراد (اتجاه واحد) عميل ائتمان واحد‬
‫مؤشر‪ MAT3D :‬التاريخ‪2016/12/07 :‬‬

‫المرجع‪UBSWCHZH :‬‬
‫المراجع‪CMBCCNBSXXX -‬‬
‫المرسل‪ :‬بنك يو بي إس أيه جي‬
‫المستلم‪ :‬بنك الصين التجاري‬
‫‪-‬كود الفرز‪-30 :‬‬ ‫عميل الوكيل‪ :‬اسبان انفستمنت مانجمنت ليمتد‬
‫رقم ايبان‪UBS0890112544321 :‬‬ ‫رقم الحساب‪OSA 121921259535203 :‬‬
‫مقدم الطلب‪ :‬مؤسسة قطر للبترول‬

‫نشاط المستخدم‬
‫الحالة‬ ‫الوقت‬ ‫التاريخ‬ ‫مستخدم‬
‫استالم‬ ‫مقفول بواسطة‪:‬‬
‫خارجي‬ ‫داخلي‬ ‫تاريخ االرسال‪ 07 :‬ديسمبر ‪PRT_TPZH 10:04:26 2016‬‬
‫المبلغ‪ 500.000.000.00 :‬يورو‬ ‫االلغاء‪ /‬التعديل بواسطة‪:‬‬
‫المشترك‪ :‬غير محدد‬ ‫تاريخ االستالم‪ 07 :‬ديسمبر ‪PRT_TPZH 11:06:29 2016‬‬

‫الحالة‬ ‫‪USB897765BSWCHZHXXX 99807554-88755442122/ CMBCCNBSXXX-OSA‬‬

‫كود المعاملة‪UBS-DS556443ER2111GTRR77688900KUYT:‬‬ ‫‪121921259535203‬‬
‫الشاشة الزرقاء العالمية" رقم تسجيل الضريبة ‪589012305316‬‬ ‫بلد االستالم‪ :‬الصين‬
‫جديد‪ :‬تحويل نقدي عبر رسالة سويت الخاصة باألفراد ‪CMIS ،NMAT‬‬

‫تم الطباعة‬
‫اسمية أ‬
‫النص (يورو‪0116253825UBSWCGZHXXX 8876554- 00785430/CMBCCNBSXXX -‬‬

ٍُ‫فَحى ٌٍّٔظ‬٤‫ش رخ‬ٛ‫فض هخ‬٠ٛٓ ‫ً ٍٓخٌش‬١ٛ‫ٍس ِٓ طفخ‬ٛٛ RECEIVER‘S COPY OF MT103 ONE WAY
××××××××××××××××××× : ‫حْٓ حُز٘ي‬ Bank Name: XXXXXXXXXXXX
×××××××××××××××××××××× : ‫حٕ حُلَع‬ٞ٘‫ػ‬ Branch Address: XXXXXXXXXXXX
×××××××××××××××××××××× : :‫ى‬ًٞ ‫لض‬٣ٞٓ Account Number: XXXXXXXXXXXX
×××××××××××××××××××××× : ‫ٍهْ حُلٔخد‬ Iban Number: XXXXXXXXXXXX
×××××××××××××××××××××× : ٕ‫زخ‬٣٥‫ٍهْ ح‬ Account Name: XXXXXXXXXXXX
Bank Officer 1: XXXXXXXXXXXX
×××××××××××××××××××××× : ٢ٗ‫كٔخد حثظٔخ‬
Telephone Number:
×××××××××××××××××××××× ‫حْٓ حُلٔخد‬ XXXXXXXXXXXX
×××××××××××××××××××××× : 1 ‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫ٓٔئ‬
×××××××××××××××××××××× : ‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫خطق ٓٔئ‬ٛ
×××××××××××××××××××××× : ‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫ ُٔٔئ‬٢َٗٝ‫ي حٌُظ‬٣َ‫ر‬ ---

---------ٍ‫حالٍٓخ‬ٝ ‫ًؽ‬ُٞٔ٘‫ع ح‬ٞٗ--------

:‫َٓؿغ ٓيهالص حَُٓخُش‬ MESSAGE INPUT REFERENCE:
:‫َٓؿغ ٓوَؿخص حَُٓخُش‬ MESSAGE OUTPUT REFERENCE:
ٕ‫َ حثظٔخ‬٤ٔ‫حكي) ػ‬ٝ ٙ‫ش رخألكَحى (حطـخ‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ ٍٓخُش ح‬:‫لض‬٣ٞٓ SWIFT: MT103 CASH BACKED SINGLE
‫ّ ٗويح‬ٞ‫حكي ٓيػ‬ٝ CUSTOMER CREDIT TRANSFER
---------‫لض‬٣ٞٓ ‫هخٍة ٍٓخُش‬----------- -----------------------------------SWIFT
MESSAGE READER-------------------------
:ََُٓٔ‫ ح‬SENDER:
:ِْ‫ حُٔٔظ‬RECEIVER:
-----------‫ حَُٓخُش‬ٚٗ---------- ------------------------------------------MESSAGE
:‫ٍهْ َٓؿغ حُٔؼخِٓش‬ : F20 F20 TRANSACTION REFERENCE
:‫ِش‬ٛ ًٝ ‫َٓؿغ‬ : F21 NUMBER:
‫خص حُز٘ي‬٤ِٔ‫ى ػ‬ًٞ : F23 F21 RELATED REFERENCE:
‫خٍف‬ُٜٔ‫ٖ ح‬٤‫ حُٔؼخٓالص ر‬/‫ ػِٔش‬/‫ن‬٣ٍ‫ طخ‬/‫ٔش‬٤‫ه‬ : F23A
: ‫ن‬٣ٍ‫حُظخ‬
ٍٝٞ٤ُ‫ح‬ : ‫حُؼِٔش‬ F32A:
.)ٍٝٞ٣ 500.000.000.00( ٍٝٞ٣ ٕٞ٤ِٓ ‫هٔٔٔخثش‬ : ‫حُٔزِؾ‬ VALUE/DATE/CURRENCY/INTERBA
-------------------------------------------------- NK
ID :‫َ ٓويّ حُطِذ‬٤ٔ‫حُؼ‬ : 50A DATE:
:‫حُٔئٓٔش ٓويٓش حُطِذ‬ : 52A CURRENCY: EUR
: ‫حْٓ حُز٘ي‬ AMOUNT: (€500,000,000.00) (FIVE
: ‫ٓويّ حُطِذ‬
: ‫ٍهْ حُلٔخد‬
: ٕ‫زخ‬٣٥‫ٍهْ ح‬
: 1 ‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫ٓٔئ‬ 52A: ORDERING INSTITUTION:
: ‫خطق حُز٘ي‬ٛ SENDER

: ‫ٍهْ كخًْ حُز٘ي‬ BANK NAME:
:‫ حُٔئٓٔش‬ٟ‫ حُلٔخد ُي‬: 57A BANK ADDRESS:
××××××××××××××××××× : ‫حْٓ حُز٘ي‬
×××××××××××××××××××××× : ‫حٕ حُلَع‬ٞ٘‫ػ‬ Bank Name: XXXXXXXXXXXX
Branch Address: XXXXXXXXXXXX
×××××××××××××××××××××× : :‫ى‬ًٞ ‫لض‬٣ٞٓ Swift Code: XXXXXXXXXXXX
Account Number: XXXXXXXXXXXX
×××××××××××××××××××××× : ‫ٍهْ حُلٔخد‬
×××××××××××××××××××××× : ٕ‫زخ‬٣٥‫ٍهْ ح‬ Trust Account: XXXXXXXXXXXX
×××××××××××××××××××××× : ٢ٗ‫كٔخد حثظٔخ‬ Bank Officer 1: XXXXXXXXXXXX
×××××××××××××××××××××× ‫حْٓ حُلٔخد‬ Telephone Number:
×××××××××××××××××××××× : 1 ‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫ٓٔئ‬ Email: XXXXXXXXXXXX
×××××××××××××××××××××× : ‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫خطق ٓٔئ‬ٛ
×××××××××××××××××××××× : ‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫ ُٔٔئ‬٢َٗٝ‫ي حٌُظ‬٣َ‫ر‬ TYPE AND TRANSMISSION------------
××××××××××××××× :‫ي‬٤‫َ حُٔٔظل‬٤ٔ‫ حْٓ حُؼ‬: 59 59: BENEFICIARY CUSTOMER'S NAME:
/ٍ‫حٓظؼٔخ‬/:‫ش‬٤ُ‫حُش حُٔخ‬ٞ‫ٓخص حُل‬ِٞ‫ ٓؼ‬: 70 XXXXXXXXXXXX
َ٤ٛ‫ طلخ‬: 79 70: REMITTANCE
‫خ‬َٛ‫ٓو‬ٝ ،‫ش‬٤‫َك‬ُٜٔ‫ ُِويٓخص ح‬١‫خ‬ٜ‫ٗ٘ـ‬ٝ ‫ٗؾ‬ًٞ ‫ٗؾ‬ٞٛ ‫ ًَٗش‬،ٖ‫ ٗويّ ٗل‬INFORMATION:/INVESTMENT/
،‫ حٌُِٔٔش حُٔظليس‬،E14 5HQ ٕ‫حٍف ُ٘ي‬ٝ ١ٍ‫ ً٘خ‬،‫يحٕ ً٘يح‬٤ٓ 8 ٢‫ ك‬79: DETAILS
‫هخرِش‬ٝ ‫هخرِش ُِظـِثش‬ٝ ٝٝ‫هخرِش ُِظلخ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤‫خث‬ٜٗ َ‫ش ػز‬٤‫حُش رَه‬ٞ‫ ك‬ٚ‫ؿز‬ٞٔ‫ر‬ WE, THE HONGKONG AND SHANGHAI BANKING
‫ش‬٣ٍ‫ش رخألكَحى ٓخ‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫هخرِش ُالٓظيػخء ػزَ ٍٓخُش ح‬ٝ َ٣ٞ‫ُِظل‬ CORPORATION, ADDRESS AT 8 CANADA
‫××××××××× ُلٔخد‬:٢ُ‫خُق حْٓ حُلٔخد حُظخ‬ُٜ ٍٞ‫حُٔلؼ‬ SQUARE, CANARY WHARF LONDON E14 5HQ,
ٕٞ٤ِٓ ‫ هٔٔٔخثش‬ٍٙ‫هي‬ٝ ‫ًُي ُٔزِؾ‬ٝ ×××××××××××××××:ْ‫ٍه‬ UNITED KINGDOM, HEREBY PRESENT OUR
٢‫ر‬ٍٝٝ‫ش ُالطلخى حال‬٤ٗٞٗ‫) رخُؼِٔش حُوخ‬ٍٝٞ٣ 500.000.000.00( ٍٝٞ٣ IRREVOCABLE, NEGOTIABLE, DIVISIBLE,
.‫حُٔظخؿَس‬ٝ ‫ حُظـخٍس‬ٝ‫ألؿَح‬ TRANSFERABLE, AND CALLABLE CASH BACKED
AND VALUED AT €500,000,000.00
‫ش‬٤ُ‫هخ‬ٝ ‫لش‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝٝ ‫لش‬٤‫ٗظ‬ٝ ‫يس‬٤‫ كي ػِٔ٘خ ؿ‬٠ُ‫حٍ ا‬ٞٓ‫ إٔ حأل‬ٚ‫ؿز‬ٞٔ‫ٗئًي ر‬ WE HERBY CONFIRM THAT THE FUNDS TO THE
‫ هي‬ٚٗ‫خف حُظخّ رؤ‬ٜ‫هي أػزض ٓزيأ حالك‬ٝ ‫ حػزخء‬ٝ‫ٖ أ‬ٍٛ ٝ‫ش أ‬٣‫ ؿزخ‬١‫ٖٓ أ‬ BEST OF OUR KNOWLEDGE ARE GOOD,
.‫ش‬٤‫َ ؿ٘خث‬٤‫ش ؿ‬٣ٍ‫حٍ ٖٓ حٗ٘طش أػٔخٍ طـخ‬ٞٓ‫ حأل‬ٌٙٛ ٠ِ‫َ ػ‬ٜ‫طل‬


‫حُوخرِش‬ٝ ٍُ‫حُوخرِش ُِظ٘خ‬ٝ َ٣ٞ‫حُوخرِش ُِظل‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤‫خث‬ُٜ٘‫ش ح‬٤ٌ٘‫حُش حُز‬ٞ‫إ حُل‬ THIS UNCONDITIONAL, IRREVOCABLE,
ٖ٣‫ ٓ٘ي حهَحٍ رخُي‬٢ٛ ‫ش رخألكَحى‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ُالٓظيػخء ػزَ ٍٓخُش ح‬ ASSIGNABLE, TRANSFERABLE AND CALLABLE
‫ حُظـخٍس‬ٝ‫ٍ ألؿَح‬ٞ‫ حُل‬٠ِ‫هخرِش ُالٓظيػخء ػ‬ٝ َٓ‫كخء رخٌُخ‬ُٞ‫ِِّٓ ح‬

‫حُوخرِش‬ٝ ٍُ‫حُوخرِش ُِظ٘خ‬ٝ َ٣ٞ‫حُوخرِش ُِظل‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤‫خث‬ُٜ٘‫ش ح‬٤ٌ٘‫حُش حُز‬ٞ‫إ حُل‬ THIS UNCONDITIONAL, IRREVOCABLE,
‫ٍ ُٔيس‬ٞ‫ش حُٔلؼ‬٣ٍ‫ش رخألكَحى ٓخ‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ُالٓظيػخء ػزَ ٍٓخُش ح‬ ASSIGNABLE, TRANSFERABLE AND CALLABLE
٠ِ‫ٍ ػ‬ٜٞ‫خ ُِل‬ٜ٤ِ‫ٌٖٔ حالػظٔخى ػ‬٣ٝ ّ‫ن حالٓظال‬٣ٍ‫ ٖٓ طخ‬،ّٞ٣ٝ ّ‫ػخ‬
ٍٝٞ٣ ٕٞ٤ِٓ ‫ هٔٔٔخثش‬ٍٙ‫هي‬ٝ ‫ حٌُخَٓ رٔزِؾ‬١‫حالثظٔخٕ حُ٘وي‬ RECEIPT, AND IS VALID FOR A TERM OF ONE YEAR
...................:‫ى حُٔؼخِٓش‬ًٞ .)ٍٝٞ٣ 500.000.000.00( AND ONE DAY FROM TRANSMISSION
CASH CREDIT OF €500,000,000.00 (FIVE

‫ؼش ألٗظٔش‬ٟ‫ هخ‬٢ٓ ٢‫خرش ػٖ ر٘ي حطٖ حّ ر‬٤ُ٘‫ش رخ‬٣ٌ٤‫ أىحس ط٘ل‬٢ٛ ٌٙٛ THIS IS AN OPERATIVE INSTRUMENT FOR AND
٢‫كي ُِٔيحى ك‬ُٞٔ‫ ح‬١ٍ‫ٕ حُظـخ‬ٞٗ‫ش ٖٓ حُوخ‬٤ُٝ‫ش حُي‬٤ُ‫الص حُٔخ‬٣ٞ‫حُظل‬ BEHALF OF HSBC BANK PLC.,
ٖٓ ‫ي‬٤‫ٍس ُِٔٔظل‬ُٞ٘ٔ‫ آيحء ح‬٠‫َؿ‬٣ .‫ش‬٤‫ش حُوخٍؿ‬٤‫َك‬ُٜٔ‫حُلٔخرخص ح‬ SUBJECT TO THE INTERNATIONAL REMITTANCE
500.000.000.00( ٍٝٞ٣ ٕٞ٤ِٓ ‫ هٔٔٔخثش‬ٍٙ‫هي‬ٝ ‫حٍ رٔزِؾ‬ٞٓ‫َ أ‬٣ٞ‫طل‬ COMMERCIAL CODE TO EXTERNAL BANK
.‫حُٔظخؿَس‬ٝ ‫ حُظـخٍس‬َٝ‫) ُـ‬ٍٝٞ٣ ACCOUNT PAYMENT.

.‫ش‬٤‫ٍه‬ٝ ‫ظزغ ًُي ٗٔوش‬٣ ُٖٝ ‫م حألىحس‬ٞ‫ ٓ٘ط‬ٞٛ ‫ٌح‬ٛ THIS IS AN OPERATIVE INSTRUMENT AND NO

ٖ‫خرش ػ‬٤ُ٘‫رخ‬ٝ ‫خُق‬ُٜ FOR AND ON BEHALF OF

ٖ‫خرش ػ‬٤ُ٘‫رخ‬ٝ ‫خُق‬ُٜ
E14 ٕ‫حٍف ُ٘ي‬ٝ ١ٍ‫ ً٘خ‬،‫يحٕ ً٘يح‬٤ٓ 8 ،٢‫ ؿ‬ٚ٣‫ اّ أ‬٢‫ ر‬ٞ٣ ‫ ر٘ي‬HSBC BANK PLC, 8 CANADA SQUARE LONDON E14
.‫ حٌُِٔٔش حُٔظليس‬،5HQ 5HQ,

‫ٍم‬ٞ٣ُ 458001 ٢ٓ‫كٔظَح‬ٜٞ٘ٛ‫ٗخٍع رخ‬

ٝٞ‫ٍ حُٔل‬ٝ‫حُٔٔئ‬ 1 ٝٞ‫ٍ حُٔل‬ٝ‫ حُٔٔئ‬THIBAUT DE ROUX NIALL
85( َ٣‫رخٌٓخٍ ىح‬ )TR 3040 GM( ٍٝ ٝ‫ص ى‬ٞ‫خر‬٤ٓ CAMERON
‫ ُال‬٢ُٝ‫ْ حُي‬٤‫حَُث‬ ‫ش‬٤ُٔ‫حم حُؼخ‬ٞٓ‫ْ حال‬٤‫( ٍث‬TR 3040 GM) (NC 4020

"‫حٌٍّلك "أ‬ ANNEXURE ―A‖
)‫حكي‬ٚ ٖ‫فَحى (حطـخ‬٤‫ش رخ‬ٛ‫فض حٌوخ‬٠ٌٛٔ‫ي ِؼخٍِش ٍٓخٌش ح‬١‫طؤو‬ AFFIRMATION OF MT103 ONE-WAY
2017 /--/-- :‫ن‬٠ٍ‫ حٌظخ‬DATE: ..................................., 2017

:‫ى حٌّؼخٍِش‬ٛ‫ و‬TRANSACTION CODE:

ْ٤‫حَُث‬ ٢‫لظ‬ٜ‫ر‬ ،........................ ،‫أٗخ‬ ‫أإًي‬ I, ……………………………………………, AS CEO

‫ْ ًخَٓ ُٔؼخِٓش ٍٓخُش‬ٜ‫ ك‬ٟ‫ إٔ ُي‬ٚ‫ؿز‬ٞٔ‫ ر‬، .........................١ٌ٤‫حُظ٘ل‬ OF
‫ََٓ حألىحس ػزَ ٍٓخُش‬٤ٓ ٍ‫يح‬ٛ‫ْ إٔ ر٘ي حإل‬ٜ‫ حطل‬.‫ش رخألكَحى‬ٛ‫لض هخ‬٣ٞٓ …………………………………………………HEREB
ٍٙ‫هي‬ٝ ‫ ٓزِـخ‬٠ُٝ‫لش حأل‬٣َُ٘‫غ طزِؾ ح‬٤‫ش رخألكَحى رل‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ٞٓ Y AFFIRM THAT I AM IN COMPLETE
‫ٔش‬٤‫َٗحثق الكوش رو‬ٝ )ٍٚٛ٠ 500.000.000.00( ٍٚٛ٠ ْٛ١ٍِ ‫هّّٔخثش‬ UNDERSTANDING OF THE MT103 SWIFT
٢ٌ٘‫ حُز‬٢‫ كٔخر‬٠ُ‫) ا‬ٍٚٛ٠ 500.000.000.00( ٍٚٛ٠ ْٛ١ٍِ ‫هّّٔخثش‬
‫ش‬١ٌ‫فض ِظؼٍمش رخٌّئٓٔخص حٌّخ‬٠ٛٓ ‫ْ ٕ٘خن ٍٓخٌش‬١ٌ ٚٗ‫ح‬ٝ ‫حُٔليى‬ SWIFT MT103 MESSAGES, FIRST AMOUNT OF €
.‫خ‬ٙ‫ن) ٌّظخرؼظ‬ٕٛ‫(حٌز‬ 500,000,000.00 EURO (FIVE HUNDRED
TRANCHES ALSO OF € 500,000,000.00 EURO

:٢ِ٣ ‫ْ ٓخ‬ٜ‫ حطل‬٢٘ٗ‫ ًٔخ ح‬I ALSO UNDERSTAND THE FOLLOWING:

٠ِ‫ ػ‬،ٕ‫ ُ٘ي‬،٢ٓ ٢‫ حطٖ حّ ر‬:‫ ٓويّ حُويٓش‬ٟ‫يحٍ ُي‬ٛ‫حكن ر٘ي حال‬ٝ THE PROVIDER‘S ISSUING BANK: HSBC,
.٢‫حكي كو‬ٝ ٙ‫ش رخألكَحى حطـخ‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ حٍٓخٍ ٍٓخُش ح‬LONDON, HAS AGREED TO SEND THE SWIFT

.٢‫ ر‬ٙ‫ كٔخد حالٓظالّ حُوخ‬٠ُ‫ ا‬١‫َ ٗوي‬٣ٞ‫يحٍ طل‬ٛ‫ََٓ ر٘ي حال‬٣ ُٖ THE PROVIDER‘S ISSUING BANKWILL NOT

١َٝ٘‫ٔخٕ الثظٔخٕ ر‬٠ً ‫ش رخألكَحى‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ٞٓ ‫ طٔظويّ ًَٗظ٘خ ٍٓخُش‬THE SWIFT MT103 ONE WAY SHALL BE USED

‫لض‬٣ُٞٔ‫ ػزَ ٍٓخُش ح‬ٍٝٞ٤ُ‫ ٓلٔ٘ش رخ‬١َٝ٘‫ ٓؼخِٓش الثظٔخٕ ر‬٢ٛ ٌٙٛ THIS IS A EURO CASH CREDIT ENHANCEMENT
.‫ش رخألكَحى‬ٛ‫ حُوخ‬SWIFT MT103 ONE WAY TRANSACTION.

ّ‫ ٓوي‬١‫يحٍ ُي‬ٛ‫خالص ٓغ ر٘ي حال‬ٜ‫ حط‬ٝ‫خص طلون أ‬٤ِٔ‫ ػ‬١‫٘خى أ‬ٛ ٌٕٞ٣ ُٖ THERE WILL BE NO OTHER VERIFICATIONS OR
. ٍ‫ هالف ًُي رٌَ٘ ٓظزخى‬٠ِ‫خ ػ‬٤‫ظلن هط‬٣ ُْ ‫ حُويٓش ٓخ‬COMMUNICATIONS WITH PROVIDER‘S

‫ش‬٤ُٝ‫ ٓٔئ‬٠ِ‫أٗخ أإًي ػ‬ٝ ٢ُ ‫لش طٔخٓخ رخُ٘ٔزش‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝ ‫ حُٔؼخِٓش‬ٌٙٛ ‫طؼي‬ I AM ABSOLUTELY AND COMPLETELY CLEAR
‫ حٓظؼيحى‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬٢٘ٗ‫رؤ‬ٝ َ٣ِٝ‫رش حُظ‬ٞ‫ؿذ ػو‬ٞٔ‫ ر‬٢ٗٞٗ‫حالُظِحّ حُوخ‬ٝ ‫حًَُ٘ش‬ OF THIS TRANSACTION AND I CONFIRM WITH
ّ‫ ر٘ي حالٓظال‬ٟ‫ ُي‬٢ٗ‫خ كي حثظٔخ‬ٜ٣‫ ُي‬٢‫ ًٔخ أإًي رؤٕ ًَٗظ‬٢‫كخء رخُظِحٓخط‬ُِٞ CORPORATE AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY
‫ حٓظالّ ٍٓخُش‬٠ِ‫حُويٍس ػ‬ٝ ‫زش حالٓظؼيحى‬ٛ‫ أ‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬ٞٛ ١ٌُ‫ح‬ٝ ٢‫ ر‬ٙ‫حُوخ‬ UNDER PENALTY OF PERJURY THAT I AM
.‫ش رخألكَحى‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ حُٔيحى ػزَ ٍٓخُش ح‬.‫ش رخألكَحى‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ح‬

:ٍُ‫خرش ػٓ حٌّٔظ‬١ٌٕ‫رخ‬ٚ ‫خٌق‬ٌٜ ‫غ‬١‫ل‬ٛ‫ حٌظ‬SIGNED FOR AND ON BEHALF OF RECEIVER:

:ْٓ‫ حال‬NAME:

:‫ذ‬ُٜ٘ٔ‫ ح‬TITLE:

:َ‫حُ حُٔل‬ٞ‫ ٍؿْ ؿ‬PASSPORT NO.:

:‫ هظْ حًَُ٘ش‬CORPORATE SEAL:

ٌََٛٓ‫ش ح‬٠‫ش كّخ‬١‫حطفخل‬ FEE PROTECTION

‫ٓطخء ٓويّ حُويٓش‬ٝ /‫ًالء‬ُٞ ‫لن‬٣ ٚٗ‫ أ‬٠ِ‫حُٔٔظِْ ػ‬ٝ ‫حكن ٓويّ حُويٓش‬ٞ٣ Both PROVIDER and RECEIVER agree that the
‫لض‬٣ُٞٔ‫ش َُٓخُش ح‬٤ٔٓ‫ٔش حال‬٤‫ُش حُو‬ٞٔ‫ّ ػ‬ٍٞٓ ٖٓ %2 ٠ِ‫ٍ ػ‬ٜٞ‫حُل‬ RECEIVER and PROVIDER agents/intermediaries are
ٍّٞٓ ِْ‫حُٔٔظ‬ٝ ‫ٓطخء ٓويّ حُويٓش‬ٝ/‫ًالء‬ٝ ْٓ‫ظوخ‬٣ .‫ش رخألكَحى‬ٛ‫حُوخ‬ entitled to 2% of the MT103 ONE WAY face value
.ٙ‫ ٓليى أىٗخ‬ٞٛ ‫ ًٔخ‬ٌٙٛ ‫ُش‬ٞٔ‫حُؼ‬ commission fees. These commission fees will be shared
between the PROVIDER and RECEIVER agents/
intermediaries as specified here below.

‫ ػٖ حُويٓخص‬ٞ٣ٞ‫ طؼ‬٢ٛ ‫ٍس‬ًٌُٞٔ‫ُش ح‬ٞٔ‫ّ حُؼ‬ٍٞٓ ٕ‫ أ‬٠ِ‫ظلن حُطَكخٕ ػ‬٣ The parties agree that the commission fees stated are
ِْ‫ ٖٓ حُٔٔظ‬١َٗ ٝ‫ي أ‬٤‫ٕ ه‬ٝ‫ى‬ٝ ٢‫خث‬ٜٗ ٌَ٘‫ٗش حُٔيحى ر‬ٞٔ٠ٓ ‫خ‬ٜٗ‫أ‬ٝ ‫حُٔويٓش‬ compensation for services rendered and are irrevocably
‫حُش‬ٞ‫حٓطش ك‬ٞ‫ٌح ر‬ٛ ٕ‫خ‬٣َُٔ‫ن ح‬٣ٍ‫ طخ‬٢‫ٖ ك‬٤‫ٓطخء حُٔيٍؿ‬ُٞ‫ح‬ٝ ‫ًالء‬ُٞ‫ ح‬٠ُ‫ا‬ and unconditionally guaranteed to be paid by the
‫ٔش‬٤‫ ٖٓ حُو‬%2+%18 ٠ُ‫َ ا‬ٜ٣ ‫حكي ٓغ ٓيحى حُٔٔظِْ ٓخ‬ٝ ‫هض‬ٝ ٢‫ش ك‬٤‫رَه‬ RECEIVER to the agents and intermediaries listed in
this DOA by wire transfer simultaneously with the
ًَ ٖ‫ ٓويّ حُويٓش ػ‬٠ُ‫ش رخألكَحى ا‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ش ٖٓ ٍٓخُش ح‬٤ٔٓ‫حال‬
RECEIVER payment UP TO 18%+2% of the face
‫ف‬ٞٓ .‫حكي‬ٝ ٙ‫ش رخألكَحى حطـخ‬ٛ‫لض حُوخ‬٣ُٞٔ‫ ٓؼخِٓش َُٓخُش ح‬ٝ‫أ‬/ٝ ‫لش‬٣َٗ value of the MT103 ONE WAY to the PROVIDER for
١‫ش ٖٓ أ‬٤ُ‫هخ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤ٗٞٗ‫حثن حُوخ‬ٞ‫ش ٖٓ حُؼ‬٤ُ‫ُش هخ‬ٞٔ‫ّ حُؼ‬ٍٞٓ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬ every tranche and/or transaction of the MT103 ONE
‫غ حُٔؼخٓالص‬٤ٔ‫ؿ‬ٝ ٌُٜٙ ،٢‫َك‬ُٜٔ‫َ ح‬٣ٞ‫ّ حُظل‬ٍٞٓ ‫ رخٓظؼ٘خء‬،‫ٓخص‬ٜٞ‫ه‬ WAY. The commission fees will be free of legal
.ٖ٤‫ٖ حُطَك‬٤‫حُالكوش ر‬ impediment and free of any deductions, excluding bank
transfer fees, for this and all subsequent transactions
between the parties.

ٖ٤‫ حألكَحى حُٔ٘ظٔز‬ٝ‫خ حًَُ٘خء أ‬ٜ٤٘‫ـ‬٣ ٕ‫ٌٖٔ أ‬٣ ٢‫ٓوخرَ حُٔ٘خكغ حُٔظزخىُش حُظ‬ In consideration of the mutual benefits to be derived by
،‫ش‬٤ُٛٞ‫ ح‬١ٌ‫ ٓ٘ل‬ٝ‫خء أ‬٤ٛٝ‫ حأل‬ٝ‫ٖ أ‬٤٘٤‫ حُٔؼ‬ٝ‫طش أ‬٤ُٓٞ‫ح‬/‫ِش‬٤ًُٞ‫ حًَُ٘خص ح‬ٝ‫أ‬ the associates or affiliated individuals, agents/brokers
ٌ٤‫ ط٘ل‬٢‫َؿزخٕ ك‬٣ ‫ش‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ٢‫َحف ك‬١‫ إٔ حأل‬ٚ٤ِ‫حُٔظلن ػ‬ٝ ّٜٞ‫ٖٓ حُٔل‬ companies, designees, trustees or executors, it is
‫ ٖٓ أؿَ حُٔ٘لؼش‬ٞ‫ْ حُزؼ‬ٜ٠‫ٕ ٓغ رؼ‬ٝ‫ش رخُظؼخ‬٣ٍ‫ حُٔؼخِٓش حُظـخ‬ٌٙٛ understood and agreed that the parties hereto are
mutually desirous of effecting this business transaction
١َُٝ٘‫ حالُظِحّ رخ‬٠ِ‫هؼش ػ‬ُٞٔ‫َحف ح‬١‫غ حال‬٤ٔ‫حكن ؿ‬ٞ‫ط‬ٝ ،‫حُٔظزخىُش‬
in co-operation with one another for their mutual
:‫ش‬٤ُ‫حالكٌخّ حُظخ‬ٝ benefit and all signatory parties agree to abide by the
following terms and conditions:

ٍ‫خ‬ٜ‫ حط‬١‫ّ رؤ‬ٞ‫و‬٣ ُٖ ٚٗ‫ أ‬٠ِ‫َف ػ‬١ ًَ ‫حكن‬ٞ٣ -1 1. Each party agrees that they will not make any
contact with, deal with or be involved with individuals,
ٍ‫ طـخ‬ٝ‫ ٓ٘خًٍش ٓغ حكَحى أ‬ٝ‫ طؼخَٓ ٓغ أ‬ٝ‫ أ‬،‫ٓغ‬ trader and investor introduced by another signatory
َ‫ه‬٥‫هغ ح‬ُٞٔ‫ٖ ٖٓ حُطَف ح‬٣‫ٖ ٓؼظٔي‬٣َٔ‫ ٓٔظؼ‬ٝ‫أ‬ without specific permission of the introduced signatory
for the Investor.
‫هغ‬ُٞٔ‫ق ٓليى ٖٓ ح‬٣َٜ‫ ط‬٠ِ‫ٍ ػ‬ٜٞ‫ٕ حُل‬ٝ‫ى‬
.َٔ‫حُٔؼظٔي ُِٔٔظؼ‬
‫ش‬٣ٞٛ ‫ش‬٣َٓ ٠ِ‫ حُللخظ ػ‬٠ِ‫هغ ػ‬ُٞٔ‫حكن ح‬ٞ٣ -2 2. The signatory agrees to keep confidential the
identity of and all contacts so provided by any other
ٖٓ ١‫خ أ‬ٛ‫ؼظٔي‬٣ ٢‫خٍ حُظ‬ٜ‫خص حالط‬ٜ‫غ ؿ‬٤ٔ‫ؿ‬ٝ signatories.
.ٖ٣َ‫ه‬٥‫ٖ ح‬٤‫هؼ‬ُٞٔ‫ح‬
‫غ‬٤ٔ‫ ٓيحى ؿ‬٠ِ‫ش ػ‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ٢‫َحف ك‬١‫حكن حال‬ٞ‫ ط‬-3 3. The parties hereto agree that all commissions
or fees as agreed by the parties shall be paid in full at
‫ّ رخٌُخَٓ كٔذ حالطلخم‬َُٞٓ‫ ح‬ٝ‫الص أ‬ٞٔ‫حُؼ‬ the end of every transaction.
.‫ش ًَ ٓؼخِٓش‬٣‫خ‬ٜٗ ٢‫َحف ك‬١‫ٖ حال‬٤‫حُٔزَّ ر‬
ٌٙٛ ‫َحف‬١‫خ أل‬٤ٗٞٗ‫ش ِِٓٓش هخ‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ٕ‫ ا‬-4 4. This agreement shall be legally binding on the parties
hereto, their principals, employees, representatives,
ْٜ٤ِ‫ٓٔؼ‬ٝ ْٜ٤‫ظل‬ٞٓٝ ْٜ٤ُٝ‫ٓٔئ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤‫حالطلخه‬ agents and assigns in all countries of the world.
.ُْ‫غ رِيحٕ حُؼخ‬٤ٔ‫ ؿ‬٢‫ْ ك‬ُٜ ٍُ‫حُٔظ٘خ‬ٝ ْٜ‫ًالث‬ٝٝ
َ٤٣‫ ٓؼخ‬٠ِ‫َف رؤػ‬ٜ‫ْ رخُظ‬ٜٓ‫ حُظِح‬٠ِ‫َحف ػ‬١‫طئًي حال‬ The parties hereto affirm that in every case they will act
with the highest standards of ethics and honesty in all
.ْٜ‫غ ٓؼخٓالط‬٤ٔ‫ ؿ‬٢‫ش ك‬ٛ‫حُِ٘ح‬ٝ ‫حالهالم‬ their dealings.

‫غ‬٤ٔ‫ ؿ‬٢‫ش ٓلَ حالكظَحّ ك‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ٌٕٞ‫ـذ إٔ ط‬٣ This agreement shall be respected and honored at all
times, unless otherwise mutually agreed upon and any
ٍ‫ ٓظزخى‬ٞ‫ ٗل‬٠ِ‫ هالف ًُي ػ‬٠ِ‫ظلن ػ‬٣ ُْ ‫ ٓخ‬،‫هخص‬ٝ‫حال‬ party will permit no attempt or hint of circumvention.
.‫خ‬ٜ٤ِ‫ُش ُالُظلخف ػ‬ٝ‫ ٓلخ‬١‫َف رؤ‬١ ١‫ٔٔق أ‬٣ ُٖٝ
ٍ‫ حػظزخ‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬ٙ‫ٍس حػال‬ًٌُٞٔ‫َحف ح‬١‫َف ٖٓ حال‬١ ًَ ‫ظلن‬٣ Each of the above parties agree and understand that any
overt or covert action of circumvention prescribed by
ٌٙٛ ٢‫ ك‬ٚ٤ِ‫ ػ‬ٜٙٞ٘ٓ َ٣‫ ُِظلخ‬٢‫ هل‬ٝ‫ق أ‬٣َٛ ‫ اؿَحء‬١‫أ‬ this agreement shall be a fraudulent act against the
َ‫ه‬٥‫ي حُطَف ح‬ٟ ‫خ‬٤ُ‫خ‬٤‫ش رٔؼخرش ػٔال حكظ‬٤‫حالطلخه‬ other party and will be subject to judicial action,
recompense for damages, possible punitive damages
ٍ‫َح‬ٟ‫ ػٖ حال‬ٞ٣ٞ‫طؼ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤‫خث‬٠‫غ إلؿَحءحص ه‬٠‫و‬٤ٓٝ and injunctive relief imposed by the legal process.
َٟٚ‫ل‬٣ ٢‫خث‬٠‫أَٓ ه‬ٝ ‫ش حُٔلظِٔش‬٤‫خص حُؼوخر‬٠٣ٞ‫حُظؼ‬ٝ
.٢ٗٞٗ‫اؿَحء هخ‬
‫ٓطخء‬ُٞ‫ح‬ٝ ‫ًالء‬ُٞ‫ٕ ح‬ٌٞ‫ إٔ ط‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬ٚ‫ؿز‬ٞٔ‫َحف ر‬١‫حكن حال‬ٞ‫ط‬ Both parties hereby agree that the agents and
intermediaries referred to in this DOA shall be as
:٢ُ‫ حُظخ‬ٞ‫ حُ٘ل‬٠ِ‫ حُيحثَس ػ‬ٌٙٛ ٢‫ْ ك‬ٜ٤ُ‫حُٔ٘خٍ ا‬ follows:

‫ّش‬١‫ (هّٔش رخٌّخثش) ِٓ حٌم‬%2 ‫ٌش‬ّٛ‫َ حٌؼ‬ٍٛٓ ٌٟ‫ اؿّخ‬TOTAL COMMISSION FEE OF 2% (FIVE
ٍٝ‫خ ػ‬ّٙ١ٔ‫ طم‬َٞ‫ـ‬٠ٚ ٍُ‫ٔيى٘خ حٌّٔظ‬٠ ٍٚٛ١ٌ‫ش رخ‬١ّٓ٨‫ ح‬PERCENT) OF FACE VALUE IN EURO
:ٌٟ‫ حٌظخ‬ٛ‫ حٌٕل‬PAID BY THE RECEIVER TO BE

‫هّٔش ِٓ ػَ٘س رخٌّخثش‬ٚ ٓ١ٕ‫ٌش حػ‬ّٛ‫ حٌؼ‬ٌٟ‫ اؿّخ‬TOTAL COMMISSION TWO POINT
:‫ حٌطَف ِميَ حٌويِش‬ٌٝ‫] ا‬%.....[ FIVE PERCENT [......%] TO PROVIDER

‫ّظي‬١ٌ ٟ‫ظ‬١ٓ ْٛ١ٍ١‫ر‬ : ْٓ‫حال‬ Name BILLION CITY

َ‫ ا‬ٞ‫ آ‬ٟٓ ‫رٕه‬ : ‫حْٓ حُز٘ي‬
Bank Name C.I.M. BANQUE
،ٛٔ‫ؿخ‬ٌٛ 6900 ،4 ِٟٔٚٔ‫ك ِخ‬٠َ١ : ‫حٕ حُز٘ي‬ٞ٘‫ػ‬
‫َٔح‬٠ٛٓ Bank Address

: ‫ٍهْ حُلٔخد‬ Via Manzoni 4,
6900 Lugano,
‫ّظي‬١ٌ ٟ‫ظ‬١ٓ ْٛ١ٍ١‫ ر‬-661835 : ‫حْٓ حُلٔخد‬ Switzerland
Account Number
CIMMCHGG : ‫لض‬٣ٞٓ Account Name 661835 – BILLION CITY
ٖ‫ي‬٠‫ظُ طلي‬٠ : ‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫ٓٔئ‬ LIMITED
+41919618600 : ٍٝ‫خطق ٓٔئ‬ٛ Bank Officer TBA
‫حُز٘ي‬ Bank Officer
: +41 91 961 86 00
‫ي‬٣َ‫حُز‬ Telephone
٢َٗٝ‫حالٌُظ‬ Bank Officer
‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫ُٔٔئ‬ Beneficiary:
: ‫ي‬٤‫حُٔٔظل‬ Special
: ‫ش‬ٛ‫ٔخص هخ‬٤ِ‫طؼ‬ Required ALL TRANSFER
"ً٠ٛ‫ّخص حٌظل‬١ٍ‫غ طؼ‬١ّ‫ ؿ‬ٕٚ‫ط‬ : :‫رش‬ِٞ‫ٍٓخُش ٓط‬ STATE: ―FUNDS ARE
‫لش‬ٟ‫ح‬ٚٚ ‫فش‬١‫حي ٔظ‬ِٛ٤‫"ح‬ NON-CRIMINAL
ِٟ‫َ حؿَح‬١‫يٍ غ‬ِٜ ‫ًحص‬ٚ ORIGIN, AND ARE
ٍٝ‫خ ِٔظلمش حٌٔيحى ٔميح ػ‬ٙٔ‫أ‬ٚ IMMEDIATELY
‫هّٔش ِٓ ػَ٘س رخٌّخثش‬ٚ ٓ١ٕ‫ٌش حػ‬ّٛ‫ حٌؼ‬ٌٟ‫ اؿّخ‬TOTAL COMMISSION OF TWO POINT
‫ف‬ٛ‫ ِفظ‬:ٍُ‫ػش حٌـخٔذ ٌٍّٔظ‬ّٛ‫ ِـ‬ٌٝ‫] ا‬%.....[ FIVE PERCENT [......%] TO

ْٛٔ‫ ؿخو‬ٟ‫ ر‬.ٞ‫ آ‬.ّ‫ ا‬ٞ‫ي ِخؿي‬١‫ِف‬ : ْٓ‫حال‬ Name Mufid Majdi S.I.P Jackson
ِ١ِٓٛ Moses n Receiver side

ٍ‫ آ‬ٞ‫اَ ى‬ : ‫حْٓ حُز٘ي‬ Bank Name mdr

Bank Address
: ‫حٕ حُز٘ي‬ٞ٘‫ػ‬
Account Number
: ‫ٍهْ حُلٔخد‬ Account Name

: Swift
‫حْٓ حُلٔخد‬ Bank Officer
: ‫لض‬٣ٞٓ Bank Officer
: ‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫ٓٔئ‬ Bank Officer Email
: ‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫خطق ٓٔئ‬ٛ Special Instructions:
Required Message: ALL TRANSFER

: ٢َٗٝ‫ي حالٌُظ‬٣َ‫حُز‬
‫ٍ حُز٘ي‬ٝ‫ُٔٔئ‬

: ‫ي‬٤‫حُٔٔظل‬

: ‫ش‬ٛ‫ٔخص هخ‬٤ِ‫طؼ‬
‫فش‬١‫حي ٔظ‬ِٛ٤‫ً" "ح‬٠ٛ‫ّخص حٌظل‬١ٍ‫غ طؼ‬١ّ‫ ؿ‬ٕٚ‫ط‬ : :‫رش‬ِٞ‫ٍٓخُش ٓط‬
‫خ‬ٙٔ‫أ‬ٚ ِٟ‫َ حؿَح‬١‫يٍ غ‬ِٜ ‫ًحص‬ٚ ‫لش‬ٟ‫ح‬ٚٚ
"ٍٛ‫ حٌف‬ٍٝ‫ِٔظلمش حٌٔيحى ٔميح ػ‬

:ٍُ‫خرش ػٓ حٌّٔظ‬١ٌٕ‫رخ‬ٚ ‫خٌق‬ٌٜ For and on behalf of the RECEIVER:

:ُ‫هظ‬ٚ ‫غ‬١‫ل‬ٛ‫ ط‬SIGNATURE AND STAMP:

--------------------------:‫حٓطش‬ٞ‫ر‬ By:
:ْٓ‫حال‬ Name:
:‫ذ‬ُٜ٘ٔ‫ح‬ Title:
َ‫حُ حُٔل‬ٞ‫ٍهْ ؿ‬ Passport #:
:ٍ‫يح‬ٛ‫ن حال‬٣ٍ‫طخ‬ Issue date:

:‫خء‬ٜ‫ن حالٗظ‬٣ٍ‫طخ‬ Expiry Date:

)‫ش‬١َٔٚ‫ٌىظ‬٨‫ػخثك ح‬ٌٛ‫(آٍخي ح‬ (ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT


‫ٔخ‬٤‫ٗخكٌس ك‬ٝ ‫ش‬٣ٍ‫) ٓخ‬EDT( ‫ش‬٤َٗٝ‫ػخثن حالٌُظ‬ُٞ‫خص آٍخٍ ح‬٤ِٔ‫ طؼظزَ ػ‬EDT (ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT
:‫ش‬٤‫ حالطلخه‬ٌٙٛ ٌٕٞ‫ ط‬،‫خء‬٠‫ كٔذ حالهظ‬.‫ٌح حُؼوي‬ٛ ّ‫ ٖٓ حكٌخ‬١‫ظؼِن رؤ‬٣ TRANSMISSIONS) SHALL BE DEEMED VALID

ٍ‫ٗٔظَح‬ٝ‫ٕ حأل‬ٞٗ‫ظطخرن ٓغ هخ‬٣ َ‫ٕ آه‬ٞٗ‫ هخ‬١‫ أ‬ٝ‫كي" أ‬ٞٓ ١ٍ‫ٕ طـخ‬ٞٗ‫“ "هخ‬NATIONAL COMMERCE ACT’’ OR SUCH

،)2001( ‫ش‬٤َٗٝ‫ؼخص حإلٌُظ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ ر٘ؤٕ حُظ‬٢ُٝ‫ حُي‬١ٍ‫ْ حُظـخ‬٤ٌ‫ ُِظل‬٢‫ًؿ‬ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ OTHER APPLICABLE LAW CONFORMING TO
ٞ٣‫ ٓخ‬،‫ق‬٤٘‫ ؿ‬،ECE/TRADE/257( ‫ش‬٤َٗٝ‫ش حُظـخٍس حالٌُظ‬٤‫حطلخه‬ٝ THE UNCITRAL MODEL LAW ON
ٍ‫حالػٔخ‬ٝ ١ٍ‫َ حُظـخ‬٤ٜٔ‫خ ًَِٓ حألْٓ حُٔظليس ُِظ‬َٛ‫ أه‬٢‫) حُظ‬2000 ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES (2001),
٠ُ‫ش ا‬٤َٗٝ‫ػخثن حالٌُظ‬ُٞ‫غ حٍٓخٍ ح‬٠‫و‬٣ .)UN/CEFACT( ‫ش‬٤َٗٝ‫حالٌُظ‬ ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AGREEMENT
.‫خء‬٠‫ كٔذ حالهظ‬،EEC/46/95 ْ‫ش ٍه‬٤‫ر‬ٍٝٝ‫ػش حأل‬ٞٔ‫خص حُٔـ‬ٜ٤‫ؿ‬ٞ‫ط‬ (ECE/TRADE/257, GENEVA, MAY 2000)
‫حٓطش‬ٞ‫وش َِٓٓش ر‬٤‫ػ‬ٝ ١‫ش ٖٓ أ‬٤‫ٍه‬ٝ ‫طِذ ٗٔوش‬٣ ٕ‫َف أ‬١ ١‫ُ أل‬ٞ‫ـ‬٣ ADOPTED BY THE UNITED NATIONS CENTRE
٠ُ‫َ ا‬٤‫ٌح حُوز‬ٛ ٖٓ ‫ِذ‬١ ١‫ أ‬١‫ئى‬٣ ‫طش أال‬٣َٗ ٌُٖ ،‫ش‬٤َٗٝ‫ٓخثَ حالٌُظ‬ُٞ‫ح‬ FOR TRADE FACILITATION AND
ٍ‫حص آٍخ‬ٝ‫ؿذ أى‬ٞٔ‫ْ ر‬ٜ‫حؿزخط‬ٝٝ ْٜ‫ أىحء حُظِحٓخط‬٢‫َحف ك‬١‫َ حأل‬٤‫طؤه‬ ELECTRONIC BUSINESS (UN/CEFACT). EDT
.‫ش‬٤َٗٝ‫ػخثن حالٌُظ‬ُٞ‫ح‬ DOCUMENTS SHALL BE SUBJECT TO

************‫وش‬٤‫ػ‬ُٞ‫ش ح‬٣‫خ‬ٜٗ********** ******* END OF DOCUMENT


‫ٍٍٓٔش ىٍ‪ِ ّٚ‬ـــف‪١‬يس ف‪ ٟ‬أٓخٓ‪١‬خص حٌظَؿّش‬
‫حٌيٍّ ح‪ٚ٨‬ي‬
‫ِميِش ػٓ حٌظَؿّٗ‬
‫لزً أْ طزيأ طظَؿُ‪ ،‬حػٍُ حه‪ ٟ‬حْ حٌّظَؿُ ٌٓ ‪٠‬ـي حٌؼٕخء ٌظَؿّظٗ ٌؼيَ ‪ٚ‬ػ‪١‬خحٌٕخّ رّخ ‪ٕٜ٠‬ؼٗ ًٌه حٌّظَؿُ ِٓ‬
‫رلغ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌّؼخؿُ ‪ٚ‬حٌم‪ٛ‬حِ‪ٚ ْ١‬ؿ‪ٙ‬ي ‪ٚ‬طؼذ ‪٠٦‬ـخى حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌّٕخٓذ‪ ،‬فٍ‪ٌ ْ١‬ه ا‪ ٨‬أْ ططٍذ ح‪٤‬ؿَ ِٓ هللا ػِ ‪ٚ‬ؿً‬
‫فم‪ ٨ٚ،٢‬طظٕظظَ ػٕخءح ً ِٓ أكي ا‪٩١‬لخ ً‪.‬‬
‫ِخ ٘‪ٛ ٟ‬فخص حٌّظَؿُ ؟حٔظَ اٌ‪ٔ ٝ‬فٔه ‪ٚ‬حٓؤٌ‪ٙ‬خ أ‪ٓ٤‬جٍش حٌظخٌ‪١‬ش‪:‬‬
‫ً٘ أٔخ ٍُِ رـّ‪١‬غ ل‪ٛ‬حػي حٌٍغظ‪ ٓ١‬حٌظ‪ ٟ‬أٔمً ِٕ‪ٙ‬خ ‪ٚ‬اٌ‪ٙ١‬خ؟ً٘ أٔخ ِطٍغ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ح‪٨‬هزخٍ ‪ٚ‬حٌؼمخفش ‪ٚ‬أٔخ ِٓ حٌمَحء‬
‫حٌٕ‪ٓ١١ّٙ‬؟ً٘ أٔخ ػخٌُ رؼمخفش حٌ٘ؼ‪ٛ‬د ح‪٤‬هَ‪ ٜ‬حٌظ‪ٓ ٟ‬ؤطَؿُ اٌ‪ٙ١‬خ؟ػ‪٩‬ػش أٓؤٌش اْ وخٔض حؿ‪ٛ‬رظه ػٍ‪ٙ١‬خ رٕؼُ ‪،‬‬
‫فٔ‪ٛ‬ف طى‪ِ ْٛ‬ظَؿّخ ً ِزيػخ ً‪.‬‬
‫ح‪ َِ٤‬حٌؼخٔ‪:ٟ‬‬
‫ِخًح ‪٠‬ـذ أْ طؼَفٗ ػٓ حٌٕ‪ٚ‬؟‬
‫ػٍ‪١‬ه ػٕيِخ طَغذ ف‪ ٟ‬طَؿّش ٔ‪ِ ٚ‬خ ٓ‪ٛ‬حءح ً وخْ ػَر‪١‬خ أَ حٔـٍ‪٠ِ١‬خ أْ طفىَ ‪ٚ‬طلًٍ‬
‫ِخ ٘‪ٛٔ ٛ‬ع حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬حٌٌ‪ ٞ‬طَ‪٠‬ي طَؿّظٗ ؟؟‬
‫(أ٘‪ ٚٔ ٛ‬ى‪١ٓ\ٟٕ٠‬خٓ‪\ٟ‬حؿظّخػ‪\ٟ‬حلظ‪ٜ‬خى‪\ٞ‬أىر‪ ٟ‬اٌ‪ ٝ‬أهَٖ )‬
‫‪ِ ْ٤‬ؼَفش ٔ‪ٛ‬ع حٌٕ‪٠ ٚ‬ئى‪ ٞ‬اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌظِحَ حٌّظَؿُ رزؼ‪ ٞ‬حٌم‪ٛ١‬ى‪،‬‬
‫فّؼ‪: ً٩‬‬
‫ٌ‪ ٛ‬وخْ حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬حٌٌ‪ ٞ‬طٕ‪ ٞٛ‬طَؿّظٗ ٔ‪ٜ‬ي‪ ،ٟٕ٠‬فٔ‪ٛ‬ف ‪٠‬ظ‪ٛ‬لغ ِٓ حٌّظَؿُ أْ ‪٠‬ظم‪١‬ي رزؼ‪ ٞ‬حٌىٍّخص حٌي‪١ٕ٠‬ش‬
‫حٌّٕخٓزشٌٍّ‪ٛ‬لف ‪٘ٚ‬ىٌح‪.‬‬
‫ألَأ حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬وخِ‪ٚ ً٩‬حٔظَ ِخًح ‪٠َ٠‬ي حٌّئٌف حٍٓخٌٗ ِٓ ِؼٕ‪ٝ‬؟ ٌى‪ ٟ‬طم‪ َٛ‬أٔض وّظَؿُ رظمّ‪ٗ ٚ‬و‪١ٜ‬ش ‪ٚ‬طٕمً‬
‫أكخٓ‪ِ٘ٚ ٗٔ١‬خػَٖ ‪٠ ٛ٘ٚ‬ىظذ ِمخٌظٗ‬
‫ٌ‪ٚ ٛ‬ؿيص ٌ٘ح حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬رخٌٍغش ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ‪ٚ‬طَ‪٠‬ي طَؿّظٗ رخٌٍغش حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‪:‬‬
‫‪John is constantly throwing his books on my bed‬‬
‫لي ‪٠‬ظَؿُ حٌّظَؿُ ٌٖ٘ حٌـٍّش ‪ َِٟ٠ :‬ؿ‪ ْٛ‬وظزٗ رظىَحٍ ػٍ‪ٕ٘ --------َٞ٠َٓ ٝ‬خ أهطؤ حٌّظَؿُ هطؤ فخىكخ ً‪---‬‬
‫‪ٕ٠ ٌُ ٗٔ٤‬مً ِ٘خػَ حٌىخطذ ح‪ ،ٌٍٕٚ ٍٟٛ٤‬ك‪١‬ؼؤْ حٌىخطذ ًوَ‪constantly‬ف‪ ٟ‬ؿٍّظٗ ِغ ِ‪٠‬خٍع ِٔظَّ‪،‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬حٌظ‪ ٟ‬طؼٕ‪ ٟ‬أٔٗ ف‪١‬لخٌش غ‪٠‬ذ وز‪َ١‬س ؿيح ً‪.‬‬
‫‪---------‬فظى‪ ْٛ‬حٌظَؿّش حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬لش ‪:-------------‬‬
‫ٌّخ ‪ َِٟ٠‬ؿ‪ ْٛ‬وظزٗ ىحثّخ ػٍ‪ٕ٘.َٞ٠َٓ ٝ‬خ ٔمً حٌّظَؿُ أكخٓ‪ ْ١‬حٌىخطذ ح‪ ، ٍٟٛ٤‬كظ‪٠ ٝ‬ظز‪ٌٍ ٓ١‬مخٍ‪ٞ‬ء حٌؼَر‪ٟ‬‬
‫أْ حٌّظليع ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪ ِٞ١‬غخ‪ٟ‬ذ‪،‬‬
‫فظَ‪ٚ‬ف وـ‪always, forever, constantly‬اْ أطض ِغ ِ‪٠‬خٍع ِٔظَّ ف‪ ٟٙ‬طيي ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أْ حٌىخطذ غ‪٠‬زخ ً‪.‬‬

‫ح‪ َِ٤‬حٌؼخٌغ‪:‬‬
‫ٌ‪ ْ١‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّظَؿُ أْ ‪٠‬ل‪ َٖٜ‬حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬ػٍ‪ِ ٝ‬خ ‪٠َ٠‬ي‪ ،‬ػٍ‪ ٗ١‬أْ ‪ٕ٠‬م‪ٌّ٩‬ؼٕ‪ ٝ‬فم‪ ٨ ٢‬ألً ‪ ٨ٚ‬أوؼَ‪ ،‬اْ أٍىص أْ طظَؿُ‬
‫‪ ،‬فظَؿُ حٌّؼٕ‪ٔ٠ ٌٓٚ ٝ‬ظط‪١‬غ أكي حْ ‪ٕ٠‬ظمين‪ .‬فٍ‪ٍ ٛ‬أ‪٠‬ظُ و‪١‬ف طَؿّض "ٌّخ ‪ َِٟ٠‬ؿ‪ ْٛ‬وظزٗ ىحثّخ ػٍ‪"َٞ٠َٓ ٝ‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬و‪١‬ف أٔ‪ٟٚ ٟ‬ؼض ٌ‪ٙ‬خ وٍّش حٓظف‪ٙ‬خَ ِغ أْ حٌـٍّش ح‪ ٨ ًٛ٤‬طل‪ ٞٛ‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ػ‪ِ٩‬شحٓظف‪ٙ‬خَ‪ٌٚ ،‬ىٓ فم‪٤ ٢‬ل‪ َٛ‬رٕمً‬
‫حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬ػٍ‪ٚ ٝ‬ؿٗ حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق ِظمّ‪ٜ‬خ ِ٘خػَ حٌىخطذ‪.‬‬
‫ح‪ َِ٤‬حٌَحرغ‪:‬‬
‫اْ لّض رظَؿّش حٌٕ‪ ،ٚ‬فؼٍ‪١‬ه أْ طمَأ طَؿّظه ‪ٚ‬حٓؤي ٔفٔه ح‪ٓ٤‬جٍش حٌظخٌ‪١‬ش‪:‬‬
‫ً٘ حٌّؼٕ‪ٚ ٝ‬ح‪ٟ‬ق ‪٠َٛٚ‬ق؟ً٘ ِ٘خػَ حٌىخطذ ح‪ٚ ٍٟٛ٤‬ح‪ٟ‬لٗ ‪ٚ‬ر‪ٕٗ١‬؟ً٘ حٌمخٍ‪ٞ‬ء حٌؼَر‪ َٜ٠ ٟ‬حٌٕ‪ٚ ٚ‬وؤٔٗ‬
‫غ‪ِ َ١‬ظَؿُ؟ (حكٌٍ أه‪ ٟ‬اْ ٍأ‪ ٜ‬حٌمخٍ‪ٞ‬ءحٌؼَر‪ٜٔ ٟ‬ه حٌّظَؿُ ‪ٚ‬أكْ أٔٗ ِظَؿُ ٌ‪ ْ١‬ػَر‪١‬خ ً ح‪ ،ًًٛ٤‬فِّق‬
‫‪ٍٚ‬لظه‪ٚ .‬لّزبػخىط‪ٙ‬خ رٕٔك ‪ٔ٠ ٨‬ظط‪١‬غ حٌمخٍ‪ٞ‬ء حٌؼَر‪ ٟ‬أْ ‪ ٚٔ ٛ٘ ً٘ ِ١ّ٠‬ػَر‪ ٟ‬أَ أؿٕز‪ٓٚ،ٟ‬ظى‪ٔ ْٛ‬خؿلخ ً)‬
‫ح‪ َِ٤‬حٌوخِْ‪:‬‬
‫ً٘ ٌي‪٠‬ه لخِ‪ ّٛ‬ف‪ ٟ‬ػيس ِـخ‪٨‬ص‪ِ :‬ؼً لخِ‪ٌٍّٜ ّٛ‬طٍلخص ح‪٤‬لظ‪ٜ‬خى‪٠‬ش‪١ٌٍٔٚ ،‬خٓ‪١‬ش ‪ٚ‬حٌ‪٥‬ىر‪١‬ش ‪ٌٍٚ‬ؼخِ‪١‬ش‬
‫‪ٌٚ‬غ‪َ٘١‬خ‪ٌ٘ٚ .‬ح لي ‪ ٍَِ٠ ٨‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّظَؿُ ك‪١‬غ ٓظ‪ٛ‬فَ ٌٗ حٌ٘زىش حٌؼٕىز‪ٛ‬ط‪ ٗ١‬حٌَّحىف حٌّٕخٓذ ر‪ ٩‬طؼذ‪.‬‬
‫حٌيٍّ حٌؼخٔ‪ٟ‬‬
‫‪٠‬ؼَف ٔ‪ِٛ١‬خٍن حٌظَؿّش رؤٔ‪ٙ‬خ "ِلخ‪ٌٚ‬ش اك‪٩‬ي ٍٓخٌش ِىظ‪ٛ‬رش رٍغش ‪ ٨‬طف‪ ُٙ‬اٌ‪ٍٓ ٝ‬خٌش طف‪ ُٙ‬رٍغش أهَ‪"ٜ‬‬
‫ٌى‪ ٟ‬طزيأ طَؿّظه ػٍ‪١‬ه أْ طؼ‪ ٟ‬أٔٗ ٓ‪١‬ى‪ ْٛ‬ر‪٠ ٓ١‬ي‪٠‬ه ٔ‪: ٓ١ٜ‬‬
‫حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬ح‪ٚ٤‬ي‪ ٛ٘ٚ :‬حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬ح‪source textًٛ٤‬‬
‫حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬حٌؼخٔ‪ ٛ٘ٚ :ٟ‬حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬حٌّظَؿُ‪Target text‬‬
‫ف‪ ٟ‬حٌزيح‪٠‬ش‪:‬‬
‫ػٍ‪١‬ه أه‪ ٟ‬حٌّظَؿُ أْ طٕظَ اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬حٌٌ‪ ٞ‬ر‪٠ ٓ١‬ي‪٠‬ه ػُ ل ُُ رمَحءطٗ ٌٍَّس ح‪ًٌٚ ٌٝٚ٤‬ه ٌى‪ ٟ‬طؼ‪ ٟ‬حٌفىَس حٌؼخِش‬
‫ٌٍٕ‪ِ ٟ٘ ً٘ ،ٚ‬ئ‪٠‬يس ٌفىَسِخ أَ ِؼخٍ‪ٟ‬ش ‪٘ٚ‬ىٌح‪....‬‬
‫ح‪ َِ٤‬حٌؼخٔ‪: ٟ‬‬
‫ػٍ‪١‬ه أ‪٠٠‬خ ً أْ طمَأ حٌٕ‪ ِٓ ٚ‬ؿي‪٠‬ي لَحءس حٍٓ‪ٛ‬د ‪ٚ‬حكٔخّ‪ِ ،‬خ ٘‪ِٛ ٛ‬لف حٌىخطذ ‪ٚ‬حكخٓ‪ ٗٔ١‬ك‪ ٓ١‬وخْ ‪٠‬ىظذ‬
‫ٌ٘ح حٌٕ‪.ٚ‬‬
‫ح‪ َِ٤‬حٌؼخٌغ ‪:‬‬
‫٘‪ ٟ‬لَحءس حٌّ‪ٜ‬طٍلخص حٌّ‪ٟٛٛ‬ػش ‪ٚ‬حٌٕظَ اٌ‪َِ ٝ‬حىفخط‪ٙ‬خ رخٌٍغشح‪٦‬هَ‪ٌ ٜ‬ظى‪ِ ٚٔ" ْٛ‬ظَؿُ" فّؼ‪ ً٩‬ؿٍّش‬
‫ِىظ‪ٛ‬رش رخٌٍغش ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش‬
‫‪I thought he would investigate the matter himself‬‬
‫فبْ ف‪ ٌٖ٘ ٟ‬حٌـٍّش ٓ‪١‬ؼٍُ حٌّظَؿُ أٗ فم‪ ٢‬ف‪ ٟ‬كخؿش ٌّؼَفش حٌّ‪ٜ‬طٍلخص حٌظ‪١‬مي طغ‪١‬ذ ػٓ ًٕ٘ٗ‪،‬‬
‫ِؼً ‪ِٚ investigate :‬ؼً ‪ٚ the matter‬لي ‪٠‬ظـخً٘ ‪ٌ himself ٚ thought‬ف‪ٌٙ ّٗٙ‬خ فٔ‪١‬ـي أْ طَؿّظٗ‬
‫حٌزخٍػٗ ٘‪١‬ؤػظميص رؤٔٗ ٓ‪١‬ظلمك ِٓ ح‪ َِ٤‬رٕفٔٗ‪.‬‬
‫ٍحرغ ح‪:َِ٤‬‬
‫حػٍُ أه‪ ٟ‬أْ حٌظَؿّش ِٓ أ‪ٛ‬ؼذ حٌّ‪ٙ‬خَ‪ ،‬فٍ‪ٚ ٛ‬ؿيص ؿٍّش ِؼ‪ ً٩‬أ‪٠ ً٠ٛ١ ٚٔٚ‬لظ‪ ٞٛ‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬وٍّخص وؼ‪َ١‬س لي ‪٨‬‬
‫طـي َِحىفخط‪ٙ‬خ ٓظمف ػٕي٘خ ر‪٩ٓ ٩‬ف‪ٌٚ،‬ىٓ ٌ‪ ٛ‬وخْ ٌي‪٠‬ه لخِ‪ ّٛ‬ػٕخث‪ ٟ‬حٌٍغش ٌىخْ ٓ‪ ًٙ‬ػٍ‪١‬ه حٌّ‪ّٙ‬ش ‪ٌٚ‬ىٓ‬
‫ٌ‪ًٌ ْ١‬ه حٌظٔ‪ ً١ٙ‬فيػٕ‪ ٟ‬أ‪ٟٚ‬ق ٌه ٌ٘ح ح‪ َِ٤‬ف‪ٌ٘ ٟ‬ح حٌّؼخي‪:‬‬
:ٌٟ‫ حٌظخ‬ٌٕٚ‫ش ح‬٠ِ١ٍ‫ٔـ‬٦‫ حٌٍغش ح‬ٟ‫خىفض ف‬ٛ ٌٛ

The teacher asked the student to draw a (right) angle, but insisted that the
student draw it withhis (right) hand while the student was left-handed. Of course
he didn't draw it (right) and the teacher gave him low marks. (Right away) the
student went to the headmaster and complained that it was his (right) to draw
with whichever hand he like. The headmaster who was an upright man agreed
that he was (right) and that the teacher didn't treat him (right) and ordered the
teacher to (right) the student's marks.

ٕٝ‫خ ِؼ‬ٌٙ ‫ فىَس وً وٍّش‬ٍٝ‫ػ‬ٚ , ً ‫زخ‬٠َ‫خ طىٍَص ػّخْ َِحص طم‬ٙٔ‫ ا‬،right‫ وُ طىٍَص وٍّش‬،ٌٕٚ‫ ٌ٘ح ح‬ٟ‫أظَ ف‬
ْٛ‫ّ ٓظى‬ِٛ‫ حٌمخ‬ٟ‫ف‬rightٟٔ‫خق حٌـٍّش فّؼخ‬١ٓ ‫ كٔذ‬ٍٝ‫خ ػ‬ّٙ‫ظَؿ‬٠ ٟ‫َ حٌّظَؿُ ٌى‬ٜ‫ل‬١‫ ف‬،َ‫ه‬٢‫ي ػٓ ح‬١‫رؼ‬
ْٛ‫ى‬١ٓٚ ‫٘ىٌح‬ٚ .‫ كك‬ٍٝ‫ ػ‬،‫لق‬ٜ٠ ،‫ رّؼخٍِش ػخىٌش‬،‫ كك‬،ٍٛ‫ حٌف‬ٍٝ‫ ػ‬،‫ي‬١‫ ر٘ىً ؿ‬،ٓ١ّ٠ ،‫ لخثّش‬:ً٩‫ِؼ‬
:ٍٟ٠ ‫ حٌٔخرك ًوَٖ وّخ‬ٌٕٚ‫طَؿّشح‬
ِٓ ُ‫ حٌَغ‬ٍٝ‫) ػ‬ّٕٝ١ٌ‫يٖ (ح‬١‫خر‬َّٙٓ٠ ْ‫ حٌطخٌذ أ‬ٍٝ‫َ ػ‬ٛ‫ٌىٕٗ ح‬ٚ ،)‫ش (لخثّش‬٠ٚ‫َُٓ ُح‬٠ ْ‫ٓؤي حٌّؼٍُ حٌطخٌذ أ‬
)ٍٛ‫ حٌف‬ٍٝ‫ػ‬ٚ( .‫ش‬٠‫ي) فؤػطخٖ حٌّؼٍُ ىٍؿش ِٕوف‬١‫خ (ر٘ىً ؿ‬َّٙٓ‫غ حٌطخٌز‬١‫ٔظط‬٠ ٌُ ،‫رخٌطزغ‬ٚ .َٔ‫أْ حٌطخٌذ أػ‬
‫ أْ حٌطخٌذ‬ٍٝ‫ً ػ‬٨‫ وخٔؼخى‬ٌٌٞ‫َ ح‬٠‫حفك حٌّي‬ٛ‫ ف‬.‫ي ٗخء‬٠ ٞ‫َُٓ رؤ‬٠ ْ‫ رؤْ (ِٓ كمٗ) أ‬ٟ‫٘ظى‬١ٌ َ٠‫ً٘ذ حٌطخٌذ اٌىخٌّي‬
. ‫لق) ىٍؿخص حٌطخٌذ‬ٜ٠( ْ‫ؼخٍِٗ (رّؼخٍِش ػخىٌش) فؤَِحٌّؼٍُ أ‬٠ ٌُ ٍُ‫أْ حٌّؼ‬ٚ )‫ كك‬ٍٝ‫(ػ‬
.‫ ٘يف‬٩‫ حٌّظَحوّش ر‬ٟٔ‫ حٌّؼخ‬ٍٝ‫ ػ‬٨ ‫خق‬١ٌٔ‫ ح‬ٍٝ‫ف أْ حٌظَؿّش طؼظّي ػ‬١‫ و‬ٟ‫ْ أه‬٢‫ً٘ ػٍّض ح‬
:َِ٤‫هخِْ ح‬
ِٓ ً١ٍ‫(حٌم‬ٚ ٓ١‫ حٌٍغظ‬٩‫ و‬ٟ‫ُ ف‬ٙ‫ رؤّٓخث‬ٟ‫ه أٔظؼ‬١ٍ‫ػٍّخء ٌٌح ػ‬ٚ َ١٘‫ّ أّٓخء ِ٘خ‬ِٛ‫ لخ‬ٞ‫ أ‬ٟ‫خٔخ ٌٓ طـي ف‬١‫أك‬
:‫ ًٌه‬ٍٝ‫ق ًٌه) ِؼخي ػ‬ٟٛ‫حٌّؼخؿُ ط‬
ً١‫ لخر‬ٟٕ‫ؼ‬٠ ٌٌٞ‫ح‬Cain
‫ى‬ٚٚ‫ ىح‬ٟٕ‫ؼ‬٠ ٌٌٞ‫ح‬David
‫حء‬ٛ‫ ك‬ٟٕ‫ طؼ‬ٟ‫حٌظ‬Eve
.َ٩ٌٔ‫ُ ح‬ٙ١ٍ‫ٓف ػ‬ٛ٠ ٟٕ‫ؼ‬٠ ٌٌٞ‫ح‬Joseph
‫ن‬ٍِٛٚ‫ رً حّٓخء ػٍّخء‬،‫خء‬١‫ٔز‬٤‫ أّٓخء ح‬٢‫ْ فم‬١ٌٚ
‫ حرٓ ٍٗي‬ٟٕ‫ؼ‬٠Averroes
‫ٕخ‬١ٓ ٓ‫ حر‬ٟٕ‫ؼ‬٠Avicenna
ٚ ُ‫ؼ‬١ٌٙ‫ حرٓ ح‬ٟٕ‫ػ‬Alhazen
ٚ َٜ١‫ل‬Caesar
َٜٔ ٌ‫ه‬ٛ‫ ٔز‬ٛ٘ ٌٌٞ‫ح‬Nebuchadnezzar
‫ي‬ٚ‫حّٓخء حٌي‬ٚ
‫‪ٚ‬حّٓخء حٌف‪ٓ٩‬فش‬
‫حّٓخء ى‪ٚ‬ي ‪ ٨‬طؼٍُ ٌّخ ط٘‪ َ١‬اٌ‪ِ ٗ١‬ؼً‪:‬‬
‫‪Casa Blanca‬حٌيحٍ حٌز‪٠١‬خء‬
‫‪ َٙٔTigris‬حٌفَحص‬
‫‪ Jericho ٚ‬حٌظ‪ ٟ‬طؼٕ‪ ٟ‬أٍ‪٠‬لخ‬
‫‪Hebron‬حٌظ‪ ٟ‬طؼٕ‪ ٟ‬حٌوٍ‪ً١‬‬
‫‪ Acre ٚ‬رّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬ػىخ‬
‫‪ٚ‬حٌىؼ‪ َ١‬حٌٌ‪ٔ٠ ٨ ٞ‬ؼٕ‪ ٟ‬أْ أًوَ٘خ ٕ٘خ ٓخىّ ح‪:َِ٤‬‬

‫أك‪١‬خٔخ طـي ‪ٛ‬ؼ‪ٛ‬رش ف‪ ٟ‬طَؿّش ح‪٤‬ل‪ٛ‬حي رخٌٍغش ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش‪ ،‬ف‪١‬ؤط‪ ٟ‬ل‪ٛ‬ي رخٌٍغش ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ‪٠‬م‪ٛ‬ي‬
‫‪ٚDiamond cut diamond‬حٌٌ‪٠ ٞ‬ؼٕ‪ٟ‬‬
‫"ح‪ٌّ٤‬خّ ‪٠‬مطغ ح‪ٌّ٤‬خّ"‬
‫فٍ‪ ٛ‬طَوظ‪ٙ‬خ ٘ىٌحٌّخ ف‪ ُٙ‬حٌمخٍ‪ٞ‬ء حٌؼَر‪ِ ٟ‬خ طم‪ٜ‬ي ‪ٌٚ‬ىٓ ح‪٤‬ف‪ ً٠‬أْ طؤط‪ ٟ‬رخٌّؼً حٌَّحىف ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٍغش حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪ٚ‬حٌٌ‪ٞ‬‬
‫‪٠‬لًّ ِؼخٔ‪ ٟ‬حٌّؼً ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪ ِٞ١‬ف‪١‬ى‪ ْٛ‬حٌّٕخٓذ ٘‪ٛ‬‬
‫"‪٠ ٨‬فً حٌلي‪٠‬ي ا‪ ٨‬حٌلي‪٠‬ي "‬
‫ٓخرغ ح‪:َِ٤‬‬
‫‪٠‬خ أه‪ ٟ‬حٌّظؼٍُ‪٠ ٨ ،‬ظؼذ حٌّظَؿُ ا‪ ٨‬حٌّ‪ٜ‬طٍلخص ‪ idioms‬ك‪١‬غ ٘‪ ٟ‬وٍّخص وؼ‪َ١‬س ‪ٌٙٚ‬خ ِؼٕ‪ٚ ٝ‬ك‪١‬ي فٍ‪ً ٛ‬وَ ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫حٌٍظَؿّش ٌٖ٘ حٌـٍّش‬
‫‪It is raining cats and dogs‬‬
‫فٔ‪١‬م‪ َٛ‬حٌّظَؿُ حٌٔ‪ٟ‬ء رظَؿّظ‪ٙ‬خ "طّطَ حٌّٔخء لططخ ً ‪ٚ‬و‪٩‬رخً" ‪ٌٚ‬ىٓ حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬أوزَ ِٓ ٌ٘ح ‪٠‬خ ِظَؿّفخٌّؼٕ‪ٝ‬‬
‫حٌَّحى ِٓ ‪ٍٚ‬حء ٌ٘ح أْ حٌّٔخء طّطَ رغِحٍس فظى‪ ْٛ‬حٌظَؿّش حٌّٕخٓزش ٘‪ٟ‬‬
‫"طّطَ حٌّٔخء رغِحٍس"‬
‫ِؼخي أهَ‪:‬‬
‫لي ‪٠‬ـي حٌّظَؿُ ‪٠ٚ He is cool as cucumber‬م‪ َٛ‬رظَؿّظ‪ٙ‬خ‬
‫"أٗ ٘خى‪ٞ‬ء وخٌو‪١‬خٍ" ‪ٕ٘ٚ‬خ أهطؤ هطؤ فخىكخ ً اً حْ حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬أٔٗ ٘خى‪ٞ‬ء طّخِخ ً فظى‪ٔٛ‬خٌظَؿّشأٗ ٘خى‪ٞ‬ء طّخِخً‪٨ٚ‬‬
‫طٕٔ‪ٛ‬ح أْ حٌّم‪ٜٛ‬ى ٕ٘خ حٌّؼٕ‪َِ ْ١ٌٚ ٝ‬حىفخص حٌىٍّخص‪ ،‬ف‪ ٩‬طظٔخثٍ‪ٛ‬ح ٌّخًح ٌُ ‪ٌ٠‬وَ ‪ cucumber‬حٌو‪١‬خٍ‬
‫حٌيٍ ّ حٌؼخٌغ‬

‫‪ِ٠ ٨‬حي ٕ٘خن ِ٘ىٍش ط‪ َُ٩‬وؼ‪ ِٓ َ١‬حٌّظَؿّ‪ِ٘ ٟ٘ٚ ٓ١‬ىٍش ‪Collocation‬‬

‫رّؼٕ‪ِ" ٝ‬ظ‪ُِ٩‬خص ٌفظ‪١‬ش"‬
‫فزيي ِٓ أْ طظَؿُ\ ‪Muteb draw his sword‬‬

‫ف‪١‬م‪ َٛ‬حٌّظَؿُ حٌّزظي‪ٞ‬ء رظَؿّش كَف‪ٔٙ١‬لذ ِظؼذ ٓ‪١‬ف‪ ٌٛٛٙ‬لخي ِخ ‪ٌ ٍٟ٠‬ىخْ أف‪ٓ٩٠‬ظً ِظؼذ ٓ‪١‬ف‪ٕٙٙ‬خن‬
‫وٍّخص وؼ‪َ١‬س ‪ٚ‬هٌ ِٕ‪ٙ‬خ‪Hard labour‬لي طظَؿُ اٌ‪ ٝ‬أػّخي ٗخلش (‪ٚ‬ح‪٤‬ف‪ :ً٠‬حػّخي ِ‪١ٕ٠‬ش)‬
‫‪Smashing Victory‬أظ‪ٜ‬خٍ ٓخكك ‪ٓFast sleep‬زخص ػّ‪١‬ك‪ ٓٔ٠Pass a law‬لخٔ‪ٔٛ‬خ ً ‪Seize the‬‬
‫‪ٕ٠opportunity‬ظ‪ ِٙ‬حٌفَ‪ٛ‬ش‪A sigh of relief‬طٕفْ حٌ‪ٜ‬ؼيحء ‪ٓThe hour of decision‬خػش‬
‫حٌلّٔ‪٘ٛ‬ىٌح‪ ،‬فؼٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّظَؿُ حٌّزظي‪ٞ‬ء أْ ‪٠‬ؼمً ًٌه ‪ ،‬ف‪٠ ٩‬ظَؿُ ِخ ‪ٍٟ٠‬‬
‫‪He is with us heart and soul‬‬
‫رـ‪ِ ٛٙ‬ؼٕخ لٍزخ ً ‪ٍٚٚ‬كخًفؼٍ‪ ٗ١‬أْ ‪٠‬م‪ِ ٌٛٙٛ‬ؼٕخ لٍزخ ً ‪ٚ‬لخٌزخً‪ٌ٘ ْ٤‬ح ‪٠‬ظّخٗ‪ِ ٝ‬غ حٌٍغش حٌؼَر‪١‬ش أف‪ ِٓ ً٠‬حٌٔخرك‬
‫أ‪ ٚ‬ريي ِٓ طَؿّش ِخ ‪He hit his child by surpriseٍٟ٠‬‬
‫فٔ‪١‬ظَؿّ‪ٙ‬خ حٌّظَؿُ حٌّزظي‪ٞ‬ء وّخ ‪َ٠١ٍ٠‬د أهؤٖ فـؤس‪ٌٚ‬ىخْ أف‪ ٌٛ ً٠‬أٔٗ لخي‪:‬‬
‫‪َٟ‬د أهخٖ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ك‪ ٓ١‬غَس‪.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬حهظُ حٌّ٘ىٍش ح‪ ٌٝٚ٤‬ر‪ ٌٖٙ‬حٌطَفش حٌظ‪ ٟ‬لي ‪٠‬مغ ف‪ٙ١‬خ حٌّظَؿُ ٌ‪ٍ١ ٛ‬زٕخ ِٓ حٌّظَؿُ حْ ‪٠‬ظَؿُ ِخ ‪ ٍٟ٠‬دمحم ك‪ٟ‬‬
‫ٓ‪١‬م‪ َٛ‬حٌّظَؿُ حٌّزظي‪ٞ‬ء رظ‪ ٍٛٙ‬رخٌظَؿّش حٌظخٌ‪١‬ش‪Muhammad is alive and receives blessings‬‬
‫‪َ٠ ٌُٚ‬حػ‪ ٟ‬ف‪ٙ١‬خ ػمخفش حٌ٘و‪ ٚ‬ح‪٢‬هَ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٍغش ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش‪٠ ٌُٚ ،‬ف‪ ُٙ‬حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬أ‪ ً٘ ،ً٩ٛ‬حٌىخطذ ٕ٘خ ‪٠‬م‪ٜ‬ي أْ دمحم‬
‫ف‪َِ ٟ‬س ِٓ حٌَّحص ٌُ ‪٠‬ىٓ ‪َُ٠‬ق ف‪ٙ١‬خ‪ ،‬أ‪ّٕ٠‬غ هللا ػٕٗ حٌَُق‪ٍٚ ٨ ،‬ر‪ٌٚ .ٟ‬ىٓ حٌىخطذ ٕ٘خ ‪٠‬م‪ٜ‬ي أْ ‪٠‬ئوي أٔٗ‬
‫ك‪،ٟ‬فؼمخفش حٌ٘و‪ ٚ‬ح‪٢‬هَ لي ‪٠‬ـي غَحرش ف‪ِ ٟ‬ؼٕ‪ ٌٖ٘ ٝ‬حٌـٍّش ‪ ٌٛٚ‬أٔٗ لخي ٌٗ‬
‫‪Muhammad is‬‬
‫‪alive and kicking‬‬
‫ٌف‪ ُٙ‬حٔٗ ‪٠َ٠‬ي طؤو‪١‬ي أْ دمحم ك‪١‬خٔظَ ٌٍّظ‪ُِ٩‬خص حٌظخٌ‪١‬شٓ‪ ً١‬ػخٍَ‪ ،‬ؿّغ غف‪ٛ ،َ١‬ي‪٠‬ك كّ‪ ،ُ١‬فً٘ ًٍ‪٠‬غ‪ ،‬آًحْ‬
‫‪ٛ‬خغ‪١‬ش‪ ،‬ؿزخي ٗخ٘مش‪ٍ ،‬ىِفلُ‪ ،‬ؿ‪ ٖ١‬ػَََِ‪ ،‬كَد ‪ ،َّٟٚ‬ػي‪ٌ ٚ‬ي‪ٚ‬ى ‪ ،‬أكَّ لخْ‪ ،‬ح‪ٛ‬فَ فخلغ‪ ،‬أر‪ٞ١‬‬
‫ٔخ‪ٛ‬غ‪،‬أه‪٠ َ٠‬خٔؼؤطّٕ‪ ٝ‬أٔه ف‪ّٙ‬ض ِم‪ٜ‬ي‪ٙ٠‬يف‪ ِٓ ٟ‬حٌّ٘ىٍش ح‪ ٌٝٚ٤‬حْ ‪٠‬ف‪ ُٙ‬حٌّظَؿُ ‪ٕ٠ٚ‬ظم‪ ٟ‬رؼ‪ ٞ‬ح‪ٌ٤‬فخظ‬
‫حٌّٕخٓزش ٌىً ٌغش ‪.‬‬

‫أهطخء ٗخثؼش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظَؿّش حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‬
‫إ حُظَؿٔش ك‪٣ ٖ٤‬ظ‪ ٠ُٞ‬أَٓ‪ٛ‬خ ٖٓ ُ‪ ْ٤‬أ‪ٛ‬ال ُ‪ٜ‬خ‪ ،‬كبٗ‪ٜ‬خ طـَ ك‪ ٢‬أً‪٣‬خُ‪ٜ‬خ آػخٍح ِٓز‪٤‬ش ال طوطج‪ٜ‬خ حُؼ‪ ٖ٤‬حُٔز‪َٜ‬س‪.‬‬
‫‪ٗٝ‬لٖ ‪٘ٛ‬خ ر‪ٜ‬يى ًًَ أٓؼِش ػِ‪ٓ ٠‬خ طليػ‪ ٚ‬حُظَؿٔش حُٔظؼـِش حُٔ‪٤‬جش ٖٓ آػخٍ ِٓز‪٤‬ش ػِ‪ ٠‬أٓخُ‪٤‬ذ حٌُظخرش حُؼَر‪٤‬ش‪،‬‬
‫‪ٞ٤ٗٝ‬ع أُلخظ ك‪ ٢‬حُِـش ُ‪ٔ٤‬ض ٖٓ ‪١‬ز‪٤‬ؼظ‪ٜ‬خ‪ًُٝ ،‬ي ٓٔخ ‪َ٣‬ى ًؼ‪َ٤‬ح ك‪ ٢‬حُ‪ٜ‬لخكش حُؼَر‪٤‬ش ‪ٝ‬حإلًحػظ‪ ٖ٤‬حُٔٔٔ‪ٞ‬ػش‬
‫‪ٝ‬حَُٔث‪٤‬ش‪ًُ ٖٓ .‬ي ٓؼال‪:‬‬
‫أ‪ٝ‬ال‪ :‬ا‪ٟ‬خكش أًؼَ ٖٓ ٓ‪٠‬خف اُ‪٠ٓ ٠‬خف اُ‪ٝ ٚ٤‬حكي‪ً .‬خُو‪ " :ٍٞ‬حكظيحّ ‪ٝ‬حٗظيحى حُوظخٍ "‪ٝ .‬حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد ك‪ًُ ٢‬ي‪" :‬‬
‫حكظيحّ حُوظخٍ ‪ٝ‬حٗظيحى‪ٌٛٝ ،" ٙ‬ح ‪٣‬ؼ٘‪ ٢‬ا‪ٟ‬خكش ٓ‪٠‬خف ‪ٝ‬حكي اُ‪ ٠‬حُٔ‪٠‬خف اُ‪ٝ ،ٚ٤‬ا‪ٟ‬خكش حُٔ‪٠‬خف ح‪٥‬هَ اُ‪٠‬‬
‫‪٣ َ٤ٟٔ‬ؼ‪ٞ‬ى ػِ‪ ٠‬حُٔ‪٠‬خف اُ‪ ٚ٤‬حأل‪.ٍٝ‬‬

‫ػخٗ‪٤‬خ‪ :‬طؤه‪ َ٤‬حُلخػَ ‪ٝ‬طوي‪ َٙ٤ٟٔ ْ٣‬ػِ‪ً .ٚ٤‬خُو‪ " :ٍٞ‬ك‪ ٢‬ط‪٣َٜ‬ق ُ‪ ٚ‬ػٖ حألك‪ٞ‬حٍ حألٓ٘‪٤‬ش ك‪ ٢‬حُوِ‪٤‬ؾ‪ ،‬هخٍ ‪َ٣ُٝ‬‬
‫حُيكخع حألَٓ‪ٝ ." ... ٢ٌ٣‬حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد ك‪ٓ ٢‬ؼَ ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حُلخُش إٔ ‪٣‬وخٍ‪ " :‬هخٍ ‪ َ٣ُٝ‬حُيكخع حألَٓ‪ ٢ٌ٣‬ك‪ ٢‬ط‪٣َٜ‬ق ُ‪ٚ‬‬
‫ػٖ حألك‪ٞ‬حٍ حألٓ٘‪٤‬ش ك‪ ٢‬حُوِ‪٤‬ؾ إ ‪." ...‬‬

‫ػخُؼخ‪ :‬ؿٔغ ػيى ٖٓ حألٓٔخء حُٔؼط‪ٞ‬كش ك‪ ٢‬ؿِٔش ‪ٝ‬حكيس‪ًُٝ ،‬ي ى‪ ٕٝ‬إٔ ‪٣‬ظزغ ًال ٓ٘‪ٜ‬خ رلَف حُؼطق " ‪،" ٝ‬‬
‫ًخُو‪ًٛ " :ٍٞ‬ذ أكٔي اُ‪ ٠‬حٌُٔظزش ‪ٝ‬حٗظَ‪ً ٟ‬ظزخ‪ ،‬أهالٓخ‪ٍٞٛ ،‬ح‪ ،‬ىكخطَ "! ‪ٌٛٝ‬ح أِٓ‪ٞ‬د ال ‪ٜ٣‬ق حألهٌ ر‪ ٚ‬ك‪٢‬‬
‫حُؼَر‪٤‬ش ُٔخ ك‪ ٖٓ ٢‬كـخؿش ‪ٝ‬ػـٔش‪ ،‬كظ‪ ُٞٝ ٠‬أهٌص ر‪ُ ٚ‬ـش أهَ‪ً ٟ‬خإلٗـِ‪٣ِ٤‬ش‪ .‬إً كخُ‪ٜٞ‬حد ك‪ ٢‬حُٔؼخٍ‬
‫حُٔخرن إٔ ٗو‪ًٛ " :ٍٞ‬ذ أكٔي اُ‪ ٠‬حٌُٔظزش ‪ٝ‬حٗظَ‪ً ٟ‬ظزخ ‪ٝ‬أهالٓخ ‪ٍٞٛٝ‬ح ‪ٝ‬ىكخطَ "‪.‬‬

‫ٍحرؼخ‪ :‬حُظولق ٖٓ حٓظؼٔخٍ حُٔلؼ‪ ٍٞ‬حُٔطِن ك‪ ٢‬حُظَؿٔش‪٤ُ ،‬لَ ٓلَ ًِٔخص أ‪ ٝ‬ػزخٍحص أهَ‪ٓ ٟ‬ظَؿٔش‪ٓ ،‬ؼَ‪:‬‬
‫" ر‪ٍٜٞ‬س – رٌَ٘ – ُيٍؿش – ػِ‪ٗ ٠‬ل‪ً ،" ٞ‬خُو‪٤٘ٓ " :ٍٞ‬ض ر‪ٍٜٞ‬س ؿ‪٤‬يس "‪ٓ " ٝ ،‬خٍ رٌَ٘ كٖٔ "‪" ٝ ،‬‬
‫إ هخٓظ‪ِ٣ٞ١ ٚ‬ش ُيٍؿش أٗ‪ٜ‬خ طٔي حُزخد "‪ " ٝ ،‬ظ‪ َٜ‬ػِ‪ٗ ٠‬ل‪ٝ ٞ‬ح‪ٟ‬ق "‪ًِٜ ٌٙٛٝ .‬خ حٓظؼٔخالص رؼ‪٤‬يس ػٖ‬
‫حُؼَر‪٤‬ش‪ٝ ،‬حأل‪ٛ‬ق ٓ٘‪ٜ‬خ إٔ ‪٣‬وخٍ‪٤٘ٓ " :‬ض ٓ٘‪٤‬خ ؿ‪٤‬يح "‪ٓ " ٝ ،‬خٍ ٓ‪َ٤‬ح كٔ٘خ "‪ " ٝ ،‬إ هخٓظ‪ِ٣ٞ١ ٚ‬ش ‪ٞ١‬ال ‪ٔ٣‬ي‬
‫حُزخد "‪ " ٝ ،‬ظ‪ َٜ‬ظ‪ٍٜٞ‬ح ‪ٝ‬ح‪ٟ‬لخ "‪ .‬أ‪ ١‬حٓظؼٔخٍ حُٔلؼ‪ ٍٞ‬حُٔطِن ُِيالُش ػِ‪ ٠‬حُلخالص حُظ‪ًًَُ ٢‬ص‪.‬‬

‫هخٓٔخ‪ :‬ط‪ٜ‬زق حُظَؿٔش ك‪ٓ ٢‬ويٓش حألٓزخد حُظ‪ ٢‬طؼَٔ ػِ‪ ٠‬اٗخػش أهطخء اًح هخّ ر‪ٜ‬خ ٖٓ ‪٣‬ظَؿْ طَؿٔش كَك‪٤‬ش‪:‬‬
‫( أ ) كٔؼال ‪ٔ٣‬ظؼَٔ حُزؼ‪ًِٔ ٞ‬ش " ‪ٟ‬ي " ‪ ٢ٛٝ‬طَؿٔش كَك‪٤‬ش ٌُِٔش ‪ against‬ك‪ ٢‬حُِـش حإلٗـِ‪٣ِ٤‬ش‪ .‬ك‪٤‬وخٍ‪" :‬‬
‫كخٍد ‪ٟ‬ي حالٓظؼٔخٍ "‪٘٣ " ٝ ،‬زـ‪ ٢‬إٔ ‪ٔ٣‬ؼ‪ ٠‬ح‪٥‬رخء ُظِو‪٤‬ق أر٘خث‪ٟ ْٜ‬ي حُـيٍ‪ٛ " ٝ ،" ١‬يٍ كٌْ ‪ٟ‬ي كالٕ‬
‫"‪ٝ ،‬ؿ‪ًُ َ٤‬ي‪ٜ٘٣ٝ .‬ذ حالػظَح‪ ٝ‬ػِ‪ ٠‬إٔ حألِٓ‪ٞ‬د حٌُ‪ِ٣ ١‬ـؤ اُ‪ ٠‬حٓظؼٔخٍ ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حٌُِٔش‪ ٞٛ ،‬أِٓ‪ٞ‬د ‪٣‬وخُق‬
‫‪َ١‬م حُظؼز‪ َ٤‬حُؼَر‪٤‬ش‪ .‬كخُو‪ ٍٞ‬إٔ " كالٕ ‪٣‬لخٍد ‪ٟ‬ي حالٓظؼٔخٍ " ‪ُ٣‬ل‪ ٚ٘ٓ ْٜ‬إٔ ‪ٌٛ‬ح حُٔلخٍد ٓوخُق‬
‫ُالٓظؼٔخٍ‪ ،‬أ‪ ١‬أٗ‪٣ ٚ‬لخٍد ك‪ ٢‬ؿز‪ٜ‬ش أهَ‪ ٟ‬ؿ‪ َ٤‬حُـز‪ٜ‬ش حُٔؼخى‪٣‬ش ُالٓظؼٔخٍ‪ٝ .‬حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد ك‪ًُ ٢‬ي حُو‪ٖٗ " :ٍٞ‬‬
‫كَرخ ػِ‪ ٠‬حالٓظؼٔخٍ "‪ٝ .‬رخُ٘ٔزش ُزو‪٤‬ش حألٓؼِش‪٣ " :‬ـذ طِو‪٤‬ق حأل‪١‬لخٍ ٖٓ حُـيٍ‪ٛ " ٝ ،" ١‬يٍ كٌْ رلن‬
‫كالٕ أ‪ ٝ‬ػِ‪." ٚ٤‬‬
‫( د ) ‪ ٖٓٝ‬حٌُِٔخص حُظ‪ ٢‬طظيح‪ُٜٝ‬خ أؿ‪ِٜ‬س حإلػالّ حألؿ٘ز‪٤‬ش‪ًِٔ ،‬ش ‪ cover‬حإلٗـِ‪٣ِ٤‬ش‪ .‬ك‪٠٤‬غ ُ‪ٜ‬خ حُٔظَؿْ حٌُِٔش‬
‫حُظ‪٣ ٢‬ليى‪ٛ‬خ حُوخٓ‪٣ " ٢ٛٝ ،ّٞ‬ـط‪ ٌُٖٝ ." ٢‬ك‪ ٢‬حُؼَر‪٤‬ش ال ‪٣‬ل‪٤‬ي ‪ٌٛ‬ح حُلؼَ ٓؼ٘‪ٗ ٠‬وَ حُوزَ‪ .‬كل‪ ٢‬حُو‪ " :ٍٞ‬هخّ‬

‫َٓحَٓ ؿَ‪٣‬يس حأل‪َٛ‬حّ رظـط‪٤‬ش أٗزخء حُوظخٍ حُيحثَ ك‪٘ٓ ٢‬طوش حُوِ‪٤‬ؾ "‪٘ٛ ْ٤ُ .‬خى ػالهش ر‪ ٖ٤‬حُـطخء أ‪ ٝ‬حُظـط‪٤‬ش‬
‫‪ٝ‬ر‪ ٖ٤‬حألهزخٍ‪ٝ .‬ط‪٠‬غ ٓؼخؿْ حُِـش أكؼخال ؿ‪ٌٛ َ٤‬ح حُلؼَ ُيالُش ٗوَ حُوزَ‪ ،‬كظو‪ٗ " :ٍٞ‬وَ حُوزَ أ‪ ٝ‬أرِـ‪ ٚ‬أ‪ٝ‬‬
‫َٓى‪." ٙ‬‬
‫( ؿـ ) ‪ ٖٓٝ‬حٌُِٔخص حُظ‪ٔ٣ ٢‬خء حٓظويحّ طَؿٔظ‪ٜ‬خ‪ًِٔ ،‬ش ‪ reach‬رٔؼ٘‪ .َٜ٣ ٠‬كؼ٘ي ‪ٛٝ‬ق كيع ‪ ٍٞٛٝ‬اكي‪ٟ‬‬
‫حُ٘و‪٤ٜ‬خص حَُٓٔ‪٤‬ش‪٣ ،‬وخٍ‪ٔٓ َٜٓ َٛٝ " :‬خء أْٓ ‪ َ٣ُٝ‬حالهظ‪ٜ‬خى ك‪ ٢‬ى‪ُٝ‬ش حٌُ‪٣ٞ‬ض "‪ٌٛٝ .‬ح حالٓظؼٔخٍ‬
‫هخ‪١‬ت‪ ،‬ألٕ حُلؼَ " ‪ " َٛٝ‬رخإلٗـِ‪٣ِ٤‬ش ٓظؼيٍ‪ ،‬أ‪٣ ١‬لظخؽ اُ‪ٓ ٠‬لؼ‪ ٍٞ‬ر‪ ٌُٚ٘ٝ .ٚ‬ك‪ ٢‬حُؼَر‪٤‬ش الُّ‪ ،‬ال ‪٣‬ظؼي‪.ٟ‬‬
‫ك‪ ٜٞ‬رٌُي ُ‪ ْ٤‬رلخؿش اُ‪ٓ ٠‬لؼ‪ ،ٍٞ‬رَ اُ‪ ٠‬كَف حُـَ " اُ‪ ." ٠‬ك٘و‪ َٛٝ " :ٍٞ‬اُ‪ٔٓ َٜٓ ٠‬خء أْٓ ‪." ...‬‬
‫ػز ََْ‪ ،‬ك‪٤‬وخٍ‪ " :‬ػزَ أؿ‪ِٜ‬س حالط‪ٜ‬خٍ "‪ٝ .‬حألًؼَ ‪ٞٛ‬حرخ ٖٓ ًُي إٔ‬ ‫( ى ) ‪ ٖٓٝ‬طِي حٌُِٔخص‪ًِٔ ،‬ش ‪ via‬رٔؼ٘‪َ ٠‬‬
‫طو‪ " :ٍٞ‬رؤؿ‪ِٜ‬س حالط‪ٜ‬خٍ " أ‪ " ٝ‬ر‪ٞ‬حٓطش حالط‪ٜ‬خٍ "‪.‬‬
‫( ‪ٛ‬ـ ) ‪ٜ٘ٓٝ‬خ أ‪٠٣‬خ ًِٔش " ‪١‬زوخ " حُٔظَؿٔش ػٖ ًِٔش ‪ ،according‬ك‪ ٢ٜ‬طَى ك‪ ٢‬أٓؼِش ًؼ‪َ٤‬س‪ًُ ٖٓٝ .‬ي ٓؼال‬
‫حُو‪٤ٓ " :ٍٞ‬ظْ ٗوَ حألَٓ‪ ّٞ٣ ٟ‬حألكي ‪١‬زوخ ُ‪ًٞ‬خالص حألٗزخء "‪ .‬أٓخ حُِـش حُؼَر‪٤‬ش كال طَ‪ ٠ٟ‬رخٓظؼٔخٍ " ‪١‬زوخ "‬
‫ك‪ٓ ٢‬ؼَ ‪ٌٛ‬ح حُٔ‪ٟٞ‬غ‪ٝ ،‬اٗٔخ طظطِذ حٓظؼٔخٍ حٌُِٔش حُ‪ٜ‬ل‪٤‬لش ُ‪ٌٜ‬ح حُ‪ٟٞ‬غ‪ٝ " ٢ٛٝ ،‬كوخ " أ‪ٝ " ٝ‬كخهخ " أ‪" ٝ‬‬
‫ػِ‪ٝ ٠‬كن "‪ .‬ك٘و‪٤ٓ " :ٍٞ‬ظْ ٗوَ حألَٓ‪ ّٞ٣ ٟ‬حألكي حُوخىّ ‪ٝ‬كوخ ُٔخ ًًَط‪ًٝ ٚ‬خالص حألٗزخء "‪ٌٛ ،‬ح اًح أٍىٗخ‬
‫حُظٔٔي رلَك‪٤‬ش حُظَؿٔش‪ٌُ٘٘ٝ .‬خ ٗٔظط‪٤‬غ ًًَ ػيس ؿَٔ طئى‪ ١‬حُٔؼ٘‪ ٠‬ر‪ٍٜٞ‬س ٓ‪ِٜ‬ش ‪ٝ‬ح‪ٟ‬لش‪ ،‬ك٘و‪ٓ ٍٞ‬ؼال‪" :‬‬
‫ًًَص ‪ًٝ‬خالص حألٗزخء إٔ حألَٓ‪ُ٘٤ٓ ٟ‬وِ‪ ّٞ٣ ٕٞ‬حألكي حُوخىّ "‪.‬‬

‫ٓخىٓخ‪ :‬طَؿٔش ًِٔش ‪ cancel‬رٌِٔش " الؿ‪٤‬خ "‪ً،‬خُو‪٣ " :ٍٞ‬ؼي حالطلخم الؿ‪٤‬خ ٌٓ٘ ٓٔخء حُ‪ٜ٘٣ٝ ." ّٞ٤‬ذ‬
‫حالػظَح‪ ٝ‬ػِ‪ًِٔ ٠‬ش " الؿ‪٤‬خ "‪ ،‬ك‪ ٢ٜ‬حْٓ كخػَ ٖٓ حُلؼَ " ُـخ – ‪ِ٣‬ـ‪ ،" ٞ‬أ‪ً ١‬ؼَ ًالٓ‪ ٌُٖٝ .ٚ‬حُٔ‪٤‬خم حٌُ‪١‬‬
‫طًٌَُ ك‪ًِٔ ٚ٤‬ش " الؿ‪٤‬خ " ال ٗؤٕ ُ‪ ٚ‬رٌؼَس حٌُالّ أ‪ ٝ‬هِظ‪ ،ٚ‬رَ ربرطخٍ حطلخم ٓٔزن‪ٌُُٝ .‬ي ك‪٤‬ـذ حٓظؼٔخٍ ًِٔش "‬
‫ِٓـ‪ ٢ٛٝ ،" ٢‬حْٓ حُٔلؼ‪ ٖٓ ٍٞ‬حُلؼَ " أُـ‪ِ٣ – ٠‬ـ‪ ." ٢‬كخُ‪ٜ‬ل‪٤‬ق إً إٔ ‪٣‬وخٍ‪٣ " :‬ؼي حالطلخم ِٓـ‪٤‬خ ٌٓ٘ ٓٔخء‬
‫حُ‪." ّٞ٤‬‬

‫ٓخرؼخ‪ٝ :‬حُزؼ‪٣ ٞ‬ظَؿْ ًِٔش ‪ still‬رٌِٔش " ال ُحٍ "‪ .‬ك‪٤‬و‪ " :ٍٞ‬الُحُض حالؿظٔخػخص ٓ٘ؼويس ك‪ٓ ٢‬ـِْ حألٖٓ "‪،‬‬
‫‪٣ٝ‬و‪ " :ٍٞ‬الُحُض حُـ‪ٜٞ‬ى طزٌٍ إل‪ٛ‬الف حُ‪ٟٞ‬غ ك‪ُ ٢‬ز٘خٕ "‪ٌٛٝ .‬ح حٓظؼٔخٍ هخ‪١‬ت ٌُِٔش " ال ُحٍ "‪ ،‬ك‪ ٢ٜ‬طل‪٤‬ي‬
‫حُيػخء ال حالٓظَٔحٍ‪ٜ٣ .‬ق إٔ ‪٣‬وخٍ‪ " :‬ال ُحُض حُي‪٣‬خٍ ه‪٣ٞ‬ش ػِ‪ِ٣‬س رؤ‪ِٜٛ‬خ "‪ ،‬ك‪ ٜٞ‬ىػخء ُِي‪٣‬خٍ ري‪ٝ‬حّ حُو‪ّٞ‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬حُؼِ‪ .‬أٓخ ٓخ ‪٣‬ل‪٤‬ي حالٓظَٔحٍ ك‪ٓ " ٜٞ‬خ ُحٍ "‪ً ،‬ؤٕ ٗو‪ٓ " :ٍٞ‬خ ُحُض حالؿظٔخػخص ٓٔظَٔس "‪ٓ " ٝ ،‬خ ُحُض‬
‫حُـ‪ٜٞ‬ى ٓزٌ‪ُٝ‬ش "‪ًٝ .‬ؼ‪َ٤‬ح ٓخ ‪٣‬وظِ‪ ٢‬حألَٓ ػِ‪٣ ٖٓ ٠‬و‪ ٕٞٓٞ‬رخٌُظخرش حُؼَر‪٤‬ش‪ ،‬ك‪٤‬ؤهٌ‪ ٕٝ‬رخالٓظؼٔخٍ حأل‪ُِ ٍٝ‬يالُش‬
‫ػِ‪ ٠‬حُؼخٗ‪.٢‬‬

‫ػخٓ٘خ‪٘ٛٝ :‬خى ًِٔش ‪ by‬حُظ‪٣ ٢‬ظَؿٔ‪ٜ‬خ حُزؼ‪ ِٖٓ " ٞ‬هِزَ َْ "‪٣ٝ ،‬يهِ‪ٜٗٞ‬خ ك‪ ٢‬حُـَٔ ى‪ ٕٝ‬حٓظجٌحٕ‪ ،‬ػِ‪ ٠‬حَُؿْ ٖٓ‬
‫ػيّ ‪ٛ‬لظ‪ٜ‬خ‪ .‬ك‪٤‬وخٍ‪ " :‬ىُ‪ٗٝ‬ض حُٔالكظخص ِٖٓ هِزَ َْ حُِـ٘ش "‪ ْ٤ُٝ .‬ك‪ ٢‬حٓظؼٔخٍ " ِٖٓ هِزَ َْ " أ‪ٍَٟٝ ١‬س ك‪٢‬‬
‫‪ٌٛ‬ح حُٔ‪٤‬خم‪ًُ ،‬ي أٗ‪ ٌٖٔ٣ ٚ‬حُو‪ " :ٍٞ‬ى‪ٗٝ‬ض حُِـ٘ش حُٔالكظخص "‪.‬‬

‫طخٓؼخ‪٘ٛٝ :‬خى ًِٔش ٗخع حٓظؼٔخُ‪ٜ‬خ ٗ‪ٞ٤‬ػخ هخ‪١‬جخ‪ ،‬كال طٌخى طوِ‪ٜ٘ٓ ٞ‬خ ؿِٔش‪ًِٔ ٢ٛٝ ،‬ش " رخُ٘ٔزش "‪ ،‬حُظ‪ٌٖٔ٣ ٢‬‬
‫حُظوِ‪ ٢‬ػ٘‪ٜ‬خ ى‪ ٕٝ‬كي‪ٝ‬ع أ‪ ١‬اهالٍ ك‪ ٢‬حُـِٔش‪ ،‬ك‪٠‬ال ػٖ إٔ حٓظؼٔخُ‪ٜ‬خ ‪٣‬وخُق حالٓظؼٔخٍ حُؼَر‪ ٢‬حُِٔ‪.ْ٤‬‬
‫ك‪٤‬وخٍ ٓؼال‪ " :‬حٗول‪٠‬ض أٓؼخٍ حُؼٔالص‪ٝ ،‬رخُ٘ٔزش ُِٔخٍى حألُٔخٗ‪ ٢‬كوي حٗول‪ٓ ٞ‬وخرَ حُي‪ٝ‬الٍ "‪ٌٛٝ .‬ح طًَ‪٤‬ذ‬
‫ؿ‪ٛ َ٤‬ل‪٤‬ق ُِـِٔش‪ ،‬كؤ‪ٗ ١‬ظَس ُِوخٓ‪ ّٞ‬طيُ٘خ ػِ‪ ٠‬إٔ " حُ٘ٔزش " ‪ ٢ٛ‬حُوَحرش أ‪ٓ ٝ‬خ طؼِن ر‪ٜ‬خ‪٘ٛ ٖٓٝ .‬خ‬
‫كخُ‪ٜٞ‬حد إٔ ‪٣‬وخٍ‪ " :‬حٗول‪٠‬ض أٓؼخٍ حُؼٔالص‪ ،‬أٓخ حُٔخٍى حألُٔخٗ‪ ٢‬كوي حٗول‪ٓ ٞ‬وخرَ حُي‪ٝ‬الٍ "‪.‬‬

‫ػخَٗح‪ :‬أٓخ ػٖ حُوِ‪ ٢‬ر‪ ٖ٤‬كَك‪ ٢‬حُـَ " اُ‪ " ٝ " ٠‬حُالّ " ‪ -‬ػ٘ي طَؿٔش كَف حُـَ ك‪ ٢‬حإلٗـِ‪٣ِ٤‬ش ‪ - to‬ك‪ٜٞ‬‬
‫ًؼ‪ٍ ،َ٤‬ؿْ إٔ ٌَُ ٓ٘‪ٜٔ‬خ ٓؼ٘‪ٝ ٠‬حٓظؼٔخٍ ٓوظِق‪ .‬أٓخ ػٖ حُٔؼ٘‪ ،٠‬ك‪ ٜٞ‬إٔ " اُ‪ " ٠‬طؼ٘‪ ٢‬حٗظ‪ٜ‬خء حُـخ‪٣‬ش‪ ،‬ك‪٢‬‬
‫ك‪ ٖ٤‬طٔظؼَٔ " حُالّ " ُِيالُش ػِ‪ ٠‬حٌُِٔ‪٤‬ش ‪ٝ‬حُظو‪٣ٝ ،ٚ٤ٜ‬ظليى حٓظؼٔخٍ ًَ ٓ٘‪ٜٔ‬خ طزؼخ ُِٔؼ٘‪ ٠‬حٌُ‪ ١‬طيٍ‬
‫ػِ‪٣ .ٚ٤‬وخٍ ٓؼال‪ِٔٓ " :‬ض حُِٔق ًخٓال اُ‪ٍ ٠‬ث‪ٓ ْ٤‬ـِْ حإلىحٍس "‪ٌٛٝ ،‬ح ؿ‪ٛ َ٤‬ل‪٤‬ق‪ٞٛٝ ،‬حر‪ِٔٓ " :ٚ‬ض‬
‫حُِٔق ًخٓال َُث‪ٓ ْ٤‬ـِْ حإلىحٍس "‪ٝ .‬حُٔزذ إٔ حُِٔق ٓ‪ٟٞ٤‬غ طلض ط‪َٜ‬ك‪ً ،ٚ‬ؤٗ‪ِٓ ٚ‬ي ٖٓ أٓالً‪ُْٝ ،ٚ‬‬
‫‪ ٌٖ٣‬حُـَ‪ٓ ٝ‬لَ حُِٔق ٖٓ ٌٓخٕ ٓؼ‪ ٖ٤‬حرظيحء اُ‪ٌٓ ٠‬خٕ آهَ حٗظ‪ٜ‬خء‪٣ٝ .‬وخٍ أ‪٠٣‬خ‪ٓ " :‬خكَص ‪ٛ‬زخف حُـٔؼش‬
‫حُٔخ‪ُ ٢ٟ‬إلٌٓ٘يٍ‪٣‬ش "‪ٌٛٝ ،‬ح ؿ‪ٛ َ٤‬ل‪٤‬ق أ‪٠٣‬خ‪ٝ .‬حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد حُو‪ٓ " :ٍٞ‬خكَص ‪ٛ‬زخف حُـٔؼش حُٔخ‪ ٢ٟ‬اُ‪٠‬‬
‫حإلٌٓ٘يٍ‪٣‬ش "‪ ،‬ألٕ كَف حُـَ " اُ‪ " ٠‬ك‪ ٌٙٛ ٢‬حُـِٔش ‪٣‬ليى حٗظ‪ٜ‬خء حُـخ‪٣‬ش ٖٓ حُٔلَ‪.‬‬

‫كخى‪ ١‬ػَ٘‪ :‬حإل‪َٛ‬حٍ ػِ‪ ٠‬طَؿٔش رؼ‪ ٞ‬حٌُِٔخص حإلٗـِ‪٣ِ٤‬ش رٌِٔش ‪ٝ‬حكيس ٓوخرِش ك‪ ٢‬حُِـش حُؼَر‪٤‬ش‪ٓ ،‬ؼَ ًِٔش‬
‫‪ٝ ،privatization‬حُظ‪ٟٝ ٢‬ؼض ُ‪ٜ‬خ طَؿٔخص ػيس‪ٓ ،‬ؼَ‪ " :‬حُو‪ٜ‬و‪ٜ‬ش " أ‪ " ٝ‬حُظو‪ " ٚ٤ٜ‬أ‪ ٝ‬حُظو‪٤ٜ٤ٜ‬ش‬
‫"‪ًِٜ ٌٙٛٝ .‬خ طَؿٔخص ؿ‪ َ٤‬ىه‪٤‬وش ٌُِِٔش‪ًُ ،‬ي إٔ حُِـش حإلٗـِ‪٣ِ٤‬ش طٔ‪ َ٤‬ىحثٔخ الٓظويحّ حُِ‪ٝ‬حثي ‪– affixes‬‬
‫ٓ‪ٞ‬حء ًخٗض رخىثش أّ الكوش – اُ‪ ٠‬حٌُِٔش حأل‪٤ِٛ‬ش كظ‪٣ ٠‬ظْ ٓ‪ٞ‬حءٓش حٓظويحٓ‪ٜ‬خ ك‪ٞٓ ٢‬هؼ‪ٜ‬خ ٖٓ حُـِٔش‪ٌُُٝ .‬ي‬
‫ك‪ ٢ٜ‬طؼظزَ أًؼَ ٖٓ ًِٔش ‪ٝ‬حكيس‪ٝ ،‬إ ريص ك‪ ٢‬ظخ‪َٛٛ‬خ ًِٔش ‪ٝ‬حكيس‪٘ٛ ٖٓٝ .‬خ كال ىحػ‪ُ ٢‬إل‪َٛ‬حٍ ػِ‪٠‬‬
‫طَؿٔظ‪ٜ‬خ رٌِٔش ‪ٝ‬حكيس َٓحىكش ك‪ ٢‬حُِـش حُؼَر‪٤‬ش‪ٝ .‬رٌُي طٌ‪ ٕٞ‬حُظَؿٔش حُيه‪٤‬وش ٌُِِٔش حُٔخروش ‪ " :٢ٛ‬حُظل‪ٍٞ‬‬
‫ُِوطخع حُوخ‪ًٌُٝ ." ٙ‬ي ًِٔش ‪ Islamization‬حُظ‪ ٌٖٔ٣ ٢‬طَؿٔظ‪ٜ‬خ‪ " :‬ططز‪٤‬ن حَُ٘‪٣‬ؼش حإلٓالٓ‪٤‬ش "‪ٝ .‬ؿ‪َ٤‬‬
‫ًُي ًؼ‪ٔٓ َ٤‬خ ‪ ٌٖٔ٣‬حُو‪٤‬خّ ػِ‪.ٚ٤‬‬

‫ػخٗ‪ ٢‬ػَ٘‪ :‬حٓظويحّ ٗلْ حُٔلخ‪ ْ٤ٛ‬حُظ‪٣َ٣ ٢‬ي حُـَد طَ‪٣ٝ‬ـ‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٞ٤ٗٝ‬ػ‪ٜ‬خ ػ٘ي حُظَؿٔش‪ .‬كٔؼال ػ٘ي ًظخرش حُـَد‬
‫ُٔخ ‪٣‬ي‪َٛ ٖٓ ٍٝ‬حع ر‪ ٖ٤‬حُلِٔط‪ٝ ٖ٤٤٘٤‬حإلَٓحث‪٣ ،ٖ٤٤ِ٤‬و‪ .Israel and the Palestinians :ُٕٞٞ‬ك‪٣َ٣ ْٜ‬ي‪ٕٝ‬‬
‫إٔ ‪ٔ٣‬ظوَ ك‪ ًٖٛ ٢‬حُوخٍة إٔ آَحث‪ ٢ٛ َ٤‬ى‪ُٝ‬ش ُ‪ٜ‬خ ً‪٤‬خٕ هخثْ‪ ،‬أٓخ حُلِٔط‪ ٕٞ٤٘٤‬ك‪ ْٜ‬أكَحى رال ى‪ُٝ‬ش‪ٌُُٝ .‬ي‬
‫كؼِ‪٘٤‬خ ٗلٖ ك‪ٗ ٖ٤‬ظَؿْ‪ ،‬إٔ ٗو‪ " ٍٞ‬حُلِٔط‪ٝ ٕٞ٤٘٤‬حإلَٓحث‪ ،" ٕٞ٤ِ٤‬أ‪ ٝ‬إٔ ٗو‪ " :ٍٞ‬كِٔط‪ٝ ٖ٤‬آَحث‪ ،" َ٤‬ال إٔ‬
‫ٗوغ ك‪ٔ٤‬خ ‪٣َ٣‬ي‪ ٚٗٝ‬إٔ ‪ٔ٣‬ظوَ ك‪ ٢‬أً‪ٛ‬خٗ٘خ‪ ،‬ك٘و‪ " :ٍٞ‬آَحث‪ٝ َ٤‬حُلِٔط‪." ٕٞ٤٘٤‬‬

‫أهطخء ٗخثؼش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظَؿّش اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌٍغش حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‬
‫حُظَؿٔش ُ‪ٔ٤‬ض ٓـَى ػِٔ‪٤‬ش ٗوَ حُ٘‪ ٚ‬رٌِٔخط‪ُ ٖٓ ٚ‬ـش اُ‪ُ ٠‬ـش ‪ٌُٜ٘ٝ‬خ أػٔن ٖٓ ًُي رٌؼ‪ .َ٤‬كخُظَؿٔش ‪ٗ ٢ٛ‬وَ‬
‫ٍ‪ٝ‬ف حُ٘‪ ٚ‬رخألٓخّ اُ‪ ٠‬حُِـش حُٔٔظ‪ٜ‬يكش‪ٌُ .‬ح كٖٔ حُوطؤ إٔ ‪٣‬وطت حُٔظَؿْ ك‪ ٢‬حُِـش حُٔٔظ‪ٜ‬يكش ‪ٝ‬أال ‪ٌٕٞ٣‬‬
‫ِٓٔخ رظؼز‪َ٤‬حط‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٜٓٝ‬طِلخط‪ٜ‬خ ‪٤ًٝ‬ل‪٤‬ش طٌ‪ ٖ٣ٞ‬حُـَٔ ر‪ٜ‬خ‪ .‬ك‪ ٢‬حُِٔق حُظخُ‪ َ٤٘٘ٓ ٢‬اُ‪ ٠‬رؼ‪ ٞ‬حألهطخء حُ٘خثؼش ك‪٢‬‬
‫حُظَؿٔش كظ‪٣ ٠‬ظلخى‪ٛ‬خ حُٔظَؿٔ‪ ٕٞ‬حُـيى‪.‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ا‪ٟ‬خفش أوؼَ ِٓ ِ‪٠‬خف اٌ‪٠ِ ٝ‬خف اٌ‪ٚ ٗ١‬حكي‪:‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ " :‬حكظيحّ ‪ٝ‬حٗظيحى حُوظخٍ "‪.‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ " :‬حكظيحّ حُوظخٍ ‪ٝ‬حٗظيحى‪." ٙ‬‬
‫‪ -2‬طؤه‪ َ١‬حٌفخػً ‪ٚ‬طمي‪ َٖ١ّٟ ُ٠‬ػٍ‪:ٗ١‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ " :‬ك‪ ٢‬ط‪٣َٜ‬ق ُ‪ ٚ‬ػٖ حألك‪ٞ‬حٍ حألٓ٘‪٤‬ش ك‪ ٢‬حُوِ‪٤‬ؾ‪ ،‬هخٍ ‪ َ٣ُٝ‬حُيكخع حألَٓ‪." ... ٢ٌ٣‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد إٔ ‪٣‬وخٍ‪ " :‬هخٍ ‪ َ٣ُٝ‬حُيكخع حألَٓ‪ ٢ٌ٣‬ك‪ ٢‬ط‪٣َٜ‬ق ُ‪ ٚ‬ػٖ حألك‪ٞ‬حٍ حألٓ٘‪٤‬ش ك‪ ٢‬حُوِ‪٤‬ؾ َّ‬
‫إ ‪." ...‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ؿّغ ػيى ِٓ ح‪ّٓ٤‬خء حٌّؼط‪ٛ‬فش ف‪ ٟ‬ؿٍّش ‪ٚ‬حكيس‪:‬‬
‫‪ًُٝ‬ي ى‪ ٕٝ‬إٔ ‪٣‬ظزغ ًال ٓ٘‪ٜ‬خ رلَف حُؼطق " ‪ً ،" ٝ‬خُو‪ًٛ " :ٍٞ‬ذ أكٔي اُ‪ ٠‬حٌُٔظزش ‪ٝ‬حٗظَ‪ً ٟ‬ظزخ‪ ،‬أهالٓخ‪،‬‬
‫‪ٍٞٛ‬ح‪ ،‬ىكخطَ "‪.‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد ك‪ ٢‬حُٔؼخٍ حُٔخرن إٔ ٗو‪ًٛ " :ٍٞ‬ذ أكٔي اُ‪ ٠‬حٌُٔظزش ‪ٝ‬حٗظَ‪ً ٟ‬ظزخ ‪ٝ‬أهالٓخ ‪ٍٞٛٝ‬ح ‪ٝ‬ىكخطَ "‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ػيَ حهظ‪١‬خٍ حٌَّحىف حٌّٕخٓذ ٌٍىٍّش ِٓ ٍ‪ٚ‬ف حٌٕ‪ِٚ ٚ‬ؼٕخٖ ح‪ٚ ٍٟٛ٤‬حٌّـخي حٌّٕظّ‪:ٌٗ ٟ‬‬
‫كٔؼال ٓؼ٘‪ًِٔ ٠‬ش "‪٣ "Business‬ظـ‪٥ ٚٗ ٖٓ َ٤‬هَ كٔذ ٗ‪ٞ‬ع حُ٘‪ٞٓ ٚ‬حء ًخٕ هخٗ‪٤ٗٞ‬خ أ‪ ٝ‬طـخٍ‪٣‬خ أ‪ٝ‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ح‪َٛ٦‬حٍ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬طَؿّش رؼ‪ ٞ‬حٌىٍّخص ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش رىٍّش ‪ٚ‬حكيس ِمخرٍش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٍغش حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‪:‬‬
‫‪ٌٛٝ‬ح ٓؼظوي هخ‪١‬ت ُي‪ ٟ‬رؼ‪ ٞ‬حُٔظَؿٔ‪ٖ٤‬؛ َّ‬
‫ألٕ ًَ ُـش ‪ُٜٝ‬خ ٓ‪ٜ‬طِلخط‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٝ‬طًَ‪٤‬زخط‪ٜ‬خ‪ ،‬كٔؼال ًِٔش‬
‫"‪ "Islamization‬طؼ٘‪" ٢‬ططز‪٤‬ن حَُ٘‪٣‬ؼش حإلٓالٓ‪٤‬ش"‪.‬‬
‫‪ -6‬حٌٔ‪ٛٓٚ ٓ١‬ف ‪ ٨‬طيه‪ ْ٩‬ا‪ ٨‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ؿًّ ِؼزظش ‪:‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ٞٓ " :‬ف ُٖ أً‪ٛ‬ذ"‪.‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد ‪ ُٖ :‬أً‪ٛ‬ذ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -7‬حٓظويحَ (وٍّخ)‪:‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ًِٔ" :‬خ طؼٔوضَ ك‪ ٢‬حُوَحءس ‪ٝ‬حال‪١‬الع‪ًِٔ ،‬خ ُحىص ك‪ِ٤ٜ‬ظُي ٖٓ حُٔؼَكش" ‪.‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ :‬كٌف ًِٔخ ٖٓ حُـِٔش حُؼخٗ‪٤‬ش‪.‬‬
‫‪ -8‬حٓظويحَ (ط‪ٛ‬حؿي)‪:‬‬
‫ال ‪ٜ٣‬ق ه‪ " ٍٞ‬ط‪ٞ‬حؿي كالٕ" ًظؼز‪ َ٤‬ػٖ حُل‪ٍٞ٠‬؛ ألٕ (حُ‪ٞ‬ؿي) ‪ ٞٛ‬حُلذ حُ٘ي‪٣‬ي أ‪ ٝ‬حُلِٕ‪.‬‬

‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ :‬ػِ‪ ٠‬حُٔ‪ٜ‬ظٔ‪ ٖ٤‬رخُ٘ي‪ٝ‬س حُل‪ ٍٞ٠‬حُٔخػش حُؼخَٗس‪.‬‬
‫حُوطؤ ‪ :‬ػِ‪ ٠‬حُٔ‪ٜ‬ظٔ‪ ٖ٤‬رخُ٘ي‪ٝ‬س حُظ‪ٞ‬حؿي حُٔخػش حُؼخَٗس‪.‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬أ‪٠٣‬خ‪ٔ٣ :‬ظوَؽ حُ٘لخّ حُٔ‪ٞ‬ؿ‪ٞ‬ى ك‪ ٢‬رخ‪ ٖ١‬حألٍ‪.ٝ‬‬
‫‪ٔ٣ : ْ٤ُٝ‬ظوَؽ حُ٘لخّ حُٔظ‪ٞ‬حؿي ك‪ ٢‬رخ‪ ٖ١‬حألٍ‪.ٝ‬‬

‫‪ -9‬حٓظويحَ( ٗىًَّ ‪ٚ‬ط٘ىًَّ)‪:‬‬

‫ٗ ٌََّ حُ٘‪َ ٢‬ء‪َ :‬‬
‫‪ٍَّٙٞ ٛ‬؛ ‪ :ٚ٘ٓٝ‬حُل٘‪ٕٞ‬‬ ‫ُ‪ ٖ٣ٌٜ‬حُلؼِ‪ِٛ ٖ٤‬ش ‪ٝ‬ػ‪٤‬وش رٌِٔش (حٌَُ٘)‪ .‬ؿخء ك‪( ٢‬حُٔؼـْ حُ‪َ « :)٢٤ٓٞ‬‬
‫‪ٝ ٍَّٞ ٜ‬ط َ َٔؼََّ‪».‬‬
‫٘ ٌََّ حُ٘‪ُ ٢‬ء‪ :‬ط َ َ‬
‫ٗ ٌَِّ‪ٝ ،ٚ‬ط َ َ‬
‫٘ ٌََّ‪ُٓ :‬طخ‪ٝ‬ع َ‬
‫‪ٝ‬ؿخء ك‪ ٚ٤‬أ‪٠٣‬خ‪« :‬ط َ َ‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ ٌٙٛ :‬حألٓؼِش طٌَُ٘ ٓل‪ ٍٞ‬حُزلغ‪.‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ ٌٙٛ :‬حألٓؼِش ‪ٓ ٢ٛ‬ل‪ ٍٞ‬حُزلغ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -10‬حٓظويحَ (أوَّي)‪:‬‬
‫ؿخء ك‪( ٢‬حُٔؼـْ حُ‪ :)٢٤ٓٞ‬أ ًَّي حُ٘‪َ ٢‬ء طؤً‪٤‬يح‪ٝ :‬ػَّو‪ٝ ٚ‬أكٌٔ‪َّ ٚ‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬هٍَ‪ ٙ‬ك‪ٓ ٜٞ‬ئ ًَّي‪.‬‬
‫حُوطؤ ‪ :‬أ ًّي ػِ‪ ٠‬حُ٘‪٢‬ء‪.‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ :‬أًيّ حُ٘‪٢‬ء‪.‬‬

‫‪ -11‬حٓظويحَ (‪٠‬ظ‪ٛ‬ؿذ) ً‬
‫ري‪٠( ِٓ ٨‬ـذ)‪:‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪٣ :‬ظ‪ٞ‬ؿذ ػِ‪٤‬ي أىحء حُ‪ٞ‬حؿزخص‪.‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪٣ :‬ـذ ػِ‪٤‬ي أىحء حُ‪ٞ‬حؿزخص‪.‬‬
‫كالٕ‪ :‬أًَ ك‪ ٢‬حُ‪ٝ ّٞ٤‬حُِ‪ِ٤‬ش أًِش ‪ٝ‬حكيس‪.‬‬ ‫ألٕ ط ََ‪َّ ٞ‬ؿذ‬
‫‪ -12‬حٓظويحَ (‪ٕ٠‬زغ‪٠( ٚ )ٟ‬ـذ)‪:‬‬
‫حُوطؤ ‪٘٣ :‬زـ‪ ٢‬ػِ‪ ٠‬حُطخُذ طؤى‪٣‬ش ‪ٝ‬حؿز‪.ٚ‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪٣ :‬ـذ ػِ‪ ٠‬حُطخُذ طؤى‪٣‬ش ‪ٝ‬حؿز‪.ٚ‬‬
‫ألّٗ‪ ٚ‬ؿخء ك‪( ٢‬حُٔؼـْ حُ‪:)٢٤ٓٞ‬‬
‫ُلالٕ إٔ ‪٣‬لؼَ ًٌح‪ :‬ال ‪٤ِ٣‬ن ر‪ٝ ٚ‬ال ‪٣‬ل ُ‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫ٖٔ ر‪ْٔ ُ٣ٝ ٚ‬ظَلذُّ ُ‪ٓٝ .ٚ‬خ ‪٘٣‬زـ‪٢‬‬
‫لالٕ إٔ ‪٣‬ؼَٔ ًٌح‪٣َ :‬لْ ُ‬
‫«‪٣‬وخٍ‪٘٣ :‬زـ‪ٍ ُِ ٢‬‬
‫‪ -13‬حٓظويحَ حُٓ حٌظف‪:ً١٠‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ٓ :‬لخكظش حإلٌٓ٘يٍ‪٣‬ش ػخٗ‪ ٢‬أًزَ ٓلخكظش ك‪.َٜٓ ٢‬‬

‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ٓ :‬لخكظش حإلٌٓ٘يٍ‪٣‬ش ‪ ٢ٛ‬حُؼخٗ‪٤‬ش رؼي أًزَ ٓلخكظش ك‪ٓ / َٜٓ ٢‬لخكظش حإلٌٓ٘يٍ‪٣‬ش ‪ ٢ٛ‬حُؼخٗ‪٤‬ش ًِزَح‬
‫ك‪.َٜٓ ٢‬‬
‫ألٕ حُ‪٤ٜ‬ـش (أًزَ) طؼ٘‪ ٢‬إٔ ٓخ ‪٣‬ظ‪ٜ‬ق ر‪ٜ‬خ ‪٣‬لظَ حَُٔطزش حأل‪ ٖٓ ٠ُٝ‬ك‪٤‬غ حُ ٌِزََ؛ ‪ٌٛٝ‬ح ‪٣‬وظ‪ ٢٠‬أالّ ‪٘٣‬خًٍ‪ ٚ‬ك‪٢‬‬
‫ظلَى ر‪ ٌٜٙ‬حُ‪ٜ‬لش (أًزَ)‪ .‬رؼزخٍس أهَ‪٘ٛ ْ٤ُ ،ٟ‬خى أ‪ ٍٝ‬أًزَ‪ٝ ،‬ػخٗ‪ ٢‬أًزَ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ ٌٙٛ‬حَُٔطزش ٗ‪ٌ ٢‬ء آهَ‪ ،‬ك‪ٝ ٜٞ‬ك‪٤‬ي ُٓ ِ ّ‬
‫‪ٝ‬ػخُغ أًزَ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -14‬أػََّ ػٍ‪:ٗ١‬‬
‫حُوطؤ ‪ :‬أػََّ ػِ‪ُ / ٚ٤‬ي ػِ‪ ٚ٤‬طؤػ‪ َ٤‬ػظ‪.ْ٤‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ :‬أػََّ ر‪ُ / ٚ‬ي ك‪ ٚ٤‬طؤػ‪ َ٤‬ػظ‪.ْ٤‬‬
‫ألٕ ‪ٌٛ‬ح حُلؼَ ‪٣‬ظؼي‪ٓٝ ٟ‬خ ‪٘٣‬ظن ٓ٘‪ ٚ‬رـ (ك‪ )٢‬أ‪ ٝ‬رـ (حُزخء)‪.‬‬
‫‪ -15‬ىه‪ٛ‬ي (‪ َ٨‬حٌـَ) ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حُٓ حٌِِخْ‪:‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ :‬رو‪٤‬ض ك‪ ٢‬حٌُٔظزش ُٔيس ه‪َ٤ٜ‬س‪.‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ :‬رو‪٤‬ض ك‪ ٢‬حٌُٔظزش ٓيس ه‪َ٤ٜ‬س‪.‬‬
‫ألٕ ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حُالّ ُحثيس ‪ٝ‬ال ‪ٝ‬ظ‪٤‬لش ُ‪ٜ‬خ‪٣ٝ ،‬ـذ إٔ ط٘‪ٜ‬ذ (ٓيس) ػِ‪ ٠‬حُظَك‪٤‬ش ألٗ‪ٜ‬خ ٓظ‪٘ٔ٠‬ش ٓؼ٘‪( ٠‬ك‪٢ٛٝ )٢‬‬
‫ظَف ُٓخٕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -16‬رضَّ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌّ‪ٟٛٛ‬ع‪:‬‬
‫حُوطؤ ‪ :‬ال ّ‬
‫‪٣‬زض ك‪ ٢‬حُٔ‪ٟٞٞ‬ع اال ٍث‪ ْ٤‬حُؼَٔ‪.‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ :‬ال ّ‬
‫‪٣‬زض حُٔ‪ٟٞٞ‬ع اال ٍث‪ ْ٤‬حُؼَٔ‪.‬‬
‫(‪٣‬زض) ٓظؼي ر٘لٔ‪ٝ ٚ‬ال ‪٣‬لظخؽ اُ‪ ٠‬كَف حُـَ‪.‬‬ ‫ألٕ حُلؼَ‬
‫‪ -17‬اىهخي (حٌزخء) ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّطٍ‪ٛ‬د‪:‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ :‬ال طزيٍ حُٔؼَكش رخُـ‪.َٜ‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ :‬ال طزيٍ رخُٔؼَكش حُـ‪.َٜ‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ :‬حٗظَ‪ ٟ‬ىٗ‪٤‬خ‪ ٙ‬رخ‪٥‬هَس‪.‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ :‬حٗظَ‪ ٟ‬ريٗ‪٤‬خ‪ ٙ‬ح‪٥‬هَس‪.‬‬
‫ألٕ حُزخء ك‪ ٢‬حألكؼخٍ (أريٍ ‪ٝ‬حٓظزيٍ ‪ٝ‬ريٍّ ‪ٝ َٟٗٝ‬حٗظَ‪ٝ ٟ‬رخع ‪ٝ‬حرظخع) طيهَ ػِ‪ ٠‬حُٔظَ‪ٝ‬ى ال ػِ‪٠‬‬
‫‪ -18‬حفظؼً ‪ٚ‬طفخػً‪:‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ :‬طزخٍص ٓيٍٓظ٘خ ٓغ حُٔيٍٓش حُٔـخ‪ٍٝ‬س‪.‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ :‬طزخٍص ٓيٍٓظ٘خ ‪ٝ‬حُٔيٍٓش حُٔـخ‪ٍٝ‬س‪.‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ :‬حهظ‪ ْٜ‬كَ‪٣‬و٘خ ٓغ حُلَ‪٣‬ن ح‪٥‬هَ‪.‬‬

‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ :‬حهظ‪ ْٜ‬كَ‪٣‬و٘خ ‪ٝ‬حُلَ‪٣‬ن ح‪٥‬هَ‪.‬‬
‫ألٕ ‪٤ٛ‬ـظ‪( ٢‬حكظؼَ) ‪(ٝ‬طلخػَ) طوظ‪ ٢٠‬حُٔ٘خًٍش‪ٝ ،‬طظؼ‪ ٖ٤‬ك‪ٜ٤‬خ ‪ٝ‬ح‪ ٝ‬حُؼطق‪ٝ ،‬ال طٔي ٓٔي‪ٛ‬خ (ٓغ)‪.‬‬
‫‪ -19‬حٓظويحَ (طلض)‪:‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ :‬حُزلغ طلض حُيٍحٓش‪.‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ :‬حُزلغ ك‪ ٢‬حُيٍحٓش أ‪ُ٣ ٝ‬يٍّ‪.‬‬
‫ألٕ حُلؼَ حُٔ‪٠‬خٍع أ‪ ٝ‬كَف حُـَ أهَد اُ‪ٍٝ ٠‬ف حُؼَر‪٤‬ش‪.‬‬
‫‪ -20‬حٓظويحَ (طليّع)‪:‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ :‬طليَّع ػٖ ر‪٤‬غ أٍ‪ / ٟٚ‬طليَّع ػِ‪ ٠‬ر‪٤‬غ أٍ‪.ٟٚ‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ :‬طليَّع رز‪٤‬غ أٍ‪.ٟٚ‬‬
‫ألٕ حُلؼَ (طليَّع) ُْ ‪َ٣‬ى ك‪ ٢‬حُٔؼـٔخص حُؼَر‪٤‬ش اال ٓظؼي‪٣‬خ رخُزخء كو‪.٢‬‬
‫‪ -21‬حٌفؼً (أكٔٓ)‪:‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ :‬أكٖٔ حُٔؼِْ ك‪ ٢‬حهظ‪٤‬خٍ حألُلخظ‪.‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ :‬أكٖٔ حُٔؼِْ حهظ‪٤‬خٍ حألُلخظ‪.‬‬
‫ألٕ حُلؼَ (أكٖٔ) ك‪ٌٛ ٢‬ح حُٔ‪ٟٞ‬غ ال ‪٣‬ظؼي‪ ٟ‬رلَف حُـَ (ك‪ٝ )٢‬اٗٔخ ‪٣‬ظؼي‪ ٟ‬ر٘لٔ‪.ٚ‬‬
‫‪ -22‬حٌفؼً (طلمك)‪:‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ :‬طلووض ٖٓ حُوزَ ر٘لٔ‪.٢‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ :‬طلووض حُوزَ ر٘لٔ‪.٢‬‬
‫ألٕ حُلؼَ (طلون) ػ٘يٓخ ‪٣‬ؤط‪ٓ ٢‬ظؼي‪٣‬خ كال كخؿش ك‪ُ ٚ٤‬لَف حُـَ (ٖٓ)‪.‬‬
‫ّ‬ ‫‪ -23‬حٌفؼً‬
‫طوَؽ حُطخُذ ٖٓ ًِ‪٤‬ش حُطذ‪.‬‬
‫حُوطؤ‪ّ :‬‬
‫طوَؽ حُطخُذ ك‪٤ًِ ٢‬ش حُطذ‪.‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد‪ّ :‬‬
‫(طوَؽ) ‪٣‬ظؼي‪ ٟ‬رلَف حُـَ (ك‪ )٢‬ك‪ٔ٤‬خ ك‪٤‬ظؼِن رخٌُٔخٕ‪.‬‬
‫ّ‬ ‫ألٕ حُلؼَ‬

‫ح‪٤‬هطخء حٌ٘خثؼش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظَؿّش‬
‫حٌظَؿّش ‪ ٛ٘ٚ‬فٓ ‪٠‬م‪ ِٓ َٛ‬ه‪٩‬ي حٌّظَؿُ رٕمً حٌّؼٍ‪ِٛ‬خص ‪ٚ‬ح‪٤‬رلخع حٌؼٍّ‪١‬ش ِٓ ٌغش ‪٤‬هَ‪ًٌٚ ،ٜ‬ه ِٓ أؿً‬
‫أْ ‪ َٕ٘٠‬حٌؼٍُ ر‪ ٓ١‬حٌـّ‪١‬غ ‪ٔ٠ٚ‬ظف‪١‬ي ِٕٗ وً حٌٕخّ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬طلظخؽ حٌظَؿّش اٌ‪ ٝ‬حِظ‪٩‬ن حٌّظَؿُ ٌميٍحص ٌغ‪٠ٛ‬ش ػخٌ‪١‬ش‪ٚ ،‬ليٍس ؿ‪١‬يس ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌ‪١ٜ‬خغش ‪ٚ‬حٌظؼز‪.َ١‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬طظؼيى أٔ‪ٛ‬حع حٌظَؿّش ‪ٚ‬طوظٍف ف‪ٛ١‬ؿي ٌي‪ٕ٠‬خ حٌظَؿّش ح‪٤‬ىر‪١‬ش‪ ،‬حٌظَؿّش حٌؼٍّ‪١‬ش‪ٚ ،‬حٌظَؿّش ح‪٤‬وخى‪١ّ٠‬ش‪ٌٚ ،‬ىً‬
‫ٔ‪ٛ‬ع ِٓ ٌٖ٘ ح‪ٛٔ٤‬حع ه‪ٜ‬خث‪ ٜٗ‬حٌظ‪ ٟ‬طّ‪.ِٖ١‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬طلظخؽ حٌظَؿّش ٌ‪ٌ٩‬ظِحَ حٌّظَؿُ رخ‪ِ٤‬خٔش حٌؼٍّ‪١‬ش ‪ٚ‬حٌّ‪ٟٛٛ‬ػ‪١‬ش ‪ٚ‬ػيَ ل‪١‬خَ ربؿَحثٗ رظغ‪َ١١‬حص أ‪ ٚ‬طؼي‪٩٠‬ص‬
‫‪٠‬لَف ِٓ ه‪ٌٙ٩‬خ حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬حٌٌ‪٠ ٞ‬م‪ َٛ‬رظَؿّظٗ‪.‬‬

‫‪ٚ‬طلظخؽ حٌظَؿّش ٌيلش وز‪َ١‬س‪ٌٌٌ ،‬ه ‪٠‬ـذ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّظَؿُ ِلخ‪ٌٚ‬ش طـٕذ ح‪٤‬هطخء حٌ٘خثؼش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظَؿّش ‪ٚ‬حٌظ‪ٟ‬‬
‫‪٠‬مغ ف‪ٙ١‬خ حٌؼي‪٠‬ي ِٓ حٌّظَؿّ‪ ِٓٚ ،ٓ١‬أرَُ ٌٖ٘ ح‪٤‬هطخء‪:‬‬

‫حٌوًٍ ف‪ ٟ‬ط‪٠َٜ‬ف ح‪٤‬فؼخي ‪ٚ‬طَط‪١‬ز‪ٙ‬خ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌـٍّش ‪٠:‬ـذ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّظَؿُ أْ ‪٠‬ظؤوي ِٓ ط‪٠َٜ‬فٗ ٌ‪٥‬فؼخي ‪ٚ‬فك ُِٓ‬
‫حٌـٍّش‪ٚ ،‬طَط‪١‬ذ ػٕخ‪ َٛ‬حٌـٍّش رطَ‪٠‬مش ٍٓ‪ّ١‬ش ‪ِٚ‬ف‪١‬يس‪.‬‬
‫ػيَ ط‪ٛ‬ظ‪١‬ف حٌَّحىفخص حٌّٕخٓزش ‪٠:‬ـذ أْ ‪ّ٠‬ظٍه حٌّظَؿُ وّ‪١‬ش ‪ٟ‬وّش ِٓ حٌَّحىفخص ف‪ً ٟ‬حوَطٗ‪ٚ ،‬وٍّخ‬
‫ُحىص ٌٖ٘ حٌَّحىفخص وٍّخ أ‪ٛ‬زلض ػٍّ‪ ٗ١‬حٌظَؿّش أٓ‪ٚ ،ًٙ‬ف‪ ٟ‬كخي ٌُ ‪ّ٠‬ظٍه حٌّظَؿُ ٌَّحىفخص وخف‪١‬ش فبٔٗ‬
‫لي ‪ٔ٠‬ظويَ َِحىفخص ‪ ٨‬طٕخٓذ حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌلم‪١‬م‪ٌٍ ٟ‬ـٍّش‪.‬‬
‫حٌوًٍ ف‪ ٟ‬حٓظويحَ ػ‪ِ٩‬خص حٌظَل‪ ٌٍٕٚ ُ١‬حٌّظَؿُ ‪٠:‬ـذ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّظَؿُ أْ ‪٠‬م‪ َٛ‬ريٍحٓش و‪١‬ف‪١‬ش وظخرش ػ‪ِ٩‬خص‬
‫حٌظَل‪١‬ش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظَؿّش حٌظ‪٠ ٟ‬ظَؿُ ِٕ‪ٙ‬خ‪ِ ْ٤ ،‬ؼٕخ٘خ لي ‪٠‬وظٍف ر‪ٌ ٓ١‬غش ‪ٚ‬أهَ‪ًٌٚ ،ٜ‬ه ٌى‪ٔ٠ ٟ‬ظويِ‪ٙ‬خ رخٌ٘ىً‬
‫حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق ‪٠ٚ‬ظـٕذ ٌ٘ح حٌوطؤ‪.‬‬
‫ػيَ َِحؿؼش حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬حٌّظَؿُ ٌٍظلمك ِٓ ىلش حٌّؼٕ‪٠: ٝ‬ؼي اّ٘خي حٌَّحؿؼش ِٓ ح‪٤‬هطخء حٌ٘خثؼش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظَؿّش‪،‬‬
‫ٌٌٌه ‪٠‬ـذ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّظَؿُ أْ ‪٠‬ظَن حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬حٌٌ‪ ٞ‬طَؿّٗ ٌفظَس ل‪َ١ٜ‬س‪ ِٓٚ ،‬ػُ ‪٠‬ؼ‪ٛ‬ى اٌ‪٠ٚ ٗ١‬م‪ َٛ‬رظيل‪١‬مٗ ‪ٚ‬حٌظؤوي‬
‫ِٓ ٓ‪ِ٩‬ش حٌّؼٕ‪.ٝ‬‬

‫‪٘ٚ‬ىٌح َٔ‪ ٜ‬أْ ٌٍظَؿّش أّ٘‪١‬ش وز‪َ١‬س ف‪ٔ ٟ‬مً حٌؼٍ‪ َٛ‬ر‪ ٓ١‬حٌل‪٠‬خٍحص‪ٌ ،‬ىٓ ٌظى‪ ْٛ‬حٌظَؿّش ‪ٛ‬ل‪١‬لش ‪٠‬ـذ ػٍ‪ٝ‬‬
‫حٌّظَؿُ أْ ‪٠‬ؼًّ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬طـٕذ ح‪٤‬هطخء حٌ٘خثؼش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظَؿّش‪ ًٜ١ٌ ،‬رٕ‪ ٚ‬حٌظَؿّش اٌ‪ ٝ‬رَ ح‪ِ٤‬خْ‪.‬‬

‫ٌٌٌه ٌ٘ح ح‪ٔ٨‬ف‪ٛ‬ؿَحف‪١‬ه حٌظؼٍ‪ٍ٠ ّٟ١‬و‪ٌ ٚ‬ه حُ٘ ح‪٨‬هطخء ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظَؿّش ٌظظـٕذ حٌ‪ٛ‬ل‪ٛ‬ع ر‪ٙ‬خ ِٔظمز‪٩‬‬

‫‪ٔٚ‬ظَح ‪١ّ٘٤‬ش حٌظَؿّش فمي ‪ٚ‬فَٔخ ف‪ ٟ‬أوخى‪١ّ٠‬ظٕخ فَ‪٠‬مخ حكظَحف‪١‬خ ػٍ‪ِٔ ٝ‬ظ‪ ٜٛ‬ػخٌ‪ِّٙ ٟ‬ظٗ ِٔخػيس حٌّظَؿُ‬
‫ػٍ‪ ٝ‬طـٕذ ح‪٤‬هطخء حٌ٘خثؼش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظَؿّش ِٓ ه‪٩‬ي طيل‪١‬ك حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬حٌٌ‪٠ ٞ‬ظَؿّٗ‪ٚ ،‬وً ِخ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّظَؿُ فؼٍٗ‬
‫حٌظ‪ٛ‬ح‪ِ ًٛ‬غ فَ‪٠‬مٕخ ح‪٨‬كظَحف‪ ٟ‬حٌّّ‪َ١ٚ ،ِ١‬ف أ‪ ٞ‬حٓظفٔخٍ ٌي‪ ٗ٠‬ك‪ٛ‬ي ِ‪ٟٛٛ‬ع طـٕذ ح‪٤‬هطخء حٌ٘خثؼش ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫حٌظَؿّش ِٓ ه‪٩‬ي هيِش حٌظَؿّش حٌؼٍّ‪١‬ش ‪ٚ‬ح‪٤‬وخى‪١ّ٠‬ش‪.‬‬

‫ش‬١‫ حٌؼَر‬ٌٝ‫حٌظَؿّش ا‬
‫ش‬٠ٛ‫هطخء حٌٍغ‬٤‫ع ح‬ٛ١ٗ ٟ‫أػَ٘خ ف‬ٚ
ٟٕٕ‫َ٘ ك‬ٛ‫ُحَ٘ دمحم حٌـ‬. ‫ى‬
‫غ‬٠‫ حٌلي‬ٟٕ١‫ىد حٌفٍٔط‬٤‫ح‬/‫ش‬١‫ حٌٍغش حٌؼَر‬ٜٚ‫طو‬
‫ىد‬٤‫ح‬/ ‫ش‬٠ِ١ٍ‫ٔـ‬٦‫ حٌٍغش ح‬ٜٚ‫ٓ طو‬١ٕٔ‫ِخؿي أكّي ك‬.‫أ‬
‫ش‬١ّ١ٍ‫ش حٌظؼ‬١ٍ١‫ِٕطمش لٍم‬/ ‫كش‬ٛ‫ؿخِؼش حٌميّ حٌّفظ‬
‫ ػ٘ي‬،ٚ‫ظ‬٤ٔٛ‫ٕ ٖٓ أ‬ِِٞ‫و‬٣ ٝ‫ أ‬،ٖ٤ٍٓ‫ حُيح‬ٞ‫ رؼ‬ِٚ‫ـل‬٣ ‫ٔخ‬ٜٓ ‫ٌح حُزلغ ؿخٗزخ‬ٛ ٍٝ‫ظ٘خ‬٣
‫ع‬ٞ٤ٗ ‫وق ػ٘ي‬٣ٝ. ‫ حُِـش‬٢ٛٝ ‫ٔخ‬ٜ‫أىحط‬ٝ ٢‫حُظزخىٍ حُؼوخك‬ٝ ‫خٍحص‬٠‫حٍ حُل‬ٞ‫غ ػٖ ك‬٣‫حُلي‬
‫ع‬ٞ٤ٗ ‫َس‬ٛ‫خ ظخ‬ٜ٘ٓٝ ،‫خ‬ٜٗ‫طوَِ ٖٓ ٗؤ‬ٝ ،‫خ‬ٜ‫ظ‬٤ٔٛ‫أ‬ٝ ‫ٔش حُِـش‬٤‫ ٖٓ ه‬ٚ‫ش ط٘ظو‬٤‫َ ِٓز‬ٛ‫ح‬ٞ‫ظ‬
‫خ‬ٜٗ‫جش أل‬٣‫خ رخَُى‬ٜ‫ل‬ٛٝ ٠ِ‫َ ػ‬ٜٗٝ ،‫جش‬٣‫َ حُظَؿٔش حَُى‬٤‫ش رظؤػ‬٤‫ حُؼَر‬٢‫ش ك‬٣ٞ‫حألهطخء حُِـ‬
ٖٓ ‫ٔش‬ٜٓ ‫حٗذ‬ٞ‫ء ؿ‬٢٠‫ٕ طَؿٔخص ط‬ٌٞ‫إٔ ط‬ٝ ،‫ُ حإلٓخءس ُِـش‬ٝ‫ٖٓ حٌُٖٔٔ إٔ طظـخ‬
٢‫ش ٖٓ أرَُ حألٓزخد حُظ‬٤‫ُؼَ حُظَؿٔش حُلَك‬ٝ. ‫خ‬ٜ‫ ٖٓ ُـظ‬ٙ‫ٕ حالٗظوخ‬ٝ‫خس حألٓش ى‬٤‫ك‬
‫ إٔ ال‬٠ِ‫خس حألٓش ػ‬٤‫ ك‬٢‫ش حُظَؿٔش ك‬٤ٔٛ‫ أ‬٠ُ‫ ا‬ٚ‫٘خ ٗ٘ز‬ٛٝ. ‫ع طِي حألهطخء‬ٞ٤ٗ ٠ُ‫ ا‬١‫طئى‬
‫ش‬٤‫ حُؼَر‬٢‫ش حُ٘خثؼش ك‬٣ٞ‫خثلش ٖٓ حألهطخء حُِـ‬١ ‫ٌح حُزلغ ػ٘ي‬ٛ ‫هق‬ٞ‫ظ‬٣ٝ ،‫خ‬ٜ‫ء ُِـظ‬٢ٔ‫ط‬
‫ـخُ ٓغ‬٣‫ء ٖٓ حإل‬٢٘‫خ ر‬ٜ٘ٓ ًَ ٢‫هغ حُوطؤ ك‬ٝ ‫ق‬٤ً ‫ق‬ٟٞ٣ٝ ،‫يح‬٣‫َ حُظَؿٔش طلي‬٤‫رظؤػ‬
ٖ٤‫ رخُِـظ‬،‫حَُٔحؿغ حُالُٓش ًِٔخ ططِذ حألَٓ ًُي‬ٝ ٍ‫خى‬ُٜٔ‫ ح‬٠ُ‫ِِّ ٖٓ اكخالص ا‬٣ ‫ٓخ‬
.‫ش‬٣ِ٤ِ‫حإلٗـ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤‫حُؼَر‬
،‫ٔش‬ٜٓ ‫ش‬٤‫و‬٣ٍ‫ ٓلطش طخ‬٢‫ال ك‬٤ِ‫هق ه‬ٞ‫ٗظ‬ٝ ‫ش حُظَؿٔش‬٤ٔٛ‫ ٖٓ أ‬ٙ‫ٗويّ ٌُُي رٔخ َٗح‬ٝ
‫ حالٗوالد‬٠ُ‫ ا‬ٞ‫ٕ إٔ طيػ‬ٝ‫ى‬ٝ ‫خ‬ٜ‫حرظ‬ٞ‫ٕ إٔ طْٔ ػ‬ٝ‫ش ى‬٤‫ حُؼَر‬٠ُ‫خ حُظَؿٔش ا‬ٜ٤‫ـض ك‬٠ٗ
.٢‫ل‬ُٛٞ‫َ ح‬٤ِ‫ٔظـٖ ػٖ حُظل‬٣ ُْ ٢‫ؾ حٓظوَحث‬ٜ٘ٔ‫ ر‬ًِٚ ‫ًُي‬ٝ. ‫خ‬ٜ٤ِ‫ػ‬
‫ع‬ٞ‫ه‬ُٞ‫طـ٘ذ ح‬ٝ ٙ‫ٍس حالٗظزخ‬َٟٝ ٠ُ‫ٖ رخُظَؿٔش ا‬٤ِ‫حُٔ٘ظـ‬ٝ ‫ؼخ‬٤ٔ‫س حٌُظخد ؿ‬ٞ‫ ريػ‬٢ٜ‫٘ظ‬٣ٝ
‫ٖ رؼيٓخ طٔض‬٤ٔ‫ظ‬ُٜٔ‫ ح‬١‫ي‬٣‫ٖ أ‬٤‫خ ر‬ٜ٘ٓ ‫خثلش‬١ ‫غ‬٠ٗٝ. ‫خ‬ٜ٘ٓ ‫خ حُ٘خثؼش‬ٜٛٞ‫ه‬ٝ ‫ حألهطخء‬٢‫ك‬
.‫خ‬ٜ‫لظ‬ٜ‫خ ٓؼخُـش ٗؼظوي ر‬ٜ‫ٓؼخُـظ‬

This research deals with an important field which is neglected by certain
researchers or they don‘t pay much attention to it when taking about culture
exchange and civilization talk and their chief means which is the language. The
research focuses on the presence of certain language mistakes which affect the
language value and significance under the influence of the improper translation
which the researcher insist to call it very bad translation because it might go
beyond mistreating the language itself as it can shed the light on different
important aspects of certain nation without affecting it‘s language negatively.
It is worth to be mentioned that the mechanic translation is the major cause of the
presence of such mistakes, as c consequence, the researchers focus on the
importance of the translation for a nation in the condition that it will not mistreat
the language. The research concentrate on certain limited language mistakes in
‫‪Arabic language as a result of translation and it explains briefly the way the‬‬
‫‪mistake occurs providing the necessary references when required either in English‬‬
‫‪or Arabic.‬‬
‫‪The research deals with the importance of translation in which the researchers‬‬
‫‪concentrate on a particular historical period when the proper translation into Arabic‬‬
‫‪flourished without affecting its rules.‬‬
‫‪That has been achieved through the reading between the lines at the same time not‬‬
‫‪neglecting the descriptive analytic method.‬‬
‫‪The research insists upon all writers and those who are specialized in the‬‬
‫‪translation field to be careful and avoid mistakes in general and particularly those‬‬
‫‪common ones. The researcher collected the following mistakes in order to be‬‬
‫‪viewed by those who are interested in this field bearing in mind that those common‬‬
‫‪mistakes have been handled properly according to the researchers‘ expectations.‬‬

‫حٌظَؿّش اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪ٚ‬أػَ٘خ ف‪ٛ١ٗ ٟ‬ع ح‪٤‬هطخء حٌٍغ‪٠ٛ‬ش‬

‫ظِض حُظَؿٔش ػِ‪ ٠‬حُي‪ٝ‬حّ طؼزَ ػٖ كخُش ٖٓ حُظ‪ٞ‬ح‪ َٛ‬ر‪ ٖ٤‬حألْٓ ػِ‪ ٠‬حهظالف‬
‫ؿ٘ٔ‪٤‬خط‪ٜ‬خ‪ٝ ،‬هي ًخٗض حُظَؿٔش ك‪ ٢‬حُؼَر‪٤‬ش – ٓ٘‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٝ‬اُ‪ٜ٤‬خ – ٓؼزَس ػٖ طِي حُلخُش‬
‫ر‪ٛٞ‬ل‪ٜ‬خ حٗؼٌخٓخ ُلخالص حألٓش ٖٓ ك‪٤‬غ حُ٘‪ ٜٝٞ‬حُل‪٠‬خٍ‪ ١‬أ‪ ٝ‬حُظَحؿغ ‪ٝ‬حٌُ٘‪ٙٞ‬؛‬
‫كل‪ ٢‬ػ‪ َٜ‬حُل‪٠‬خٍس حُؼَر‪٤‬ش حإلٓالٓ‪٤‬ش ٓٔؼِش رخُؼ‪ َٜ‬حُؼزخٓ‪ٓ ٢‬ؼال‪ٜٗ ،‬يص حُؼَر‪٤‬ش‬
‫حٓظيحىح ‪ٞ٣ًٝ‬ػخ كخهض ر‪ ًَ ٚ‬حُِـخص حُل‪٤‬ش‪ًٝ ،‬خٕ ًُي طؼز‪َ٤‬ح ػٖ حُظل‪ٞ‬م ‪ٝ‬حُظٔ‪ ِ٤‬أل‪َٛ‬‬
‫حُؼَر‪٤‬ش‪ٝ ،‬ط‪ٟٞ‬ق ًُي طِي حُو‪ٞ‬حثْ حُط‪ِ٣ٞ‬ش حُظ‪ ٢‬طِهَ ر‪ٜ‬خ حٌُٔظزخص حُؼَر‪٤‬ش ٖٓ أٓٔخء‬
‫حٌُظذ حُظ‪ ٢‬طَؿٔض أ‪ ٝ‬أُلض آٌٗحى‪ ،‬ك‪ٗ ٢‬ظ‪ ٠‬حُٔـخالص حُٔؼَك‪٤‬ش‪ ،‬كؼٌٔض حُِـش كخُش‬
‫ٖٓ كخالص حُظويّ حُل‪٠‬خٍ‪ ١‬رٔخ هيٓ‪ ٚ‬أر٘خإ‪ٛ‬خ ُإلٗٔخٗ‪٤‬ش ٖٓ ٓ٘ـِحص ‪ٝ.‬اًح ٓخ ح‪ِ١‬ؼ٘خ‬
‫ػِ‪٘ٓ ٠‬ـِحص حألٓش ك‪ ٢‬ػ‪َٜٗ‬خ ‪ٌٛ‬ح ‪ٝ‬هخٍٗخ‪ٛ‬خ رٔ٘ـِحص حألْٓ حألهَ‪٘ٓ ،ٟ‬ـي‪ٛ‬خ ‪ٟ‬ج‪ِ٤‬ش‬
‫آ‪ِ٣‬ش ُِٔو‪ٝ ١ٞ‬حالٗ‪٤ٜ‬خٍ‪ٓ ،‬ؼزَس رٌُي ػٖ كخُش حألٓش ٖٓ ك‪٤‬غ حُ‪٠‬ؼق ‪ٝ‬حُ‪ٜٞ‬حٕ‪ ،‬كخألٓش‬
‫حُٔزيػش حُٔ٘ـِس هخىٍس ػِ‪ ٠‬ط‪ٜ‬ي‪ َ٣‬اٗـخُحط‪ٜ‬خ اُ‪ ٠‬حألْٓ حألهَ‪ٝ ،ٟ‬حألٓش حُ‪٠‬ؼ‪٤‬لش أٓش‬
‫ٓٔظ‪ٌِٜ‬ش طؼ‪ ٖ٤‬ػِ‪ٓ ٠‬خ ‪٣‬زيػ‪ ٚ‬ح‪٥‬هَ‪ٝ. ٕٝ‬حُِـش طظؤػَ ر‪ ٌٜٙ‬حُلخُش؛ كٔغ ٓ٘ـِحص‬
‫حُل‪٠‬خٍس ط‪ ٚ‬ىٍ حألٓش حُٖٔ ِِ ؿِس ُـظ‪ٜ‬خ اُ‪ ٠‬حألْٓ حُٔٔظ‪ٌِٜ‬ش كظ٘خٍ حُِـش كظ‪ٜ‬خ ٖٓ حٌُ‪ٞ٣‬ع‬
‫‪ٝ‬حالٗظ٘خٍ‪ٌُٜ ،‬ح ٗـي حُِـش حُؼَر‪٤‬ش ريأص رخُ‪٠‬ؼق حٗؼٌخٓخ ُ‪٠‬ؼق أ‪ٛ‬لخر‪ٜ‬خ ‪ْ٤ُٝ‬‬
‫حٗؼٌخٓخ ُطز‪٤‬ؼظ‪ٜ‬خ؛ أ‪ ١‬إٔ حُ‪٠‬ؼق ُ‪ ْ٤‬ك‪ ٢‬حُِـش ‪ٝ‬اٗٔخ ك‪ ٌٙٛ ٢‬حألٓش حُظ‪ ٢‬طلَٔ حُِـش‪.‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬طزي‪ٓ ٝ‬ظخ‪ٌٛ َٛ‬ح حُ‪٠‬ؼق ك‪ ٢‬أٓ‪ٓ ٍٞ‬وظِلش‪ ،‬أرَُ‪ٛ‬خ ‪ٛ١ٗ:‬ع ح‪٤‬هطخء حٌٍغ‪٠ٛ‬ش‬
‫ٗ‪ٞ٤‬ػخ ىػخ رؼ‪ ٞ‬حُِـ‪ ٖ٤٣ٞ‬اُ‪ ٠‬حػظزخٍ‪ٛ‬خ ‪ٛ‬ل‪٤‬لش رٔزذ ًؼَس حٓظويحٓ‪ٜ‬خ ‪ًٌُ.‬ي حٔلٔخٍ‬
‫ِي٘خ ‪ٚ‬حٔظ٘خٍ٘خ ر‪ ٖ٤‬حألْٓ حألهَ‪ٗٝ ٟ‬ظ‪٤‬ـش ٌُُي ريأص رخُظَحؿغ ػِ‪ ٠‬أُٔ٘ش حُٔظٌِٔ‪ٖ٤‬‬
‫ر‪ٜ‬خ‪ ،‬كظ‪ ٠‬ريأٗخ َٗ‪٣ ٖٓ ٟ‬ظٌِْ ك‪ ٢‬حُ٘خٍع حُؼَر‪ ٢‬رِـخص ؿ‪ َ٤‬حُؼَر‪٤‬ش ًالٓخ ًخٓال أ‪ٝ‬‬
‫ٓظوطؼخ‪ ،‬حألَٓ حٌُ‪٣ ١‬و٘‪ٓ ٠‬ؼ‪ ٚ‬طـ‪٤٤‬ذ حُِـش حُؼَر‪٤‬ش ك‪٘ٓ ٢‬خف ػي‪٣‬يس ٖٓ حُل‪٤‬خس‪،‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬ه‪ٜٛٞ‬خ رؼي ٗ‪ٞ٤‬ع حُٔ‪ٜ‬طِلخص ؿ‪ َ٤‬حُؼَر‪٤‬ش ك‪ ٢‬حالٓظويحّ حُ‪ٝ ٢ٓٞ٤‬ك‪ ٢‬حُؼِ‪ّٞ‬‬
‫حُٔوظِلش‪ ،‬حُٔ‪٤‬خٓ‪٤‬ش ‪ٝ‬حالهظ‪ٜ‬خى‪٣‬ش ‪ٝ‬حالؿظٔخػ‪٤‬ش‪ٝ ،‬ؿ‪َٛ٤‬خ‪ٝ ،‬كظ‪ ٠‬ك‪ ٢‬ػِ‪ ّٞ‬حُِـش حُؼَر‪٤‬ش‬
‫ٗلٔ‪ٜ‬خ‪ ،‬حألَٓ حٌُ‪ٗ ١‬وَأ‪ ٙ‬رخٓظَٔحٍ ك‪ُ ٢‬ـش حُ٘وي حُؼَر‪ ٢‬حُلي‪٣‬غ ٓؼال ‪ٓ ٖٓٝ.‬ظخ‪َٛ‬‬
‫حُ‪٠‬ؼق أ‪٠٣‬خ ٗ‪ٛ١‬ع حٌٍ‪ٙ‬ـخص( حٌؼخِ‪١‬ش )رٌؼَس ‪ٝ‬حهظَحع ٓ‪ٜ‬طِلخص ؿي‪٣‬يس ال ك‪َٜ‬‬
‫ُ‪ٜ‬خ‪ٝ ،‬ػِ‪ ٠‬حألػَ ريأ ظ‪٘٣ ٖٓ ٍٜٞ‬خى‪ ١‬ربكالٍ ُ‪ٜ‬ـش ٓلِ‪٤‬ش ٓخ ري‪٣‬ال ػٖ حُِـش حُل‪٤ٜ‬لش‬
‫‪ٝ‬طؼٔ‪ٜٔ٤‬خ ػِ‪ ٠‬حألٓش‪ٌٛٝ ،‬ح حألَٓ ‪ٝ‬إ ُْ ‪ ٌٖ٣‬ؿي‪٣‬يح اال أٗ‪ ٚ‬هط‪ َ٤‬ؿيح‪ ،‬ألٗ‪ ٚ‬ريأ ‪٘٣‬ظؾ‬
‫ٖٓ ‪ٔ٣‬ظـ‪٤‬ذ ُ‪ ٌٜٙ‬حُلٌَس‪ٌ٣ٝ ،‬ل‪ ٢‬إٔ ٗٔظٔغ َُ٘٘س أهزخٍ رخُِ‪ٜ‬ـش حُؼخٓ‪٤‬ش طويٓ‪ٜ‬خ ك‪٠‬خث‪٤‬ش‬
‫حُِز٘خٗ‪٤‬ش ‪ٝ‬ؿ‪َٛ٤‬خ‪ُ٘ ،‬ؼَف ٓي‪ٗ (LBC) ٟ‬خثؼش ‪ُٜٝ‬خ ٖٓ ‪٣‬ظخرؼ‪ٜ‬خ ٓؼَ ك‪٠‬خث‪٤‬ش حٍ‬
‫حالٓظـخرش ُ‪ ٌٜٙ‬حُيػ‪ٞ‬حص‪ ،‬ػِٔخ رؤٕ طوي‪َ٘ٗ ْ٣‬حص حألهزخٍ ظَ كظ‪ٝ ٠‬هض هَ‪٣‬ذ ٖٓ‬
‫حُٔ‪ٞ‬حهق حَُٓٔ‪٤‬ش حُظ‪ ٢‬ال ‪ٔٔ٣‬ق ك‪ٜ٤‬خ رخٓظويحّ حُِ‪ٜ‬ـخص حُٔلِ‪٤‬ش( حُؼخٓ‪٤‬ش ‪ٌٖٔ٣ٝ).‬‬
‫حُلي‪٣‬غ أ‪٠٣‬خ ػٖ ٗ‪ٛ١‬ع حٌّ‪ٜ‬طٍلخص ح‪٤‬ؿٕز‪١‬ش ‪ٝ‬حٓظويحٓ‪ٜ‬خ ري‪٣‬ال ُِٔ‪ٜ‬طِلخص حُؼَر‪٤‬ش‪،‬‬
‫حألَٓ حٌُ‪٣ ١‬ؾ ‪٣‬ذ حُٔ‪ٜ‬طِق حُؼَر‪ٓ ٢‬غ أٗ‪ٞٓ ٚ‬ؿ‪ٞ‬ى‪ ،‬أ‪ ٌٖ٣ ُْ ُٞ ١‬حُٔ‪ٜ‬طِق أ‪ٓ ٝ‬ؼ٘خ‪ٙ‬‬
‫ٓ‪ٞ‬ؿ‪ٞ‬ىح الُظٔٔ٘خ رؼ‪ ٞ‬حُؼٌٍ ُٖٔ ‪ٔ٣‬ظويّ حُٔ‪ٜ‬طِق حألؿ٘ز‪ ٌُٖٝ ،٢‬حُِـش حُؼَر‪٤‬ش هخىٍس‬
‫ر‪ٓٞ‬خثَ ٗظ‪ٓ ٠‬ؼَ‪ٝ‬كش ػِ‪ ٠‬ا‪٣‬ـخى ٓوخرَ ‪ٍٝ‬رٔخ أًؼَ ُِٔ‪ٜ‬طِق حألؿ٘ز‪ ٢‬حُ‪ٞ‬حكي‪.‬‬
‫ُ‪ٌٜ‬ح ًِ‪ ٚ‬رخص ٖٓ حُ‪ ١ٍَٝ٠‬حُ‪ٞ‬ه‪ٞ‬ف رظؤٕ ‪ٔٓٝ‬ئ‪٤ُٝ‬ش أٓخّ ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حُظ‪ٞ‬ح‪ َٛ‬حُظ‪٢‬‬
‫أ‪ٛ‬زلض ط‪ٜ‬يى حُؼَر‪٤‬ش ‪ٝ‬أ‪ِٜٛ‬خ‪ٟٝٝ ،‬غ آُ‪٤‬خص ػِٔ‪٤‬ش ُِظزخىٍ حُؼوخك‪ٓ ٢‬غ حُِـخص حألهَ‪ٟ‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬ىٍحٓظ‪ٜ‬خ‪ٝ ،‬طلو‪٤‬ن حُظؤػَ ‪ٝ‬حُظؤػ‪ َ٤‬ى‪ ٕٝ‬حٌُ‪ٝ‬رخٕ ك‪ ٢‬حُؼوخكخص حألهَ‪ ،ٟ‬ألٕ ًُي إ ريأ‬
‫–‪ ٞٛٝ‬كخ‪- َٛ‬كٔ‪٤‬ئى‪ ١‬اُ‪ً ٠‬خٍػش ه‪٤ٓٞ‬ش ال طلٔي ػوزخ‪ٛ‬خ‪.‬‬
‫‪٘ٛ ٖٓٝ‬خ أ‪٠٣‬خ ط٘زغ أ‪٤ٔٛ‬ش ػوي ٓؼَ ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حُٔئطَٔحص حُظ‪٘٣ ٢‬زـ‪ ٢‬إٔ طؼَٔ ػِ‪ٍ ٠‬كي‬
‫حُؼوخكش حُؼَر‪٤‬ش رٔو‪ٓٞ‬خص ِٓ‪ٔ٤‬ش ُِظؼخَٓ ٓغ حُؼوخكخص حألهَ‪ ٟ‬ر‪ٛٞ‬ل‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٞ٘ٛ‬ح ُ‪ٜ‬خ ال‬
‫طخرؼخ؛ ألٕ حُظزؼ‪٤‬ش ط‪ٍٞ‬ع حُظوِق ‪ٜٔٓ.‬خ ًخٕ ٌِٗ‪ٜ‬خ‪.‬‬
‫‪٣‬ؤط‪ٌٛ ٢‬ح حُزلغ ُ‪٤‬ظ٘خ‪ ٍٝ‬ؿخٗزخ ٓ‪ٜٔ‬خ ‪٣‬ـلِ‪ ٚ‬رؼ‪ ٞ‬حُيحٍٓ‪ ،ٖ٤‬أ‪٣ ٝ‬وِِ‪ ٖٓ ٕٞ‬أ‪٤ٔٛ‬ظ‪،ٚ‬‬
‫ػ٘ي حُلي‪٣‬غ ػٖ ك‪ٞ‬حٍ حُل‪٠‬خٍحص ‪ٝ‬حُظزخىٍ حُؼوخك‪ٝ ٢‬أىحط‪ٜٔ‬خ ‪ ٢ٛٝ‬حُِـش ‪٣ٝ.‬وق ػ٘ي‬
‫ٗ‪ٞ٤‬ع ظ‪ٞ‬ح‪ِٓ َٛ‬ز‪٤‬ش ط٘ظو‪ ٖٓ ٚ‬ه‪ٔ٤‬ش حُِـش ‪ٝ‬أ‪٤ٔٛ‬ظ‪ٜ‬خ‪ٝ ،‬طوَِ ٖٓ ٗؤٗ‪ٜ‬خ‪ٜ٘ٓٝ ،‬خ ظخ‪َٛ‬س‬
‫ٗ‪ٞ٤‬ع حألهطخء حُِـ‪٣ٞ‬ش ك‪ ٢‬حُؼَر‪٤‬ش رظؤػ‪ َ٤‬حُظَؿٔش حَُى‪٣‬جش‪ٝ ،‬أ‪ َٛ‬ػِ‪ٛٝ ٠‬ل‪ٜ‬خ‬
‫رخَُى‪٣‬جش ألٗ‪ٜ‬خ ٖٓ حٌُٖٔٔ إٔ طظـخ‪ ُٝ‬حإلٓخءس ُِـش‪ٝ ،‬إٔ طٌ‪ ٕٞ‬طَؿٔخص ط‪٢٠‬ء ؿ‪ٞ‬حٗذ‬
‫ٓ‪ٜٔ‬ش ٖٓ ك‪٤‬خس حألٓش ى‪ ٕٝ‬حالٗظوخ‪ُ ٖٓ ٙ‬ـظ‪ٜ‬خ ‪ُٝ.‬ؼَ حُظَؿٔش حُلَك‪٤‬ش ٖٓ أرَُ‬
‫حألٓزخد حُظ‪ ٢‬طئى‪ ١‬اُ‪ٞ٤ٗ ٠‬ع طِي حألهطخء ‪٘ٛٝ.‬خ ٗ٘ز‪ ٚ‬اُ‪ ٠‬أ‪٤ٔٛ‬ش حُظَؿٔش ك‪ ٢‬ك‪٤‬خس‬
‫حألٓش ػِ‪ ٠‬إٔ ال طٔ‪٢‬ء ُِـظ‪ٜ‬خ‪٣ٝ ،‬ظ‪ٞ‬هق ‪ٌٛ‬ح حُزلغ ػ٘ي ‪١‬خثلش ٖٓ حألهطخء حُِـ‪٣ٞ‬ش‬
‫حُ٘خثؼش ك‪ ٢‬حُؼَر‪٤‬ش رظؤػ‪ َ٤‬حُظَؿٔش طلي‪٣‬يح‪ٟٞ٣ٝ ،‬ق ً‪٤‬ق ‪ٝ‬هغ حُوطؤ ك‪ٜ٘ٓ ًَ ٢‬خ‬
‫ر٘‪٢‬ء ٖٓ حإل‪٣‬ـخُ ٓغ ٓخ ‪ ٖٓ ِِّ٣‬اكخالص اُ‪ ٠‬حُٔ‪ٜ‬خىٍ ‪ٝ‬حَُٔحؿغ حُالُٓش ًِٔخ ططِذ‬
‫حألَٓ ًُي‪ ،‬رخُِـظ‪ ٖ٤‬حُؼَر‪٤‬ش ‪ٝ‬حإلٗـِ‪٣ِ٤‬ش‪.‬‬
‫‪ٗٝ‬ويّ ٌُُي رٔخ َٗح‪ ٖٓ ٙ‬أ‪٤ٔٛ‬ش حُظَؿٔش ‪ٗٝ‬ظ‪ٞ‬هق هِ‪٤‬ال ك‪ٓ ٢‬لطش طخٍ‪٣‬و‪٤‬ش ٓ‪ٜٔ‬ش‪،‬‬
‫ٗ‪٠‬ـض ك‪ٜ٤‬خ حُظَؿٔش اُ‪ ٠‬حُؼَر‪٤‬ش ى‪ ٕٝ‬إٔ طْٔ ػ‪ٞ‬حرظ‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٝ‬ى‪ ٕٝ‬إٔ طيػ‪ ٞ‬اُ‪ ٠‬حالٗوالد‬
‫ػِ‪ٜ٤‬خ ‪ًُٝ.‬ي ًِ‪ ٚ‬رٔ٘‪ٜ‬ؾ حٓظوَحث‪ٗ ٢‬و‪ٔ٣ ُْ ٢ٜ‬ظـٖ ػٖ حُظلِ‪ َ٤‬حُ‪ٛٞ‬ل‪.٢‬‬
‫‪٘٣ٝ‬ظ‪ ٢ٜ‬ريػ‪ٞ‬س حٌُظخد ؿٔ‪٤‬ؼخ ‪ٝ‬حُٔ٘ظـِ‪ ٖ٤‬رخُظَؿٔش اُ‪ٍَٟٝ ٠‬س حالٗظزخ‪ٝ ٙ‬طـ٘ذ‬
‫حُ‪ٞ‬ه‪ٞ‬ع ك‪ ٢‬حألهطخء ‪ٝ‬ه‪ٜٛٞ‬خ حُ٘خثؼش ٓ٘‪ٜ‬خ ‪٠ٗٝ.‬غ ‪١‬خثلش ٓ٘‪ٜ‬خ ر‪ ٖ٤‬أ‪٣‬ي‪ ١‬حُٔ‪ٜ‬ظٔ‪ٖ٤‬‬
‫رؼيٓخ طٔض ٓؼخُـظ‪ٜ‬خ ٓؼخُـش ٗؼظوي ر‪ٜ‬لظ‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٓٝ.‬خ حٌُٔخٍ اال هلل ‪ٝ‬كي‪.ٙ‬‬
‫ىحػ‪ ٖ٤‬حُٔ‪ – ٠ُٞ‬ػِ ‪ٝ‬ؿَ – إٔ ‪٣‬ظوزَ ػِٔ٘خ ‪ٌٛ‬ح هخُ‪ٜ‬خ ُويٓش ُـش ًظخر‪ ٚ‬حٌَُ‪ ،ْ٣‬اٗ‪ٚ‬‬
‫ٓٔ‪٤‬غ ٓـ‪٤‬ذ حُيػخء‪.‬‬

‫أ‪: ٨ٚ‬حٌظَؿّش ‪ٚ‬أّ٘‪١‬ظ‪ٙ‬خ ‪ِٚ‬لخً‪َ٘٠‬خ‬
‫ٗلظخؽ__________ ك‪ً ٢‬ؼ‪ ٖٓ َ٤‬حألك‪٤‬خٕ اُ‪ ٠‬حُزلغ ػٖ ػالهش حُِلظش حُؼَر‪٤‬ش ٓغ ٓخ ‪٘٣‬ظن‬
‫ٓؼ‪ٜ‬خ ٖٓ أ‪ٝ َٛ‬حكي‪ُٔ ،‬ؼَكش ػالهش حُِلظش ٓغ ؿ‪َٛ٤‬خ‪ٝ ،‬حُؼالهش ر‪ ٖ٤‬ى‪ٝ‬حُ‪ٜ‬خ؛ رؼ‪ٜ٠‬خ ٓغ‬
‫رؼ‪ٌُ ،ٞ‬ح كبٗ٘خ ال ٗلخؿؤ اًح ‪ٝ‬ؿيٗخ ػالهش ه‪٣ٞ‬ش ر‪ ٖ٤‬ى‪ٝ‬حٍ حألُلخظ ػ٘يٓخ طظوخٍد ك‪٢‬‬
‫أ‪ُٜٞٛ‬خ حُ‪َٜ‬ك‪٤‬ش‪.‬‬
‫كظَؿْ ‪ٍٝ‬ؿْ ‪ٝ‬طَؽ ‪ٝ‬طَؿٔخٕ( رلظق حُظخء ‪ٜٟٔٝ‬خ)‪ ،‬ر‪ٜ٘٤‬خ ًِ‪ٜ‬خ ػالهش ‪٤١ٝ‬يس‪ ،‬كوي‬
‫‪ٝ‬حُض ٍ ؿٔخٕ ‪:‬حُٔق َٓ ُِٔخٕ ‪ٝ.‬ك‪ ٢‬كي‪٣‬غ‬ ‫َّ‬ ‫ؿٔخ ٕ‬ ‫ؿخء ك‪ُٔ ٢‬خٕ حُؼَد" ‪:‬طَؿْ ‪:‬حُظَُّ‬
‫‪ْ ٍ ٙ‬هََ ‪:‬‬
‫هخٍ ُُض ٍ ؿٔخٗ‪ٚ‬؛ حُظَؿٔخٕ‪ ،‬رخُ‪ٝ ْ٠‬حُلظق ‪ ٞٛ:‬حٌُ‪َ٣ ١‬ض ٍ ِِ ؿْ حٌُالّ أَ‪٘٣ ١‬وِ‪ُ ٖٓ ٚ‬ـش اُ‪٠‬‬
‫ُـش أُهَ‪ٝ ،ٟ‬حُـٔغ حُظََّح ِِ ؿْ‪ٝ ،‬حُظخء ‪ٝ‬حُ٘‪ُ ٕٞ‬حثيطخٕ‪ٝ ،‬هي َِ ص ٍ ؿٔ‪َٝ ٚ‬ص ٍ ؿْ ػ٘‪َٝ ،ٚ‬ص‬
‫ٍ ؿٔخٕ‬
‫ُٓؼَ حُظ‪ًٌَٛ٣ ُْ ٢‬خ ٓ‪٤‬ز‪ ،ٚ٣ٞ‬هخٍ حرٖ ؿ٘‪: ٢‬أٓخ َِ ص ٍ ؿٔخٕ كوي كٌ‪٤‬ض ك‪ٚ٤‬‬ ‫‪ ٖٓ ٞٛ‬حٍ‬
‫ٓٔخٕ‪ًٌُٝ ،‬ي حُظخء‬ ‫َ‬
‫ُِ ص ٍ ؿٔخٕ ر‪ ْ٠‬أ‪ٓٝ ،ُٚٝ‬ؼخُ‪ ُِ ٚ‬كغ ُِ ُالٕ ى ػْض ٍكخٕ ‪ ٝ‬ىف‬
‫أَ‪٠٣‬خ ك‪ َِ ٖٔ٤‬كَظل‪ٜ‬خ‬
‫ػلَ ألَٗ‪ ٚ‬هي ‪٣‬ـ‪ٓ ُٞ‬غ حألَُق ‪ٝ‬حُ٘‪ ٖٓ ٕٞ‬حألَٓؼِش ٓخ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫أَ‪٤ِٛ‬ش‪ٝ ،‬إ ُْ ‪ ٌٖ٣‬ك‪ ٢‬حٌُالّ ٓؼَ ؽ‬
‫ُ‬ ‫ْهٖ ً‪٣‬خٕ ‪ٛ ١ ٍ ٝ‬وخٕ‪ ،‬أَال طَ‪ ٟ‬أَٗ‪ ْ٤ُ ٚ‬ك‪ ٢‬حٌُالّ ُِ ف‬ ‫ْػُ٘ل‪ٞ‬حٕ ‪ٝ‬‬ ‫ُ‪ٞ‬ال‪ٔٛ‬خ ُْ ‪٣‬ـِ ى‬
‫‪ٝ‬ال ف ػِ‪٢‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬ال َِ ف ‪ ١‬ػَ؟" ‪ٝ‬ك‪ ٚ٤‬أ‪٠٣‬خ "أٍطؾ حٌُالّ ‪:‬أ‪ ١‬حُظزْ‪ٝ ،‬حَُطخؽ ‪ ٞٛ:‬حُزخد حُٔـِن‪ٝ ،‬حَُٔحطؾ‪:‬‬
‫ّ‬ ‫ّ ‪:‬حُوظَ‪ٝ ،‬هي ‪ٍٝ‬ى ك‪ ٢‬حُوَإٓ حَُ ؽ‬ ‫‪ ٢ٛ‬حُطَم حُ‪٤٠‬وش ‪ٝ " 1‬ك‪ ٢‬حُؼ‪ٍ:" ٖ٤‬ؿْ ‪:‬حَُ ؽ‬
‫ّ ألٗ‪ً ْٜ‬خٗ‪ٞ‬ح ِاًح هظِ‪ٞ‬ح‬ ‫حُوظَ ك‪ ٢‬ؿ‪ٟٞٓ َ٤‬غ ٖٓ ًظخد هللا ػِ ‪ٝ‬ؿَ‪ِ ٝ ،‬اٗٔخ ه‪ُِ َ٤‬وظَ ٍ ؽ‬
‫‪ ٙ‬رخُلـخٍس كظ‪٣ ٠‬وظِ‪ ،ٙٞ‬ػْ ه‪ ٌَُ َ٤‬هظَ ٍ ؽ ّ‪ٍ ٚ٘ٓٝ ،‬ؿْ‬ ‫ٍؽ ِ ال ٍ ٓ‪ٞ‬‬
‫حُغ ‪ ١‬ر‪ِ ٕ ِِ ٢‬اًح َُ ٗ‪٤‬خ‪،‬‬
‫ؽ‬ ‫ٍ ؽ ّ ‪ٍ ١ٙ‬‬ ‫ّ حَُٓ‪ ٢‬رخُلـخٍس‬ ‫‪ٝ‬أَ‪ ِٚٛ‬حَُٓ‪ ٢‬رخُلـخٍس ‪.‬حرٖ ٓ‪٤‬ي‪: ٙ‬حَُ ؽ‬
‫ّ ‪ ٍ ٙ‬ؿٔخ‪ ،‬ك‪ٜٞ‬‬
‫ّ ٍ ؿ‪ِ ٍٝ ّٞ‬ؿ‪ٝ. 2 ّ ٢‬ك‪ ٢‬حُ‪: "٢٤ٓٞ‬طَؿْ حٌُالّ ‪:‬ر‪ٟٝٝ ٚ٘٤‬ل‪ٗٝ ،ٚ‬وِ‪ُ ٖٓ ٚ‬ـش اُ‪ ٠‬أهَ‪.ٟ‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬طَؿْ ُلالٕ ‪ ًًَ:‬طَؿٔظ‪ٝ. ٚ‬حُظَؿٔخٕ ‪:‬حُٔظَؿْ‪ٝ ،‬طَؿْ حٌُالّ ‪:‬ر‪ٟٝٝ ٚ٘٤‬ل‪ًٝ ،ٚ‬الّ‬
‫ؿ‪ٝ ،َٙ٤‬ػ٘‪ٗ: ٚ‬وِ‪ُ ٖٓ ٚ‬ـش اُ‪ ٠‬أهَ‪ُٝ ٟ‬لالٕ ًًَ طَؿٔظ‪. ٚ‬حُظَؿٔخٕ ‪:‬حُٔظَؿْ( ؽ)‬
‫‪1‬حرٖ ٓ٘ظ‪ُٔ: ٍٞ‬خٕ حُؼَد‪ ،‬رخد حُٔ‪ ،ْ٤‬ك‪ َٜ‬حُظخء‪ٓ،‬خىس طَؿْ ‪ٝ.‬رخد حُـ‪ ْ٤‬ك‪ َٜ‬حَُحء‪ٓ ،‬خىس ٍطؾ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬حُلَح‪٤ٛ‬ي‪. ١‬حُوِ‪ َ٤‬رٖ أكٔي ‪ٓ:‬ؼـْ حُؼ‪ٓ ،ٖ٤‬خىس ٍؿْ‪.‬‬
‫طَحؿْ ‪ٝ‬طَحؿٔش( حُظَؿٔش )طَؿٔش كالٕ ٓ‪َ٤‬ط‪ٝ ٚ‬ك‪٤‬خط‪ (ٚ‬ؽ )طَحؿْ ‪ٝ 3.‬ك‪ ٢‬حُ‪٢٤ٓٞ‬‬
‫أ‪٠٣‬خ" ‪ٍ:‬ؿٔ‪ٍ: ٚ‬ؿٔخ ٍٓخ‪ ٙ‬رخُلـخٍس ‪ٝ‬هظِ‪ ٚ‬ر‪ٜ‬خ‪ٝ ،‬كالٗخ ‪ٍٓ:‬خ‪ ٙ‬رخُللٖ ٖٓ حُو‪ُٝ ٍٞ‬ؼ٘‪ٚ‬‬
‫‪َ١ٝ‬ى‪ٛٝ ٙ‬ـَ‪ٝ ،ٙ‬ك‪ ٢‬حُظِ٘‪ َ٣‬حُؼِ‪ُ: (ِ٣‬جٖ ُْ ط٘ظ‪ ٚ‬ألٍؿٔ٘ي )‪ٝ‬رخُظٖ ‪ ٠ٍٓ:‬ر‪ٝ ٚ‬حُوزَ‪:‬‬
‫‪ٟٝ‬غ ػِ‪ ٚ٤‬حَُؿخّ ك‪َٓ ٜٞ‬ؿ‪ٍٝ ّٞ‬ؿ‪ٝ... ْ٤‬حَُؿْ – َٗػخ ‪-:‬هظَ حُِحٗ‪٤ٍٓ ٢‬خ‬
‫رخُلـخٍس ‪٣ٝ.‬وخٍ ‪:‬هخُ‪ٍ ٚ‬ؿٔخ رخُـ‪٤‬ذ ‪:‬ظ٘خ ٖٓ ؿ‪ َ٤‬ىُ‪ٛٝ ،َ٤‬خٍ كالٕ ٍؿٔخ ‪:‬ال ‪ٞ٣‬هق‬
‫ػِ‪ ٠‬كو‪٤‬وظ‪ٓٝ ،ٚ‬خ ‪َ٣‬ؿْ ر‪ ٖٓ ٚ‬كـخٍس ‪ٝ‬ؿ‪َٛ٤‬خ( ؽ )ٍؿ‪ٝ. ّٞ‬حَُؿْ ‪:‬حُلـخٍس حُظ‪٢‬‬
‫ط‪ٟٞ‬غ ػِ‪ ٠‬حُوز‪ٝ ٞ‬حُوزَ ‪ٝ‬حُزجَ ‪ٝ‬حُظ٘‪ (ٍٞ‬ؽ )ٍؿخّ ‪ٝ‬أٍؿخّ‪. 4‬‬
‫‪ٌٛٝ‬ح ‪ َ٤٘٣‬ر‪ٟٞٞ‬ف اُ‪ ٠‬إٔ حُظَؿٔش ال هالف ك‪ٓ ٢‬ؼ٘خ‪ٛ‬خ ال هي‪ٔ٣‬خ ‪ٝ‬ال كي‪٣‬ؼخ‪،‬‬
‫ًٌُي كبٗ‪ٜ‬خ ظِض ٓؼَ‪ٝ‬كش ػِ‪ ٠‬حُي‪ٝ‬حّ ػ٘ي حُؼَد ر‪ٌٜ‬ح حُٔؼ٘‪ ٠‬ال ؿ‪ ٞٛٝ َ٤‬ر‪٤‬خٕ ُـش ٓخ‬

‫رِـش أهَ‪ٝ ،ٟ‬حُظَؿٔش ‪ ٢ٛ‬حُ٘ٔن ‪ٝ‬حُ٘ٔن ‪ ٞٛ‬ارطخٍ حُ٘‪٢‬ء ‪ٝ‬اهخٓش آهَ ٓوخٓ‪ٔٓٝ. ٚ‬خ‬
‫كخص ٗظز‪ٓ ٖ٤‬غ ُ‪ َ٤ٛ‬حُو‪ِ٣ٞ‬ي‪ ١‬حُيالالص ح‪٥‬ط‪٤‬ش ‪:‬إٔ حُظَؿٔش ال طٌ‪ٌ٘ٔٓ ٕٞ‬ش اال اًح طٌِْ‬
‫حُٔظَؿْ ُـش أهَ‪ُ ٟ‬حثيس ػٖ ُـظ‪ ٚ‬حألّ ‪.‬ػْ إ حُظَؿٔش حُظخٓش حُ٘‪ٜ‬خث‪٤‬ش ال ‪ٝ‬ؿ‪ٞ‬ى ُ‪ٜ‬خ ألٗ‪ٜ‬خ‬
‫إ ‪ٝ‬ؿيص كبٗ‪ٜ‬خ ٓظوظَ حُ٘‪ٝ ٚ‬حُوَحءس ‪ٝ.‬حُظَؿٔش ال طٌ‪ٔٗ ٕٞ‬وش ٓطخروش أل‪،ُِٚ٘ َٛ‬‬
‫رَ ‪ ٢ٛ‬ط٘خٓذ حُلٌَ ‪ٝ‬هض ظ‪ٍٜٛٞ‬خ ‪ٝ‬هي ال طالثٔ‪ ٚ‬ك‪ٝ ٢‬هض آهَ ‪ٝ.‬حُظَؿٔش ُ‪ٔ٤‬ض‬
‫طـَرش طٌَحٍ ُأل‪ َٛ‬رَ كًَش ط‪٤ُٞ‬ي حُل‪ٞ‬حٍم ‪ٝ‬اظ‪ٜ‬خٍ حُٔوظِق ‪ٝ‬حُٔزخؿض ‪ٝ.‬حُظَؿٔش‬
‫ُ‪ٔ٤‬ض ٓخ ‪ ٖٔ٠٣‬ك‪٤‬خس حُ٘‪ ٚ‬حُٔظَؿْ ‪ٝ‬طيح‪ ُٚٝ‬كلٔذ رَ ٓخ ‪ ٖٔ٠٣‬أ‪٠٣‬خ ك‪٤‬خس حُِـش‬
‫‪ٝ‬حُلٌَ ‪ٝ‬طيح‪ُٜٔٝ‬خ ‪.‬كخُظَؿٔش ُ‪ٔ٤‬ض أٓخٍس طزؼ‪٤‬ش ‪ٗٝ‬وال ‪ٝ‬ؿٔ‪ٞ‬ىح رَ ػالٓش كًَش ‪٘ٗٝ‬خ‪١‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬ك‪٤‬خس ‪ٝ‬اريحع ‪ٝ.‬حُظَؿٔش ُ‪ٔ٤‬ض أىحس ُالٓظؼٔخٍ ‪ٝ‬حُ‪٘ٔ٤ٜ‬ش ‪ٝ‬طَٔ‪ َ٣‬أٌٗخٍ حُ‪َٜ‬حع رَ‬
‫ك‪٠‬خء ٓؼخهلش ‪ٝ‬ك‪ٞ‬حٍ ‪ٝ‬طوخ‪ٛ‬ذ ‪ٝ‬كٖٔ ‪٤ٟ‬خكش ُـ‪٣ٞ‬ش أ‪٣ ٖ٣‬وغ حالكظلخٍ رخُـَ‪٣‬ذ‬
‫‪ٝ‬حألؿ٘ز‪ٝ ٢‬حُٔـخ‪ َ٣‬أ‪ٔ٣‬خ حكظلخٍ ‪٣ٝ‬وغ طٌَ‪ٝ ٚٔ٣‬طزـ‪٣ٝ ِٚ٤‬ؼط‪ ُٚ ٠‬كن حٌُالّ ‪ٝ‬حُ‪ٞ‬ؿ‪ٞ‬ى‬
‫‪ٓ3‬ـٔغ حُِـش حُؼَر‪٤‬ش ‪:‬حُٔؼـْ حُ‪ ،٢٤ٓٞ‬رخد حُظخء‪ٓ،‬خىس طَؿْ‪.‬‬
‫‪ٗ4‬لٔ‪ ،ٚ‬رخد حَُحء‪ٓ ،‬خىس ٍؿْ‪.‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬حُلؼَ ى‪ ٕٝ‬أ‪ ١‬اه‪ٜ‬خء أ‪ ٝ‬طٔ‪ٓٝ. 5 ِ٤٤‬غ إٔ حُٔؼخؿْ ُْ طَ٘ اُ‪ ٠‬إٔ حُظلٔ‪ َ٤‬ىحهَ حُِـش‬
‫حُ‪ٞ‬حكيس ‪٣‬ؼي طَؿٔش اال إٔ رؼ‪ ْٜ٠‬ػي‪ ٙ‬طَؿٔش ػِ‪ ٠‬أٓخّ إٔ حُظَؿٔش ُ‪ٔ٤‬ض ٓـَى ٗوَ‬
‫ٍٓخُش ًالٓ‪٤‬ش ٖٓ ُـش اُ‪ ٠‬أهَ‪ٝ ،ٟ‬اٗٔخ ‪ ٌٖٔ٣‬إٔ طٌ‪ ٕٞ‬طؤ‪ٓ ًَ َ٣ٝ‬ـٔ‪ٞ‬ع ىحٍ ىحهَ‬
‫حُـٔخػش حُِـ‪٣ٞ‬ش ٗلٔ‪ٜ‬خ‪ ٌٖٔ٣ ،‬إٔ ٗٔ‪ ِ٤‬أ‪٠٣‬خ ر‪: ٖ٤‬حُظَؿٔش حُيحهِ‪٤‬ش ‪ ٢ٛٝ‬حَُ٘ف‬
‫‪ٝ‬حُظلٔ‪ َ٤‬رخٓظؼٔخٍ حُوخٓ‪ٝ ّٞ‬طٔؼَ ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حُظخ‪َٛ‬س ؿ‪ َٛٞ‬طلٌَ حُِـش ك‪ً ٢‬حط‪ٜ‬خ ‪٢ٛٝ‬‬
‫حُظخ‪َٛ‬س حألٓخٓ‪٤‬ش حُظ‪ ٢‬طؼظٔي ػِ‪ٜ٤‬خ أ‪ُ ١‬ـش ُظلون ٗٔ‪ٛٞ‬خ ‪ٝ‬طط‪ٍٛٞ‬خ ‪ٝ‬طؼظٔي ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حُظخ‪َٛ‬س‬
‫ػِ‪ٓ ٠‬زيأ ٗ‪: ٞٛٝ َ٤ٜ‬ه‪ ٍٞ‬حألَٓ ٗلٔ‪ ٚ‬رٌَ٘ ٓوظِق ‪ٝ 6.‬هي هَأٗخ ػِ‪ ٠‬حُي‪ٝ‬حّ ٗؼَح‬
‫‪ ٌٙٛ ًٌَ٣‬حُظخ‪َٛ‬س ٓٔخ ‪٣‬يَُ ػِ‪ ٠‬أ‪٤ٔٛ‬ظ‪ٜ‬خ ك‪ ٢‬ك‪٤‬خط٘خ حُؼَر‪٤‬ش هي‪ٔ٣‬خ ‪ٝ‬كي‪٣‬ؼخ‪٣ ،‬و‪ٍٞ‬‬
‫ِ٘غ ِِ د ‪١١‬زًخ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌّغخٔ‪ ٟ‬رِّٕي س حٌَر‪١‬غ َ َْ حي ُِخ ِِ ْ‬ ‫َِغخٔ‪ ٟ‬حٌ ّ‬
‫‪ٌٚ‬ه ْ حٌفظ‪ ٝ‬حٌؼَد ‪ ٞ‬ف‪ٙ١‬خ غَ‪ ٞ‬د حٌ‪ٛ‬ؽ ٖ ‪ٚ‬حٌ‪ ٟ‬ى ‪ٚ‬حٌٍٔخ ِِ ْ‬
‫ٌٔخٍ ِِرُظَؽ ِخ ِِ ْ‬
‫َ‬ ‫ٓخٍ ف‪ٙ١‬خ ٍٓ‪ّ١‬خ ْ َِ‬‫ِ‪٩‬ع د ِؿَّٓ س ٌ‪َ ٛ‬‬
‫أِخ ػٓ ريح‪٠‬خص حٌظَؿّش فٍ‪ ِٓ ْ١‬حٌٔ‪ ًٙ‬حٌلي‪٠‬غ ػٓ ريح‪٠‬ش ‪ٚ‬ح‪ٟ‬لش ٌ‪ٙ‬خ ػّ‪ِٛ‬خ‪،‬‬
‫وٌٌه حٌظَؿّش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‪١ٓٚ ،‬ي‪ ٍٚ‬ح٘ظّخِٕخ ك‪ٛ‬ي حٌظَؿّش اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‪ ،‬حٌظ‪ ٨ ٟ‬طؼَف‬
‫ٌ‪ٙ‬خ ريح‪٠‬ش ِليىس‪ ،‬فمي ػَف ِظَؿّ‪ِ ْٛ‬ئ‪ ٌْٛٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬ػ‪ َٜ‬حٌفَحػٕش ‪ٚ‬حٌزخرٍ‪،ٓ١١‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬حٓظَّص حٌظَؿّش ِغ ّٔ‪ ٛ‬حٌّـظّغ ‪ٚ‬طط‪ِٚ ،ٍٖٛ‬غ ظ‪ ٍٛٔ ٍٛٙ‬ح‪ ،َ٩ٓ٦‬اً ح٘ظُ‬
‫‪ٕ٠5‬ظَ‪:‬حٌو‪ٍ٠ٛ‬ي‪: َ١ُ٘. ٞ‬حٌظَؿّش ‪ٚ‬حٌغ‪٠َ١‬ش ‪:‬كٔٓ حٌ‪١٠‬خفش حٌٍغ‪٠ٛ‬ش‪ِٕ ،‬ظي‪٠‬خص ػظ‪١‬يس‪ ،‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّ‪ٛ‬لغ‬
‫‪( :‬ح‪ٌ٨‬ىظَ‪ٟٔٚ‬‬
‫‪ 7 ،‬حٌزَل‪ٛ‬ل‪. ٟ‬ػزي حٌَكّٓ ‪َٗ:‬ف ى‪ٛ٠‬حْ حٌّظٕز‪ ،ٟ‬ىحٍ حٌىظخد حٌؼَر‪ ،ٟ‬ر‪َٚ١‬ص‪ٌ ،‬زٕخْ‪ ،‬ؽ ‪4،/ 1986‬‬
‫( ‪ٚ384‬أ‪ٟ‬خف حٌ٘خٍف" ‪:‬حٌظَؿّخْ – ‪ ٛ٘ٚ‬حٌٌ‪٠ ٞ‬فَٔ و‪ َ٩‬غ‪ َٖ١‬رٍٔخٔٗ – رفظق حٌظخء ‪383ٙ -‬‬
‫‪ّٟٙٚ‬خ‪ٚ".‬أ‪ٍٚ‬ى ل‪ٛ‬ي ٔمخىس ح‪ٓ٤‬ي‪:ٞ‬‬
‫‪ٍٚ ًِٕٙٚ‬ىطٗ حٌظمخ‪١‬خ ٌُ أٌك اً ‪ٍٚ‬ىطٗ ف ٍح‪١‬خ‬
‫ا‪ ٨‬حٌلّخَ حٌ‪ٍٛ‬ق ‪ٚ‬حٌغطخ‪١‬خ ف‪ٍ٠ ٓٙ‬غطٓ رٗ اٌغخ‪١‬خ‬
‫وخٌظَؿّخْ ٌم‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٤‬زخ‪١‬خ‬

‫حٌَٓ‪ٛ‬ي حٌىَ‪ ٍٝٛ – ُ٠‬هللا ػٍ‪ - ٍُٓٚ ٗ١‬رّؼَفش طـخٍد ح‪ ُِ٤‬ح‪٤‬هَ‪ٚ ٜ‬ح‪ٓ٨‬ظفخىس ِٓ‬
‫ِؼخٍف‪ٙ‬خ‪ٍٓ ْ٤ٚ ،‬خٌش ح‪ َ٩ٓ٦‬وخٔض كي‪٠‬ؼش ‪ٚ‬ف‪ ٍٛ١ ٟ‬ح‪ٍ٨‬طىخُ فمي وخْ ح‪٘٨‬ظّخَ رؤِ‪ٍٛ‬‬
‫حٌي‪ٚ ٓ٠‬حٌظَ٘‪٠‬غ ٌٗ أ‪٠ٌٛٚ‬ش‪ٚ ،‬ح‪٘٨‬ظّخَ رخٌظَؿّش ‪٠‬ؼي ػخٔ‪٠ٛ‬خ‪ِٚ ،‬غ ًٌه ٌُ ‪٠‬غفٍٗ حٌَٓ‪ٛ‬ي‪،‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬وٌٌه فؼً حٌوٍفخء حٌَحٗي‪ ،ْٚ‬فؼَّ رٓ حٌوطخد – ٍ‪ ٟٟ‬هللا ػٕٗ ‪ -‬أػط‪ ٝ‬أ‪ٚ‬حَِٖ‬
‫ٌظَؿّش حٌّئٌفخص حٌفخٍٓ‪١‬ش ف‪ِ ٟ‬ـخي طٕظ‪ ُ١‬حٌي‪ٌٚ‬ش ‪ٚ‬حٌم‪ٛ‬حٔ‪ٚ ٓ١‬حٌـزخ‪٠‬ش ‪ٗٚ‬ئ‪ ْٚ‬ح‪٦‬ىحٍس‬
‫‪ٚ‬حٌّخي ‪ ٨ٛٛٚٚ.‬اٌ‪ ٝ‬ػ‪ َٜ‬حٌل‪٠‬خٍس حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ح‪١ِ٩ٓ٦‬ش ارخْ حُى٘خٍ حٌؼمً حٌؼَر‪ٟ‬‬
‫ح‪ ِٟ٩ٓ٦‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼ‪ َٜ‬حٌؼزخٓ‪ ،ٟ‬فؼزي حٌٍّه رٓ َِ‪ٚ‬حْ حٌٌ‪ ٞ‬كٍَ ح‪٨‬لظ‪ٜ‬خى ِٓ حٌؼّ‪٩‬ص‬
‫ح‪٤‬ؿٕز‪١‬ش ‪ٛٚ‬ه حٌي‪ٕ٠‬خٍ حٌؼَر‪ ،ٟ‬ػًّ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬طٕ٘‪ ٢١‬كَوش حٌظَؿّش ‪ٚ‬ىػّ‪ٙ‬خ ‪ٚ‬طٕظ‪ّٙ١‬خ‬
‫ٌظًّ٘ ؿّ‪١‬غ ح‪ٚ ُِ٤‬حٌؼمخفخص ِٓ ‪٨‬ط‪ٕٛ٘ٚ ٓ١‬ى ‪ٚ‬ألزخ‪ٚ ١‬أكزخٕ‪ ،‬ح‪ َِ٤‬حٌٌ‪٠ ٞ‬ـؼٍٕخ ٔؼيٖ‬
‫حٌّئْٓ حٌفؼٍ‪ٌٍ ٟ‬ظَؿّش اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ر‪ٛٛ‬ف‪ٙ‬خ كَوش ‪ٚ‬ظخَ٘س ‪ٚ.‬لي رٍغض حٌظَؿّش‬
‫ِـي٘خ ف‪ ٟ‬ػ‪٘ َٜ‬خٍ‪ ْٚ‬حٌَٗ‪١‬ي ‪ٚ‬حٌّظ‪ٛ‬وً ‪ٚ‬حٌّؤِ‪.ْٛ‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼ‪ٔ َٜ‬فٔٗ ػَفض أّٓخء وؼ‪َ١‬س ِٓ حٌّظَؿّ‪ ٓ١‬أرَُُ٘ ‪:‬ػزي هللا رٓ‬
‫حٌّمفغ‪ٚ ،‬ؿ‪ٍٛ١‬ؿ‪ ّٛ١‬ؿزَحث‪ ً١‬روظ‪ٛ٘١‬ع ‪ٛ٠ٚ‬كٕخ رٓ ِخٓ‪ٛ٠ٚ ٗ٠ٛ‬كٕخ حٌزطَ‪٠‬ك( ِ‪ٌٝٛ‬‬
‫حٌّؤِ‪ٚ) ْٛ‬حٌلـخؽ رٓ ِطَ حٌ‪ٍٛ‬حق حٌى‪ٛ‬ف‪ٚ ٟ‬لٔطخ رٓ ٌ‪ٛ‬لخ حٌزؼٍزى‪ٚ ٟ‬ػزي حٌّٔ‪١‬ق رٓ‬
‫ٔخػّش حٌلّ‪ٚ ٟٜ‬كٕ‪ ٓ١‬رٓ آلخق ‪ٚ‬آلخق رٓ كٕ‪ٚ ٓ١‬ػخرض رٓ لَس حٌلَحٔ‪ٚ ٟ‬كز‪ٖ١‬‬
‫رٓ ح‪٤‬ػُٔ ‪ِّ ٚ‬ظ‪ ٝ‬رٓ ‪ٕٓٚ ْٔٛ٠‬خْ رٓ ػخرض رٓ لَس ‪٠ٚ‬ل‪ ٝ١‬رٓ ػي‪ٚ ٞ‬حرٓ ٍُحػش‬
‫‪ٚ‬غ‪ ِٓٚ. َُ٘١‬أُ٘ ِخ طَؿُ آٌٔحن ‪:‬وٍ‪ٍ١‬ش ‪ٚ‬ىِٕش ِٓ حٌفخٍٓ‪١‬ش ‪ٚ‬حٌٕٔي ٕ٘ي ‪ٚ‬وظذ أٍٓط‪ٛ‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬وظذ حٌّـٔط‪ٚ ٟ‬حٌلىُ حٌٌ٘ز‪١‬ش ٌف‪١‬ظخغ‪ٚ ٍّٚٛ‬ؿٍّش ِ‪ٕٜ‬فخص أرمَح‪ٚ ١‬ؿخٌ‪ٚ ّٕٛ١‬وظذ‬
‫حٌٔ‪١‬خٓش حٌّئ‪١‬ش ‪٤‬ف‪ٚ ْٛ١٩‬غ‪َ٘١‬خ‪.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬لي ً٘ذ وؼ‪ َْٚ١‬اٌ‪ ٝ‬ط‪١ٛٛ‬ف حٌؼ‪٩‬لش حٌظ‪ ٟ‬لخِض ر‪ ٓ١‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪ٌٚ‬غخص أهَ‪ٜ‬‬
‫آٌٔحن‪ ،‬فمخٌ‪ٛ‬ح اْ حٌفٍٔفش حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪ّ٠‬ىٓ أْ طمَأ ر‪ٛٛ‬ف‪ٙ‬خ طَؿّش ٌٍفىَ حٌ‪ٔٛ١‬خٔ‪ِ – ٟ‬ؼ‪-٩‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬اْ حٌفىَ حٌ‪ٔٛ١‬خٔ‪٠ ٌُ ٟ‬ؼي ‪٠‬ل‪١‬خ ا‪ ٨‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظَؿّخص حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‪ٚ ،‬وخْ ٌٍؼَد ف‪ ً٠‬ػظ‪ُ١‬‬
‫ؿيح ف‪ ٟ‬طى‪ ٓ٠ٛ‬حٌظَحع حٌ‪ٔٛ١‬خٔ‪ٟ‬؛ حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق ِٕٗ ‪ٚ‬حٌّٕل‪ٛ‬ي‪ٚ ،‬ف‪ ٟ‬طلم‪١‬ك حٌٕ‪ٜٙٛ‬‬
‫حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬لش حٌزخل‪١‬ش ٌٕخ ِٓ ٌ٘ح حٌظَحع رخٌٍغش حٌ‪ٔٛ١‬خٔ‪١‬ش‪ٚ ،‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٓظَىحى ٗ‪ٟ‬ء ِٓ ٌ٘ح‬
‫حٌظَحع‪. 8‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬كي‪٠‬ؼخ" ظٍض حٌظَؿّش ف‪ ٟ‬ػ‪٩‬لش طزؼ‪١‬ش ِغ حٌزٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌّوظٍفش ٌٍغخص‪ِٚ ،‬غ حٌ‪ٛ‬لخثغ‬
‫حٌٕفٔ‪١‬ش ‪ٚ‬حٌّؼط‪١‬خص ح‪٨‬ؿظّخػ‪١‬ش ‪ٚ‬حٌ‪ٟٛ‬ؼ‪١‬خص ح‪٦‬ػٕ‪١‬ش حٌّظ٘ؼزش‪ ٌُٚ ،‬طل‪ ًٜ‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬كك‬
‫حٌّ‪ٛ‬ح‪ٕ١‬ش حٌفٍٔف‪١‬ش ر‪ٛٛ‬ف‪ٙ‬خ ِ٘ى‪ٍ ٩‬حٕ٘خ لخثُ حٌٌحص ‪٨‬ري أْ ‪٠‬ظيهً حٌفىَ حٌؼٍّ‪ٟ‬‬
‫حٌٍغش ‪ٚ‬حٌلم‪١‬مش "ٕٓش ‪ٚ ، 1939‬ػٕيِخ ‪ٚ Urban" :‬حٌفٍٔف‪ٌ ٟ‬لٍٗ‪ ،‬ا‪ ٨‬ػٕيِخ َٔ٘ وظخد‬
‫‪ِٚ9.‬غ أْ حٌّـخي ‪٠ ٨‬ظٔغ ٌَ‪ٛ‬ي " ‪١‬زؼش "‪ 1950 "Britanica‬ظ‪ِ َٙ‬مخي حٌظَؿّش ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫طفخ‪ٛ٘ٔ ً١ٛ‬ء كَوش حٌظَؿّش اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش كي‪٠‬ؼخ ا‪ ٨‬أٔٗ ‪ ٨‬ري ِٓ حٌم‪ٛ‬ي أْ ريح‪٠‬خط‪ٙ‬خ‬
‫حٍطزطض ر‪ٛ‬ؿ‪ٛ‬ى ح‪ٓ٨‬ظؼّخٍ حٌلي‪٠‬غ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ح‪ ٍٝ٤‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‪ ،‬وّخ ػٍّض حٌي‪ٚ‬ي ح‪ٓ٨‬ظؼّخٍ‪٠‬ش‬
‫ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ؿؼً حٌي‪ٚ‬ي حٌظ‪ ٟ‬أه‪٠‬ؼظ‪ٙ‬خ طخرؼش ٌ‪ٙ‬خ‪ ،‬وّخ فؼٍض فَٔٔخ‪ٚ ،‬لي حٍطزطض ٌٖ٘ حٌفىَس‬
‫رزؼ‪ ٞ‬حٌٌّح٘ذ حٌفىَ‪٠‬ش ‪ِٕٙٚ‬خ حٌفَحٔىف‪١ٔٛ‬ش فمي كَ‪ٛ‬ض فَٔٔخ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬هٍك ػمخفش‬
‫فَحٔىف‪١ٔٛ‬ش ف‪ِٔ ٟ‬ظؼَّحط‪ٙ‬خ طظؤػَ رخٌؼمخفش حٌفَٔٔ‪١‬ش‪ٚ ،‬طظزغ ٌ‪ٙ‬خ‪ َ١٘٠ٚ ،‬ى‪.‬ػِ حٌي‪ٓ٠‬‬
‫حٌّٕخ‪َٛ‬س اٌ‪ ٝ‬أْ طلٍ‪١ ً١‬ز‪١‬ؼش حٌفَحٔىف‪١ٔٛ‬ش" ‪٠‬لًّ حٌظؼخٌ‪َ١ ِٓ ٟ‬ف ‪ٚ‬حٌي‪١ٔٚ‬ش ِٓ‬
‫‪َ١‬ف آهَ ‪ٚ" 10 .‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪ٓٛ‬ىٔ‪١ٔٛ‬ش وٌٌه ‪ٚ‬غ‪َ٘١‬خ ِّخ هٍك ف‪ٔ ٟ‬ف‪ ّٛ‬حٌؼَد ِؼ‪ٍ ٩‬ى‬
‫فؼً ِؼخوْ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬وً ِخ ؿخء رٗ ح‪ٓ٨‬ظؼّخٍ‪ ،‬كظ‪ ٌٛ ٝ‬وخْ ٌ٘ح ح‪ِّ َِ٤‬خ ‪٠‬ويَ حٌؼمخفش‬
‫حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪ ٕٞٙ٠ٚ‬رخٌظزخىي حٌؼمخف‪ٚ ٟ‬ك‪ٛ‬حٍ حٌؼمخفخص‪.‬‬

‫‪ِٚ‬غ حهظ‪٩‬ف وؼ‪ ِٓ َ١‬حٌظَ‪ٚ‬ف ‪ٚ‬حٌ‪ٛ‬لخثغ ريأ حٌ٘ؼ‪ ٍٛ‬رؤّ٘‪١‬ش حٌظ‪ٛ‬ح‪ِ ًٛ‬غ حٌل‪٠‬خٍحص‬
‫ح‪٤‬هَ‪ ،ٜ‬ا‪ ٨‬أْ ٌ٘ح حٌظ‪ٛ‬ح‪ ًٛ‬ظٍض طٕم‪ِ ٜٗ‬م‪ِٛ‬خص ‪ ٨‬ري ِٕ‪ٙ‬خ‪ٌٌ ،‬ح ريأٔخ ٔمَأ ٔظخثؾ‬
‫‪ٕ٠8‬ظَ ‪:‬ري‪ .ٞٚ‬ػزي حٌَكّٓ ‪:‬حٌفٍٔفش ‪ٚ‬حٌف‪ٓ٩‬فش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌل‪٠‬خٍس حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‪ ،‬ىحٍ حٌّؼخٍف ٌٍطزخػش ‪ٚ‬حٌَٕ٘‪،‬‬
‫ٓ‪ٓٛ‬ش‪ ،‬ط‪.ْٔٛ‬‬
‫‪9‬حٌو‪ٍ٠ٛ‬ي‪: ٞ‬حٌظَؿّش ‪ٚ‬حٌغ‪٠َ١‬ش‪ٓ ،‬خرك‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬حٌّٕخ‪َٛ‬س‪.‬ى ‪.‬ػِ حٌي‪: ٓ٠‬حٌّؼخلفش ‪ٚ‬حٌٕمي حٌّمخٍْ‪ ،‬ر‪َٚ١‬ص‪ ،‬حٌّئٓٔش حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ٌٍيٍحٓخص ‪ٚ‬حٌَٕ٘‪،‬‬
‫‪85ٙ ،. 1996‬‬
‫‪ٟ‬ؼفٕخ ف‪ ٟ‬طؤػ‪ َ١‬ح‪٢‬هَ‪ ٓ٠‬ػٍ‪ٕ١‬خ ‪ٚ‬ف‪ٕ١‬خ‪ ،‬ه‪ٜٛٛ‬خ ف‪ٌ ٟ‬غظٕخ‪ ،‬اً رَُص ٌٖ٘ حٌظخَ٘س‬
‫‪ٚ‬أهٌص رخ‪٨‬طٔخع ح‪ َِ٤‬حٌٌ‪ ٞ‬رخص ِٓ حٌ‪ ٍَٞٚ٠‬حٌ‪ٛ‬ل‪ٛ‬ف ػٕيٖ‪ٚ ،‬حٌظٕزٗ ‪٤‬هطخٍٖ‪.‬‬
‫فى‪١‬ف ‪ٕ٠‬زغ‪ ٟ‬أْ طى‪ ْٛ‬حٌظَؿّش؟ وظذ حٌٍّ‪ٛ‬ك‪ ٟ‬ف‪ِ ٟ‬ميِظٗ ٌىظخد" ِٓ حٌم‪ٜ‬خثي‬
‫ح‪٤‬ه‪َ١‬س "ٌَٓ‪ٛ‬ي كِّحط‪ٛ‬ف ك‪ٛ‬ي أٍٓ‪ٛ‬د حٌظَؿّش ِخ ‪ٌ: "ٍٟ٠‬ىً ٌغش أٍٓ‪ٛ‬ر‪ٙ‬خ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظؼز‪،َ١‬‬
‫‪ّ٠ ٨ٚ‬ىٓ ٔمً أٍٓ‪ٛ‬د ٌغش اٌ‪ ٝ‬أٍٓ‪ٛ‬د ٌغش‪ ،‬رً حٌّفَ‪ ٝٚ‬أْ طلخفع حٌٍغش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظَؿّش‬
‫ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أٍٓ‪ٛ‬ر‪ٙ‬خ‪ٚ ،‬أْ ‪٠‬مَأ حٌمخٍة حٌظَؿّش ‪ٚ‬وؤّٔ‪ٙ‬خ وظزض ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ ًٛ٤‬رٍغظٗ‪ٌ٘ٚ ،‬ح أل‪ِ ٜٝ‬خ‬
‫ط‪ ًٜ‬اٌ‪ ٗ١‬حٌظَؿّش‪.‬‬
‫‪ ٨‬أٔىَ أ ْ حٓظزيحي أٍٓ‪ٛ‬د رؤٍٓ‪ٛ‬د ِخ ‪٠‬وَؽ حٌظَؿّش ػٓ ح‪ٌٚ ًٛ٤‬ىّٕٗ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌ‪ٛ‬لض‬
‫ٔفٔٗ ‪ٛ ّٓ٠٠‬لش حٌظَؿّش ‪ٚ‬رؼي٘خ ػٓ حٌَوخوش‪.‬‬
‫‪ّ٠ٌٚ‬خْ ‪ٛ‬لش حٌظَؿّش ‪٠‬مظَف حٌٍّ‪ٛ‬ك‪ ٟ‬أْ ‪ٍ٠‬ـؤ حٌّظَؿُ اٌ‪ ٝ‬طَؿّش حٌٕ‪ٚ‬‬
‫‪.‬ح‪ ٍٟٛ٤‬طَؿّش أ‪ ٌٝٚ‬كَف‪١‬ش‪ ،‬رؼي ًٌه ‪٠‬ؼّي اٌ‪١ٛ ٝ‬خغش حٌظَؿّش ‪١ٛ‬خغش أٍٓ‪ٛ‬ر‪١‬ش‪11‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ػٍ‪٠ ٗ١‬ـّغ ؿّ‪١‬غ ِٓ ‪٠‬ؼًّ رخٌظَؿّش أ‪ ٌٗ ٚ‬ػ‪٩‬لش ر‪ٙ‬خ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أٔٗ ‪ٕ٠‬زغ‪ ٟ‬أْ ‪ ٨‬طى‪ْٛ‬‬
‫حٌظَؿّش ِ‪١‬ىخٔ‪١‬ى‪١‬ش‪ ،‬أ‪ ٞ‬ػيَ لٍذ حٌىٍّخص ‪ٚ‬حٌـًّ ِٓ ٌغش اٌ‪ ٝ‬أهَ‪ ٜ‬كَف‪١‬خ ى‪ْٚ‬‬
‫َِحػخس حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌّم‪ٜٛ‬ى‪ ،‬فؼٍ‪ٓ ٝ‬ز‪ ً١‬حٌّؼخي ‪ّ٠‬ىٓ أْ ‪٠‬مخي ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٍغش ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش‪:‬‬
‫‪That's just what I needed.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬حٌّم‪ٜٛ‬ى ٕ٘خ حٌظؼز‪ َ١‬ػٓ حٓظ‪١‬خء حٌ٘و‪ِٛ ِٓ ٚ‬لف ك‪ِ ًٜ‬ؼٗ رّؼٕ‪ٌ٘: (ٝ‬ح ِخ وخْ‬
‫‪ٕ٠‬م‪٠ ٨ٚ) ٟٕٜ‬ـ‪ٕ٘ ُٛ‬خ طَؿّش حٌـٍّش د( ٌ٘ح ِخ حكظخؿٗ ‪ّ٠ٚ).‬ىٓ أ‪٠٠‬خ أْ ‪٠‬مخي ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫حٌٍغش ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش‪:‬‬
‫?‪What's cooking‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬حٌّم‪ٜٛ‬ى رٌٌه‪:‬‬
‫‪ٕ٠11‬ظَ‪ٗ.َٜٔ:‬خَ٘ أكّي ‪ِ:‬مخي رؼٕ‪ٛ‬حْ" أّ٘‪١‬ش ح‪ٍٛٓ٤‬د ‪ٚ‬ط‪٩‬ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪٤‬هطخء حٌ٘خثؼش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظَؿّش "‪١ٛ‬ي‬
‫حٌف‪ٛ‬حثي ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّ‪ٛ‬لغ‪:‬‬
‫?‪What are you planning secretly‬‬
‫أ‪ِ ٞ‬خًح طوطط‪ ْٛ‬ر٘ىً َٓ‪ٞ‬؟ ‪ٚ‬حٌوطؤ ‪٠‬ىّٓ ف‪ ٟ‬طَؿّش حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬كَف‪١‬خ د( ِخًح‬
‫ػخٔ‪١‬خ ‪ّٔ:‬خًؽ ِٓ ح‪٤‬هطخء حٌٍغ‪٠ٛ‬ش حٌ٘خثؼش‬
‫ف‪ّ١‬خ ‪٠‬ؤط‪ ٟ‬ػَ‪ٌّٕ ٝ‬خًؽ ِٓ ح‪٤‬هطخء حٌٍغ‪٠ٛ‬ش حٌظ‪ٗ ٟ‬خػض رظؤػ‪ َ١‬حٌظَؿّش اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‪،‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ط‪١ٟٛ‬ق ٌىً ِٕ‪ٙ‬خ ِّخ ‪ٍٚ‬ى ػٕي حٌؼَد ‪ٚ‬ف‪ٌ ٟ‬غظ‪ٚ ،ُٙ‬طؤ‪ِ ً٠ٚ‬خ ٌُ ‪َ٠‬ى ِٕ‪ٙ‬خ ‪ ٟ٘ٚ.‬ػٍ‪ٝ‬‬
‫حٌٕل‪ ٛ‬ح‪٢‬ط‪:ٟ‬‬

‫*حٌف‪ ًٜ‬ر‪ ٓ١‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف ‪ٚ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف اٌ‪ ٗ١‬رّ‪٠‬خف آهَ أ‪ ٚ‬أوؼَ‪:‬‬
‫‪ًٌٚ‬ه ‪٠ ٨‬ـ‪ ُٛ‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‪ ،‬رً اْ حٌف‪ ًٜ‬ر‪ ٓ١‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف ‪ٚ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف اٌ‪ ٗ١‬ػّ‪ِٛ‬خ ‪٨‬‬
‫‪٠:‬ـ‪ ُٛ‬ا‪ ٨‬ف‪ ٟ‬كخ‪٨‬ص‪٠ ،‬م‪ٛ‬ي حرٓ ِخٌه‪12‬‬
‫‪12‬حٌف‪ُٛ‬حْ‪.‬ػزي هللا رٓ ‪ٛ‬خٌق ‪:‬ىٌ‪ ً١‬حٌٔخٌه اٌ‪ ٝ‬أٌف‪١‬ش حرٓ ِخٌه‪ ،‬ؽ‪ 63 ٙ ،/ 1‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّ‪ٛ‬لغ‬
‫‪ٟٛ٠ٚ‬ق حٌ٘خٍف ح‪ َِ٤‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌٕل‪ ٛ‬ح‪٢‬ط‪ ِٓ: "ٟ‬أكىخَ ح‪ٟ٦‬خفش أٔٗ ‪٠ ٨‬ـ‪ ُٛ‬حٌف‪ ًٜ‬ر‪ ٓ١‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف‬
‫‪ٚ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف اٌ‪ ْ٤. ٗ١‬حٌّظ‪٠‬خ‪٠‬ف‪ ٓ١‬رٌِّٕش حٌىٍّش حٌ‪ٛ‬حكيس ًحص حٌـِأ‪.ٓ٠‬‬
‫غ‪ َ١‬أْ ٕ٘خن ِ‪ٛ‬ح‪ٟ‬غ أؿخُ حٌٕلخس حٌف‪ ًٜ‬ف‪ٙ١‬خ ر‪ ٓ١‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف ‪ٚ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف اٌ‪ ٗ١‬ف‪ٓ ٟ‬ؼش حٌى‪–َ٩‬‬
‫حٓظٕخىًح اٌ‪ِ ٝ‬خ ‪ٍٚ‬ى ف‪ ٟ‬حٌمَآْ ‪ٚ‬و‪ َ٩‬حٌؼَد – ‪ٚ‬ؿ‪ٛ‬حُ حٌف‪ ًٜ‬ف‪ٙ١‬خ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌ٘ؼَ أل‪ٕ٘ٚ. ٜٛ‬خن ِ‪ٛ‬ح‪ٟ‬غ‬
‫أهَ‪٠ ٜ‬ـ‪ ُٛ‬حٌف‪ ًٜ‬ف‪ٙ١‬خ ٌٍ‪ٍَٚ٠‬س حٌ٘ؼَ‪٠‬ش‪.‬‬
‫ف‪١‬ـ‪ ُٛ‬حٌف‪ ًٜ‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٕؼَ ف‪ ٟ‬ػ‪٩‬ع ِٔخثً‪:‬‬
‫ِ‪ٜ‬يٍح ‪ٚ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف اٌ‪ ٗ١‬فخػٍٗ ‪ٚ.‬حٌفخ‪ ًٛ‬اِخ ِفؼ‪ ٌٗٛ‬أ‪ ٚ‬ظَفٗ‪.‬‬
‫ً‬ ‫ح‪: ٌٝٚ٤‬أْ ‪٠‬ى‪ ْٛ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف‬
‫حٌّٔؤٌش حٌؼخٔ‪١‬ش ‪:‬أْ ‪٠‬ى‪ ْٛ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف ‪ٛٚ‬فًخ ‪ٚ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف اٌ‪ِ ٗ١‬فؼ‪ ٌٗٛ‬ح‪ٚ٤‬ي ‪ٚ‬حٌفخ‪ ًٛ‬اِخ ِفؼ‪ٛ‬ي حٌؼخٔ‪ ٟ‬أ‪ٚ‬‬
‫حٌّٔؤٌش حٌؼخٌؼش ‪:‬أْ ‪٠‬ى‪ ْٛ‬حٌفخ‪ ًٛ‬لْ ًِخ ٔل‪ٚ – ٍ ٕ: ٛ‬هللا – حٌّـخي ِِ ّ ِـخي ّ حٌغ‪١‬زش ‪ٚ‬لي كى‪ ٝ‬حٌىٔخث‪:ٟ‬‬
‫ٌ٘ح غ‪ٚ – َ ٩‬هللا – ُ‪ ٞ‬ى‪.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬أِخ ِ‪ٛ‬ح‪ٟ‬غ حٌف‪ ًٜ‬حٌظ‪ ٟ‬طوظ‪ ٚ‬رخٌ٘ؼَ فّٕ‪ٙ‬خ‪:‬‬
‫‪-1‬أْ ‪٠‬ى‪ ْٛ‬حٌفخ‪ ًٛ‬ر‪ ٓ١‬حٌّ‪ٜ‬خف ‪ٚ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف اٌ‪ ٗ١‬أؿٕذ ‪ً٠‬خ ِٓ حٌّ‪٠‬خف ‪ٚ.‬حٌَّحى رخ‪٤‬ؿٕز‪ِ ٟ‬ؼّ‪ٛ‬ي غ‪َ١‬‬
‫‪-2‬حٌف‪ ًٜ‬رٕؼض حٌّ‪٠‬خف ‪.‬وم‪ٛ‬ي حٌ٘خػَ‪:‬‬
‫ٍفًخ أ ِِ‬ ‫‪ َِ ٚ‬ظ‬ ‫ػ‪ ٨ ًِ ٛ‬أ‬ ‫ف‬
‫د َِ ْ‬ ‫ٔ‪ٚ‬‬
‫فغ ي َِخ َِ َ‬ ‫ٖ‬ ‫َِ ف‪َ ٚ‬ي ِ‪َ٠‬خ ف ٗذ‬
‫ؽ ُ َ‪ َِٚ‬ي َ ‪َ ٠‬غ د‬
‫ٔيَح‬ ‫‪ٚ‬‬ ‫ذ ‪ ٞ‬أ ‪َ ِِ ٚ‬رٓ ع ص أ‬ ‫فَ‪ُ ٚ‬ي َ‪َٚ ْ ِ ٞ ُ٠‬ح‪ً ٍَ ١ ٝ‬‬
‫حٍح ‪ ِِ ٚ‬ؿيَح ِرؤؽ َٔ ِ‬
‫فمي ٗخع ل‪ ٌُٙٛ‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ِؼ‪ٓ: "٩‬خكخص ‪ِٚ‬ىخطذ ‪ٚ‬لخػخص حٌـخِؼش "‪ٌ٘ٚ‬ح هطؤ‪،‬‬
‫فٔخكخص ِ‪٠‬خف ‪ٚ‬حٌـخِؼش ِ‪٠‬خف اٌ‪ِٚ ،ٗ١‬ىخطذ ِ‪٠‬خف آهَ‪ٚ ،‬لخػخص ِ‪٠‬خف آهَ‬
‫أ‪٠٠‬خ‪ ،‬ف‪ ًٜ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف حٌؼخٔ‪ٚ ٟ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف حٌؼخٌغ ر‪ ٓ١‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف ‪ٚ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف اٌ‪ ٨ٚ ،ٗ١‬ط‪ٛ‬ؿي‬
‫ٕ٘خ ‪ٍَٟٚ‬س ِٓ حٌ‪ٍَٚ٠‬حص حٌظ‪ّ٠ ٟ‬ىٓ أْ طٔ‪ٛ‬ؽ ًٌه ح‪ٓ٨‬ظويحَ‪ٌٚ ،‬ظـخ‪ٌ٘ ُٚ‬ح حٌوطؤ‬
‫فخٌ‪ٛ‬حؿذ أْ ٔ‪١٠‬ف ِ‪٠‬خفخ ‪ٚ‬حكيح اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف اٌ‪ٚ ٗ١‬أْ ٔ‪١٠‬ف حٌّ‪٠‬خف ح‪٢‬هَ اٌ‪ٝ‬‬
‫‪٠ َ١ّٟ‬ؼ‪ٛ‬ى ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خف اٌ‪ ٗ١‬ح‪ٚ٤‬ي ‪ٚ‬طؤه‪ ،َٖ١‬فٕم‪ٛ‬ي" ‪ٓ:‬خكخص حٌـخِؼش ‪ِٚ‬ىخطز‪ٙ‬خ‬
‫‪٠ ٌُٚ‬مظ‪ َٜ‬ح‪ َِ٤‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ح‪٤‬هطخء حٌظ‪٠ ٟ‬مغ ر‪ٙ‬خ غ‪ َ١‬حٌٍغ‪ٚ ٓ١٠ٛ‬أّخ طـخ‪ًٌ ُٚ‬ه اٌ‪ٝ‬‬
‫حٌٍغ‪ٚ ٓ١٠ٛ‬أٓخطٌس حٌٍغش‪ِ ٌٗ ْ١ٌٚ ،‬خ ‪ٛٔ٠‬غٗ‪ ،‬فؤٓظخًس ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٍغش حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ف‪ ٟ‬ؿخِؼش‬
‫حٌى‪٠ٛ‬ض ِؼ‪ ٩‬طمغ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌوطؤ ٔفٔٗ ػ‪٩‬ع َِحص ف‪ ٟ‬حٌّمخٌش ٔفٔ‪ٙ‬خ‪ ٟ٘ٚ ،‬طظليع ػٓ‬
‫ح‪٤‬هطخء‪ ،‬ػٕيِخ طم‪ٛ‬ي" ‪ 13 :‬اْ حٌلخؿش ِخٓش اٌ‪ ٝ‬ط‪ٛ‬ؿ‪ٚ ٗ١‬طَٗ‪١‬ي حٌؼخٍِ‪ ٓ١‬ف‪ ٟ‬اًحػش‬
‫حٌى‪٠ٛ‬ض حٌّّٔ‪ٛ‬ػش "‪ٚ‬ف‪ٙ١‬خ أ‪٠٠‬خ" ‪ِ ِٓ:‬ؼي‪٠ٌِٚ ٞ‬ؼ‪ِٚ ٟ‬لٍَ‪ِٚ ،ٞ‬ميِ‪ ٟ‬حٌزَحِؾ "‪ٚ‬ف‪ٙ١‬خ‬
‫أ‪٠٠‬خ" ‪:‬حٌي‪ٍٚ‬حص حٌظيٍ‪٠‬ز‪١‬ش حٌظ‪ ٟ‬أػيص ٌظيٍ‪٠‬ذ أ‪ٍ ٚ‬فغ ِٔظ‪ ٌٖ٘ ٜٛ‬حٌى‪ٛ‬حىٍ "‪ٚ‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق‬
‫أْ طم‪ٛ‬ي ‪-‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌظ‪ٛ‬حٌ‪-: (ٟ‬اْ حٌلخؿش ِخٓش اٌ‪ ٝ‬ط‪ٛ‬ؿ‪ ٗ١‬حٌؼخٍِ‪ٚ ٓ١‬طَٗ‪١‬يُ٘ ف‪ِٓ...- ٟ‬‬
‫ِؼي‪ ٞ‬حٌزَحِؾ ‪٠ٌِٚ‬ؼ‪ٙ١‬خ ‪ِٚ‬لٍَ‪ٙ٠‬خ ‪ِٚ‬ميِ‪ٙ١‬خ‪ٌ..- ...‬ظيٍ‪٠‬ذ ٌٖ٘ حٌى‪ٛ‬حىٍ أ‪ٍ ٚ‬فغ‬
‫ٔـ‪ٛ‬ص ‪ٚ‬لي ر ًَّ حٌَّحى‪١ٓ ٞ‬فٗ ِٓ حرٓ أر‪١ٗ ٟ‬ن ح‪٤‬رخ‪١‬ق ‪١‬خٌذ‬
‫‪-3‬حٌف‪ ًٜ‬رخٌٕيحء ‪.‬وم‪ٛ‬ي رـ‪ َ١‬رٓ أر‪٤ ٍّٝٓ ٟ‬ه‪ ٗ١‬وؼذ ‪٠‬لؼٗ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ح‪:َ٩ٓ٦‬‬

‫‪ٚ‬حٌوً ى ف‪ٓ ٟ‬مَ "‪ِٚ 64 ٙ‬خ‬ ‫‪ٚ‬فخ ُِ ق وغ د رـ‪ِٕ ٍ ِ ٟ‬مٌ ٌه ِٓ طؼـ‪ َِ ً١‬طٗ ُِ ي َِ وش‬
‫‪ 13 ،‬حٌٔزؼخْ‪.‬ى‪:" ،ٍٝ١ٌ.‬أهطخء حٌٌّ‪٠‬ؼ‪ِ" ٓ١‬مخي‪ِ ،‬ـٍش حٌطٍ‪١‬ؼش‪ ،‬ح‪ٍ٤‬رؼخء‪ 14 ،‬فزَح‪ ، 2007 ،َ٠‬ع‪/ 1762‬‬
‫)‪( www.AL-Talea.htm‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّ‪ٛ‬لغ ح‪ٌ٨‬ىظَ‪ٟٔٚ‬‬
‫أِخ ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش فٌٌه ؿخثِ‪ٌٚ ،‬ؼً ٗ‪ٛ١‬ػٗ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ؿخء رظؤػ‪ َ١‬حٌظَؿّش‪ ،‬ف‪١‬م‪:ٌْٛٛ‬‬
‫‪University yards, offices and halls.‬‬
‫‪٠ٚ‬م‪ ٌْٛٛ‬أ‪٠٠‬خ‪:‬‬
‫‪Programs operators ,broadcasters ,editors and presenters.‬‬
‫‪ َ١ٟ ٨ٚ‬ف‪ًٌ ٟ‬ه‪ ،‬ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش‪.‬‬
‫*حٌظغٍ‪١‬ذ ‪ ٛ٘ٚ:‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪٠‬ؼٕ‪ ٟ‬طمي‪ ُ٠‬حٌٌّوَ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّئٔغ ‪ٚ‬حٌؼخلً ػٍ‪ ٝ‬غ‪ َ١‬حٌؼخلً‬
‫‪ٚ‬طغٍ‪١‬ز‪ّٙ‬خ‪َ٠ ٌُٚ ،‬ى غ‪ًٌ َ١‬ه ‪ ٨‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌمَآْ حٌىَ‪ ٨ٚ ُ٠‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٕٔش حٌٕز‪٠ٛ‬ش ‪ ٨ٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌ٘ؼَ‬
‫حٌؼَر‪ ٟ‬حٌٌ‪ٔ٠ ٞ‬ظ٘‪ٙ‬ي رٗ ‪ٚ.‬لي ٗخع كي‪٠‬ؼخ ل‪١ٓ: "ٌُٙٛ‬يحط‪ ٟ‬آٔٔخط‪ٓ ٟ‬خىط‪" ٟ‬ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫ح‪٨‬ؿظّخػخص ‪ٚ‬ح‪٨‬كظفخ‪٨‬ص ‪ِٚ‬خ ِخػٍ‪ٙ‬خ‪ٚ ،‬ف‪ًٌ ٟ‬ه طمي‪ٌٍّ ُ٠‬ئٔغ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌٌّوَ ‪ٌ٘ٚ‬ح هطؤ‪،‬‬
‫ِٓ رخد طمي‪ ِٓٚ "ladies first" َ٠‬حٌ‪ٛ‬ح‪ٟ‬ق أْ ٌ٘ح ؿخء رظؤػ‪ َ١‬ل‪ ٌُٙٛ‬ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش‬
‫حٌَّأس ‪ٚ‬حكظَحِ‪ٙ‬خ‪ٚ ،‬ح‪ ٌٝٚ٤‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش أْ ‪٠‬م‪ٛ‬ي" ‪ٓ:‬خىط‪١ٓ ٟ‬يحط‪...".ٟ‬‬
‫أِخ ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ف‪١‬م‪:ٌْٛٛ‬‬
‫‪Ladies and Gentlemen‬‬
‫*طؤه‪ َ١‬حٌفخػً ‪ٚ‬طمي‪ َٖ١ّٟ ُ٠‬ػٍ‪ٚ: ٗ١‬حٌ‪ َ١ّ٠‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪٠‬ؼ‪ٛ‬ى ػٍ‪ٌِ ٝ‬و‪ٓ ٍٛ‬خرك‪،‬‬
‫‪ ْ١ٌٚ‬ػٍ‪ِ ٝ‬خ ٓ‪ٌ١‬وَ ‪٨‬كمخ‪ ،‬ف‪١‬م‪: "ٌْٛٛ‬ف‪ ٟ‬كي‪٠‬غ ٌٗ ػٓ حٌٕظخفش أٗخى حٌّي‪ َ٠‬رّ‪ٛ‬ظف‪ٗ١‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ؿ‪ٛٙ‬ىُ٘ "‪ٌ٘ٚ‬ح هطؤ ‪ٚ‬حٌ‪ٜٛ‬حد أْ ٔم‪ٛ‬ي" ‪:‬أٗخى حٌّي‪ َ٠‬رّ‪ٛ‬ظف‪ٚ ٗ١‬ؿ‪ٛٙ‬ىُ٘‪ ،‬ف‪ ٟ‬كي‪٠‬ؼٗ‬
‫ػٓ حٌٕظخفش ‪".‬وٌٌه فبْ حٌفخػً ‪٠ ٨‬ظميَ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌفؼً‪ٚ ،‬اًح طميَ ‪ِ َ١ٜ٠‬زظيأ‪٠ ،‬م‪ٛ‬ي حرٓ‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫‪ ٍ ّٟٟ‬ح ٓضَ َِ ص‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫َ‪ٚ‬رَغ َى ف ع ي فخػً َِ فب ْ َِ ظَٗ ٍ فٗ َ‪َٚ ٚ‬ا ِّ ‪ َِ َِ ٨‬ف‬
‫‪14‬ىٌ‪ ً١‬حٌٔخٌه‪ٟٛ٠ٚ 262 . (،‬ق حٌ٘خٍف ًٌه رم‪:" ٌٗٛ‬اْ حٌفخػً ‪٠‬ظؤهَ ػٓ ٍحفؼٗ‪ ٛ٘ٚ ،‬حٌفؼً أ‪ٚ‬‬
‫‪٠ ٨ٚ‬ـ‪ ُٛ‬طمي‪ ّٗ٠‬ػٍ‪ ،ٗ١‬فبْ ليَ ‪ٛ‬خٍ ِزظيأ ‪ٚ‬حٌفؼً رؼيٖ ‪ .‬لي أفٍق حٌّئِٕ‪ٗ : ْٛ‬ز‪ ٗٙ‬وم‪ ٌٗٛ‬طؼخٌ‪ٝ‬‬
‫ففخػً( ‪٠‬ؼ‪ِٔ َ١ّٟ) ُٜ‬ظظَ‪ ،‬أ‪ٚ ٚ‬هللا ‪٠‬ؼ‪ّٜ‬ه ِٓ حٌٕخّ ‪ٍ :‬حفغ ٌ‪ِٔ َ١ّ٠‬ظظَ ‪.‬وم‪ ٌٗٛ‬طؼخٌ‪ٝ‬‬
‫‪ٚ 262 . ٙ.‬اْ أف ى ِٓ حٌَّ٘و‪ ٓ١‬حٓظـخٍن فؤؿَٖ ‪ٛ :‬خٍ فخع ًِ ‪ٌ ٨‬فؼً ِلٌ‪ٚ‬ف ف‪ٔ ٟ‬ل‪ ٛ‬ل‪ ٌٗٛ‬طؼخٌ‪ٝ‬‬
‫أِخ ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ف‪ّ١‬ىٓ أْ طى‪ ْٛ‬اكي‪َ١ ٜ‬ق طَؿّش حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬حٌٌّو‪ ٍٛ‬أػ‪ ٖ٩‬ف‪ ٟ‬ػٍ‪ٝ‬‬
‫حٌٕل‪ ٛ‬ح‪٢‬ط‪:ٟ‬‬
‫‪In his speech about cleanness, the manager appreciated his‬‬
‫‪employees and their efforts.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ف‪ٌ٘ ٟ‬ح كفخظ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬طَط‪١‬ذ ِفَىحص حٌـٍّش ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش طَط‪١‬زخ غ‪ِٛٔ َ١‬ؽ‪ ،‬فّؼ‪ ٩‬طَؿّش‬
‫ِىظزش حٌـخِؼش طؼزَ ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ػٓ‪:‬‬
‫‪University library.‬‬
‫‪The library of the university.‬‬
‫)‪ٚ(‗s‬حٌم‪١٠‬ش ٕ٘خ ِظؼٍمش رٕٔزش حٌ٘‪ٟ‬ء ٌٍؼخلً ‪ ٚ‬ف‪ ٌٖ٘ ٟ‬حٌلخٌش طٔظويَ ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش‬
‫)‪(Apostrophe S‬أ‪ٞ‬‬

‫حٌٍّى‪١‬ش‪ ،‬فؼٍ‪ٓ ٝ‬ز‪ ً١‬حٌّؼخي ٔم‪ٛ‬ي ‪: s‬رّؼٓ ِ ‪ٜ‬‬
‫‪Ahmad's pen.‬‬
‫ِؼخي ‪: of :‬أِخ ػٕي ٔٔزش حٌ٘‪ٟ‬ء اٌ‪ ٝ‬غ‪ َ١‬حٌؼخلً ػّ‪ِٛ‬خ فٕٔظويَ طؼز‪َ١‬‬
‫‪The door of the room.‬‬
‫•حٌؼطف رخٌ‪ٛ‬ح‪ ٚ‬أ‪ ٚ‬اّ٘خٌ‪ٙ‬خ ‪:‬ىٍؽ حٌّظليػ‪ٚ ْٛ‬حٌىظخد ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ؿّغ ػيى ِٓ ح‪ّٓ٤‬خء‬
‫حٌّؼط‪ٛ‬فش ف‪ ٟ‬ؿٍّش ‪ٚ‬حكيس ى‪ ْٚ‬حٓظويحَ كَف حٌؼطف( حٌ‪ٛ‬ح‪) ٚ‬أ‪ ٚ‬حٓظويحِٗ لزً‬
‫حٌّؼط‪ٛ‬ف ح‪٤‬ه‪ ،َ١‬ف‪١‬م‪: "ٌْٛٛ‬ىٍٓض ل‪ٜ‬ش‪ ،‬ل‪١ٜ‬يس‪َِٔ ،‬ك‪١‬ش" أ‪" ٚ‬ىٍٓض ل‪ٜ‬ش‪،‬‬
‫ل‪١ٜ‬يس ‪َِٔٚ‬ك‪١‬ش "ف‪ٔ١‬ظؼ‪ ْٛ٠١‬ػٓ حٌ‪ٛ‬ح‪ ٚ‬رخٌفخ‪ٍٛ‬ش ‪ٌ٘ٚ.‬ح أٍٓ‪ٛ‬د ‪ٜ٠ ٨‬ق ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‬
‫ٌّخ ف‪ ِٓ ٗ١‬فـخؿش ‪ٚ‬ػـّش‪ ،‬كظ‪ ٌٛ ٝ‬وخْ ؿخثِح ف‪ ٟ‬غ‪ َ١‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪ٚ.‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق أْ ٔم‪ٛ‬ي‪:‬‬
‫"ىٍٓض ل‪ٜ‬ش ‪ٚ‬ل‪١ٜ‬يس ‪َِٔٚ‬ك‪١‬ش ‪ٚ".‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌّمخٌش حٌٔخرمش ٔفٔ‪ٙ‬خ ‪ٍٚ‬ىص حٌؼزخٍس" ‪:‬لَحءس‬
‫حٌفمَحص حٌؼمخف‪١‬ش‪َ٘ٔ ،‬حص ح‪٤‬هزخٍ‪ٚ ،‬حٌل‪ٛ‬حٍ "‪ٚ...‬حٌم‪ٛ‬ي حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق ٘‪: (ٛ‬لَحءس حٌفمَحص‬
‫حٌؼمخف‪١‬ش‪َ٘ٔٚ ،‬حص ح‪٤‬هزخٍ‪ٚ ،‬حٌل‪ٛ‬حٍ)‪...‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٍغش ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ‪٠‬ـ‪ ِْٚ١‬حٓظويحَ حٌف‪ٍٜ‬ش ري‪ ِٓ ٨‬حٌ‪ٛ‬ح‪ ٚ‬ػٕيِخ طظ‪ ّٓ٠‬حٌـٍّش ًوَ‬
‫أٗ‪١‬خء ِظؼيىس‪ ،‬ف‪١‬م‪:ٌْٛٛ‬‬
‫‪I read a story, a poem and a play.‬‬
‫‪Reading cultural programs, newscasts and dialogues.‬‬
‫*ًوَ حٌفخػً رؼي حٌزٕخء ٌٍّـ‪ٛٙ‬ي ‪٠:‬زٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌفؼً ٌٍّـ‪ٛٙ‬ي ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪ٓ٤‬زخد ِؼَ‪ٚ‬فش‪،‬‬
‫أّ٘‪ٙ‬خ ػيَ ِؼَفش حٌفخػً‪ ،‬أ‪ ْ٤ ٚ‬حٌفخػً ِؼَ‪ٚ‬ف ر‪ٟٛٛ‬ف‪ ،‬أ‪ٌٍ ٚ‬ظلم‪ ،َ١‬أ‪٠٧ٌ ٚ‬ـخُ‪ ،‬أ‪ٚ‬‬
‫‪ ْ٤‬حٌفخػً ٌ‪ ْ١‬رٌ‪ ٞ‬أّ٘‪١‬ش‪ ،‬أ‪ٌ ٚ‬ظؼظ‪ ُ١‬حٌفخػً‪ ،‬أ‪ٌّٕ ٚ‬خٓزش ِخ طميِٗ ‪ٌٌ 15‬ح ‪ٕٛ٠‬د ِفؼ‪ٌٗٛ‬‬
‫‪:‬ػٓ فخػٍٗ‪٠ ،‬م‪ٛ‬ي حرٓ ِخٌه‪16‬‬
‫‪ ٕٛ٠‬د ِفؼ‪ٛ‬ي رٗ ػٓ فخػ ًِ ف‪ّ١‬خ ٌٗ وٕ‪ ًَ ١‬ه‪ٔ َ١‬خث ًِ‬
‫‪ ٌٌٖٙٚ‬ح‪ٓ٤‬زخد ‪٠ ٨‬ـ‪ً ُٛ‬وَ حٌفخػً ِطٍمخ رؼي حٌزٕخء ٌٍّـ‪ٛٙ‬ي ‪.‬ا‪ ٨‬أٔ‪٠ ُٙ‬م‪ ُِ : " ٌْٛٛ‬ن ص د‬
‫حٌٕ‪ ِٓ ٚ‬لزً دمحم "‪ٚ‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق أْ ‪٠‬مخي " ‪ ُِ :‬ن ص د حٌٕ‪" ٚ‬أ‪ َِ " ٚ‬وَظذ ِلُ ى حٌٓ ‪". ٙ‬‬
‫ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٍغش )‪ٔ٠ٚ (Passive voice‬ظويَ حٌّزٕ‪ٌٍّ ٟ‬ـ‪ٛٙ‬ي )‪٠ (by‬ؼزَ ػٕٗ رخ‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش د‬
‫ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌلخ‪٨‬ص ح‪٢‬ط‪١‬ش‪:‬‬
‫‪-1‬اًح وخْ حٌفخػً غ‪ِ َ١‬ؼَ‪ٚ‬ف‪ِ ،‬ؼخي‪:‬‬
‫‪Twenty American soldiers were killed in Iraq.‬‬
‫‪-2‬اًح وخْ ح٘ظّخَ حٌّظليع ‪ ٚ‬طَو‪ ِٖ١‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌّفؼ‪ٛ‬ي أوؼَ ِٓ حٌفخػً ٔظَح ٌؼيَ أّ٘‪١‬ش‬
‫حٌّفؼ‪ٛ‬ي‪ِ ،‬ؼخي‪:‬‬
‫‪The food was brought.‬‬
‫‪-3‬اًح وخْ حٌّظليع ‪َ٠ ٨‬غذ ف‪ ٟ‬و٘ف ٘‪٠ٛ‬ش حٌفخػً‪ِ ،‬ؼخي‪:‬‬
‫‪I was told that Ali is A criminal.‬‬
‫ف‪ٙٔ ٟ‬خ‪٠‬ش حٌـٍّش اًح أٍىٔخ حٌظؼَ‪٠‬ف رخٌفخػً‪ِ ،‬ؼخي ‪ّ٠ ٚ: By‬ىٓ ا‪ٟ‬خفش‬
‫‪The cat was killed by Ali.‬‬
‫*حٓظويحَ وٍّش( رخٌٕٔزش )حٓظويحِخ هخ‪١‬جخ ‪:‬فّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌٕٔزش ‪:‬حٌمَحرش‪ٚ ،‬ف‪ ٟ‬رٕ‪ ٟ‬ف‪:ْ٩‬‬
‫د ‪.‬حرٓ ٓ‪١‬يٖ‪:‬‬ ‫َ‬
‫د حٌَمَحرخ ص‪ٚ ٛ٘ٚ ،‬حف ى ح‪ْٔٔ ٤‬خ ِ‬ ‫د ‪َْٔ:‬‬ ‫أ‪ٚ. 17 ُِٕٙ ٞ‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٍٔخْ" ‪:‬حٌَّْٕ‬
‫‪15‬وً ٌٖ٘ ح‪٤‬غَح‪ِٟٛ ٝ‬لش ف‪ ٟ‬رلؼٕخ( كٕٕ‪. ٟ‬ى‪ُ.‬حَ٘ ‪:‬حٌّزٕ‪ٌٍّ ٟ‬ـ‪ٛٙ‬ي ف‪ ٟ‬حٌمَآْ حٌىَ‪ – ُ٠‬رلغ‬

‫ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٕل‪ٚ ٛ‬حٌي‪ٌ٨‬ش ‪ِ-‬ـٍش ؿخِؼش حٌوٍ‪ٌٍ ً١‬زل‪ٛ‬ع‪).‬‬
‫‪16‬حرٓ ػم‪َٗ: ً١‬ف حرٓ ػم‪ ً١‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أٌف‪١‬ش حرٓ ِخٌه‪ ،‬حٌظلم‪١‬ك ‪ٚ‬حٌظؼٍ‪١‬ك ‪ٚ‬حٌَ٘ف ي ‪:‬دمحم ػزي حٌّٕؼُ‬
‫هفخؿ‪ ٗ١ٚ ٟ‬دمحم حٌِ‪َِ ،ٟٕ٠‬حؿؼش ‪ِ:‬لّ‪ٛ‬ى أِ‪ ٓ١‬حٌٕ‪ٛ‬ح‪ ،ٞٚ‬ؽ‪ِ ،/ 1‬طزؼش دمحم ػٍ‪ٛ ٟ‬ز‪١‬ق ‪ٚ‬أ‪٨ٚ‬ىٖ‪،‬‬
‫‪285ٙ ، 1961 ،َِٜ.‬‬
‫‪17‬حٌ‪: ٢١ٓٛ‬رخد حٌٕ‪ِ ،ْٛ‬خىس ٔٔذ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ٙ‬س؛‬
‫ً‬ ‫د ‪:‬حٌَمَحد ُِ س؛ ‪ٚ‬ل‪ ٛ٘: ً١‬ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪٢‬رخء هخ‬ ‫حٌٓ ٓذ ُِ س ‪ٚ‬حٌٓ ّ د ُِ س ‪ٚ‬حٌَّٓ‬
‫ّ‬ ‫ِّ‬
‫‪ٚ‬ل‪: ً١‬حٌ ِّْٕ د ُِ س ِ‪ٜ‬ي ٍ‬
‫د ‪٠‬ى‪ ْٛ‬رخٌ‪٣‬رخ ء‪٠ٚ ،‬ى‪ِ ْ ٛ‬اٌ‪ٝ‬‬ ‫ح ْ‪ ْ٨‬طٔخ ِِ د؛ ‪ٚ‬حٌْٕ د ُِ س ‪:‬ح‪. َ ّ٨‬حٌظ‪٠ٌٙ‬ذ ‪:‬حٌَّْٕ‬
‫حٌز‪٩‬ى‪٠ٚ ،‬ى‪ْٛ‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ف‪ ٟ‬حي ‪ٕٛ‬خػش‪ٚ ،‬لي ح‪ َ١ ُِ ٝ‬حٌ٘خػَ فؤٓىٓ حٌٔ‪ٓ١‬؛ أٔ٘ي حرٓ ح‪٤‬ػَحر‪:ٟ‬‬
‫ى ػٍ‪١‬ه‬ ‫‪٠‬خ ع َ ٍ‪٠ ،ٚ‬خ حد ْ ح‪َ٤‬وَْ َ ‪ٓ ْ َِ ٓ٠‬زخ‪ َِ ،‬ق ى َِ ٔق د حٌُ ؽ‬
‫َِ ْ كزخ‪" 18‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬طٔظويَ ػٕي رؼ‪ ُٙ٠‬رؼ‪١‬يح ػٓ ٌ٘ح حٌّؼٕ‪ ،ٝ‬ف‪١‬م‪: "ٌْٛٛ‬وخٔض حٌّ‪ٛ‬حلف ِظزخ‪ٕ٠‬ش‪،‬‬
‫فزخٌٕٔزش ٌٍّ‪ٛ‬لف حٌفٍٔط‪ٌ٘ٚ..." ٟٕ١‬ح حٓظويحَ ِوخٌف ٌٍؼَر‪١‬ش‪ٚ ،‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق أْ ٔم‪ٛ‬ي‪:‬‬
‫"وخٔض حٌّ‪ٛ‬حلف ِظزخ‪ٕ٠‬ش‪ ،‬فخٌّ‪ٛ‬لف حٌفٍٔط‪...".ٟٕ١‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ػٕي طَؿّش ؿٍّش ِٓ ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‪ِ ،‬ؼً‪:‬‬
‫‪Concerning or regarding the Palestinian point of view‬‬
‫طؼٕ‪ ٟ‬رخٌؼَر‪١‬ش ف‪ّ١‬خ ‪٠‬ظؼٍك رخٌ٘‪ٟ‬ء فظظُ طَؿّظ‪ٙ‬خ ‪ regarding‬أ‪ٕ٘ concerning ٚ‬خ وٍّش‬
‫رخٌٕٔزش ي ‪ٌ٘ٚ‬ح هطؤ أِخ ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ف‪ٛ٠ ٩‬ؿي ٌ٘ح حٌفَق‪.‬‬
‫*ح‪٨‬رظيحء رخٌٕىَس ِٓ غ‪ِٛٔ َ١‬ؽ ‪:‬ف‪١‬م‪ِّٕٛ "ٌْٛٛ‬ع حٌظيه‪ٚ" ٓ١‬حٌؼزخٍس ِىظ‪ٛ‬رش ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫ِؼظُ ح‪ِ٤‬خوٓ حٌظ‪٘ٔ ٟ‬خ٘ي٘خ ف‪ ٟ‬ك‪١‬خطٕخ‪ ،‬أ‪ ٚ‬ػزخٍس" ِّٕ‪ٛ‬ع ٍِ‪ ٟ‬حٌٕفخ‪٠‬خص "‪ِٚ‬خ ٗخرٗ ًٌه‪.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬حٌوطؤ ف‪ٙ١‬خ ػيَ ؿ‪ٛ‬حُ "‪ٌ٘ٚ "No Smoking‬ح هطؤ ٔخطؾ ػٓ حٌظَؿّش حٌلَف‪١‬ش ٌٍؼزخٍس‬
‫ح‪٨‬رظيحء رٕىَس ا‪ ٨‬ف‪ ٟ‬كخ‪٨‬ص ِؼَ‪ٚ‬فش‪ٌ٘ٚ ،‬ح حٌّ‪ٟٛ‬غ ٌ‪ِٕٙ ْ١‬خ ‪ٚ ، 19‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق أْ ٔم‪ٛ‬ي" ‪:‬‬
‫‪:‬حٌظيه‪ِّٕٛ ٓ١‬ع ‪ٚ ".‬ف‪ًٌ ٟ‬ه ‪٠‬م‪ٛ‬ي حرٓ ِخٌه‪20‬‬
‫‪18‬حٌٍٔخْ ‪:‬رخد حٌزخء ف‪ ًٜ‬حٌٕ‪ِ ،ْٛ‬خىس ٔٔذ‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬كخ‪٨‬ص ؿ‪ٛ‬حُ ح‪٨‬رظيحء رخٌٕىَس ٘‪:-ٟ‬أْ طى‪ِٛٛٛ ْٛ‬فش ‪ٛٚ‬فخ ٌفظ‪١‬خ أ‪ ٚ‬طمي‪٠َ٠‬خ أ‪ِ ٚ‬ؼٕ‪٠ٛ‬خ‪ -‬أ‪ ٚ‬أْ‬
‫‪٠‬ظميَ ػٍ‪ٙ١‬خ هزَ٘خ– أ‪ ٚ‬أْ طى‪ ْٛ‬ػخِش – أ‪ ٚ‬أْ طى‪ ْٛ‬ف‪ِ ٟ‬ؼٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌفؼً – أ‪ ٚ‬أْ طى‪ ْٛ‬ػخٍِش ػًّ‬
‫ى َِ ْ‬ ‫ػْٕ َي َُ‪ٞ‬‬ ‫ى َِ ن‬ ‫َ ُِص ف‬ ‫ٖ َِخ َِ ي‬ ‫وَ‬
‫َ‬ ‫ُ ح‪ ٨‬د طيَح ِِرخٌَّٓ‬ ‫َ‪٠َ ٨ َِ ٚ‬ؾ ‪ٚ‬‬
‫َِ ٖ‬ ‫َ‬
‫وَح ِِ َ ػْٕيََِ ٔخ‬
‫َ‬ ‫حي‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ؿً‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫‪ٚ‬‬
‫َ َ‬ ‫ٕخ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫َِ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫م‬ ‫خ‬‫ّ‬‫َ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫َِ‬ ‫وُ‬ ‫ِ‬
‫ُ‬ ‫ف‪ٟ‬‬ ‫ظ‪ٝ‬‬‫َ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫َِ‬ ‫َ‪ًْ َ٘ ٚ‬‬
‫‪َ٠‬م ًْ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ذ ٍ ‪ِْ َٚ ْ ِِٞ َ٠‬ي ‪َ٠‬ك ّ َِخ َِ ي‬ ‫ػ َّ ٍْ ِ‬
‫ٍ َ‪َ ٚ‬‬ ‫ذ ِ س ف‪ ٟ‬حي َِ ه‪َ ٍِ ٟ‬ه‪ٟ‬‬ ‫َ‪ْ ٍَ ٚ‬غ َ‬
‫‪ٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ‪٠‬م‪:ٌْٛٛ‬‬
‫‪No Entrance‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬طَؿّظ‪ٙ‬خ ‪:‬حٌيه‪ٛ‬ي ِّٕ‪ٛ‬ع ‪ِّٕٛ (ْ١ٌٚ‬ع حٌيه‪ٛ‬ي)‪٠ٚ ،‬م‪:ٌْٛٛ‬‬
‫‪No child admission‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬طَؿّظ‪ٙ‬خ ‪:‬ىه‪ٛ‬ي ح‪١٤‬فخي ِّٕ‪ٛ‬ع‪(ٚ ،‬ىه‪ٛ‬ي )ِؼَفش ‪ٙٔ٤‬خ ِ‪٠‬خف اٌ‪ِ ٝ‬ؼَفش‪ٌٌ ،‬ح ؿخُ‬
‫أْ طى‪ِ ْٛ‬زظيأ‪.‬‬
‫حٌظ‪ ٟ‬طف‪١‬ي • )‪ (still‬حٓظويحَ( ‪ُ ٨‬حي )ري‪ِ (ِٓ ٨‬خ ُحي ‪٠):‬ظَؿُ رؼ‪ ُٙ٠‬وٍّش‬

‫ح‪ٓ٨‬ظَّحٍ‪٠‬ش رىٍّش" ‪ُ ٨‬حي ‪".‬ف‪١‬م‪ُ٨: "ٌْٛٛ‬حٌض حٌمٕخػش ػٕي حٌٕخّ"‪٠ٚ ،‬م‪ُ٨: "ٌْٛٛ‬حٌض‬
‫ح‪ٍ٢‬حء ِظزخػيس ‪ٌ٘ٚ".‬ح حٓظؼّخي هخ‪١‬ت ٌىٍّش" ‪ُ ٨‬حي"‪ ،‬ف‪ ٟٙ‬طف‪١‬ي حٌيػخء ‪ ٨‬ح‪ٓ٨‬ظَّحٍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ٜ٠ٚ‬ق أْ ‪٠‬مخي" ‪ُ ٨:‬حٌض ح‪ ٍٝ٤‬ػِ‪ِ٠‬س رؤٍ٘‪ٙ‬خ"‪ ،‬ف‪ ٛٙ‬ىػخء ٌ‪ ٍٝ٥‬ري‪ٚ‬حَ حٌؼِ‬
‫رؤٍ٘‪ٙ‬خ ‪.‬أِخ ِخ ‪٠‬ف‪١‬ي ح‪ٓ٨‬ظَّحٍ ف‪ِ "ٛٙ‬خ ُحي"‪ ،‬وؤْ ٔم‪ٛ‬ي" ‪ِ:‬خ ُحٌض حٌمٕخػش ػٕي حٌٕخّ"‪،‬‬
‫‪ِ "ٚ‬خ ُحٌض ح‪ ٍٝ٤‬ػِ‪ِ٠‬س رؤٍ٘‪ٙ‬خ ‪ٚ".‬وؼ‪َ١‬ح ِخ ‪٠‬وظٍ‪ ٢‬ح‪ َِ٤‬ػٍ‪٠ ِٓ ٝ‬م‪ ِْٛٛ‬رخٌىظخرش‬
‫‪Ahmad :‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‪ ،‬ف‪١‬ؤهٌ‪ ْٚ‬رخ‪ٓ٨‬ظؼّخي ح‪ٚ٤‬ي ٌٍي‪ٌ٨‬ش ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌؼخٔ‪. ٟ‬ػٕي طَؿّش ؿٍّش‬
‫حٌفؼً – أ‪ ٚ‬أْ طمغ ؿ‪ٛ‬حرخ ٌٔئحي – أ‪ ٚ‬أْ طمغ رؼي ‪ َ٨‬ح‪٨‬رظيحء – أ‪ ٚ‬أْ طمغ رؼي( اًح )حٌفـخث‪١‬ش– أ‪ ٚ‬أْ‬
‫طمغ ف‪ ٟ‬ؿٍّش حٌؼطف – أ‪ ٚ‬أْ طمغ ف‪ٛ ٟ‬يٍ حٌـٍّش حٌلخٌ‪١‬ش ‪٠ٌِّٚ.‬ي ِٓ حٌظفخ‪ٚ ً١ٛ‬حٌَ٘ف حٔظَ( حرٓ‬
‫٘٘خَ‪.‬ػزي هللا رٓ ‪ٓٛ٠‬ف ‪:‬أ‪ٟٚ‬ق حٌّٔخٌه اٌ‪ ٝ‬أٌف‪١‬ش حرٓ ِخٌه‪ ،‬ر‪َٚ١‬ص‪ ،‬ىحٍ اك‪١‬خء حٌظَحع حٌؼَر‪،ٟ‬‬
‫‪ِٚ 60 ٙ،/ 5١‬خ رؼي٘خ‪).َ 1966 ،‬‬
‫‪. 20‬حٌف‪ُٛ‬حْ ‪.‬ػزي هللا رٓ ‪ٛ‬خٌق ‪:‬ىٌ‪ ً١‬حٌٔخٌه اٌ‪ ٝ‬أٌف‪١‬ش حرٓ ِخٌه‪ ،‬ؽ ‪149ٙ ،/ 1‬‬
‫‪٠‬ـذ أْ ‪٠‬مخي( ‪:‬أكّي ِخ ُحي ‪١‬خٌزخ )‪ٔ ٨ٚ‬م‪ٛ‬ي( ‪:‬حكّي ‪ُ ٨‬حي‪is still a student.‬‬
‫‪١‬خٌزخ )‪ٛ٠ ٨ٚ‬ؿي ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ِؼً ٌ٘ح ح‪٨‬هظ‪٩‬ف‪.‬‬
‫ىحثّخ ‪:‬وّخ ف‪ ٟ‬ل‪ِّ ٌُٙٛ‬خ ٗخع" وّي‪" َ٠‬أ‪ "ٚ‬ؤئحي • )‪" (as‬حٓظويحَ( حٌىخف )ِمخر‪ ٩‬ي‬
‫أ‪ "ٚ‬وـ‪ٛ‬حد"‪٠ٚ ،‬م‪ٜ‬ي‪ ْٚ‬رٌٌه حٌم‪ٛ‬ي" ر‪ٛٛ‬فٗ ِي‪َ٠‬ح "أ‪ "ٚ‬ر‪ٛٛ‬فٗ ٓئح‪" ٨‬أ‪ "ٚ‬ر‪ٛٛ‬فٗ‬
‫ؿ‪ٛ‬حرخ"‪ٌٌ ،‬ح ٗخع ًٌه ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٓ٨‬ظويحِخص وخفش ‪.‬فٍ‪ ٛ‬لٍٕخ" ‪:‬ط‪َٜ‬ف حٌَؿً وّي‪ٚ" َ٠‬حٌىخف‬
‫طف‪١‬ي حٌظ٘ز‪ٌٜ ،ٗ١‬خٍ حٌّؼٕ‪ "ٝ‬ط‪َٜ‬ف حٌَؿً ط‪َٜ‬فخ ‪٘٠‬زٗ ط‪َٜ‬فخص ِي‪ٌ٘ٚ" َ٠‬ح غ‪َ١‬‬
‫ل‪ٌٕٛ‬خ" ط‪َٜ‬ف حٌَؿً ر‪ٛٛ‬فٗ ِي‪َ٠‬ح‪".‬‬
‫‪As a manager of the company, he decided to dismiss the‬‬
‫طؼٕ‪ ٟ‬ر‪ٜ‬فظٗ ِي‪َ٠‬ح ف‪١‬ـذ طَؿّظ‪ٙ‬خ ػٍ‪ٌ٘ ٝ‬ح حٌٕل‪ٕ٘ٚ. as ٛ‬خ‬
‫•طَؿّش كَف‪١‬ش ٌىٍّش( ٌؼذ ‪):‬ف‪١‬م‪ٌ: "ٌْٛٛ‬ؼذ ى‪ٍٚ‬ح ِ‪ّٙ‬خ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌم‪١٠‬ش "‪ٍٚ‬رّخ ؿخُ‬
‫ًٌه ٌ‪ ٛ‬وخْ ف‪ِ ٟ‬زخٍحس وَس ليَ ِؼ‪ٌٚ ،٩‬ىٓ ف‪ ٟ‬ل‪١٠‬ش فٌٌه هطؤ‪ٚ ،‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق أْ ‪٠‬مخي‪:‬‬
‫"وخْ ى‪ِّٙ ٍٖٚ‬خ "أ‪ ٚ‬ؿٔي ى‪ٍٚ‬ح ِ‪ّٙ‬خ‪ ،‬أ‪ٗ ٚ‬ىً أ‪ِ ٚ‬خٍّ‪ٚ ،‬وٍ‪ٙ‬خ ألَد اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌّؼٕ‪ٝ‬‬
‫حٌَّحى ‪ ْ٤‬حٌٍؼذ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪ٟ‬ي( حٌـي )‪٠‬م‪ٛ‬ي حرٓ ِٕظ‪ ٍٛ‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٍٔخْ" ‪ٌ:‬ؼذ ‪:‬حٌ ًَّ ع د‬
‫‪ ًْ ٠‬ع د َِ ٌغ رخ ً َ‪ٚ‬ي ػزًخ‪َٚ ،‬ي ع د‪،‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬حٌ ًَّ ع د ‪ ٝ:‬ى حي ِِ ؽ ى‪ٌ َِ ،‬غ د‬
‫َ ٍس رؼي أهَ‪ٜ‬؛‬ ‫َ‪ٚ‬ط‪ ٩‬ع د‪َٚ ،‬طًَ ػذ‬
‫لخي حَِ ُإ حٌم‪:ْ١‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ػذ رخع ِ ع د ً َ س هخي ى‪ٚ ،‬أ ‪ٚ‬ى‪ ٜ‬ع ‪ٛ‬خ َ ف‪ ٟ‬حي ُِ هط‪ ِِ ٛ‬د ح‪ٚ٤‬حثً‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َِ طًَ‬
‫ؽ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬كي‪٠‬غ َِ طّ‪ٚ ُ١‬حي ؽ ٓخ ٓش ‪ٛ:‬خ ىْفٕخ حٌزلَ ك‪ ٓ١‬حؽَِ طٍَُ‪ ،‬فٍغ د رٕخ حٌُ ‪ٚ‬‬
‫ٗ‪َٙ‬ح؛ ّ ِ‪ٝ‬‬ ‫ً‬
‫ح‪ٟ‬طَحد حي َ ‪ٚ‬ؽ َِ ي ػزًخ‪ٌّ ،‬خ ٌُ ‪ َٓ ٞ‬ر‪ ُٙ‬اٌِ‪ ٝ‬حٌ‪ ٛ‬ؿٗ حٌٌ‪ ٞ‬أٍحى‪٠ٚ. ٖٚ‬مخي ٌىً ِٓ‬
‫د ‪ٚ.‬ف‪ ٟ‬كي‪٠‬غ ح‪ٓ٨‬ظٕـخ ء ‪:‬اِْ‬ ‫ع َ َي ػُ ًِ ‪ ٞ ٨ ٨‬ؿي‪ ٞ‬ػٍ‪ْ َٔ ٗ١‬فؼًخ ‪:‬أِّخ أَْ َِ ص ‪٨‬ع‬
‫حٌ٘‪١‬طخ ْ‬
‫‪ ٙ‬ى٘خ رخ‪َ ٤‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪ ًْ ٠‬ع د رّمخ ع ى رٕ‪ ٟ‬آىَ أ‪ ٞ‬حٔٗ ‪٠‬ق ‪ َٟ‬أِىٕش ح‪ٓ٨‬ظٕـخ ء ‪ٍ ٞٚ‬‬
‫َِ ً‪ٚ ٜ‬حٌفٔخى‪َٙٔ٤ ،‬خ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ٍ ف‪ٙ١‬خ ًوَ ّلّلا‪ُٚ ،‬ص ِْ ن َِ ٗف ف‪ٙ١‬خ حٌؼ‪ٍٛ‬ح ُِ ص‪ ،‬فؤَُ ٍ د‬ ‫ِ‪ٛ‬ح‪ٟ‬غ ‪ ٗ٠‬ؽ‬
‫‪ٚ‬ح‪ِ٨‬ظٕخع ِٓ‬
‫ٍٗخٕ حٌز‪ٛ‬ي‪ٚ ،‬وً ًٌه ِٓ َِ ٌغ ِ‬ ‫د حٌَ‪٠‬خف ‪ٚ‬‬ ‫‪ َٛ‬حٌٕخظَ‪٘ َٚ ٓ٠‬خ‬ ‫ٍ‪ ٝ‬ي د‬ ‫ع‬ ‫حٌضَّ‬
‫‪.‬حٌ٘‪١‬طخْ‪" 21‬‬
‫‪ ُ٘ٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ‪٠‬م‪:ٌْٛٛ‬‬
‫‪He played a prominent role in the debate‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬طَؿّظ‪ٙ‬خ( ‪:‬وخْ ى‪ِّٙ ٍٖٚ‬خ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٕمخٕ )‪ٌ (ْ١ٌٚ‬ؼذ ى‪ٍٚ‬ح ِ‪ّٙ‬خ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٕمخٕ)‬
‫•حٓظويحَ ريحثً ػٓ حٌّفؼ‪ٛ‬ي حٌّطٍك ‪:‬فزؼ‪ ٞ‬حٌّظَؿّ‪٠ ٨ ٓ١‬لٕٔ‪ ْٛ‬طَؿّش رؼ‪ٞ‬‬
‫حٌّؼخٔ‪ ٟ‬اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪٠ ٨ ُٙٔ٤‬لٕٔ‪ ْٛ‬حٓظويحَ حٌّفؼ‪ٛ‬ي حٌّطٍك ػٕيِخ ‪٠‬ى‪ٚ ْٛ‬ؿ‪ٛ‬د‬
‫حٓظويحِٗ‪ ،‬أ‪ ٚ‬أف‪١ٍ٠‬ش ًٌه‪ٌ٘٠ٚ ،‬ز‪ ْٛ‬اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌظَؿّش حٌلَف‪١‬ش‪ ،‬ف‪١‬م‪ِ ٌْٛٛ‬ؼ‪: "٩‬طليع ػٍ‪ٝ‬‬
‫ٔل‪ٚ ٛ‬ح‪ٟ‬ق "ف‪ٔ١‬ظويِ‪ (ْٛ‬ػٍ‪ٔ ٝ‬ق ِ ‪) ٚ‬ري‪ ِٓ ٨‬حٌّفؼ‪ٛ‬ي حٌّطٍك ٌٍفؼً( طليع )‪ٚ‬ح‪ٌٝٚ٤‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ح‪ٛ٤‬ق أْ ‪٠‬م‪ٌٛٛ‬ح" ‪:‬طليع كي‪٠‬ؼخ ‪ٚ‬ح‪ٟ‬لخ"‪٠ٚ ،‬م‪: "ٌْٛٛ‬ظ‪ َٙ‬ر٘ىً كٔٓ "‪ٚ‬ح‪ٛ٤‬ق أْ‬
‫‪٠‬مخي" ‪:‬ظ‪ َٙ‬ظ‪ٍٛٙ‬ح كٕٔخ"‪ِ ٌٖ٘ٚ ،‬ظؼٍمش رخٌظَؿّش حٌلَف‪١‬ش ‪:ْ٤‬‬
‫‪His speech was clear.‬‬
‫ِؼٕخ٘خ ‪:‬طليع كي‪٠‬ؼخ ‪ٚ‬ح‪ٟ‬لخ‪: ْ١ٌٚ ،‬طليع ػٍ‪ٔ ٝ‬ل‪ٚ ٛ‬ح‪ٟ‬ق ‪ِٚ.‬ؼٕ‪:ٝ‬‬
‫‪He looked smart.‬‬
‫ظ‪ َٙ‬ظ‪ٍٛٙ‬ح كٕٔخ‪: ْ١ٌٚ ،‬ظ‪ َٙ‬ر٘ىً كٔٓ‪.‬‬
‫ِِرىٍّش( ‪ٟ‬ي )ىحثّخ ‪ٌ٘ٚ‬ح غ‪ َ١‬ىل‪١‬ك‪ ،‬فؼٕيِخ ‪٠‬م‪ ٌْٛٛ‬ف‪ (against) • ٟ‬طَؿّش وٍّش‬
‫طظَؿُ( كخٍد ‪ (He struggled against the Israeli occupation.) :‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش‬
‫‪ٟ‬ي ح‪٨‬كظ‪٩‬ي ح‪َٓ٦‬حث‪ٌ٘ٚ) ٍٟ١‬ح حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌلَف‪ٌٍ ٟ‬ـٍّش ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش‪ِٚ ،‬ؼٕخٖ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‬
‫أٔٗ ‪ٚ‬لف ف‪ ٟ‬ؿز‪ٙ‬ش أ‪ ٚ‬فَلش أ‪ ٚ‬ؿ‪ٙ‬ش أهَ‪ ٜ‬غ‪ َ١‬حٌّؼخى‪٠‬ش ٌ‪٩‬كظ‪٩‬ي‪ٌ٘ٚ ،‬ح ِوخٌف‬
‫ٌٍّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌَّحى‪ٚ ،‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق أْ ‪٠‬مخي" ‪:‬كخٍد ح‪٨‬كظ‪٩‬ي "أ‪ ٓٗ "ٚ‬كَرخ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ح‪٨‬كظ‪٩‬ي"‪،‬‬
‫)‪ٚ(Children should be vaccinated against flow‬أِؼٍظ‪ٙ‬خ وؼ‪َ١‬س؛ ف‪١‬ظَؿّ‪ْٛ‬‬
‫(‪٠‬ـذ طٍم‪١‬ق ح‪١٤‬فخي ‪ٟ‬ي حٌَٗق )‪ٚ‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق أْ طظَؿُ" ‪٠:‬ـذ طٍم‪١‬ق ح‪١٤‬فخي ِٓ‬
‫حٌَٗق "‪٠ٚ‬ظَؿّ‪ْٛ‬‬
‫‪21‬حٌٍٔخْ‪ ،‬رخد حٌزخء‪ ،‬ف‪ ًٜ‬حٌ‪ِ ،َ٩‬خىس ٌؼذ‪.‬‬
‫‪(The occupation court passed a sentence against the Palestinians‬‬
‫(أ‪ٛ‬يٍص ِلىّش ح‪٨‬كظ‪٩‬ي كىّخ ‪ٟ‬ي ِٕخ‪ ٓ١ٍٟ‬فٍٔط‪ٚ) ٓ١١ٕ١‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق" ‪:‬أ‪ٛ‬يٍص‬
‫ِلىّش ح‪٨‬كظ‪٩‬ي كىّخ رلك(أ‪ ٚ‬ػٍ‪ِٕ) ٝ‬خ‪ ٓ١ٍٟ‬فٍٔط‪".ٓ١١ٕ١‬‬
‫ِِرىٍّش( ‪٠‬غط‪) ٟ‬ىحثّخ‪ٌ٘ٚ ،‬ح ‪٠ ٨‬ئى‪ ٞ‬حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق ف‪ (cover) • ٟ‬طَؿّش وٍّش‬
‫حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‪ ،‬ف‪١‬م‪: "ٌْٛٛ‬غط‪َِ ٝ‬حٍٕٓخ حٌ‪ٜ‬لف‪ ٟ‬ح‪٤‬كيحع ح‪٤‬ه‪َ١‬س ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَحق "‪ ٨ٚ‬طؼط‪ٟ‬‬
‫وٍّش غط‪ ٝ‬حٌي‪ٌ٨‬ش حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬لش ٌٍّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌَّحى‪ ،‬ف‪ ٩‬ط‪ٛ‬ؿي ػ‪٩‬لش ر‪ ٓ١‬حٌظغط‪١‬ش ‪ٚ‬ر‪ٓ١‬‬
‫ح‪٤‬هزخٍ‪ٚ ،‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق أْ ‪٠‬مخي" ‪ٌ٘:‬ح ٔمً ِزخَٗ ٌ‪٥‬كيحع ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَحق ِزخَٗس "طَؿّش ي‪:‬‬
‫‪This is a live coverage of the incidents in Iraq.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬أْ ‪٠‬ظَؿُ ل‪:ٌُٙٛ‬‬
‫‪PBC news reporter covered The Israeli massacres in Jenin Camp.‬‬
‫حٌٌّحرق ح‪َٓ٦‬حث‪١ٍ١‬ش ف‪ِ ٟ‬و‪ ُ١‬ؿٕ‪. BBC ٓ١‬د ‪ٔ:‬مً َِحًٓ‬
‫ف‪ ٟ‬حٌّؼخي ح‪ٚ٤‬ي ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أٔ‪ٙ‬خ طغط‪١‬ش ‪ ٚ‬أ‪٠٠‬خ وٍّش ‪ coverage‬ف‪٠ ٩‬ـ‪ ُٛ‬طَؿّش وٍّش‬
‫ف‪ ٟ‬حٌّؼخي حٌؼخٔ‪ ٟ‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أٔ‪ٙ‬خ غط‪َِ ٝ‬حٍٕٓخ‪. covered‬‬
‫•اّ٘خي حٌفَق ر‪ ٓ١‬ح‪٤‬فؼخي حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪ٚ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ِٓ ك‪١‬غ حٌٍِ‪ٚ َٚ‬حٌظؼي‪: ٞ‬فزؼ‪ٞ‬‬

‫ح‪٤‬فؼخي ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ِظؼي‪٠‬ش ‪ٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪ُِ٨‬ش( أ‪ٍِِٙ٠ ٞ‬خ ِفؼ‪ٛ‬ي رٗ)‪ِٚ ،‬ؼخٌ‪ٙ‬خ‬
‫حٌٌ‪٠ ٞ‬ؼٕ‪ ،)ًٛٚ (ٟ‬ف‪١‬م‪ ٌْٛٛ‬ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش)‪: (reach‬‬
‫‪UN Secretary General reached Palestine today in the morning.‬‬
‫‪٠ٚ‬ظَؿّ‪ٙٔٛ‬خ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش" ‪ ًٛٚ:‬فٍٔط‪ ٓ١‬ح‪ ٓ١ِ٤‬حٌؼخَ ٌ‪ ُِ٥‬حٌّظليس ‪ٛ‬زخف ٌ٘ح حٌ‪"َٛ١‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق حٌم‪ٛ‬ي" ‪ ًٛٚ:‬ح‪ ٓ١ِ٤‬حٌؼخَ ٌ‪ ُِ٥‬حٌّظليس اٌ‪ ٝ‬فٍٔط‪ٛ ٓ١‬زخف ٌ٘ح حٌ‪".َٛ١‬‬
‫‪ ًٛٚ ْ٤‬فؼً ‪٠ ٨ َُ٨‬لظخؽ اٌ‪ِ ٝ‬فؼ‪ٛ‬ي رٗ ‪ٚ‬أّخ ‪٠‬لظخؽ اٌ‪ ٝ‬كَف ؿَ ‪.‬رّخ أْ‬
‫رّؼٕ‪٠ ٨ ًٛٚ ٝ‬ؤهٌ كَف ؿَ فظظُ طَؿّظٗ رخٌوطؤ وّخ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌـٍّش ‪ reach‬حٌفؼً‬
‫حٌٔخرمش ‪ ًٛٚ:‬فٍٔط‪ ٓ١‬ري‪ ًٛٚ ِٓ ٨‬اٌ‪ ٝ‬فٍٔط‪.ٓ١‬‬
‫رىٍّش( ػزَ ‪):‬ف‪١‬م‪: "ٌْٛٛ‬ػزَ أؿ‪ِٙ‬س ح‪٨‬ط‪ٜ‬خي "‪ٚ‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق أْ ‪٠‬مخي * )‪: (via‬طَؿّش‬
‫"رؤؿ‪ِٙ‬س ح‪٨‬ط‪ٜ‬خي"‪ ،‬أ‪ "ٚ‬ر‪ٛ‬حٓطش ح‪٨‬ط‪ٜ‬خي"‪ ْ٤ ،‬ػزَ طؼٕ‪: "ٟ‬حي ع د ِِ ٍ‪ ٛ٘ٚ ،‬ؿخْ د حٌٕ‪،َٙ‬‬
‫ٍ حٌ‪ٛ‬حى‪ ٚ ٞ‬ع د ٍٖ ‪ٗ:‬خ‪١‬جٗ ‪ٔٚ‬خك‪١‬ظٗ؛ لخي حٌٕخرغش حٌٌر‪١‬خٔ‪ّ٠ ٟ‬يف حٌٕؼّخْ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬ع د‬
‫‪ِٚ‬خ حٌُفَح ُِ ص ِاًح ؿخ َِ ٗض َِ غ‪ٛ‬ح ِِ ٍد ٖ‪ ،‬ص ٍِ‪ ٟ‬أَ‪ٚ‬ح ً ‪ ٗ٠‬حي ع د ٍ‪ ْ ِِ ٞ‬رخي‬
‫ُ د ى‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪٠ٚ‬مخي ‪:‬ف‪ ْ٩‬ف‪ًٌ ٟ‬ه حي ػزَ أ‪ ٞ‬ف‪ًٌ ٟ‬ه حٌـخٔذ ‪ ٚ.‬ع د ٍص حٌٕٗ ٍ ‪ٚ‬حٌطَ‪٠‬ك أ ع رَٖ‬
‫ع ً‬
‫ػز‪ٍٛ‬ح اًِح لطؼظٗ ِٓ ٌ٘ح حي ع رَ اٌِ‪ًٌ ٝ‬ه حي ػزَ ‪ٌ٘ٚ" 22‬ح ‪ٟٛ٠‬ق ػيَ ‪ٚ‬ؿ‪ٛ‬ى ػ‪٩‬لش ر‪ٓ١‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫‪ٚ‬‬
‫حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌَّحى ‪ٚ‬ى‪ٌ٨‬ش حٌىٍّش‪.‬‬
‫‪I traveled to Egypt via Rafah.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬فمخ أ‪ٚ ٚ‬فخلخ أ‪ِ ٚ‬طخرمش * )‪) (according‬طَؿّش‬ ‫رىٍّش( ‪١‬زمخ )ىحثّخ ‪٠ٚ:‬م‪ٜ‬ي‪ْٚ‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬فك‬ ‫ف‪٠ ُٙ‬م‪١: "ٌْٛٛ‬زمخ ٌ‪ٛ‬وخ‪٨‬ص ح‪ٔ٤‬زخء‪ ،‬طُ ح‪٨‬طفخق ر‪ٚ...." ٓ١‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق أْ ‪٠‬مخي‬
‫‪ٚ‬وخ‪٨‬ص "‪ّ٠ٚ....‬ىٓ حٌظؼز‪ َ١‬ػٓ حٌّؼٕ‪ٔ ٝ‬فٔٗ رؤٓخٌ‪١‬ذ ِظؼيىس ِؼً" ‪ً:‬وَص ‪ٚ‬وخ‪٨‬ص‬
‫ق ٖ ِطخد ق ًِ س ‪ ١ٚ‬رخلًخ ‪َٚ .‬ططخد َِ ق‬ ‫ح‪ٔ٤‬زخء أْ حطفخلخ طُ ر‪ٚ..." ٓ١‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٍٔخْ" ‪١:‬خد َ‬
‫حٌ٘‪١‬ج َخْ‪:‬‬
‫طٔخ ‪٠ٚ‬خ ‪ٚ.‬حٌُ ‪١‬خد ق ُِ س ‪:‬حي ِ‪ٛ‬حَفمش ‪ٚ.‬حٌظَّطخ رك ‪:‬ح‪٨‬طفخق ‪١ٚ.‬خد قْ ُِ ص ر‪ ٓ١‬حٌ٘‪١‬ج‪ ٓ١‬اًِح‬
‫ؿؼٍظ‪ّٙ‬خ ػٍ‪ٝ‬‬
‫ق ٖ‪ٚ‬‬ ‫ف ُِ ق ٌ٘ح ‪ٚ ِِ ٚ‬فخُلٗ ‪١ ٚ‬زخُلٗ ‪١ٚ‬خد ُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ف ِْ ً‪ٚ ٚ‬حكي ‪ٚ‬أٌِلظ‪ّٙ‬خ ‪ٌ٘ٚ.‬ح حٌ٘‪ٟ‬ء ‪ْ ٚ‬‬
‫‪ ١‬رُمٗ ‪١ِ َِ ٚ‬ز‪ُ١‬مٗ‬
‫‪١ِ ِْ َ ٚ‬زُمٗ ‪ٚ‬لخَي رٗ ‪ٚ‬لخ ِي رٗ رّؼٕ‪ٚ ٝ‬حكي ‪ ِٕٗٚ.‬ل‪ٚ: ٌُٙٛ‬حَف َِ ق َٗٓ َِ ‪ ١‬رَمٗ ‪١ٚ.‬خد َِ ق‬
‫ر‪ ٓ١‬لّ‪.ٓ١ٜ١‬‬
‫َِ ٌزِْ أَكيّ٘خ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ح‪٢‬هَ ‪ٚ.‬حٌّٔ‪ٛ‬ح ُِ ص حٌ ِطزخ ُِ ق ‪١ّٓ:‬ض رٌٌه ي ِطخ رمش رؼ‪ٙ٠‬خ رؼ‪ً٠‬خ أ‪ٞ‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫ّ‬
‫‪.‬رؼ‪ٙ٠‬خ ف‪ٛ‬ق رؼ‪" 23ٞ‬‬
‫‪According to the news agencies.‬‬
‫ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أٔ‪ٙ‬خ ‪ٚ‬فك ‪١ ْ١ٌ ٚ‬زمخ ‪ٕ٘ According‬خ ‪٠‬ـذ طَؿّش وٍّش‬
‫رىٍّش( ‪٨‬غ‪١‬خ ‪):‬فف‪ (cancel) ٟ‬أِخ ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ف‪ٛ٠ ٩‬ؿي ٌزْ ف‪ ٟ‬حٌّؼٕ‪.* ٝ‬طَؿّش‬
‫ل‪: "ٌُٙٛ‬ػي حٌطَفخْ ح‪٨‬طفخق ‪٨‬غ‪١‬خ "هطؤ ف‪ ٟ‬حٓظويحَ وٍّش ‪٨‬غ‪ ٟ‬حٌظ‪ ٟ٘ ٟ‬حُٓ فخػً ِٓ‬
‫حٌفؼً ٌغخ‪ٍ٠ ،‬غ‪ ،ٛ‬أ‪ ٞ‬وؼَ و‪ ،ِٗ٩‬ف‪ٜ١‬زق ِؼٕ‪٨ (ٝ‬غ‪) ٟ‬وؼ‪ َ١‬حٌى‪ٌ٘ ْ١ٌٚ. َ٩‬ح ٘‪ٛ‬‬
‫‪22‬حٌٍٔخْ‪ ،‬رخد حٌَحء ف‪ ًٜ‬حٌؼ‪ِ ،ٓ١‬خىس ػزَ‪.‬‬
‫‪23‬حٌٍٔخْ ‪:‬رخد حٌمخف ف‪ ًٜ‬حٌطخء‪ِ ،‬خىس ‪١‬زك‪.‬‬

‫حٌّم‪ٜٛ‬ى رخٌؼزخٍس‪ٚ ،‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق أْ ‪٠‬مخي" ‪:‬ػي حٌطَفخْ ح‪٨‬طفخق ٍِغ‪١‬خ "‪ٍِ(ٚ‬غ‪ ٟ٘) ٟ‬حُٓ‬
‫حٌفخػً ِٓ حٌفؼً ٌغ‪ٍ٠ ٝ‬غ‪ ،ٟ‬أ‪ ٞ‬أرطً أَِح ٓخرمخ‪ٌ٘ٚ ،‬ح ٘‪ ٛ‬حٌّم‪ٜٛ‬ى ‪ٚ.‬حٌظٕز‪ ٌٗ ٗ١‬رٔزذ‬
‫وؼَس ٗ‪ٛ١‬ػٗ ى‪ ْٚ‬ح‪ٔ٨‬ظزخٖ اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌوطؤ حٌٌ‪ٚ ٞ‬لغ ف‪.ٗ١‬‬
‫‪The accord is considered cancelled‬‬
‫حػظزَ ح‪٨‬طفخق ٍِغ‪١‬خ ‪ ْ١ٌٚ‬حػظزَ ح‪٨‬طفخق ‪٨‬غ‪١‬خ *حٌوٍ‪ ٢‬ر‪ ٓ١‬كَف‪ ٟ‬حٌـَ( اٌ‪(ٚ) ٝ‬حٌ‪)َ٩‬‬
‫فف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ٌىً كَف ِٓ كَ‪ٚ‬ف حٌـَ ِؼٕ‪ ٝ‬هخ‪ ٌٛٚ ،ٙ‬وخٔض )‪ :(to‬ػٕي طَؿّش‬
‫ِؼخٔ‪ٙ١‬خ ِظطخرمش ٌّخ حكظـٕخ٘خ وٍ‪ٙ‬خ‪ ،‬فّٓ أٗ‪ِ َٙ‬ؼخٔ‪ ٟ‬كَف حٌـَ( اٌ‪) ٝ‬حٔظ‪ٙ‬خء حٌغخ‪٠‬ش‬
‫‪" 24 ٜٝ‬‬‫َِٓ حٌ َّْ ِِ ؽ ى حٌ َل ََح ِِ َ ِاٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌ َّْ ِِ ؽ ى ح‪َ٤‬ل َ‬ ‫حٌّىخٔ‪١‬ش‪ ِٕٗٚ ،‬ل‪ ٌٗٛ‬طؼخٌ‪ٝ‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬حٌِِخٔ‪١‬ش ‪ِٕٗٚ‬‬
‫ل‪ ٌٗٛ‬طؼخٌ‪ُِ : "ٝ‬ػُ أ َ طّ‪ٛ‬ح حي ‪١َ ٛ‬خ ََ ِاٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌٍ‪ٚ ،" 25 ًِ ١‬حٌَّحى رخٔظ‪ٙ‬خء حٌغخ‪٠‬ش ‪:‬أْ حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬لزٍ‪ٙ‬خ‬
‫‪ٕ٠‬مطغ ‪ٕ٠ٚ‬ظ‪ ٟٙ‬ر‪ ٌٗٛٛٛ‬اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌّـَ‪ ٍٚ‬رؼي٘خ‪.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬أِخ" حٌ‪": َ٩‬ف‪ ٛٙ‬كَف ؿَ ‪٠‬ى‪ ْٛ‬أ‪ً٠ ًٛ‬خ ‪ٚ‬لي ‪٠‬ى‪ُ ْٛ‬حثيًح ‪ِ ٌٗٚ‬ؼخْ وؼ‪َ١‬س ِٕ‪ٙ‬خ‪:‬‬
‫•حٔظ‪ٙ‬خء حٌغخ‪٠‬ش ‪:‬فظى‪ِ ْٛ‬ؼً( اٌ‪ٌ٘ٚ). ٝ‬ح حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬لٍ‪ ِٕٗٚ ً١‬ل‪ ٌٗٛ‬طؼخٌ‪: "ٝ‬و ًّ ‪َ٠‬ؾ ِِ ٍ‪ٞ‬‬
‫‪٤‬ؿً ِْ ِ‪".ٝ‬‬
‫•حٌٍّه ‪ٚ:‬طمغ – غخٌزًخ – ر‪ً ٓ١‬حط‪ ٓ١‬حٌؼخٔ‪١‬ش ِٕ‪ّٙ‬خ طٍّه ‪ٌ٘ٚ.‬ح ٘‪ ٛ‬أوؼَ ِؼخٔ‪ٙ١‬خ ٔل‪:ٛ‬‬
‫حٌىظخد ٌوخٌي‪ ،‬لخي طؼخٌ‪: "ٝ‬للِ َ ي ن حي ّٓ‪ٛ‬ح ص ‪ٚ‬ح‪".ٝ ِِ ٍ٤‬‬
‫•ٗزٗ حٌٍّه ‪٠ٚ.‬ؼزَ ػٕٗ رخ‪٨‬هظ‪ٜ‬خ‪ ٛ٘ٚ. ٙ‬أْ ‪٠‬ى‪ِ ْٛ‬يه‪ٛ‬ي حٌ‪ٍّ٠ ٨ َ٩‬ه ٔل‪:ٛ‬‬
‫حٌزخد ٌٍيحٍ‪.‬‬
‫ِؼٕ‪ٚ ٝ‬اْ وخْ‬
‫ً‬ ‫•حٌظؼي‪٠‬ش اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌّفؼ‪ٛ‬ي رٗ ‪:‬ف‪١‬ى‪ِ ْٛ‬خ رؼي٘خ ف‪ ٟ‬كىُ حٌّفؼ‪ٛ‬ي رٗ‬
‫ِـَ‪ٍٚ‬ح ٔل‪ِ. ٛ‬خ أف د ‪١‬خي د حٌؼٍُ ٌٍطزخػش حٌـ‪١‬يس ِٓ حٌىظذ‪.‬‬ ‫ً‬
‫•حٌظؼٍ‪: ً١‬اًح وخْ ِخ رؼي٘خ ػٍش ٌّخ لزٍ‪ٙ‬خ ٔل‪ٍ١: ٛ‬ذ حٌؼٍُ ‪ٌَ ٍَٟٞٚ‬فغ حٌـ‪.ًٙ‬‬
‫‪ ٌٖ٘ٚ‬حٌّؼخٔ‪ ٟ‬حٌؤّش ًوَ٘خ حرٓ ِخٌه – ٍكّٗ هللا ‪ٚ -. " 26‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬ح‪ٚ٤‬ي ِخ‬
‫‪. 24‬ح‪َٓ٦‬حء‪ ،‬آ‪٠‬ش‪: 1‬‬
‫‪. 25‬حٌزمَس‪ ،‬آ‪٠‬ش‪: 187‬‬
‫‪. 26‬حٌف‪ُٛ‬حْ‪ ،‬ىٌ‪ ً١‬حٌٔخٌه‪ٓ ،‬خرك ‪10ٙ ،‬‬
‫‪ ُ٘ٛ٠‬رظ٘خرٗ ِؼٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌ‪ٚ َ٩‬اٌ‪ٌ ،ٝ‬ىٕٗ ‪ٟٚ‬ق ًٌه رم‪ٌ٘ٚ (ٌٗٛ‬ح حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬لٍ‪َٟٚ) ً١‬د ٌٗ‬
‫ِؼ‪ ٩‬ح‪٠٢‬ش‪.‬‬
‫أِخ حٌٌ‪٠ ٓ٠‬ظ‪ ّْٛ٘ٛ‬ف‪١‬وٍط‪ ْٛ‬ر‪ ٓ١‬حٌّؼٕ‪ ،ٓ١١‬ف‪١‬م‪ِ ٌْٛٛ‬ؼ‪ٍّٓ: "٩‬ض حٌىظخد اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌطخٌذ"‬
‫‪ٌ٘ٚ‬ح غ‪ٛ َ١‬ل‪١‬ق‪ٛٛٚ ،‬حرٗ حٌم‪ٛ‬ي" ‪ٍّٓ:‬ض حٌىظخد ٌٍطخٌذ "‪ ْ٤‬حٌىظخد ٓ‪ٟٛ١‬غ طلض‬
‫ط‪َٜ‬فٗ‪ٚ ،‬وؤٔٗ ٍِه ٌٗ‪٠ ٌُٚ ،‬ىٓ حٌغَ‪ٓ ٝ‬فَ حٌٍّف ِٓ ِىخْ اٌ‪ ٝ‬آهَ ‪٠ٚ.‬م‪ٌْٛٛ‬‬
‫أ‪٠٠‬خ" ‪ٓ:‬خفَص ٌ‪ٍ٥‬ىْ "‪ٌ٘ٚ‬ح غ‪ٛ َ١‬ل‪١‬ق ‪ٛٛٚ‬حرٗ أْ ‪٠‬مخي" ‪ٓ:‬خفَص اٌ‪ ٝ‬ح‪ٍ٤‬ىْ "‪ْ٤‬‬
‫(اٌ‪ٕ٘) ٝ‬خ طليى حٔظ‪ٙ‬خء حٌغخ‪٠‬ش حٌّىخٔ‪١‬ش‪.‬‬
‫‪I gave the book to the student.‬‬
‫أػط‪١‬ض حٌىظخد ٌٍطخٌذ‪: ْ١ٌٚ ،‬أػط‪١‬ض حٌىظخد اٌ‪ ٝ‬حٌطخٌذ‬
‫*ح‪َٛ٦‬حٍ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬طَؿّش حٌّ‪ٜ‬طٍق ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪ ِٞ١‬رىٍّش ‪ٚ‬حكيس ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪:‬كظ‪ٌُ ٌٛ ٝ‬‬
‫اً )‪ (privatization‬طىٓ طٍه حٌىٍّش لي أػطض حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌَّحى ريلش ِؼً حٌّ‪ٜ‬طٍق‬
‫‪ٟٚ‬ؼض ٌٗ طَؿّخص وؼ‪َ١‬س ِؼً( حٌو‪ٜ‬و‪ٜ‬ش )‪(ٚ‬حٌظو‪(ٚ) ٚ١ٜ‬حٌظو‪١ٜٜ‬ش )‪ٌٖ٘ٚ‬‬
‫طَؿّخص غ‪ َ١‬ىل‪١‬مش‪ًٌ ،‬ه أْ حٌٍغش ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش طّ‪ ً١‬ىحثّخ ‪ٓ٨‬ظويحَ حٌِ‪ٚ‬حثي ‪ٚ‬حٌٍ‪ٛ‬حكك‬
‫كظ‪ ٝ‬طظُ ِ‪ٛ‬حءِش حٓظويحِ‪ٙ‬خ ف‪ِٛ ٟ‬لؼ‪ٙ‬خ ِٓ( ( )‪ (affixes‬ف‪ ٟ‬ريح‪٠‬ش حٌىٍّش أ‪ ٚ‬ف‪ٙٔ ٟ‬خ‪٠‬ظ‪ٙ‬خ‬
‫حٌـٍّش ‪ٌٌٌٚ.‬ه ف‪ ٟٙ‬طؼظزَ أوؼَ ِٓ وٍّش ‪ٚ‬حكيس‪ٚ ،‬اْ ريص ف‪ ٟ‬ظخَ٘٘خ وٍّش ‪ٚ‬حكيس‪،‬‬
‫‪ٕ٘ ِٓٚ‬خ ف‪ ٩‬ىحػ‪َٛ٧ٌ ٟ‬حٍ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬طَؿّظ‪ٙ‬خ رىٍّش ‪ٚ‬حكيس َِحىفش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٍغش حٌؼَر‪١‬ش‪.‬‬
‫‪ّ٠ٚ‬ىٓ طَؿّظ‪ٙ‬خ د( حٌظل‪ٛ‬ي ٌٍمطخع حٌوخ‪) ٙ‬وّخ ‪ّ٠‬ىٓ أْ ٔظَؿُ وٍّش‬
‫د( ططز‪١‬ك حٌَ٘‪٠‬ؼش ح‪١ِ٩ٓ٦‬ش)‪(Islamization)،‬‬
‫طظَؿُ ٌٖ٘ حٌىٍّش د ‪:‬ػ‪ٌّٛ‬ش)‪(Globalization‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬حٌ‪ٜ‬ل‪١‬ق أٔ‪ٙ‬خ ‪:‬ػ‪ َٜ‬حٌؼ‪ٌّٛ‬ش‬
‫‪ٚ‬حٌِ‪ٚ‬حثي ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٍغش ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ٘‪ ٟ‬ىه‪ٛ‬ي ِـّ‪ٛ‬ػش ِٓ ح‪٤‬كَف اِخ ف‪ ٟ‬ريح‪٠‬ش حٌىٍّش‬
‫‪ٚ‬و‪ّ٘٩‬خ ‪٠‬ئػَ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌىٍّش رل‪١‬غ ‪ suffixes‬أ‪ٙٔ ٚ‬خ‪٠‬ظ‪ٙ‬خ ‪ٚ‬طّٔ‪ٚ prefixes ٝ‬طّٔ‪ٝ‬‬
‫حٔٗ ‪٠‬ؼط‪ٙ١‬خ حٌّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬حٌّٕخل‪ ٞ‬أ‪٠ ٚ‬غَ اػَحر‪ٙ‬خ أ‪ ٚ‬ح‪٨‬ػٕ‪ِ ٓ١‬ؼخ‪.‬‬
‫‪prefix‬غ‪ٛ َ١‬ل‪١‬ق ‪ٛ incorrect‬ل‪١‬ق‪correct‬‬
‫‪ٛsuffix‬فش ‪ٚ‬طؼٕ‪ِ ٟ‬ف‪١‬ي ‪ useful use‬فؼً رّؼٕ‪ٔ٠ ٝ‬ظؼًّ‬
‫*هٍ‪ ٢‬ف‪ ٟ‬رؼ‪ ٞ‬حٌّفخ٘‪: ُ١‬فخٌغَد ‪٠َ٠‬ي‪ ْٚ‬طَ‪٠ٚ‬ؾ ِ‪ٜ‬طٍلخص ‪ٛ١ٗٚ‬ػ‪ٙ‬خ ػٕي‬
‫حٌظَؿّش‪ ،‬ح‪ َِ٤‬حٌٌ‪٠ ٨ ٞ‬ظٕزٗ ٌٗ وؼ‪ ِٓ َ١‬حٌّظَؿّ‪ ،ٓ١‬فخٌغَد ‪٠‬م‪ ٌْٛٛ‬ػٕي ‪ٛٚ‬ف‬
‫‪ٌ٘ٚ‬ح ‪ (Israel and the Palestinians) :‬حٌ‪َٜ‬حع ر‪ ٓ١‬حٌفٍٔط‪ٚ ٓ١١ٕ١‬ح‪َٓ٦‬حث‪ٓ١١ٍ١‬‬
‫ِؼٕخٖ( آَحث‪ٚ ً١‬حٌفٍٔط‪) ْٛ١ٕ١‬أ‪٠َ٠ ٞ‬ي‪ ْٚ‬أْ ‪ٔ٠‬ظمَ ف‪ ًٓ٘ ٟ‬حٌمخٍة أْ آَحث‪ٟ٘ ً١‬‬
‫ى‪ٌٚ‬ش ٌ‪ٙ‬خ و‪١‬خْ لخثُ‪ٚ ،‬أِخ حٌفٍٔط‪ ْٛ١ٕ١‬ف‪ ُٙ‬أفَحى ر‪ ٩‬ى‪ٌٚ‬ش ‪ٌٌٚ.‬ح فبْ ػٍ‪ٕ١‬خ ك‪ٔ ٓ١‬ظَؿُ أْ‬
‫ٔظٕزٗ ٌّؼً ٌ٘ح فٕم‪ٛ‬ي" ‪:‬حٌفٍٔط‪ٚ ْٛ١ٕ١‬ح‪َٓ٦‬حث‪" ْٛ١ٍ١‬أ‪ ٚ‬أْ ٔم‪ٛ‬ي" ‪:‬فٍٔط‪ٚ ٓ١‬آَحث‪" ً١‬اًح‬
‫‪.‬وٕخ ٔؼظَف رّخ ‪ "ّٝٔ٠‬ى‪ٌٚ‬ش آَحث‪" 28ً١‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ‪٠‬ـذ حٌم‪ٛ‬ي‪:‬‬
‫‪The Israelis and the Palestinians‬‬
‫‪Israel and Palestine‬أ‪ٚ‬‬
‫‪ْ١ٌٚIsrael and the Palestinians‬‬
‫‪ٕ٠27‬ظَ ٌِّ‪٠‬ي ِٓ حٌظفخ‪،ً١ٛ‬‬
‫‪Geoffrey Leech& Jan Svartvik:A Communicative Grammar of English,‬‬
‫‪Longman House , 1975‬‬
‫‪Wren&Martin: High School English Grammar & Composition‬‬
‫‪ٍٚ28‬ىص رؼ‪ ٌٖ٘ ٞ‬ح‪٤‬هطخء ف‪ِ ٟ‬مخي ي( دمحم كٔٓ ‪ٓٛ٠‬ف – رؼٕ‪ٛ‬حْ" أهطخء ٗخثؼش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظَؿّش‬
‫حٌؼَر‪١‬ش "‪ٚ‬لي طليع ػٕ‪ٙ‬خ كي‪٠‬ؼخ ِوظٍفخ ػّخ لٍٕخٖ ف‪ ٟ‬وؼ‪.ِٕٗ َ١‬‬
‫حٌلّي لل‪ٚ ،‬حٌ‪٩ٜ‬س ‪ٚ‬حٌٔ‪ َ٩‬ػٍ‪ٔ ٝ‬ز‪ ٗ١‬دمحم حٌٌ‪ ٞ‬ح‪ٛ‬طفخٖ‪ٚ ،‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬آٌٗ ‪ٛٚ‬لزٗ‬
‫‪ٚ ِٓٚ‬ح‪ ،ٖ٨‬أِخ رؼي‪:‬‬
‫فمي ػىف حٌزخكؼخْ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أـخُ ٌ٘ح حٌزلغ ف‪ِ ٟ‬يس ل‪١‬خٓ‪١‬ش‪ٌٌ ،‬ح فخٌّٕخًؽ حٌظ‪ّ٠ ٟ‬ىٓ‬
‫ػَ‪ٟٙ‬خ وؼ‪َ١‬س حوظف‪١‬خ رؼَ‪ ٝ‬ػَ٘‪ِٕٙ ٓ٠‬خ‪ ٟ٘ٚ ،‬طيًٌ ر‪ٟٛٛ‬ف ػٍ‪ٚ ٝ‬ؿ‪ٛ‬ى ٌٖ٘‬
‫حٌظخَ٘س‪ٍَٟٚٚ ،‬س ِؼخٌـظ‪ٙ‬خ‪.‬‬
‫ريأ حٌزلغ رؼَ‪ِ ٝ‬ف‪ َٛٙ‬حٌظَؿّش ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٍغش ‪ٚ‬ح‪ٛ٨‬ط‪٩‬ف‪ٚ ،‬أٍحى أْ ‪٠‬ز‪ ٓ١‬أْ ِف‪َٛٙ‬‬

‫حٌظَؿّش ٌ‪ ْ١‬ؿخِيح ‪ٚ‬أّخ ظ‪ِ َٙ‬غ ػيى حٌّ٘ظغٍ‪ ٓ١‬ف‪ ٗ١‬حهظ‪٩‬ف ف‪١ ٟ‬ز‪١‬ؼش حٌظَؿّش‪ ،‬اً‬
‫٘‪ ٟ‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٕ‪ٙ‬خ‪٠‬ش ِل‪ٍٜ‬ش ‪٦‬ريحع حٌّظَؿُ ‪ٚ‬ليٍطٗ ػٍ‪١ٛ ٝ‬خغش ح‪٤‬فىخٍ ‪ٚ‬حٌّ‪٠‬خِ‪ٓ١‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬حٌّؼخٔ‪ ٟ‬حٌظ‪ٔ٠ ٟ‬ظم‪ٙ١‬خ ِٓ حٌٕ‪ ٚ‬ح‪ِٚ ،ًٛ٤‬غ ًٌه ف‪ ٩‬ري ِٓ ‪ٟٚ‬غ آٌ‪١‬خص ٌى‪١‬ف‪١‬ش حٌؼًّ‬
‫ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظَؿّش‪ ،‬كظ‪ ٨ ٝ‬طظل‪ٛ‬ي اٌ‪ ٝ‬طَؿّش كَف‪١‬ش طـخٔذ ِؼخٔ‪ ٟ‬ح‪.ًٛ٤‬‬
‫ػُ ػَ‪ ٝ‬حٌزلغ ‪ٛ‬فلخص ِٓ طخٍ‪٠‬ن حٌظَؿّش ػٕي حٌؼَد ‪ٚ‬ر‪ ٓ١‬أْ حٌؼًّ ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫حٌظَؿّش ٌ‪ٟ ْ١‬ؼفخ‪ٚ ،‬أّخ لي ‪٠‬ؼىْ كخٌش ِٓ حٌظط‪ ٍٛ‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظؼخًِ ِغ ػمخفخص ح‪ُِ٤‬‬
‫ح‪٤‬هَ‪ٚ ٜ‬ك‪٠‬خٍط‪ٙ‬خ‪ ،‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أ‪٠ ٨‬ى‪ًٌ ْٛ‬ه ػٍ‪ ٝ‬كٔخد حٌٍغش ح‪ٚ ،َ٤‬أْ ‪٠‬ى‪ ْٛ‬ف‪ ٟ‬ا‪١‬خٍ‬
‫حٌظؤػَ ‪ٚ‬حٌظؤػ‪ ،َ١‬فخٌٍغش حٌظ‪ ٟ‬طؤهٌ ‪ٚ‬طؼط‪ٌ ٟ‬غش لخىٍس ػٍ‪ ٝ‬حٌل‪١‬خس ‪ٚ.‬ر‪ ٓ١‬أْ حٌؼَد ػٕيِخ‬
‫وخٔ‪ٛ‬ح أل‪٠ٛ‬خء ك‪٠‬خٍ‪٠‬خ وخٔض ٌغظ‪ ُٙ‬ل‪٠ٛ‬ش حٔؼىخٓخ ٌ‪ٛ‬حلؼ‪ٚ ،ُٙ‬ػٕيِخ أ‪ٛ‬زل‪ٛ‬ح ‪ٟ‬ؼفخء‬
‫حٔؼىْ ًٌه أ‪٠٠‬خ ف‪ٌ ٟ‬غظ‪ِّ. ُٙ‬خ ‪٠‬ؼٕ‪ ٟ‬أْ حٌٍغش حٌل‪١‬ش ِ‪ّٙ‬خ وخٔض ل‪ٛ‬ط‪ٙ‬خ ‪ٚ‬ليٍط‪ٙ‬خ ػٍ‪ٝ‬‬
‫حٌل‪١‬خس طظً حٔؼىخٓخ ٌلخي أ‪ٛ‬لخر‪ٙ‬خ‪.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬أٍحى أ‪٠٠‬خ ٌ٘ح حٌزلغ أْ ‪٠‬م‪ٛ‬ي أٔٗ ‪ ٨‬ري ِٓ ‪ٟٚ‬غ ط‪ ٍٜٛ‬ػخَ ٌٍلفخظ ػٍ‪ٝ‬‬
‫حٌٍغش حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ِٓ حٌظل‪ٛ‬ي رفؼً طؤػ‪ َ١‬حٌٍغخص ح‪٤‬هَ‪.ٜ‬‬
‫ػُ ػَ‪ ٝ‬ػَ٘‪ِ ٓ٠‬ؼخ‪ ِٓ ٨‬ح‪٤‬هطخء حٌٍغ‪٠ٛ‬ش حٌظ‪ٗ ٟ‬خػض ف‪ ٟ‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش رظؤػ‪ َ١‬حٌظَؿّش‬
‫حٌَى‪٠‬جش‪ٚ ،‬ر‪ ٓ١‬و‪١‬ف ‪ٕ٠‬زغ‪ ٟ‬أْ طى‪ٛ ْٛ‬ل‪١‬لش‪ِ ،‬غ ِخ ‪ٟٛ٠‬ق ‪ٛ‬لظ‪ٙ‬خ ف‪ ٟ‬ح‪ًٛ٤‬‬
‫حٌٍغ‪ٟٚٚ ،ٞٛ‬ق رؼ‪ ٞ‬ح‪٨‬هظ‪٩‬فخص ف‪ ٟ‬حٌٍغظ‪ ٓ١‬حٌؼَر‪١‬ش ‪ٚ‬ح‪ٔ٦‬ـٍ‪٠ِ١‬ش ف‪ ٟ‬و‪١‬ف‪١‬ش طؼز‪َّ٘١‬خ‬
‫ػٓ حٌّؼخٔ‪ ٟ‬حٌّظ٘خر‪ٙ‬ش‪.‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬وخْ ًٌه وٍٗ رّٕ‪ٙ‬ؾ حٓظمَحث‪ٗ ٟ‬و‪ ٟٜ‬حٓظفخى ِٓ حٌّٕ‪ٙ‬ؾ حٌ‪ٛٛ‬ف‪ ٟ‬حٌظلٍ‪ ٍٟ١‬ف‪ٟ‬‬
‫حٌّ‪ٛ‬ح‪ٟ‬غ حٌظ‪ ٟ‬طف‪١‬ي حٌزلغ‪ٍ٠ ٌُٚ ،‬ظَِ ِٕ‪ٙ‬ـخ رؼ‪.ٕٗ١‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ظً ٍ‪ ٟٝ‬هللا– طؼخٌ‪٘- ٝ‬يفخ َٔؿ‪ ٛ‬حٌ‪ٛٛٛ‬ي اٌ‪ ِٓ ،ٗ١‬ه‪٩‬ي هيِش ٌغش وظخرٗ حٌىَ‪،ُ٠‬‬
‫فبْ ل‪َٜٔ‬خ فٌٌه ِٕخ ‪ٚ‬اْ ‪ٚ‬فمٕخ فّٓ هللا‪ٍ ،‬حؿ‪ ٓ١‬أْ ‪ َٟٝ٠‬ػٕخ‪ ،‬أٗ ّٓ‪١‬غ ِـ‪١‬ذ‬

‫طَؿّش حٌّظ‪ُِ٩‬خص حٌٍفظ‪١‬ش)‪(Collocations‬‬
‫حُٔظَؿْ ك‪ ٢‬حٗظوخء حألُلخظ ‪ٝ‬طَط‪٤‬ز‪ٜ‬خ ً َٔؼََ كَّ٘خٕ ‪ِٔ٣‬ؽ حألُ‪ٞ‬حٕ ك‪ٜ٘٤‬غ ٓ٘‪ٜ‬خ ُ‪ٞ‬كش ري‪٣‬ؼش‪ًٔٝ .‬خ إٔ ‪ٌٛ‬ح‬
‫ِ‬ ‫إ َٓؼََ‬
‫حُل٘خٕ ٓخ ًخٕ ُ‪ ٌٙٛ َْٓ٤‬حُِ‪ٞ‬كش حُزي‪٣‬ؼش اال اًح ًخٕ ‪ُ٣‬ـ‪٤‬ي حُِٔؽ حُيه‪٤‬ن ر‪ ٖ٤‬حألُ‪ٞ‬حٕ ‪ُ٣ٝ‬لِٖٔ ط٘ٔ‪٤‬و‪ٜ‬خ‪ ،‬كبٕ‬
‫حُٔظَؿْ ًٌُي ال ري إٔ ‪ ٌٕٞ٣‬ىه‪٤‬وخ ك‪ ٢‬حٗظوخء حألُلخظ ‪ٝ‬حُؼزخٍحص رخٍػخ ك‪ ٢‬ط٘ٔ‪٤‬و‪ٜ‬خ كظ‪ ٠‬طؤط‪ ٢‬طَؿٔظ‪ ٚ‬رِ‪٤‬ـش‬
‫ػـٔش أ‪ ٝ‬ار‪ٜ‬خّ‪.‬‬‫هخُ‪٤‬ش ٖٓ أ‪ُ ١‬‬

‫‪ُٝ‬زِ‪ٞ‬ؽ طِي حُـخ‪٣‬ش‪ ،‬ػِ‪ ٠‬حُٔظَؿْ إٔ ‪٘٣‬ظز‪ ٚ‬اُ‪ ٠‬ػيس أٓ‪ ،ٍٞ‬ػِ‪ٍ ٠‬أٓ‪ٜ‬خ حُٔظالُٓخص (أ‪ ٝ‬حُٔظ‪ٜ‬خكزخص) حُِلظ‪٤‬ش‬
‫)‪(Collocations‬حُظ‪ُ٣ ٢‬و‪ٜ‬ي ر‪ٜ‬خ طٌَحٍ ٓـ‪٢‬ء ُلع ٓؼ‪ٓ ٖ٤‬غ ُلع آهَ أ‪ ٝ‬أًؼَ ‪ٌٛٝ.‬ح حالهظَحٕ حُِلظ‪ ٢‬ظخ‪َٛ‬س ٌ‬
‫ُؼَف ى‪ .‬كٖٔ ؿِحُش حُٔظالُٓخص‬‫ال طٌخى طوِ‪ٜ٘ٓ ٞ‬خ ُـش‪ٝ ٞٛٝ ،‬ؿِ ٌء ال ‪٣‬ظـِأ ٖٓ رالؿش حُِـش ‪ٝ‬ر‪٤‬خٗ‪ٜ‬خ‪ّ ِ ٣ٝ .‬‬
‫حُِلظ‪٤‬ش رؤٗ‪ٜ‬خ «ػزخٍحص رالؿ‪٤‬ش ٓظ‪ٞ‬حٍىس ٓئُلش ػخىس ٖٓ ًِٔظ‪ٝ ،ٖ٤‬أك‪٤‬خٗخ ٖٓ ػالع أ‪ ٝ‬أًؼَ طظ‪ٞ‬حٍى ٓغ رؼ‪ٜ٠‬خ‬
‫ػخىس ‪ٝ‬طظالُّ ك‪ ٢‬حُِـش … ك‪ ٢ٜ‬ػزخٍحص ٗز‪ ٚ‬ػخرظش ‪ٔ٣‬ظويٓ‪ٜ‬خ أ‪ َٛ‬حُِـش ري‪٤ٜ٣‬خ ‪ٝ‬ال ‪ٔ٣‬ظ٘ؼَ‪ٝ ٕٝ‬ؿ‪ٞ‬ى‪ٛ‬خ اال اًح‬
‫أُٓ‪٢‬ء حٓظويحٓ‪ٜ‬خ‪».‬‬

‫‪ٓٝ‬ؼخٍ ًُي ًِٔش «‪ »َ٣ٞ١‬حُظ‪ ٌٖٔ٣ ٢‬إٔ ‪٣‬ظٌٍَ حٗظَحً‪ٜ‬خ ٓغ ًِٔخص ٓؼَ‪ٍ :‬ؿَ‪ٗٝ ،‬زخص‪٣َ١ٝ ،‬ن ‪ٌُٜ٘ٝ‬خ‬
‫طٔظؼ‪ ٠ٜ‬ػِ‪ ٠‬حالهظَحٕ أ‪ ٝ‬حالٗظَحى ٓغ ًِٔش «ؿزَ» كال ‪ ٌٖٔ٣‬إٔ ٗو‪« :ٍٞ‬ؿزَ ‪٣ ٌُٖٝ ،»َ٣ٞ١‬ـذ إٔ‬
‫ٗو‪ :ٍٞ‬ؿزَ ػخ ٍٍ أ‪ٗ ٝ‬خ‪ٛ‬ن‪ٝ .‬ال ٗو‪ ٍٞ‬ك‪ُ ٢‬ـظ٘خ حُؼَر‪٤‬ش ٓؼال «ٍؿَ ؿٔ‪ »َ٤‬ألٕ ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حُ‪ٜ‬لش ال طظلن ٓغ ًِٔش‬
‫ٍؿَ‪ٝ ،‬اٗٔخ طظلن ٓغ ًِٔش حَٓأس‪ ،‬ك٘و‪« ٍٞ‬حَٓأس ؿٔ‪ِ٤‬ش ‪ٍٝ‬ؿَ ‪ًٔ ،»ْ٤ٓٝ‬خ ٗو‪ ٍٞ‬ك‪ ٢‬حإلٗـِ‪٣ِ٤‬ش ‪to make a‬‬
‫‪ٝjourney‬ال ‪ ٌٖٔ٣‬إٔ ٗو‪ٗ ٌُٖٝ to make a walk ٍٞ‬و‪ٝ ، to take a walkٍٞ‬ال ػالهش ُ‪ٌٜ‬ح رو‪ٞ‬حػي حُِـش‬
‫حُؼَر‪٤‬ش أ‪ ٝ‬حإلٗـِ‪٣ِ٤‬ش ‪ٝ‬اٗٔخ ‪َ٣‬ؿغ حألَٓ ك‪ًُ ٢‬ي اُ‪ ٠‬حطلخم حُٔظٌِٔ‪ ٖ٤‬رخُِـش ‪ٝ‬ح‪ٛ‬طالك‪ ْٜ‬ػِ‪ًُ ٠‬ي‪.‬‬

‫‪ٝ‬طليَّع ى‪ .‬دمحم ػ٘خٗ‪ ٢‬ػٖ ‪ٌٛ‬ح حالٍطزخ‪ ١‬ر‪ُ ٖ٤‬لظظ‪ ٖ٤‬أ‪ ٝ‬أًؼَ كوخٍ اٗ‪« ٚ‬ال ‪ٔ٣‬ظ٘ي ّاال اُ‪ ٠‬حُؼَف‪ ،‬أ‪ٓ ١‬خ ح‪ٛ‬طِق‬
‫ٓـزَ ك‪ ٌٙٛ ٢‬حُلخُش‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ػِ‪ ٚ٤‬حُٔـظٔغ‪ٝ ،‬إ ًخٕ ُ‪٘ٓ ٚ‬ي ٖٓ حالٓظؼخٍس (‪ ٖٓٝ‬حُٔ٘طن رطز‪٤‬ؼش حُلخٍ … )‪ٝ‬حُٔظَؿْ‬
‫ػِ‪ ٠‬حُظَّو‪ُّ٤‬ي رخُٔ‪ٜ‬طِق حُ٘خثغ ك‪ ٢‬حُِـش حُظ‪٘٣ ٢‬وَ اُ‪ٜ٤‬خ‪ ،‬ألٕ حُظَحر‪ ٢‬ر‪ ٖ٤‬حٌُِٔخص ‪ٝ‬حُظؼز‪َ٤‬حص حُٔوظِلش ٖٓ‬
‫ه‪ٜ‬خث‪ُ ًَ ٚ‬ـش ػِ‪ ٠‬كيس‪».‬‬

‫‪ٝ‬ػـِ حُٔظَؿْ ػٖ ا‪٣‬ـخى ‪ٌٛ‬ح حُظ‪ٞ‬حكن هي ال ‪٣‬ل‪ ٍٞ‬ى‪ ٕٝ‬ا‪ٜ٣‬خٍ حَُٓخُش ‪ٗٝ‬وَ حُٔؼ٘‪ ٠‬اُ‪ ٠‬حُوخٍة‪ٞٓ ٌُٚ٘ٝ ،‬ف‬ ‫ُ‬
‫ُوَ‪ٛ‬خ ً‪ٝ‬م أ‪ٛ‬لخد حُِـش ‪ٝ‬طزي‪ٗ ُْٜ ٝ‬خًس ‪ٝ‬ؿ‪ٔٓ َ٤‬ظٔخؿش‪ ،‬كؼزخٍس ٓؼَ‬
‫‪ُٔ٣‬لَ ػٖ طَحً‪٤‬ذ ح‪ٛ‬ط٘خػ‪٤‬ش ال ‪ُّ ٣‬‬
‫‪good reason‬هي ‪٣‬ظَؿٔ‪ٜ‬خ ٓظَؿ ٌْ ٓزظية اُ‪ٓ« ٠‬زذ ؿ‪٤‬ي» ‪ٝ‬ك‪٘٤‬جٌ ٓ‪٤‬ل‪ ْٜ‬حُوخٍة حُؼَر‪ٓ ٢‬خ ‪٣‬و‪ٜ‬ي‪ ٙ‬حُٔظَؿْ‪،‬‬
‫َؿٔض اُ‪ٓ« ٠‬زذ ‪ٝ‬ؿ‪ »ٚ٤‬كٔظؼط‪ ٢‬حُ٘‪ٍٗٝ ٚ‬وخ ‪ٝ‬ر‪ٜ‬خء‪ًٌُٝ .‬ي اًح أهطؤ حُٔظَؿْ ٓؼال‬ ‫‪ ٌٙٛ ٌُٖٝ‬حُؼزخٍس ُ‪ ٞ‬ط ُ ِ‬
‫ك‪ٗ ٢‬وَ ػزخٍس « ُٓي ِ ّهٖ َٗ‪ »ٙ‬اُ‪ ٠‬حُِـش حإلٗـِ‪٣ِ٤‬ش كوخٍ »‪ «big smoker‬ريال ٖٓ »‪«heavy smoker‬كبٕ‬
‫حُوخٍة حإلٗـِ‪٤ٓ ١ِ٤‬ل‪َٓ ْٜ‬حى حُٔظَؿْ ‪٘٤ٓ ٌُٚ٘ٝ‬ؼَ ك‪ ٢‬حُ‪ٞ‬هض ٗلٔ‪ ٚ‬رؤٕ حُٔظَؿْ ؿ‪ٓ َ٤‬ظٌٖٔ ٖٓ ‪٤ٛ‬خؿظ‪ٚ‬‬
‫‪٣ ُٖٝ‬ظَىى ك‪ ٢‬حُلٌْ ػِ‪ ٠‬حُظَؿٔش رخًَُخًش‪.‬‬

‫كبٕ رؼ‪ٞ‬‬ ‫إٔ ً ََّ حُؼزخٍحص طِِّ كخُش ‪ٝ‬حكيس ال طل‪٤‬ي ػ٘‪ٜ‬خ‪َّ ،‬‬ ‫‪٘٣ٝ‬زـ‪ ٢‬أال ‪ُ٣‬ل َ‪ ٖٓ ْٜ‬طٔٔ‪٤‬ظ‪ٜ‬خ رخُٔظالُٓخص َّ‬
‫حُٔظالُٓخص ‪٣‬ظَّْٔ ر٘‪٢‬ء ٖٓ حَُٔ‪ٗٝ‬ش ال ٓ‪ّٔ٤‬خ ك‪ُ ٢‬ـش ؿ٘‪َّ٤‬ش رخُظََّحىف ٓؼَ ُـظ٘خ حُؼَر‪َّ٤‬ش‪ ،‬كؼزخٍس ٓؼَ ‪He drew‬‬
‫إٔ ًُي ال ‪٘٣‬ل‪ٝ ٢‬ؿ‪ٞ‬ى ٓظالُّ آهَ – ‪ٝ‬إ ًخٕ أهَ‬ ‫‪his sword‬طوخرِ‪ٜ‬خ ك‪ُ ٢‬ـظ٘خ ػزخٍس «ح ْٓظ َ ََّ ٓ‪٤‬ل‪ّ ،»ٚ‬اال َّ‬
‫ذ ٓ‪٤‬ل‪ ٌُٖٝ .»ٚ‬ط‪ٞ‬ؿي كخالص ٖٓ حُظَّ‪ٞ‬حكن ال ط‪ُّ ٜ‬ق ك‪ٜ٤‬خ ٓ‪ًِٔ ٟٞ‬ش ‪ٝ‬حكيس‪ٜ٘ٓ ،‬خ ٓؼال‬ ‫ٓ َل َ‬
‫رالؿش ‪ٝ‬ؿٔخال – ‪َ « ٞٛ‬‬
‫كخُِث‪ُ َ٤‬ألٓي‪ٝ ،‬حُؼُ‪ٞ‬حء ٌُِِّثذ‪ٝ ،‬حُُّ٘زخف ٌُِِذ‪ٝ ،‬حُٔ‪ٞ‬حء ُِ ِ‪ََّ ٜ‬س‪،‬‬ ‫حُؼزخٍحص حُظ‪ ٢‬ط‪ٜ‬ق أ‪ٞٛ‬حص حُل‪ٞ٤‬حٗخص ‪َّ :‬‬
‫‪٠‬ليع‪َ َّْ َُِٛ ٝ ،‬ؿ َّح‪ٜ٘ٓٝ .‬خ أ‪٠٣‬خ حُ‪ٜ‬لخص‬ ‫ٔوَش ُِؼُ‪ٜ‬ل‪ٝ ،ٍٞ‬حَُّ٘ ِو‪٤‬ن ُِ ِ ّ‬ ‫ٔ ْو َ‬
‫‪ٝ‬حُ‪ُِ َ٤ٜٜ‬لَّ‪ٝ ،‬حَُّ٘ ْوَ٘وَش ُِيؿخؿش‪ٝ ،‬حُ َّ‬
،‫ى كخ ُِي‬ٞٓ‫َ أ‬٤ُِ‫ح‬ٝ ،ٕ‫هخ‬
ٍ َٔ‫حُيّ أك‬ٝ ،‫لَ كخهغ‬ٛ‫َ أ‬ُِٛ‫ح‬ٝ َّ ،‫غ‬ٛ‫ ٗخ‬ٞ٤‫حُوطٖ أر‬: «ٍٞ‫ ك٘و‬،ٕ‫ح‬ُٞ‫ش ُأل‬٤ِٛ‫حأل‬
ْ‫ حُزلغ ػٖ حُِلع حُٔالث‬٢‫يح ك‬ٜ‫ ؿ‬ُٞ‫ؤ‬٣ ‫ ُِٔظَؿْ ّأال‬٢‫٘زـ‬٣ َّْ ‫ٓ ْٖ ػ‬ٝ
ِ ». ٍٙ ‫حُـيحٍ أٍُم ُح‬ٝ ،َٟ‫ٗخ‬ َّ
ِ َ٠‫حٍُِع أه‬ٝ
٢‫ش حُظ‬٤‫خىٍ حُؼَر‬ُٜٔ‫ٖٓ ح‬ٝ .‫َ ًُي ٖٓ ٓ٘وَّش‬٤‫ ٓز‬٢‫ ك‬٠ٗ‫ٔخ ػخ‬ٜٓ ٜٚٗ ٢‫حكن حُٔ٘خٓذ ٌُِِٔخص ك‬ٞ‫ـخى حُظ‬٣‫ا‬ٝ
‫ًظخد ٔـؼش حٌَحثي‬ٝ ،٢‫ٍ حُؼؼخُز‬ٜٞ٘ٓ ٢‫يى ًظخد« فمٗ حٌٍغش »ألر‬ُٜ‫ٌح ح‬ٛ ٢‫خ حُٔظَؿ ُْ ك‬ٜ٤ُ‫َؿغ ا‬٣ ٕ‫ٌٖٔ أ‬٣
‫ ػٖ حُٔظَحىكخص‬ٚ‫ػ‬ٞٗ ٖٓ ْ‫ٍ ٓؼـ‬ٝ‫ أ‬ٞٛٝ :٢‫خُؿ‬٤ُ‫ْ ح‬٤ٛ‫ إلرَح‬،‫حٍى‬ٛ‫حٌّظ‬ٚ ‫ حٌّظَحىف‬ٟ‫حٍى ف‬ٌٛ‫َٗػش ح‬ٚ
‫ ٍكِش حُزلغ ػٖ ُلظش‬٢‫خ ك‬ٜ‫ٌٖٔ حالٓظؼخٗش ر‬٣ ٢‫ش حُِـش حُظ‬٤‫ٖٓ حُٔؼخؿْ حُؼُّ٘خث‬ٝ).‫ حُٔظالُٓخص‬ٝ‫حٍىحص (أ‬ٞ‫حُٔظ‬ٝ
ٞ‫ ٗل‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬١ٞ‫لظ‬٣ ١ٌُ‫ ح‬،‫ٍ كٖٔ ؿِحُش‬ٞ‫ ُألٓظخً حُيًظ‬،‫ش‬١‫ُِخص حٌٍفظ‬٩‫ّ ىحٍ حٌؼٍُ ٌٍّظ‬ِٛ‫ٓظالُٓش ٓ٘خٓزش لخ‬
،٢‫ٖ أُق ٓظالُّ ُلظ‬٣َ٘‫ػ‬ٝ ‫خ أًؼَ ٖٓ ٓخثش‬ٜ‫ طلظ‬١ٞ٠٘٣ ‫ش‬٣ِ٤ِ‫ش رخُِـش حإلٗـ‬٤ٔ٤‫ ػَ٘ أُق ٓخىس ٍث‬٢٘‫حػ‬
‫خكزخص‬ٜ‫خ ُِؼـُ حٌلخفع ٌٍّظ‬٠٣‫٘خى أ‬ٛٝ .٢‫ ػَر‬٢‫ٖ أُق ٓظالُّ ُلظ‬٤ٔٔ‫ه‬ٝ ‫ ٓخثش‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬ٞ‫َر‬٣ ‫ ٓخ‬٠ُ‫َؿٔض ا‬ ِ ُ‫ط‬
،ٚ‫خ ر‬ٛ
ًّ ‫ذ ٓيهال هخ‬٤ًَ‫ٌح حُٔؼـْ ٌَُ ط‬ٛ ‫هي أكَى‬ٝ ،‫خْٗ كخكع‬ٛ ّ‫َ رٖ ػزي حُٔال‬ٛ‫ٍ حُطخ‬ٞ‫ ُِيًظ‬،‫ش‬١‫حٌؼَر‬
.‫ذ‬٤ًَ‫ش حٓظويحّ حُظ‬٤‫ل‬٤ً ‫ق‬ٟٞ‫ش ط‬٤‫ رؤٓؼِش ػَر‬٠٘‫حؿظ‬ٝ ،‫كخص‬َٝٗ ‫خف‬ٟ‫أ‬ٝ ،‫ًّخ‬٣‫زخ أرـي‬٤‫َُٓطّزخ طَط‬

Collocations ‫ش‬٤‫ حُٔظـالُٓـــخص حُِلــظ‬Collocations = Word partnerships = Words that go


Collocation ٢‫ حُظالُّ حُِلظ‬is the way words combine with other words in predictable
ways. Knowing strong and frequent collocations is essential for accurate, natural
English. Using correct collocations expands your English and makes it much more

The following is a list of English [Adjective + Noun] collocations, which I have

compiled through my readings. I translated these collocations into Arabic for
students and novice translators.

Scanty information ‫ِش‬٤‫ج‬ٟ ‫ٓخص‬ِٞ‫ٓؼ‬

An all-out = full-scale war, attack ‫س‬/َٓ‫ كَد ٗخ‬،ّٞ‫ـ‬ٛ
Invincible = undefeatable army َٜ‫و‬٣ ‫ٖ ال‬٤‫ؿ‬
A golden opportunity ‫ش‬٤‫ز‬ًٛ ‫ش‬َٛ‫ك‬
A verdant tree ٍ‫حٍكش حُظال‬ٝ ‫ٗـَس‬
A rough sea ‫حؽ‬ٞٓ‫طَد حأل‬٠ٓ / ‫خثؾ‬ٛ َ‫رل‬
Abject poverty ‫كوَ ٓيهغ‬
A dreadful / horrible accident ‫ع‬َٝٓ /‫غ‬٤‫كخىع كظ‬
Infectious disease ‫ ٓؼي‬َٝٓ
Incurable disease ٍ‫خ‬٠‫ ػ‬َٝٓ
Horrendous disaster ‫ؼش‬٣َٓ / ‫زش‬٤ٍٛ ‫ًخٍػش‬
Dire consequences ‫ٔش‬٤‫ه‬ٝ ‫حهذ‬ٞ‫ػ‬
Industrious / diligent student ‫ي‬ٜ‫خُذ ٓـظ‬١
Tepid / lukewarm water ‫ٓخء كخطَس‬
Tremendous wealth ‫ؤش‬ٟ ،‫خثِش‬ٛ ‫س‬َٝ‫ػ‬
Nutritious food ‫ش‬٤‫ٔش ؿٌحث‬٤‫ ه‬ًٝ ّ‫ؼخ‬١

Fashionable clothes ‫ش‬ٟٞٓ َ‫ٓالرْ آه‬
Complete confusion ّ‫حٍطزخى طخ‬
Reliable source ‫م‬ٞ‫ػ‬ٞٓ ٍ‫ي‬ٜٓ
Irreversible decision ٚ٘‫هَحٍ ال ٍؿؼش ػ‬
Irrevocable divorce ٚ٘‫ ال ٍؿؼش ػ‬/٢‫خث‬ٜٗ( ‫الم حُزخث٘ش‬١)
Common-law marriage ٢‫حؽ حُؼَك‬ُِٝ‫ح‬
Difficult decision ‫ؼذ‬ٛ ٍ‫هَح‬
Fearless warrior ‫ٓلخٍد ٗـخع‬
Hopeless case ‫خ‬ٜ٘ٓ ّٞ‫ج‬٤ٓ ‫كخُش‬
Reckless driver ٍٜٞ‫ٓخثن ٓظ‬
Formal announcement ٢ٍٔٓ ٕ‫اػال‬
Illegible handwriting ٚ‫ٌٖٔ هَحءط‬٣ ‫ ال‬٢‫ه‬
Potable water ‫خُلش َُِ٘د‬ٛ ٙ‫خ‬٤ٓ
Edible food ًَ‫خُق ُأل‬ٛ ّ‫ؼخ‬١
Navigable river ‫خُق ُِٔالكش‬ٛ َٜٗ
Insurmountable difficulties ‫خ‬ٜ٤‫ٌٖٔ طوط‬٣ ‫ػوزخص ال‬
A clear-cut evidence ‫غ‬١‫َ هخ‬٤ُ‫ى‬
An Intimate relationship ‫ٔش‬٤ٔ‫ػالهش ك‬
Permanent / temporary residence ‫ ىحثٔش‬/ ‫اهخٓش ٓئهظش‬
Severe restrictions ‫يس‬٣‫ ٗي‬/‫خٍٓش‬ٛ ‫ى‬ٞ٤‫ه‬
National / internal security ( ٢٘١ُٞ‫ (ح‬٢ٓٞ‫ حُو‬/٢ِ‫حألٖٓ حُيحه‬
A countless number of ٠ٜ‫ل‬٣ ‫ٖٓ ػيى ال‬
Tame / tameless animals ‫ش‬َٟٝٓ َ٤‫ ؿ‬/ ‫لش‬٤ُ‫َ أ‬٤‫ ؿ‬،)‫ش‬َٟٝٓ( ‫لش‬٤ُ‫حٗخص أ‬ٞ٤‫ك‬
A detailed analysis َٜ‫َ ٓل‬٤ِ‫طل‬
An arduous journey ‫ٍكِش ٗخهش‬
A serious injury ‫َس‬٤‫خرش هط‬ٛ‫ا‬
An undeniable fact ‫خ‬ٍٛ‫ٌٖٔ اٌٗخ‬٣ ‫وش ال‬٤‫كو‬
Accurate prediction ِٚ‫ ٓل‬٢‫ن (ك‬٤‫)ط٘زئ ىه‬
Artificial respiration ٢‫٘خػ‬ٛ ْ‫ط٘ل‬
Irresistible temptation ّٝ‫وخ‬٣ ‫اؿَحء ال‬
Underground organization ‫ش‬٣َٓ ‫ٓ٘ظٔش‬
Verbal communication ٢ٜ‫خٍ ٗل‬ٜ‫حط‬
Free admission ٢ٗ‫ٍ ٓـخ‬ٞ‫ىه‬
Official statement ٢ٍٔٓ ٕ‫خ‬٤‫ر‬
Official permission ٢ٍٔٓ ‫ق‬٣َٜ‫ ط‬/ ًٕ‫ا‬
Optical illusion ١َٜ‫هيحع ر‬
A diplomatic / peaceful solution ٢ٓ‫ٓخ‬ِٞ‫ ىر‬/ ٢ِٔٓ َ‫ك‬
A vital role ١ٞ٤‫ٍ ك‬ٝ‫ى‬
A hostile act ٢‫ػَٔ ػيحث‬
An abortive = an unsuccessful = a botched = a failed attempt ‫ُش كخِٗش‬ٝ‫ٓلخ‬
Absolute priority ‫ش ٓطِوش‬٣ُٞٝ‫أ‬
Alternative proposal َ٣‫حهظَحف ري‬
Arbitrary government ‫ش‬٣‫ٓش حٓظزيحى‬ٌٞ‫ك‬
Fierce fight َّٗ / ‫ق‬٤٘‫هظخٍ ػ‬
Bloody battle ‫ش‬٤ٓ‫ٓؼًَش ىح‬
Drastic war َّٟٝ ‫كَد‬
Heinous crime ‫ ٗخث٘ش‬،‫ؼش‬٤٘ٗ ،‫ ٌَٗحء‬،‫ٔش ر٘ؼش‬٣َ‫ؿ‬
Ground operation/offensive ‫ش‬٣َ‫ش (حهظلخّ) ر‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬
A senior official ٟٞ‫غ حُٔٔظ‬٤‫ٍ ٍك‬ٞ‫ٓٔج‬
A rogue state ٕٞٗ‫ ال طِظِّ رخُوخ‬٢‫ُش حُظ‬ٝ‫ حُي‬٢ٛٝ( ‫ُش ٓخٍهش‬ٝ‫)ى‬
A lame excuse ( ‫ق (أػَؽ‬٤‫ؼ‬ٟ ٌٍ‫ػ‬
Radical / sudden change ‫ ٓلخؿت‬/ ١َٛٞ‫ ؿ‬,١ٌٍ‫َ ؿ‬٤‫طـ‬
Constructive criticism ‫ٗوي رّ٘خء‬
Destructive criticism ّ‫يّح‬ٛ ‫ٗوي‬
Evasive answers ٍ‫ش (ٖٓ حُٔئح‬ِٜٔ‫ ٓظ‬-‫ؿش‬ٝ‫رش َٓح‬ٞ‫)أؿ‬
Clear instructions ‫لش‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝ ‫ٔخص‬٤ِ‫طؼ‬
Impressive results ‫ٗظخثؾ ٍحثؼش‬
Impulsive behavior ‫ ٓ٘يكغ‬/ ٍٜٞ‫ى ٓظ‬ِٞٓ
Classified = confidential information ‫ش‬٣َٓ ‫ٓخص‬ِٞ‫ٓؼ‬
Political turmoil ٢ٓ‫خ‬٤ٓ ‫طَحد‬ٟ‫ح‬
Pent-up anger ّٞ‫ ٌٓظ‬/ ّٞ‫ ٓلز‬/ ّٞ‫ذ ٌٓظ‬٠‫ؿ‬
A (non)-binding agreement ِّ‫َ) ُٓــِــ‬٤‫حطلخم (ؿ‬
Handsome guy ْ٤ٓٝ ‫ٗخد‬
Gorgeous woman ٍ‫حَٓأس كخثوش حُـٔخ‬
Exciting movie َ٤‫) ٓؼ‬٢‫٘ٔخث‬٤ٓ( ِْ٤‫ك‬
Non-refundable fees ‫َ ٓٔظَىس‬٤‫ّ ؿ‬ٍٞٓ
Counterfeit money ‫لش‬٣ِٓ ،‫ٍس‬ِٝٓ ،‫ى ُحثلش‬ٞ‫ٗو‬
A bewildering question َ٤‫ٓئحٍ ٓل‬
Wild imagination ‫حٓغ‬ٝ ٍ‫خ‬٤‫ه‬
A stale joke ‫وش‬٣‫ٌٗظش رخ‬
A funny joke ‫لٌش‬٠ٓ ‫ٌٗظش‬
Heavy rains ‫َس‬٣ِ‫أٓطخٍ ؿ‬
Naughty boy ٢‫ُي ٗو‬ٝ
Clinical death ١َ٣َٓ ‫ص‬ٞٓ
Blatant discrimination ‫خٍم‬ٛ ِ٤٤ٔ‫ط‬
Fundamental rights ‫ش‬٤ٓ‫م أٓخ‬ٞ‫كو‬
False testimony = perjury ٍُِٝ‫خىس ح‬ٜٗ
Demilitarized zones ‫ػش حُٔالف‬ِٝ٘ٓ / ٖٓ ‫ن ٓـَىس‬١‫ٓ٘خ‬
Barbed wire ١ٌَٔ‫هغ ػ‬ٞٓ ٍٞ‫)أٓالى ٗخثٌش (ك‬
Tripartite committee ‫ش‬٤‫ُـ٘ش ػالػ‬
Quadripartite committee ‫ش‬٤‫ُـ٘ش ٍرخػ‬
A unilateral measures ‫ش حُـخٗذ‬٣‫اؿَحءحص أكخى‬
A bilateral meeting ٢‫حؿظٔخع ػ٘خث‬
Tremendous efforts ‫ى ؿزخٍس‬ٜٞ‫ؿ‬
International forums ‫ش‬٤ُٝ‫خص ى‬٣‫ ٓ٘ظي‬/َ‫ٓلخك‬
A pathetic sight ِٕ‫ حُل‬ٝ ‫َ ُِ٘لوش‬٤‫ٓ٘ظَ ٓؼ‬
Incomparable / matchless view ٠ٛ‫خ‬٠٣ ‫ ال‬/َ٤‫ي ٓ٘وطغ حُ٘ظ‬ٜ٘ٓ /َ‫ٓ٘ظ‬
A miserable life ‫ٔش‬٤‫ طؼ‬/ ‫خس رخثٔش‬٤‫ك‬
True copy ‫يهش‬ُٜٔ‫خىحص ح‬ُٜ٘‫َ (هظْ ح‬ٛ‫زن حأل‬١ ‫ٍس‬ٞٛ / ‫)ٗٔوش‬
To wish someone a speedy recovery َ‫ حُ٘لخء حُؼخؿ‬ٚ‫ ُ٘و‬٠٘ٔ‫طظ‬
Oppressive regime ُْ‫ ظخ‬/‫) ٓٔظزي‬٢ٓ‫خ‬٤ٓ(ّ‫ٗظخ‬
Total rejection ّ‫ طخ‬ٞ‫ٍك‬
Formal resolutions ‫خ حألْٓ حُٔظليس‬ٍٛ‫ي‬ٜ‫ ط‬٢‫ش (ًخُظ‬٤ٍٔٓ ‫)هَحٍحص‬
A prestigious, (Revered) university ‫هَس‬ٞٓ ،‫ حػظزخٍ (ٓلظَٓش‬/ ‫زش‬٤ٛ ‫)ؿخٓؼش ًحص‬
Mild weather ‫ق‬٤‫ ُط‬/ ٍ‫وْ ٓؼظي‬١
Delicious food ٌ٣ٌُ ّ‫ؼخ‬١
Professional player ‫الػذ ٓلظَف‬
Sworn, legal translator ‫ ٓلِق‬٢ٗٞٗ‫ٓظَؿْ هخ‬
False passport ‫ق‬٣ِٓ / ‫حُ ٓلَ ُحثق‬ٞ‫ؿ‬
Boundless patience ‫ى‬ٝ‫زَ رال كي‬ٛ
A rare chance ٝٞ‫ش ٗخىٍس (ال طؼ‬َٛ‫)ك‬
Complicated / simple procedures ‫طش‬٤ٔ‫ ر‬/ ‫اؿَحءحص ٓؼويس‬
Astronomical / huge profits ‫ش‬٤ٌِ‫ ك‬/ ‫خثِش‬١ /‫خثِش‬ٛ ‫أٍرخف‬
Catastrophic / huge / gross losses ‫ كخؿؼش‬/ ‫َس‬٤‫ ًز‬/‫هٔخثَ كخىكش‬
Dangerous / grave / serious threats ‫َس‬٤‫يحص هط‬٣‫ي‬ٜ‫ط‬
Strong ties ‫ش‬٣ٞ‫ ه‬٢‫حر‬ٍٝ
Harsh treatment ‫ ه٘٘ش‬،‫ش‬٤ٓ‫ٓؼخِٓش هخ‬
Blind trust / obedience ‫خء‬٤ٔ‫خػش ػ‬١ / ‫ػوش‬
A crucial turning-point ‫زش‬٤ٜ‫ ػ‬،‫ٍ كخٓٔش‬ٞ‫ٗوطش طل‬
Great values / benefits ‫ٔش‬٤‫ْ ػظ‬٤‫ ه‬/ ‫حثي‬ٞ‫ك‬
Great / glorious victory ‫ي‬٤‫ ٓـ‬/ ْ٤‫َ ػظ‬ٜٗ
Ignominious / crushing defeat ‫ ٓخكوش‬،‫ ٗخث٘ش‬/ ‫ش‬٣ِ‫ ٓو‬/ ‫ٔش ٌَٗحء‬٣ِٛ
Deep depression / deep despair ‫ن‬٤ٔ‫ؤّ ػ‬٣ /‫ن‬٤ٔ‫حًظجخد ػ‬
Latest developments ‫ حُٔٔظـيحص‬،‫ٍحص‬ٞ‫آهَ حُظط‬
Vague directions (instructions) ‫لش‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝ َ٤‫ ؿ‬،‫ش‬٠ٓ‫ ؿخ‬،‫ٔش‬ٜ‫ٔخص ٓز‬٤ِ‫طؼ‬
Abrupt / sudden disappearance ‫حهظلخء ٓلخؿت‬
Congenital / hereditary defect ‫ع‬ٍٝٞٓ /٢‫ٍحػ‬ٝ ،٢‫ذ هِو‬٤‫ ػ‬/ ‫ػِش‬
Natural disasters ‫ش‬٤‫ؼ‬٤‫ز‬١ ‫حٍع‬ًٞ
Temporary cease-fire ‫الم حُ٘خٍ) ٓئهظش‬١‫هق إل‬ٝ( ‫يٗش‬ٛ
Utter chaos ‫ ٗخِٓش‬،‫ ػخٍٓش‬٠ٟٞ‫ك‬
Controversial issues ٍ‫َس ُِـي‬٤‫ ٓؼ‬،‫ش‬٤‫خ هالك‬٣‫خ‬٠‫ه‬
Worthless check/cheque ‫ٔش‬٤‫ْ حُو‬٣‫ ػي‬،‫ي‬٤ٍٛ ٕٝ‫ي ري‬٤ٗ
An unjustified act ٍَ‫َ ٓز‬٤‫ػَٔ ؿ‬
A Vicious circle of violence ‫ٔش) ٖٓ حُؼ٘ق‬٤‫ىحثَس ٓلَؿش (أػ‬
To be under House arrest ‫ش‬٣َ‫) طلض حإلهخٓش حُـز‬ٚ‫غ (ٗو‬ٟٝ ْ‫ظ‬٣
Un)fair assessment) ٍ‫َ) ػخى‬٤‫ْ (ؿ‬٤٤‫طو‬
Candid camera ‫ش‬٤‫َح حُول‬٤ٓ‫حٌُخ‬
Gloomy atmosphere ‫ذ‬٤‫ ًج‬ٞ‫ؿ‬
Stuffy room ‫ هخٗن‬ٞ‫ ؿَكش ًحص ؿ‬،)‫خ‬ٜ‫ظ‬٣ٜٞ‫حكٌ ُظ‬ُٞ٘‫حء (طلظخؽ كظق ح‬ُٜٞ‫ؿَكش كخٓيس ح‬
Supreme court of Justice ‫خ‬٤ِ‫ٓلٌٔش حُؼيٍ حُؼ‬
Anonymous writer/author ْٓ‫ٍ حال‬ٜٞ‫ ًخطذ ٓـ‬/‫ٓئُق‬
A historic moment ‫خٓش‬ٛ /‫ش‬٤‫و‬٣ٍ‫ُلظش طخ‬
Tender meat ‫ش‬ٜٜ٘٘ٓ‫ش (ح‬٣َ١ ‫)ُلٔش‬
High-quality merchandise ‫ىس‬ٞ‫ش حُـ‬٤ُ‫ ِٓغ ػخ‬/‫خثغ‬٠‫ر‬
Premeditated killing ‫ي‬َٛ‫حُظ‬ٝ ٍ‫َح‬ٛ‫ حُٔظؼٔي (ٓغ ٓزن حإل‬,‫)حُوظَ حُؼٔي‬
Manslaughter killing ‫ن حُوطؤ‬٣َ١ ٖ‫ ػ‬،‫َ حُؼٔي‬٤‫حُوظَ ؿ‬
Mutual obligations ‫حُظِحٓخص ٓ٘ظًَش‬
Unpleasant odor / smell ‫ش‬٠٤‫ رـ‬،‫ش‬ٜ٣ًَ ‫ٍحثلش‬
Exclusive offer ‫ ٓؼال‬،ٍ‫ (ُألٓؼخ‬ٙ‫ هخ‬َٝ‫)ػ‬
(20) percent discount ٍ‫ حُٔخثش (ُألٓؼخ‬٢‫) ك‬20( ‫ ر٘ٔزش‬ٞ٤‫ طول‬/ ْٜ‫)ه‬
Noble endeavours = good offices ‫ِش‬٤‫ ٗز‬،‫يس‬٤ٔ‫ ك‬٢‫ٓٔخػ‬
Tremendous energy ‫خثِش‬ٛ ‫خهش‬١
Clean / polluted environment ‫ػش‬ِٞٓ / ‫لش‬٤‫جش ٗظ‬٤‫ر‬
Primitive / out-of-date methods ‫ٔش‬٣‫ هي‬،‫ش‬٤‫َم ريحث‬١
Modern / up-to-date methods ‫ٍس‬ٞ‫ ٓظط‬،‫ؼش‬٣‫َم كي‬١
In) valid visa) ٍٞ‫ش حُٔلؼ‬٣ٍ‫َ) ٓخ‬٤‫َس (ؿ‬٤ٗ‫طؤ‬
Meager / low wage َ٤‫ج‬ٟ /‫ي‬٤ُٛ َ‫أؿــ‬
A well-paid job ‫لش ًحص ٍحطذ َٓطلغ‬٤‫ظ‬ٝ
Arable / barren land ‫ هخكِش‬،‫خُلش ٍُِِحػش‬ٛ ٍٝ‫أ‬
A desperate attempt ‫خثٔش‬٣ ‫ُش‬ٝ‫ٓلخ‬
A ceaseless effort َٛ‫ح‬ٞ‫ ٓظ‬،‫د‬ٝ‫ي ىء‬ٜ‫ؿ‬
A charismatic leader ‫ ٓل٘ي‬،‫هخثي رخٍع‬
Technical glitch ٢٘‫ ػطَ ك‬/َِ‫ه‬
Exorbitant prices ‫ظش‬ٛ‫أٓؼخٍ رخ‬
Chapped lips ‫ ٓظ٘ووش‬ٙ‫ٗلخ‬
Strong tea َ٤‫ ػو‬١‫ٗخ‬
Fact-finding committee ‫ حُلوخثن‬٢ٜ‫ُـ٘ش طو‬
Fitting room ْ‫ حُٔالر‬َٝ‫ ٓؼ‬٢‫خّ (ك‬٤‫)ؿَكش حُو‬
Reconnaissance / spy plane ْٔ‫ طـ‬، ‫ حٓظٌ٘خف‬/ ‫خثَس حٓظطالع‬١
Surveillance camera ‫ حُز٘ي‬٢‫َح حَُٔحهزش (ك‬٤ٓ‫)ًخ‬
Aircraft carrier ‫٘ش‬٤‫ ٓل‬،ٍٞ‫خثَحص (أٓط‬١ ‫)كخِٓش‬
Mine sweeper ّ‫ =ًخٓلش حألُـخ‬Minesweeper
Intercontinental ballistic missiles ‫ش حُؼخرَس ُِوخٍحص‬٤‫ن حُزخُٔظ‬٣ٍ‫ح‬ُٜٞ‫ح‬
Black list ‫ىحء‬ُٞٔ‫ حُوخثٔش ح‬:
( ٝ‫ْ ٖٓ حُزالى أ‬ٜ‫ؿ‬َٝ‫ع ه‬ُٞ٘ٔٔ‫ ح‬ٝ‫ْ أ‬ٜ٤‫د ك‬ٞ‫َ حَُٔؿ‬٤‫ ؿ‬ٝ‫ٖ أ‬٤ٛٞ‫ حُٔ٘ز‬ٙ‫ حألٗوخ‬ٝ‫هخثٔش رؤٓٔخء حُٔئٓٔخص أ‬
ْٜ‫ل‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫د ط‬ِٞ‫)حُٔط‬
Armed revolt ‫ٍس ِٓٔلش‬ٞ‫ػ‬
The world public opinion ٢ُٔ‫ حُؼخّ حُؼخ‬١‫حَُأ‬
Prosecuting committee ‫ُـ٘ش ٓظخرؼش‬
Provisional government ‫ٓش ٓئهظش‬ٌٞ‫ك‬
(Ministerial) Cabinet Reshuffle ١ٍ‫ُح‬ٝ( ‫ٍُحء‬ُٞ‫َ ٓـِْ ح‬٣‫)طؼي‬
Electoral propaganda ‫ش‬٤‫ش حٗظوخر‬٣‫ىػخ‬
To take proper measures ‫َ حُٔالثٔش‬٤‫ألهٌ حُظيحر‬
Precautionary measures ‫ش‬٤‫هخث‬ٝ / ‫ش‬٣ُ‫اؿَحءحص حكظَح‬
The grand total ٢‫خث‬ُٜ٘‫ (ح‬٢ٌُِ‫ع ح‬ٞٔ‫)حُٔـ‬
The project / course duration ‫ع‬َُٝ٘ٔ‫ ح‬/ ‫ٓيس حُٔٔخم‬
Indescribable feeling ‫ق‬ٛٞ٣ ‫ٍ ال‬ٞ‫ٗؼ‬
Wilted flowers ‫خٍ ًحرِش‬ُٛ‫أ‬
The Palestinian National Anthem ٢٘٤‫ حُلِٔط‬٢٘١ُٞ‫ي ح‬٤ُ٘٘‫ح‬
Charitable Organization ‫ش‬٣َ٤‫ٓ٘ظٔش ه‬
Space shuttle ٢‫خث‬٠‫ى ك‬ٌٞٓ
Financial advisor ٢ُ‫ٓٔظ٘خٍ ٓخ‬
Legal advisor ٢ٗٞٗ‫ٓٔظ٘خٍ هخ‬
Islam is a true religion ‫ق‬٤٘‫ٖ ك‬٣‫حإلٓالّ ى‬
Distance Learning ‫حُظؼِْ ػٖ رؼي‬
Ethnic cleansing ٢‫َ حُؼَه‬٤ٜ‫حُظط‬
Stiff resistance ‫ َٗٓش‬،‫لش‬٤٘‫ٓش ػ‬ٝ‫ٓوخ‬
A televised speech ِ‫هطخد ٓظِل‬
Chemical plant ‫ش‬٣ٝ‫ٔخ‬٤ٌُ‫حى ح‬ُِٞٔ ‫٘غ‬ٜٓ
Friendly fire
‫ن حُوطؤ‬٣َ١ ٖ‫ ػ‬٢ٗ‫طخ‬٣َ‫ ر‬ٝ‫ آهَ أ‬٢ٌ٣َٓ‫ أ‬١‫ ؿ٘ي‬٢ٌ٣َٓ‫ أ‬١‫وظَ ؿ٘ي‬٣ ٕ‫وش (ًؤ‬٣‫ي‬ٛ ٕ‫َح‬٤ٗ)
Plastic arts ‫ش‬٤ِ٤ٌ٘‫ٕ ط‬ٞ٘‫ك‬
Accepted pilgrimage ٍَٝ‫كؾ ٓز‬
Additional prayer ‫الس حُ٘خكِش‬ُٜ‫ح‬
Corporal punishment ١‫ ؿٔي‬،٢ٗ‫ػوخد ري‬
Deadly sins ‫ٌِش‬ُٜٔ‫خ ح‬٣‫روخص (حُوطخ‬ُٞٔ‫)ح‬
A grave breach َ٤‫خى هط‬ٜ‫حٗظ‬

Translated texts from English into Arabic

‫ش‬١‫ حٌؼَر‬ٌٝ‫ش ح‬٠ِ١ٍ‫ٔـ‬٨‫ ِظَؿّش ِٓ ح‬ٜٙٛٔ

1) The United Nations
An international organization, based in New York, which aims to preserve peace
around the world and solve international problems. It was formed in 1945, and
replaced the League of Nations. Most of the world‘s independent states are
members, and each has one vote in the General Assembly. The United Nations
Security Council has the power to take military or economic action to settle
international disputes. Other branches of the United Nations include the World
Bank, the International Court of Justice in The Netherlands, and the United
Nations Children‘s Fund (UNICEF). The Secretary General of the United Nations
is Ban-Ki Moon.

‫ُِ حٌّظليس‬٤‫ح‬
ٌٙٛ ‫ طؤٓٔض‬.‫ش‬٤ُٝ‫كَ حٌُٔ٘الص حُي‬ٝ ُْ‫ٍ حُؼخ‬ٞ‫ كلع حُٔالّ ك‬٠ُ‫يف ا‬ٜ‫ٍى ط‬ٞ٣ٞ٤ٗ ‫خ‬َٛ‫ش ٓو‬٤ُٝ‫ ٓ٘ظٔش ى‬٢ٛ
‫خ‬ٜ٘ٓ ًَٝ ‫خ‬ٜ٤‫خء ك‬٠‫ أػ‬٢ٜ‫ٍ حُؼخُْ حُٔٔظوِش ك‬ٝ‫أٓخ ٓؼظْ ى‬ٝ ،ْٓ‫زش حأل‬ٜ‫هخٓض ٓلَ ػ‬ٝ 1945 ّ‫ ػخ‬٢‫حُٔ٘ظٔش ك‬
‫ش‬٣‫خى‬ٜ‫حالهظ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٣ٌَٔ‫َ حُؼ‬٤‫ش حُِٔطش رخطوخً حُظيحر‬٣‫أٓخ ٓـِْ حألٖٓ كِي‬ٝ .‫ش حُؼخٓش‬٤‫ حُـٔؼ‬٢‫حكي ك‬ٝ ‫ص‬ٞٛ ‫خ‬ٜ٣‫ُي‬
‫ش‬٤ُٝ‫ٓلٌٔش حُؼيٍ حُي‬ٝ ٢ُٝ‫ ٓؼَ حُز٘ي حُي‬َٟ‫ع أه‬َٝ‫ حألْٓ حُٔظليس ك‬ٟ‫ؿي ُي‬ٞ٣ٝ .‫ش‬٤ُٝ‫ًُي ُلَ حُِ٘حػخص حُي‬ٝ
.‫ ُألْٓ حُٔظليس‬٢ُ‫ٖ حُؼخّ حُلخ‬٤ٓ‫ حأل‬ٜٞ‫ٕ ك‬ٞٓ ٢ً ٕ‫أٓخ رخ‬ٝ ،‫ُش‬ٞ‫ٓ٘ظٔش حألْٓ حُٔظليس ُِطل‬ٝ ‫ُ٘يح‬ٞٛ ٢‫ك‬

2) 11/9 Attacks
September 11, 2001, the day on which a series of major terrorist attacks took place
in New York and other places in the US. The terrorists carried out the attacks using
four passenger planes that they hijacked on flights from the east coast of the US.
At 8.46 a.m. the first plane crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center
in New York. At 9.03 a.m. the second plane crashed into the south tower. Less
than 90 minutes later both towers fell down. The third plane crashed into the
Pentagon and the fourth into a field in Pennsylvania. Nearly 3 000 people died in
the attacks, a greater number than were killed in the attack on Pearl Harbor in the
Second World War. The place where the World Trade Center once stood is now
known as Ground Zero.

‫٘ـّخص حٌلخى‪ ٞ‬ػَ٘ ِٓ ح‪ٍٛ٠‬ي‬
‫‪11‬أ‪ ٞٛ 2001 ٍِٞ٣‬حُ‪ ّٞ٤‬حٌُ‪ ١‬ؿَ‪ ٟ‬ك‪ ٚ٤‬ط٘ل‪ِِٔٓ ٌ٤‬ش ‪ٛ‬ـٔخص اٍ‪ٛ‬خر‪٤‬ش ك‪ٍٞ٣ٞ٤ٗ ٢‬ى ‪ٝ‬ػيس أٓخًٖ ك‪ ٢‬حُ‪ٞ‬ال‪٣‬خص‬
‫حُٔظليس حألٓ‪٤ًَ٤‬ش‪ .‬ك‪ٌٛ ٢‬ح حُ‪ ّٞ٤‬هخّ حإلٍ‪ٛ‬خر‪ ٕٞ٤‬رظ٘ل‪ ٌ٤‬حُ‪ٜ‬ـٔخص ػٖ ‪٣َ١‬ن أٍرغ ‪١‬خثَحص ًٍخد طْ حهظطخك‪ٜ‬خ‬
‫أػ٘خء حَُكالص حُظ‪ً ٢‬خٗض ٓظ‪ٞ‬ؿ‪ٜ‬ش ٖٓ حُٔخكَ حَُ٘ه‪ُِٞ ٢‬ال‪٣‬خص حُٔظليس‪ .‬ح‪ٛ‬طيٓض حُطخثَس حأل‪ ٠ُٝ‬رخُزَؽ‬
‫حُ٘ٔخُ‪ُٔ ٢‬ز٘‪ ٠‬حُظـخٍ‪ ٟ‬حُؼخُٔ‪ ٢‬ك‪ٓ ٢‬ي‪٘٣‬ش ٗ‪ٍٞ٣ٞ٤‬ى‪ٝ .‬ك‪ ٢‬حُٔخػش حُظخٓؼش ‪ٝ‬ػالع ىهخثن ح‪ٛ‬طيٓض حُطخثَس‬
‫حُؼخٗ‪٤‬ش رخُٔز٘‪ ٠‬حُـ٘‪ٞ‬ر‪ٝ .٢‬ك‪ ٢‬حهَ ٖٓ ‪ 90‬ىه‪٤‬وش حٗ‪ٜ‬خٍ حُزَؿخٕ‪ٝ .‬أٓخ حُطخثَس حُؼخُؼش كوي ح‪ٛ‬طيٓض رٔز٘‪ُٝ ٠‬حٍس‬
‫حُيكخع حألٓ‪٤ًَ٤‬ش (حُزخٗظـ‪ ،)ٕٞ‬ك‪ ٢‬ك‪ٓ ٖ٤‬وطض حُطخثَس حَُحرؼش ك‪ ٢‬كوَ ر‪ٞ‬ال‪٣‬ش رِ٘ٔل‪٤٘٤‬ش‪ٗٝ .‬ظ‪٤‬ـش ُ‪ٌٜٙ‬‬
‫حُ‪ٜ‬ـٔخص‪ُ ،‬و‪ٓ ٢‬خ ‪٣‬وخٍد ‪ٗ 3000‬و‪ ٚ‬كٌك‪ ٞٛٝ ْٜ‬ػيى حًزَ ٖٓ حألٗوخ‪ ٙ‬حٌُ‪ ٖ٣‬هظِ‪ٞ‬ح ك‪ ٢‬حُ‪ٜ‬ـ‪ّٞ‬‬
‫ػِ‪٘٤ٓ ٠‬خء ر‪ ٍَ٤‬ك‪ ٢‬حُلَد حُؼخُٔ‪٤‬ش حُؼخٗ‪٤‬ش‪ ٝ .‬أالٕ ‪ ٠ٔٔ٣‬حٌُٔخٕ حٌُ‪ً ١‬خٕ ‪٣‬وق ك‪ ٚ٤‬حُزَؿ‪ ٖ٤‬رـ "ؿَحٗي‬
‫‪3) The Cold War‬‬
‫‪The political conflict between the capitalist countries of the West (the US and‬‬
‫‪western Europe) and the Communist countries of the East (the Soviet Union and‬‬
‫‪eastern Europe) that began after World War II. Both sides had large military forces‬‬
‫‪which were kept ready for war, and threatened each other with nuclear weapons.‬‬
‫‪They also tried to find out each other‘s secrets using spies. There was no actual‬‬
‫‪fighting, except where the US and the Soviet Union supported different sides in‬‬
‫‪conflicts such as the Korean War. The Cold War ended in the early 1990s after the‬‬
‫‪Soviet Union had begun to break up.‬‬

‫حٌلَد حٌزخٍىس‬
‫حُلَد حُزخٍىس ًخٗض ػزخٍس ػٖ ‪َٛ‬حع ٓ‪٤‬خٓ‪ ٢‬ريء رؼي ٗ‪ٜ‬خ‪٣‬ش حُلَد حُؼخُٔ‪٤‬ش حُؼخٗ‪٤‬ش ٓخ ر‪ ٖ٤‬حُي‪ ٍٝ‬حَُأٓٔخُ‪٤‬ش‬
‫حُـَر‪٤‬ش (حُ‪ٞ‬ال‪٣‬خص حُٔظليس ‪ ٝ‬ؿَد أ‪ٍٝٝ‬رخ) ‪ ٝ‬حُي‪ ٍٝ‬حُ٘‪ٞ٤‬ػ‪٤‬ش حَُ٘ه‪٤‬ش ( حالطلخى حُٔ‪ٞ‬ك‪٤‬ظ‪ٝ ٢‬ى‪َٗ ٍٝ‬م‬
‫أ‪ٍٝٝ‬رخ)‪ًٝ .‬خٕ ٌُال حُطَك‪ ٖ٤‬ه‪ٞ‬حص ػٌَٔ‪٣‬ش ًز‪َ٤‬س حُؼيى أرو‪٤‬ض ٖٓ حؿَ حُزوخء ػِ‪ ٠‬أ‪ٛ‬زش حالٓظؼيحى ُِلَد‪،‬‬
‫‪ٛٝ‬يى ًال حُطَك‪ ٖ٤‬رؼ‪ٜٔ٠‬خ ح‪٥‬هَ رخٓظويحّ حألِٓلش حُ٘‪٣ٝٞ‬ش‪ .‬رخإل‪ٟ‬خكش اُ‪ًُ ٠‬ي‪ٓ ،‬ؼ‪ً ٠‬ال حُطَك‪ ٖ٤‬اُ‪٠‬‬
‫ٓؼَكش أَٓحٍ رؼ‪ٜٔ٠‬خ ح‪٥‬هَ ػٖ ‪٣َ١‬ن حالٓظؼخٗش رخُـ‪ٞ‬حٓ‪ٝ .ْ٤‬ك‪ٝ ٢‬حهغ حألَٓ‪٘ٛ ٌٖ٣ ُْ ،‬خُي أ‪ ١‬كَد‬
‫كؼِ‪٤‬ش رخٓظؼ٘خء ىػْ حُ‪ٞ‬ال‪٣‬خص حُٔظليس ‪ٝ‬حالطلخى حُٔ‪ٞ‬ك‪٤‬ظ‪ ٢‬أل‪َ١‬حف ٓظ٘خُػش ٓؼَ حُلَد حٌُ‪٣ٍٞ‬ش‪ٝ .‬هي حٗظ‪ٜ‬ض‬
‫حُلَد حُزخٍىس ك‪ ٢‬أ‪ٝ‬حثَ حُظٔؼ‪٤٘٤‬خص ٖٓ حُوَٕ حُؼَ٘‪ ٖ٣‬رؼي إٔ ريء حالطلخى حُٔ‪ٞ‬ك‪٤‬ظ‪ ٢‬رخالٗ‪٤ٜ‬خٍ‪.‬‬

4) World War II
A war (1939–45) between the Axis powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) and the
Allies (Britain and the countries in the British Empire, France, and later the USSR
and the US). Many other countries were also involved both directly and
indirectly.The war started when Germany, under Adolf Hitler and the Nazis,
invaded and took control of other countries and the Allies wanted to prevent
German power growing in this way. Britain declared war on Germany in
September 1939 when German troops entered Poland, and soon afterwards
Winston Churchill, who in Britain is closely associated with the Allies‘ victory in
the war, became the British prime minister.

In 1940 Germany attacked Britain but was not successful, mainly because of the
British victory in the Battle of Britain. In 1941 Germany invaded Russia and Japan
attacked Pearl Harbor, an action which brought the US into the war. In 1942 Japan
increased its control over several countries in Asia but was checked by US forces
in the Pacific. In the same year, at the Battle of El Alamein, Allied forces began to
defeat Germany and Italy in northern Africa. In 1943 the Allies took Italy and
Russian forces began to advance on Germany from the east. In 1944 the Allies
invaded northern Europe with the Normandy landings and began to defeat
Germany in Europe. The war ended in 1945 when the Allies took control of
Germany, Hitler killed himself, and Japan was defeated as a result of the atom
bombs being dropped on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Germany and Japan
surrendered separately in 1945.

Over 50 million people were killed in the war, more than 20 million of them
Russians. World War II is also remembered for the very large number of Jewish
and other people killed in German concentration camps and the harsh treatment of
prisoners of war captured by the Japanese.

‫ش‬١ٔ‫ش حٌؼخ‬١ٌّ‫حٌلَد حٌؼخ‬

)ٕ‫خرخ‬٤ُ‫ح‬ٝ ‫خ‬٤ُ‫طخ‬٣‫ح‬ٝ ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫ٍ( أُٔخ‬ٞ‫ٍ حُٔل‬ٝ‫ٖ ى‬٤‫ ر‬1945 ّ‫ض ػخ‬ٜ‫حٗظ‬ٝ 1939 ّ‫ ػخ‬٢‫ش ك‬٤ٗ‫ش حُؼخ‬٤ُٔ‫حٗيُؼض حُلَد حُؼخ‬
ٍٝ‫ٔض الكوخ ى‬٠ٗ‫ح‬ٝ ‫كَٗٔخ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤ٗ‫طخ‬٣َ‫ش حُز‬٣ٍٞ١‫حهؼش طلض كٌْ حإلٓزَح‬ُٞ‫ٍ ح‬ٝ‫ حُي‬ٝ ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫طخ‬٣َ‫ٍ حُلِلخء (ر‬ٝ‫ى‬ٝ
َ٤‫ ؿ‬ٝ‫ٍ رٌَ٘ ٓزخَٗ أ‬ٝ‫ي ٖٓ حُي‬٣‫ٗخًٍض حُؼي‬ٝ .)‫ حُلَد‬ٌُٜٙ ‫ش‬٤ًَ٤ٓ‫خص حُٔظليس حأل‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫ح‬ٝ ٢‫ظ‬٤‫ك‬ُٞٔ‫حالطلخى ح‬
.‫ حُلَد‬ٌٙٛ ٢‫ٓزخَٗ ك‬

‫ٗ٘زض ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حُلَد ػ٘يٓخ ؿِص ‪٤ٓٝ‬طَص أُٔخٗ‪٤‬خ طلض ه‪٤‬خىس أى‪ُٝ‬ق ‪ٛ‬ظَِ ‪ٝ‬حُ٘خُ‪ ٖ٤٣‬ػِ‪ ٠‬ى‪ ٍٝ‬أهَ‪ٗٝ .ٟ‬ظ‪٤‬ـش‬
‫ٌُُي هٍَص ى‪ ٍٝ‬حُلِلخء ا‪٣‬وخف ه‪ ٟٞ‬أُٔخٗ‪٤‬خ حُٔظ٘خٓ‪٤‬ش‪ٝ .‬هخٓض رَ‪٣‬طخٗ‪٤‬خ رؤػالٗ‪ٜ‬خ حُلَد ػِ‪ ٠‬أُٔخٗ‪٤‬خ ك‪ ٢‬ػخّ‬
‫‪ 1939‬ػ٘يٓخ ىهَ حُـ‪ ٖ٤‬حألُٔخٗ‪ ٢‬ر‪ُ٘ٞ‬يح‪ٝ .‬رؼي ًُي رلظَس ه‪َ٤ٜ‬س‪ ,‬حٓظِْ ‪ٔ٘٣ٝ‬ظ‪ ٕٞ‬طََ٘ٗ ٓ٘‪ٜ‬ذ ٍث‪ْ٤‬‬
‫‪ٍُٝ‬حء رَ‪٣‬طخٗ‪٤‬خ‪.‬‬

‫‪ٝ‬ك‪ ٢‬ػخّ ‪٘٣ ُْ 1940‬ـق ‪ٛ‬ـ‪ ّٞ‬أُٔخٗ‪٤‬خ ػِ‪ ٠‬رَ‪٣‬طخٗ‪٤‬خ ُؼيس أٓزخد ٖٓ أ‪ٜٔٛ‬خ حالٗظ‪ٜ‬خٍ حُزَ‪٣‬طخٗ‪ ٢‬ك‪ٓ ٢‬ؼًَش‬
‫رَ‪٣‬طخٗ‪٤‬خ‪ٝ .‬ك‪ ٢‬ػخّ ‪ 1941‬هخٓض أُٔخٗ‪٤‬خ رخؿظ‪٤‬خف ٍ‪٤ٓٝ‬خ ‪ٝ‬حُ‪٤‬خرخٕ ‪ٝ‬هخٓض أ‪٠٣‬خ رخُ‪ٜ‬ـ‪ ّٞ‬ػِ‪٘٤ٓ ٠‬خء ر‪ ٍَ٤‬ك‪٢‬‬
‫حُ‪ٞ‬ال‪٣‬خص حُٔظليس‪ٝ ،‬هي أى‪ٌٛ ٟ‬ح حُ‪ٜ‬ـ‪ ّٞ‬اُ‪ ٠‬ىه‪ ٍٞ‬حُ‪ٞ‬ال‪٣‬خص حُٔظليس حُلَد‪ٝ .‬أٓخ ك‪ ٢‬ػخّ ‪ 1942‬هخٓض حُ‪٤‬خرخٕ‬
‫رِ‪٣‬خىس ٓ‪٤‬طَط‪ٜ‬خ ػِ‪ ٠‬ػيس ى‪ ٍٝ‬ك‪ ٢‬هخٍس أٓ‪٤‬خ ‪ ٌُٖٝ‬طْ ا‪٣‬وخف ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حُٔ‪٤‬طَس ٖٓ هزَ حُو‪ٞ‬حص حألٓ‪٤ًَ٤‬ش ك‪٢‬‬
‫حُٔل‪ ٢٤‬حُ‪ٜ‬خىة‪ٝ .‬ك‪ٗ ٢‬لْ حُؼخّ‪ ،‬هخٓض ه‪ٞ‬حص حُظلخُق رخُزيء ر‪ٔ٣ِٜ‬ش أُٔخٗ‪٤‬خ ‪ٝ‬ح‪٣‬طخُ‪٤‬خ ك‪ٔٗ ٢‬خُ‪ ٢‬أكَ‪٣‬و‪٤‬خ ك‪٢‬‬
‫ٓؼًَش حُؼِٔ‪ٝ .ٖ٤‬ك‪ ٢‬ػخّ ‪ 1943‬ريأص ه‪ٞ‬حص حُظلخُق رخُظويّ ٗل‪ ٞ‬أُٔخٗ‪٤‬خ ٖٓ حَُ٘م‪ٝ .‬طْ ك‪ ٢‬ػخّ ‪ 1944‬حُزيء‬
‫ر‪ٔ٣ِٜ‬ش أُٔخٗ‪٤‬خ ػ٘يٓخ حؿظخف حُلِلخء ٗٔخٍ أ‪ٍٝٝ‬رخ‪.‬‬

‫حٗظ‪ٜ‬ض حُلَد ك‪ ٢‬ػخّ ‪ 1945‬ػ٘يٓخ أهز‪ ٞ‬حُلِلخء ٓ‪٤‬طَط‪ ْٜ‬ػِ‪ ٠‬أُٔخٗ‪٤‬خ‪ٝ .‬طْ ‪ٔ٣ِٛ‬ش حُ‪٤‬خرخٕ ٗظ‪٤‬ـش اُوخء‬
‫ه٘زِظ‪٣ٝٞٗ ٖ٤‬ظ‪ ٖ٤‬ػِ‪ٔ٤َٗٝ٤ٛ ٠‬خ ‪ٗٝ‬ـِحً‪ٝ ٢‬هخّ أى‪ُٝ‬ق ‪ٛ‬ظَِ رخالٗظلخٍ ك‪ٗ ٢‬لْ حُؼخّ‪٘٣ .‬خٍ اُ‪ ٠‬إٔ حُ‪٤‬خرخٕ‬
‫‪ٝ‬أُٔخٗ‪٤‬خ هي حٓظِٔٔظخ ًَ ٓ٘‪ٜٔ‬خ ػِ‪ ٠‬كيس ػخّ ‪.1945‬‬

‫ُو‪ ٢‬أًؼَ ٖٓ ‪ٗ ٕٞ٤ِٓ 50‬و‪ ٚ‬كٌك‪ ْٜ‬هالٍ حُلَد‪ًٝ ،‬خٕ ‪ ٖٟٔ ٖٓ ٢ٍٓٝ ٕٞ٤ِٓ 20‬ك‪ِ٤ٜ‬ش هظِ‪٠‬‬
‫حُلَد‪ ٝ .‬طوظِٕ ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حُلَد ًً َ‪ ٟ‬حألػيحى حٌُز‪َ٤‬س ٖٓ حُ‪ٜٞ٤‬ى ‪ٝ‬ؿ‪ ٖٓ َْٛ٤‬حٌُ‪ ٖ٣‬طْ هظِ‪ ْٜ‬ك‪ٓ ٢‬ؼٌَٔحص‬
‫حالػظوخٍ ‪ٝ‬حُٔؼخِٓش حُوخٓ‪٤‬ش حُظ‪ ٢‬طؼَ‪ُٜ ٝ‬خ أَٓ‪ ٟ‬حُلَد حٌُ‪ ٖ٣‬طْ حػظوخُ‪ ٖٓ ْٜ‬هزَ حُو‪ٞ‬حص حُ‪٤‬خرخٗ‪٤‬ش‪.‬‬

‫‪5) The Library of Congress‬‬

‫‪The national library of the US. It was established by the US Congress in 1800‬‬
‫‪and is on Independence Avenue in Washington, DC. It now has more than 115‬‬
‫‪million books. it is the second largest library in the world by shelf space and‬‬
‫‪number of books, the largest being The British Library .The library receives‬‬
‫‪two copies of every US work published with a copyright.‬‬

‫ِىظزش حٌى‪ٔٛ‬ـَّ‬
‫ٌٓظزش حٌُ‪ٗٞ‬ـَّ ‪ ٢ٛ‬حٌُٔظزش حُ‪٤٘١ٞ‬ش ُِ‪ٞ‬ال‪٣‬خص حُٔظليس حألَٓ‪٤ٌ٣‬ش ‪ٝ‬طؤٓٔض حٌُٔظزش ك‪ ٢‬ػخّ ‪ٝ 1800‬ط‪ٞ‬ؿي ك‪٢‬‬
‫ٗخٍع حالٓظوالٍ ك‪ ٢‬حُؼخ‪ٔٛ‬ش حألَٓ‪٤ٌ٣‬ش ‪ٝ‬حٗ٘طٖ‪ٞ٣ٝ .‬ؿي ك‪ ٢‬حٌُٔظزش أًؼَ ٖٓ ‪ً ٕٞ٤ِٓ 115‬ظخد ‪ ٢ٛٝ‬ػخٗ‪٢‬‬
‫أًزَ ٌٓظزش ك‪ ٢‬حُؼخُْ رؼي حٌُٔظزش حُزَ‪٣‬طخٗ‪٤‬ش ٖٓ ك‪٤‬غ حَُك‪ٞ‬ف حُوخُ‪٤‬ش ‪ٝ‬ػيى حٌُظذ‪ٝ ،‬طٔظوزَ ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حٌُٔظزش‬
‫ٗٔوظ‪ً ًَ ٖٓ ٖ٤‬ظخد أَٓ‪٣ ٢ٌ٣‬ظْ َٗ٘‪ٓ ٙ‬غ كو‪ٞ‬م حُطزغ‪.‬‬

Translators` Practical Approach To ‫ حٌظَؿّش‬ٌٝ‫ِيهً حٌّظَؿُ ا‬
‫ ُـش‬٠ُ‫يٍ) ا‬ُٜٔ‫ش ٗوَ ٖٓ ُـش (حُِـش ح‬٤ِٔ‫حُظَؿٔش ػ‬
Translation is a process of translating from ‫ طَؿٔش‬٢‫ ك‬،ٍ‫َ حُٔؼخ‬٤‫ ٓز‬٠ِ‫ كؼ‬.)‫يف‬ُٜ‫ٓوظِلش (حُِـش ح‬
one language (source language) to a ‫وش‬٤‫ػ‬ُٞ‫ٕ ح‬ٌٞ‫ ط‬،‫ش‬٣ِ٤ُ‫ حُٔخ‬٠ُ‫ش ا‬٣ِ٤ِ‫وش ٖٓ حإلٗـ‬٤‫ػ‬ٝ
different language (target language). For ُٚ٘‫ٖ إٔ ح‬٤‫ ك‬٢‫يٍ ك‬ُٜٔ‫ ح‬ُٚ٘‫ ح‬٢ٛ ‫ش‬٣ِ٤ِ‫حإلٗـ‬
example, in translating a document from ٢‫ حُِـش حُٔٔظويٓش ك‬٢ٛٝ( ‫ش‬٣ِ٤ُ‫يف رخُِـش حُٔخ‬ُٜ‫ح‬
English to Malay, the English document is .)‫خ‬٣ِ٤ُ‫ٓخ‬
the source text while the target text is
Malay (the language used in Malaysia).

ٕ‫ـذ أ‬٣ ،‫ظِْٔ حُٔظَؿْ أكي أػٔخٍ حُظَؿٔش‬٣ ‫ػ٘يٓخ‬ٝ

.‫خ‬ًِٜ ‫ش‬٤ِٛ‫وش حأل‬٤‫ػ‬ُٞ‫ال ح‬ٝ‫وَأ أ‬٣
When a translator is given a translation
job, the translator should read the whole
source language document first.
‫حُؼوزخص‬ٝ ،ُٚ٘‫د ح‬ِٞٓ‫ي أ‬٣‫ ُظلي‬١ٍَٟٝ ‫ٌح‬ٛٝ
ْ٤‫ط٘ظ‬ٝ ‫خ هالٍ ػَٔ حُظَؿٔش‬ٜٜ‫حؿ‬ٞ٣ ‫ هي‬٢‫حٌُٔٔ٘ش حُظ‬
ٌُٜٙ ‫حٓظ٘خىح‬ٝ .‫خص حُظَؿٔش حُٔ٘خٓزش‬٤‫ـ‬٤‫حٓظَحط‬
This is necessary to determine the style of ٝ‫ٍ أ‬ٞ‫وٍَ هز‬٣ ٕ‫خ أ‬ٛ‫ٌٖٔ ُِٔظَؿْ رؼي‬٣ ،ٍٞٓ‫حأل‬
the text, the possible obstacles that may be .‫ ػَٔ حُظَؿٔش‬ٞ‫ٍك‬
faced during the translation work and to
organize the appropriate translation
strategies. Based on these, the translator
could then decide whether to accept the َٔ٣
ّ ٕ‫ـذ أ‬٣ ،‫ ػَٔ حُظَؿٔش‬٠ِ‫حكن حُٔظَؿْ ػ‬ٝ ٕ‫كب‬
translation work or not. :‫ش‬٤ُ‫ش حُظَؿٔش حُظخ‬٤ِٔ‫حص ػ‬ٞ‫روط‬

If the translator accepts the translation .ٙ‫يٍ الًظ٘خف ٓؼ٘خ‬ُٜٔ‫ ح‬ُٚ٘‫َ ح‬٤ِ‫ طل‬.1 ‫س‬ٞ‫هط‬
work, the translator would have to go
through the following translation process:
‫يف‬ُٜ‫ حُِـش ح‬٢‫ ك‬٠٘‫ـخى أهَد ٓؼ‬٣‫ ا‬.2 ‫س‬ٞ‫هط‬

Step 1. Analyze the source text to discover

its meaning ‫زوخ‬١ ‫خ‬ٜ٘‫َ ػ‬٤‫اػخىس حُظؼز‬ٝ ٢ٗ‫ذ حُٔؼخ‬٤‫ طَط‬.3 ‫س‬ٞ‫هط‬
ٕ‫خ أ‬٠٣‫الريّ أ‬ٝ .‫يف‬ُٜ‫ حُِـش ح‬٢‫ذ حُـِٔش ك‬٤ًَ‫ُظ‬
‫ حُِـش‬٢‫حُؼوخكش ك‬ٝ َٛ‫ح‬ٞ‫ؼش حُظ‬٤‫ز‬١ ‫خم‬٤ٓ ٢‫ٕ ك‬ٌٞ٣

Step 2. Find the closest meaning in the .‫يف‬ُٜ‫ح‬
target language

َ‫ُؼظز‬٣ ْ‫ حُٔظَؿ‬ُٚ٘‫ كبٕ ح‬،‫ش حُظَؿٔش‬٤ِٔ‫رؼي ػ‬ٝ

Step 3. Arrange and re-express the َ‫ كوز‬.‫ش رؼي‬٤‫خث‬ُٜ٘‫ْ حُ٘ٔوش ح‬٤ُٝ ‫ش‬٤‫ىس حُٔزيث‬ُٞٔٔ‫ح‬
meanings according to the sentence ‫ حُ٘ٔوش‬ٍٙ‫ش حػظزخ‬٤ٗ‫ آٌخ‬ٝ‫َ أ‬٤ٔ‫ ُِؼ‬ٚٔ٤ِٔ‫ش ط‬٤ٗ‫آٌخ‬
structure of the target language. And it .‫ال‬ٝ‫ىس أ‬ُٞٔٔ‫ ح‬ٌٙٛ ٍ‫ الريّ ٖٓ حهظزخ‬،‫حٌُخِٓش ُِظَؿٔش‬
must also be in context with the
communication and culture of the target
ٕ‫د ُِظؤًي ٖٓ أ‬ِٞ‫ ٓط‬ٚٗ‫د؟ ا‬ِٞ‫ٌح حالهظزخٍ ٓط‬ٛ ‫ُٔخًح‬
،‫ق‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝٝ ‫ن‬٤‫ٍ ٖٓ هالٍ حُظَؿٔش ىه‬ٞ‫ حُٔ٘و‬٠٘‫حُٔؼ‬
.‫ٓ٘خٓذ‬ٝ ٢‫ؼ‬٤‫ز‬١ ‫د حُِـش حُٔٔظويٓش‬ِٞٓ‫إٔ أ‬ٝ
After the translation process, the translated
text is considered as the initial draft and
not the completed version yet. Before it
can be handed over to the client or can be ‫ش رٔوخٍٗش‬٤‫ ُِظَؿٔش حٌُحط‬٢٤ٔ‫ٌح حالهظزخٍ حُز‬ٜ‫ هْ ر‬:‫ال‬ٝ‫أ‬
considered as the completed translation :‫ش‬٤ُ‫حٓؤٍ حألٓجِش حُظخ‬ٝ ،٢ِٛ‫ حأل‬ُٚ٘‫حُظَؿٔش رخ‬
version, this draft must be tested first.

‫ ٓخ؟‬٠٘‫َ كُ ِويَ ٓؼ‬ٛ

Why this test is required? It is required in
order to make sure that the meaning which
is conveyed by the translation is accurate
and clear, and that the style of the
language used is natural and appropriate.
‫ ٓخ؟‬٠٘‫ق ٓؼ‬٤ٟ
َ ُ ‫َ أ‬ٛ

First, do this simple self-translation test by

comparing the translation with the original
text and ask the following questions:

‫ ٓخ؟‬٠٘‫َ طزيٍَّ ٓؼ‬ٛ

Is there meaning which has been lost?

‫ذ‬٤‫ ؿيح طَط‬ٚ‫٘ز‬٣ ‫ حُظَؿٔش‬٢‫ذ حٌُِٔخص ك‬٤‫َ طَط‬ٛ
ٖٔ‫ ك‬،‫يٍ؟ إ ًخٕ حألَٓ ًٌُي‬ُٜٔ‫ حُِـش ح‬٢‫حٌُِٔخص ك‬
Is there meaning which has been added? ‫ش‬٤‫ؼ‬٤‫ز‬١ َ٤‫ٕ حُِـش حُٔٔظويٓش ؿ‬ٌٞ‫حٌُٖٔٔ إٔ ط‬
.‫يف‬ُٜ‫ٍ حُِـش ح‬ٜٞٔ‫ ؿ‬٠ُ‫رخُ٘ٔزش ا‬

Is there meaning which has been altered?

ٖ‫ػخٕ ػ‬
ٍ ٍ‫َف‬١ ٍ‫ هْ رؼَٔ حهظزخٍ ٖٓ هال‬،‫رؼي ًُي‬ٝ
ٙ‫َ ٖٓ حألٗوخ‬٤ِ‫ حُٔٔخػيس ٖٓ ػيى ه‬٢ّ‫ن طِو‬٣َ١
‫ ػَٔ حُظَؿٔش ُوَحءس‬٢‫ح ك‬ًَٞ‫٘ظ‬٣ ُْ ٖ٣ٌُ‫ٖ ح‬٣َ‫ه‬٥‫ح‬
Is the arrangement of words in the ٍ ٜٞ‫حُظَؿٔش ر‬
.ٍٍ ‫ص ػخ‬
translation is very similar to the
arrangement of words in the source
language. If that is so, then it is possible
that the language which has been used is :٢ِ٣ ‫ٌح حالهظزخٍ الكع ٓخ‬ٛ ٍ‫هال‬ٝ
not very natural to the target language

ْٜ‫ ك‬٠ِ‫ٕ ػ‬ٍٝ‫ٕ هخى‬ٞ‫ حُٔٔظٔؼ‬ٝ‫َ حُوَحء أ‬ٛ

‫لش؟‬٤‫ل‬ٛ ‫ٍس‬ٜٞ‫ٓخص ر‬ِٞ‫حُٔؼ‬
Then, do a second-person test by getting
help from a few other people who were not
involve in the translation work to read the
translation aloud.

ُْٜ ‫ش رخُ٘ٔزش‬٤‫لش ريٍؿش ًخك‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝ ‫ٓخص‬ِٞ‫َ حُٔؼ‬ٛ

During this test, notice the following:
‫ْ؟‬ٜ‫ِش حُل‬ٜٓٝ

Are the readers or listeners able to

understand the information correctly?

‫ش؟‬٤‫ؼ‬٤‫ز‬١ٝ ‫يس‬٤‫ٓخص ؿ‬ِٞ‫ْ حُٔؼ‬ُٜ ٝ‫َ طزي‬ٛ

Is the information clear enough for them,
and is it easily understood?
:‫ حٌمَحءس‬ٟ‫رش ف‬ٛ‫ؼ‬ٌٜ‫ح‬

Does it sound good and natural to them?

٢‫ش حُٔٔظويٓش ك‬٤‫ؼ‬٤‫َ حُطز‬٤‫ حُِـش ؿ‬٠ُ‫ٌح ا‬ٛ ‫ى‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ ‫ٍرٔخ‬

Difficulty in reading:

ٝ‫ حُظَىى أ‬ٝ‫هق أ‬ٞ‫ ٖٓ حُوخٍة حُظ‬٢‫ طٔظيػ‬٢‫حُ ُـَٔ حُظ‬

This is possibly be caused by unnatural َٔ‫ٌح إٔ حُ ُـ‬ٛ ٢٘‫ؼ‬٣ ٕ‫ٌٖٔ أ‬٣ٝ .‫ء ٓخ‬٢ٗ ‫اػخىس هَحءس‬
language used in the translation. .‫الم‬١‫ حإل‬٠ِ‫ٓش ػ‬ٜٞ‫َ ٓل‬٤‫ ؿ‬ٝ‫ْ أ‬ٜ‫ؼزش حُل‬ٛ

Sentences where the reader stops, hesitates ٢‫ٌٖٔ كو‬٣ ،‫ش‬٤َُٟٓ ‫ٍس‬ٜٞ‫ حألٓجِش ر‬ٌٙٛ ‫رؼي اؿخرش‬ٝ
or rereads something. This could possibly .‫ٕ ػَٔ حُظَؿٔش ٌٓظٔال‬ٌٞ٣ ٕ‫أ‬
mean that the sentences are understood
with difficulty or are not understood at all.

After these questions have been answered

satisfactorily, only then the translation
work is completed.

‫٘ش‬٠ٍٛ‫ِىظزش حٌّظَؿُ دمحم أر‬
Heroic speech

:‫حٌظَؿّش حٌلَس‬
ٟ‫ْ ف‬ٛ‫ش ٌّخ لخٌٗ حٌٍّه أٍحغ‬١‫ ٌٖ٘ طَؿّش رخٌؼَر‬.‫ش‬١ّ‫ طَؿّش حٌوطذ حٌٍّل‬ٟ‫ش ف‬١‫ طٕفغ حٌظَؿّش حٌلَف‬٨
ٛ٘١‫آٌش ػيىُ٘ ِمخرً أػيحى ؿ‬٠ٌ ‫ش ِلممش‬ٜ‫ّش أرطخي حٌم‬٠ِ٘ ‫ وخٔض‬ٟ‫حٌظ‬ٚ ُ‫حط‬ٛ‫ي حٌو‬١ٓ ٟ‫َس ف‬١‫ه‬٤‫حٌّؼَوش ح‬
:‫ض‬١ٌّّ‫ػظخىُ٘ ح‬ٚ ‫ى‬ٚ‫ٍى‬ِٛ

―Aragorn: Hold your ground, hold your ground. Sons of Gondor, of Rohan, my
brothers. I see in your eyes the same fear that would take the heart of me. A day
may come when the courage of men fails, when we forsake our friends and break
all bonds of fellowship, but it is not this day. An hour of wolves and shattered
shields, when the age of men comes crashing down, but it is not this day. This day
we fight! By all that you hold dear on this good Earth, I bid you *stand, Men of the

٢‫وظِغ هِز‬٣ ١ٌُ‫ف ح‬ٞ‫ٌْٗ حُو‬ٞ٤‫ ػ‬٢‫ ك‬ٍٟ‫ أل‬٢ٗ‫ ا‬.ٕ‫خ‬ٍٛٝٝ ٍٝ‫ٗي‬ٞ‫خ أر٘خء ؿ‬٣ .‫ رخُٔالف‬٢‫ط‬ٞ‫ح أه‬ٝ‫ٔي‬ٛ‫ح‬ٝ ‫ح‬ٌٞٓ‫طٔخ‬
،‫ حُ٘ـخع ؿزخٗخ‬ٚ٤‫زق ك‬ٜ٣ ،ٚ٤‫حألم ػٖ أه‬ٝ ٚ‫و‬٣‫ي‬ٛ ٖ‫ن ػ‬٣‫ي‬ُٜ‫ ح‬ٚ٤‫ ك‬٠ِ‫ظو‬٣ ٌّ ٞ٣ ٢‫ؤط‬٣ ‫! هي‬٢‫ػ‬ِٟٞ ٖ٤‫ٖٓ ر‬
.ٍ‫ حألىرخ‬٢ُٞ٣ٝ ٚ‫ل‬٤ٓ ٢َٓ٣

َّ …..
..ّٞ٤ُ‫ٕ ح‬ٌٞ٣ ُٖ ‫ٌُٖ ًُي‬

ٌْ‫أٗالث‬ٝ ‫ػٌْ حُٔلطٔش‬ٍٝ‫ ى‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬٠ٓ‫ظخ‬٤ُ‫ح‬ٝ َٓ‫حألٍح‬ٝ ٠ُ‫خص حُؼٌخ‬ٜٓ‫ع حأل‬ٞٓ‫ ى‬ٚ٤‫َٔ ك‬ٜ٘‫ ط‬.‫ حُلخؿؼش‬ٚ٤‫ّ طؼْ ك‬ٞ٣
.‫ُٔلن طلض أهيحّ حُـِحس‬٣ٝ ٕ‫َ حإلٗٔخ‬ٜ‫خٍ ػ‬ٜ٘٣ ّٞ٣ ،‫حُِٔٔهش‬

َّ …..
..ّٞ٤ُ‫ٕ ح‬ٌٞ٣ ُٖ ‫ٌُٖ ًُي‬

!‫خ ٍؿخٍ حُـَد‬٣ ‫ى‬ُٜٞٔ‫ ٗخٗيطٌْ ح‬،‫زش‬٤‫ حُط‬ٍٝ‫ حأل‬ٌٙٛ ٠ِ‫ِ ٌُْ ػ‬٣ِ‫ كزلن ًَ ػ‬.َ‫ّ ٗوخط‬ٞ٤ُ‫ح‬

:ً‫َح‬١‫خ وؼ‬ٙ‫ طَؿّظ‬ٟ‫خٔخ ً ٔفىَ ف‬١‫طش ٌىٓ أك‬١ٔ‫طَؿّش ػزخٍحص ر‬

.‫ٌح حُِوخء‬ُٜ ‫– أٌَٗ ُٖٔ أػي‬
.I thank the organizers of this meeting

.‫خ‬ٜ٘‫ ػ‬ٟ‫ حُؼخُْ رٔ٘ؤ‬٢‫ ٓ٘طوش ك‬١‫ ُْ طظَى أ‬٢‫ش حُظ‬٤‫حالؿظٔخػ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٣‫خى‬ٜ‫ حألُٓخص حالهظ‬٢‫ٗخ ٗظؤَٓ ك‬ٞ‫ىػ‬-
Let us reflect on the social and economic crises that have plagued every part of the

.ًِٚ ‫ي حُٔـظٔغ‬٤‫ْ كلٔذ رَ ٓظل‬٣ٌَُ‫ٌح حُللَ ح‬ٛ ّٞ٤ُ‫الط٘خ ح‬ٝ‫ي ٓيح‬٤‫ُٖ طل‬-
Our deliberations today will not only benefit this audience but will also be of value
.to the society at large

.٢ٓ‫ٍ حُؼخُْ حُ٘خ‬ٝ‫ ى‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬٠ٔ‫ حُؼظ‬ٟٞ‫خ حُو‬ٜ٤‫َ كوي ًخٗض طِي َٓكِش طٌخُزض ك‬٤ًٌ‫ُِظ‬ٝ ‫ض حُلَد حُزخٍىس‬٠ٓ ‫ُوي‬

In the bygone era of the Cold War, the major powers competed over the
.developing world

.‫ َٓحص‬10 ٌٍَٓ ‫لش حُؼخٓش‬٤‫ظ‬ُٞ‫ٔش حٓظؼٔخٍ ح‬ٜ‫ رظ‬٢ٗ‫ٖ كالٕ حُلال‬٣‫أى‬

.So and so was convicted of 10 counts of exploitation of public office

.‫ حُظَؿٔش حُلَس رخٌُحص‬ٚ‫خ طو‬ٜٗ‫ُؼٌِْ الكظظْ أ‬ٝ .‫يس‬٤‫كخص ٓل‬َٝ١‫ حأل‬ٌٙٛ ٌٕٞ‫ إٔ ط‬٠٘ٔ‫أط‬

:‫ش‬٤ُ‫ؿِٔظ٘خ حُظخ‬

.)ّ( ‫ رِي‬٠ِ‫َس ػ‬٤‫ًخٕ ُِِ٘حع آػخٍ ًز‬

ِ٤ًَ‫٘خ إٔ ٗـؼَ حُظ‬٤ِ‫ـذ ػ‬٤‫ق طؤػَص حُزِي ّ رخُِ٘حع ك‬٤ً ٖ‫غ ػ‬٣‫ اًح ًخٕ ٓخ رؼي حُـِٔش كي‬:٠ُٝ‫حُظَؿٔش حأل‬
:ٍٞ‫ ٗو‬.‫ش‬٣‫ حُزيح‬٢‫ حُزالى ك‬٠ِ‫ػ‬
.X has been severely affected by the crisis

.‫ رخَُ٘ف‬ٞ٤‫ػْ ٗٔظل‬

ْ٣‫٘خى ىحع ُِظوي‬ٛ ٌٕٞ٣ ُٖ َ٤ٛ‫ٕ ًًَ حُظلخ‬ٝ‫ ػٖ رِي طؤػَ رخألُٓش ى‬٢‫ اًح ًخٗض حُـِٔش ٓؼخٍ كو‬:‫ش‬٤ٗ‫حُظَؿٔش حُؼخ‬
:ٍٞ‫ ٗو‬.َ٤‫حُظؤه‬ٝ
.The crisis has severally affected X

.٢ُٝ‫ حُي‬ٟٞ‫ حُٔٔظ‬٠ِ‫ حُٔ٘خًٍش حُلؼخُش ػ‬٠ِ‫٘خ ػ‬َٛ‫ك‬ٝ –

:ٍٞ‫غ حُو‬٤‫ظش ٗٔظط‬ٞ‫ إٔ ٓ٘خًٍظ٘خ ًخٗض ِٓل‬٠ِ‫ِ ػ‬٤ًَ‫ اًح أٍىٗخ حُظ‬.‫َس‬٤‫خ ًؼ‬ٜ‫طَؿٔخط‬

.We have also maintained a high profile on the international arena

َ‫ ػخىس ٓخ ٗٔظويّ حُلؼ‬.‫خ‬ٜ‫خط‬٤ُٝ‫ٓٔئ‬ٝ ‫ُحٍس‬ُٞ‫خص ح‬٤‫الك‬ٛ ٕٞٗ‫ليى حُوخ‬٣ :ٍٞ‫ػ٘يٓخ ٗو‬-


.The law defines the ministry‘s powers and responsibilities

:ٍٞ‫ٕ ٗو‬ٞٗ‫ حُوخ‬٢‫ك‬ٝ

.The powers and responsibilities of the Ministry shall be defined by law

…‫ي‬٣‫طِق ؿي‬ٜٓ

‫ى؟‬ٞ‫ػ‬ُٞٔ‫ رخى ح‬١٥‫٘ظظَ ح‬٣ ٞٛٝ َٔ‫ أكَ ٖٓ حُـ‬٠ِ‫ُي ػ‬ُٞ‫ ؿِْ ح‬:ٍٞ‫ق طو‬٤ً
:٢ِ٣ ‫َس ألٌٓخٗ٘خ طَؿٔش حُـِٔش ًٔخ‬٤‫َ حُلَكش حٌُز‬ٜ٘‫ أهٌٗخ ػ‬ُٞ .‫وش‬٣َ١ ‫٘خى أُق‬ٛ

.The little boy is thrilled to death to get the promised IPad

:‫َ حالٗظظخٍ ُوِ٘خ‬ٜ٘‫ أهٌٗخ ػ‬ُٞ ‫أٓخ‬

.The little boy can hardly wait for his new IPad

.‫ هَِلي‬٢ُِ‫ ُٔض ػزي ػ٘ي ح‬:‫خ‬٠٣‫ش أ‬٤ٓ‫ رخُؼخ‬.”ٍٞ‫ ًَ ٓخ طو‬٠ِ‫أإٖٓ ػ‬

ّ ِ ٢ٌُ ‫ “ُٔض ػزيح ػ٘يى‬:‫طَؿٔش ؿِٔش‬
.I am not a paid lackey to be your yes-man

.‫خ‬ٜ٘ٓ ‫ أؿِحء‬٠ِ‫خ ػ‬ٜ‫طَط‬٤ٓ َٝ‫َس ٖٓ أؿَ ك‬٤‫حٓظِ٘كض طِي حُزالى آٌخٗخص ًز‬
.That country squandered enormous resources to dominate some of its parts

.ٕ٥‫حهغ حُلخٍ ح‬ٝ ٞٛ ‫ٌح‬ٛٝ .٠ٔ‫ حُؼظ‬ٟٞ‫ٖ حُو‬٤‫َحع ر‬ُِٜ ‫ َٓٔكخ‬٢‫زق حُؼخُْ حُؼَر‬ٜ٣ ٕ‫ٖٓ حُٔئٓق أ‬

):ٖ٤‫(الكع ىٓؾ حُـِٔظ‬

What is regrettably happening now is the emergence of a conflict between the great
.powers over the Arab world

.‫ُش‬ٞ‫ع ًخٗض هـ‬ُٟٞٞٔ‫ٌح ح‬ٛ ٍٝ‫ ط٘خ‬٢‫خ ك‬ٛ‫يٗخ‬ٜٗ ٢‫الص حُظ‬ٝ‫غ حُٔلخ‬٤ٔ‫ؿ‬-

.This subject has been so far broached timidly

ّ‫َ حُظخ‬ٟ‫َ ٌُُي حٓظويٓ٘خ حُلخ‬ٟ‫ حُلخ‬٢‫ ك‬ٍٙ‫آػخ‬ٝ ٢ٟ‫ حُٔخ‬٢‫هغ ك‬ٝ ‫ كيع‬٠ِ‫يٍ ػ‬٣ ‫الص‬ٝ‫(الكع إٔ طٌَحٍ حُٔلخ‬
)‫ٗطز٘خ حُؼزخٍحص حُِحثيس‬ٝ

:‫ّش‬ِٙ ‫طٍلخص‬ِٜ

.People staged rallies ..…‫َحص‬٤ٔٓ ٢‫ هَؽ حُ٘خّ ك‬:ٍٞ‫ٗو‬

.People went on demonstrations ‫َحص‬ٛ‫ ٓظخ‬٢‫هَؽ حُ٘خّ ك‬
Engineers staged a sit-in .‫خٓخ‬ٜ‫ٕ حػظ‬ٞٓ‫٘ي‬ُٜٔ‫ ح‬َٟ‫أؿ‬

.‫َحرخ‬ٟ‫ أػِٖ حُؼٔخٍ ا‬:‫أٓخ‬

:ٕ‫خ‬ٜ‫ؿ‬ٝ ‫خ‬ٜ٤‫كل‬
:ٍٞ‫ ٗو‬.‫جخ‬٤ٗ ‫ح‬ِٞٔ‫ؼ‬٣ ٕ‫ٕ أ‬ٝ‫ْ ى‬ِٜٔ‫ ٌٓخٕ ػ‬٢‫ حُؼٔخٍ ك‬٠‫زو‬٣ ٕ‫َحد أ‬ٟ‫ اًح ًخٕ حإل‬-1
.Workers went on strike

‫َحد‬ٟ‫ٌح حإل‬ٛ ٖ‫ٍ ػ‬ٞ‫ظخكخص ك٘و‬ُٜ‫ح‬ٝ ‫حُ٘ؼخٍحص‬ٝ ‫ح حُالكظخص‬ٞ‫ٍكؼ‬ٝ َٔ‫ اًح هَؽ حُؼٔخٍ ٖٓ ٌٓخٕ حُؼ‬-2

:ٍٞ‫ٌٔ٘٘خ حُو‬٣ٝ
.Workers walked out on strike

:ٍٞ‫ ٌٓخٕ حُؼَٔ ٗو‬٠ُ‫ٍ ا‬ٞ‫ٓ٘غ حُؼٔخٍ ٖٓ حُيه‬ٝ ‫٘غ‬ُٜٔ‫ اؿالم ح‬ٚٗ‫ ًُي كزبٌٓخ‬ٚ‫ؼـز‬٣ ُْ ‫خكذ حُؼَٔ اًح‬ٛ ‫أٓخ‬

٠ُ‫غ ا‬٤ٔ‫ى حُـ‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ٝ ‫خ‬٤ِ‫خ كؼ‬٤ٜ‫َحد ٓ٘ظ‬ٟ‫ حإل‬ٝ‫زق حإلؿالم أ‬ٜ٣ ،‫خص‬ٟٝ‫ُش حُٔلخ‬ٝ‫خ‬١ ٠ِ‫ٖ ػ‬٤‫ّ حُطَك‬ِٞ‫ٍ ؿ‬ٞ‫ك‬ٝ
.ٕٞٗ‫ حُوخ‬٠ِ‫ٖ ػ‬٤‫ح هخٍؿ‬ٞ‫زل‬ٛ‫اال أ‬ٝ ُٚ‫أػٔخ‬

١‫ أكؼخٍ حإلٓظ٘خع ػٖ أ‬ٝ‫ حُٔٔخٍٓخص أ‬ٝ‫ حإلؿَحءحص أ‬ٝ‫ ٖٓ هَحٍحص حإلىحٍس حُؼخٓش أ‬١‫ٍَ ٖٓ أ‬٠‫ ٓظ‬١‫لن أل‬٣«
‫ٌح‬ٛ ٢‫٘ش ك‬٤‫حإلؿَحءحص حُٔز‬ٝ ٍ‫ح‬ٞ‫كوخ ُألك‬ٝ ٕ‫ح‬ٞ٣‫ش حإلىحٍس حُؼخٓش أٓخّ حُي‬ٜ‫حؿ‬ٞٓ ٢‫ ك‬ٌُٟٞ٘‫ظويّ رخ‬٣ ٕ‫ أ‬،‫خ‬ٜ٘ٓ

―Any person adversely affected or aggrieved of any decision, measure or practice

or refrain from exercising any of the aforementioned acts by the public
administration may file with the Bureau a complaint against the public
administration in accordance with the manners and conditions prescribed in this

Honesty and doomsday

َّ ُ‫أل َٓخَٗ ُش َكخ ْٗظَ ِظ َِ ح‬
: ٍَ ‫ َهخ‬, ” ‫ٔخػَ َش‬ َ ‫ضح‬ ُ ‫ ” ا ِ ًَح‬: ََِّْ ََٓٝ ِٚ ٤ْ َِ َ‫َّللا ُ ػ‬
ِ َ ‫ّ ِؼ‬٤ٟ َّ ٠َِّ ٛ َّ ٍُ ٍَُٞٓ ٍَ ‫ َهخ‬: ٍَ ‫ َهخ‬، َ‫ ََْس‬٣ََ ُٛ ٢ِ‫ػَ ْٖ َأر‬
َ ِ ‫َّللا‬
َ‫ ٓـَى ٗو‬:‫ظش‬ٞ‫ ِٓل‬. ” ‫ٔخػَ َش‬ َّ ُ‫ َكخ ْٗظَ ِظ َِ ح‬ِٚ ِِ ْٛ ‫ َِْ َأ‬٤‫ َؿ‬٠َُ ِ ‫أل ْٓ َُ ا‬ ُ
َ ‫ ” ا ِ ًَح أ ِْٓ٘ي َ ح‬: ٍَ ‫َّللا ِ ؟ َهخ‬
َّ ٍَ ٍَُٞٓ ‫َخ‬٣ ‫َخ‬ُٜ‫خػَظ‬ٟ َ ٤ًَ
َ ِ ‫ْق ا‬
ٕ‫ ًخ‬ُٞ ٌٙٛ ‫ كخُظ٘خ‬٢‫ك‬ٝ .‫ش‬٤‫ حطزؼ٘خ حُظَؿٔش حُلَك‬ُٞ ٠‫ كظ‬٠٘‫َ حُٔؼ‬٤٤‫ طـ‬٢٘‫ؼ‬٣ ‫ش‬٣ِ٤ِ‫ حإلٗـ‬٠ُ‫ش ا‬٤‫حٌُالّ ٖٓ حُؼَر‬
‫ش‬٤‫ ال أُظِّ رلَك‬٢َّ٘ٗ ‫ش حُظَؿٔش أ‬٣‫ ريح‬٢‫َ ك‬٣ٌ‫وش ٓغ ًظخرش طل‬٣َ‫ حُط‬ٌٜٙ‫خ ر‬ٜ‫ش ُظَؿٔظ‬٣ٞ‫غ حُ٘ز‬٣‫ إٔ أطَؿْ حألكخى‬٢ُ
.‫ش‬٤‫ق رخُؼَر‬٣َُ٘‫ ح‬١ٞ‫غ حُ٘ز‬٣‫ حُلي‬٢‫ ك‬٢ِ‫ حُلؼ‬٢‫ٍس حٌُالّ حُلَك‬َٝ٠ُ‫إٔ حُظَؿٔش ال طؼٌْ رخ‬ٝ َّ ُٚ٘‫ح‬

It is the reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that Messenger Muhammad

(SAAW) said that if a day comes when honesty is compromised, then sooner will
the age of man come to an end. Abu Huraira asked “And, how is it
compromised?” When competencies are vested with incompetent people. It is then
that the age of man is close to an end, the Messenger answered.

Translating ―hell

.‫خ‬ٜٔ‫خ ط٘ظظَى ُظظَؿ‬ٜٗ‫ًؤ‬ٝ ُٜٙٞ٘‫زق ح‬ٜ‫ط‬ٝ ‫ حُظَؿٔش‬ٟٞٓ َٟ‫ُي كال ط‬ٞ‫ ًخٍ ٓخ ك‬٠ُ‫ػ٘يٓخ ط٘ظَ ا‬

‫ٍ دمحم‬َُٞٓ‫ هخٍ ح‬,‫يس حُلَحٍس‬٣‫ْ٘ ٗي‬ٜ‫ٕ إٔ ؿ‬ُِٞٔٔٔ‫ؼظوي ح‬٣ٝ ٕ‫ حُوَآ‬ًًَٙ ْ٤‫ ُِـل‬٢ٓ‫طِق حإلٓال‬ُٜٔ‫ ح‬:ْٜ٘‫ؿ‬
‫ “إ أٗي ٓخ‬: ‫ٍ دمحم ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص‬َُٞٓ‫ هخٍ ح‬,‫ىس‬َٝ‫يس حُز‬٣‫ٗي‬ٝ ]3[ ”.ْٜ٘‫ٖ ؿِءح ٖٓ ٗخٍ ؿ‬٤‫ “ٗخًٍْ ؿِء ٖٓ ٓزؼ‬: ‫ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص‬
ّ ٠ِ‫ ًٔخ ى ٍّ حُوَإٓ ػ‬.‫زوخص‬١ ‫خ‬ُٜ ٕ‫أ‬ٝ ،َ٤ُِ‫حى ح‬ًٞٔ ‫ىحء‬ٞٓ ‫خ‬ٜٗ‫أ‬ٝ ]4[ ”.ْٜ٘‫َ ؿ‬٣َُٜٓ ٖٓ ‫ٕ ٖٓ حُزَى‬ٝ‫طـي‬
.ْٜ٘‫ٕ ؿ‬ِٞ‫يه‬٤ٓ ٚ‫ح ر‬َٝ‫ ًل‬ٝ‫ح رخهلل أ‬ًَٞٗ‫ٖ أ‬٣ٌُ‫ح‬

Jehannam: The Islamic term used to refer to the abyss. It is mentioned by the
Quran and Muslims believe it is divided into two parts: one that is hot and one that
is bitterly cold. Prophet Muhammad (SAW) says that all the hot fire that you find
on earth is a seventieth of that in the Abyss. He also preaches that the harshest cold
weather that awfully bites comes from the zamhareer of the abyss (zamhareer is the
cold part of the abyss). Night is eternal in the abyss, which the Quran says is the
abode of infidels and polytheists.

َٜ‫ ِظَؿّش أه‬ٜٙٛٔ

Court decision translation

‫ش‬٤ٌ٣َٓ‫خ حأل‬٤ِ‫ًؽ ُوَحٍ ٓظَؿْ ٖٓ هَحٍحص حُٔلٌٔش حُؼ‬ٞٔٗ

Per Curiam



No. 07–10689. Decided October 14, 2008

James Eric Moore was convicted of one count of possessing cocaine base with
intent to distribute, [which is] a violation of 21 U. S. Code. §§841(a)(1) and (b)(1).

Given the quantity of crack cocaine, the presentence report calculated that Moore‘s
sentencing range under the United States Sentencing Guidelines was 151 to 188
months. At sentencing, Moore asked the District Court to impose a below-
Guidelines sentence in light of our decision in United States v. Booker, 543 U. S.
220 (2005), and the Guidelines‘ disparate treatment of similar amounts of crack
and powder cocaine.

The District Court refused, saying: ―With regard to the crack and powder cocaine
difference, that is the law. I‘m applying the law as it currently stands. If that is
going to be changed, that is a congressional matter. Congress is the one who looks
at the guidelines and decides whether or not they should be put in—in force. . . . It
isn‘t the judges. It‘s the lawmakers, and I have taken an oath to apply the law, and
that‘s what I will do in this sentencing.‖ App. C to Pet. for Cert. 55–56.
The District Court sentenced Moore to 188 months of imprisonment and six years
of supervised release.
Moore appealed, and the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit
affirmed his conviction and sentence. United States v. Moore, 470 F. 3d 767
(2006). In response to his claim that the District Court should have considered the
crack/powder disparity, the peals held that ―the district court was correct in
concluding that ‗neither Booker nor [18 U. S. C.] §3553(a) authorizes district
courts to reject‘ the powder cocaine to crack cocaine quantity ratio [which is]
mandated by Congress and [which is] reflected in the Guidelines.‖ Id., at 770
(quoting United States v. Spears, 469 F. 3d 1166, 1176 (CA8 2006) (en banc)).
Moore filed a petition for certiorari with this Court. Pet. for Cert. in Moore v.
United States, No. 06–9749.
While Moore‘s certiorari petition was pending, this Court issued its opinion in
Kimbrough v. United States, 552 U. S. ___ (2007), concluding that a judge ―may
consider the disparity between the Guidelines‘ treatment of crack and powder
cocaine offenses‖ when applying 18 U. S. C. §3553(a), ―even in a mine-run case.‖
Id., at ___, ___ (slip op., at 2, 21).

We granted Moore‘s petition, vacated the judgment, and remanded the case to the
Eighth Circuit for further consideration in light of Kimbrough. Moore v. United
States, 552 U. S. ___ (2008).
On remand, without new briefing, the Eighth Circuit affirmed again. 518 F. 3d 577
(2008). This time, the Court of Appeals concluded that ―[a]s there was then no
circuit authority to the contrary of the discretion exercised by some judges, we
presume the district court was aware that Booker granted it discretion to vary
downward based upon the impact of the crack cocaine guidelines on this
defendant, but elected not to exercise that discretion.‖ Id., at 580.
Proceeding pro se, Moore again petitioned for certiorari , arguing that the Eighth
Circuit‘s new characterization of the transcript is wrong, and that it is ―clear that
the district court thought judges had no discre[t]ion to reject‖ the Guidelines ratio.
Pet. for Cert. 7. The United States agrees that the Eighth Circuit erred, see Brief for
United States 9, and so do we.

When the District Court said that ―[i]t isn‘t the judges‖ but Congress that ―looks at
the [G]uidelines and decides whether or not they should be put . . . in force,‖ the
showed that it did not think it had the discretion later upheld by Kimbrough. App.
C to Pet. for Cert. 56. The Eighth Circuit‘s first decision recognized this,
describing the District Court as ―concluding‖ (correctly under circuit precedent)
that it was not ―authorize[d] . . . to reject‖ the crack/powder disparity. Moore, 470
F. 3d, at 770 (internal quotation marks omitted). In light of the District Court‘s
comments at sentencing, the Court of Appeals should have remanded the case to
the District Court for re-sentencing under Kimbrough. We express no views on
how the District Court should exercise its discretion at resentencing.

The petition for certiorari and the motion for leave to proceed in forma pauperis
are granted. The judgment of the Court of Appeals is reversed, and the case is
remanded for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.

‫رمٍُ حٌّلىّش‬

‫ش‬١‫ى‬٠َِ٤‫خص حٌّظليس ح‬٠٨ٌٍٛ ‫خ‬١ٍ‫حٌّلىّش حٌؼ‬

ٍِٛ ‫ه‬٠َ٠‫ّْ ا‬١‫ ؿ‬:ِ١ٌّّ‫ح‬

‫ش‬١‫ى‬٠َِ٤‫خص حٌّظليس ح‬٠٨ٌٛ‫ ح‬:ٖ‫ي‬ٟ ِ١ٌّّ‫ح‬

‫ٓظجٕخف‬٨‫ش ر٘ؤْ لَحٍ ِلىّش ح‬١‫ى‬٠َِ٤‫خص حٌّظليس ح‬٠٨ٌٍٛ ‫خ‬١ٍ‫ حٌّلىّش حٌؼ‬ٜ‫ِ حٌّميَ ٌي‬١١ّ‫ٍذ حٌظ‬١ ‫ي‬ٛ‫ك‬
‫ٌٍيحثَس حٌؼخِٕش‬

2008/10/14 ًٜ‫ ف‬.10689-07 ُ‫ٍل‬

841 ‫ؾ هالكخ ألكٌخّ حُٔخىس‬٣َٝ‫ي حُظ‬ٜ‫ٖ حُوخّ رو‬٤٣‫ًخ‬ٌُٞ‫خُس ح‬٤‫ش ك‬٣‫ٍ رـ٘خ‬ٞٓ ‫ي‬٣َ٣‫ْ ا‬٤ٔ‫ٖ ؿ‬٣‫ أى‬-‫روِْ حُٔلٌٔش‬
.‫ش‬٤ٌ٣َٓ‫خص حُٔظليس حأل‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫ٖ ح‬٤ٗ‫ح‬ٞ‫ػش ه‬ٞٔ‫ ٖٓ ٓـ‬21 َٜ‫) ٖٓ حُل‬1()‫(د‬ٝ )1()‫خ (أ‬ٜ٤‫رلوَط‬

٢‫ٍ ك‬ٞٓ ‫ش‬٤٠‫ ه‬٠ِ‫ن ػ‬٤‫حؿذ حُظطز‬ٝ ٌْ‫ ٗطخم حُل‬٢ٟ‫ حكظٔذ حُوخ‬،‫ّ٘غ‬ُٜٔ‫ٖ ح‬٤٣‫ًخ‬ٌُٞ‫ش ح‬٤ًٔ ٍ‫ٓغ حألهٌ رخالػظزخ‬
ْ‫ كز‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬ٚ٘٣ ١ٌُ‫ ح‬،‫ش‬٤ٌ٣َٓ‫خص حُٔظليس حأل‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫ ح‬٢‫ؿذ اٍٗخىحص حُلٌْ ك‬ٞٔ‫َ ٓخ هزَ حُ٘طن رخُلٌْ ر‬٣َ‫طو‬
‫ حُٔلٌٔش‬٠ُ‫ٍ ا‬ٞٓ ‫ِذ‬١ ،ٌْ‫ػ٘ي حُ٘طن رخُل‬ٝ .‫َح‬ٜٗ 188 ٝ 151 ٖ٤‫ف ر‬ٝ‫ش ٓيس طظَح‬٤٠‫ حُو‬ٌٙٛ َ‫ ٓؼ‬٢‫حُٔيحٕ ك‬
٢‫ء هَحٍٗخ ك‬ٟٞ ٠ِ‫ًُي ػ‬ٝ ‫ رخإلٍٗخىحص‬ٚ٤ِ‫ ػ‬ُٜٙٞ٘ٔ‫ ح‬٠ٗ‫ كٌٔخ أهَ ٖٓ حُلي حألى‬ٚ٤ِ‫ ػ‬َٝ‫ش إٔ طل‬٤ٔ٤ِ‫حإله‬
‫ش‬ٜ‫خص حُٔظ٘خر‬٤ٌُِٔ ‫ش‬٤ِٟ‫ء حُٔؼخِٓش حُظلخ‬ٟٞ ٠ِ‫ًٌُي ػ‬ٝ )ًَٞ‫ي ر‬ٟ ‫ش‬٤ٌ٣َٓ‫خص حُٔظليس حأل‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫ش (ح‬٤٠‫ه‬
.ّ‫ٖ حُوخ‬٤٣‫ًخ‬ٌُٞ‫ح‬ٝ ‫٘غ‬ُٜٔ‫ٖ ح‬٤٣‫ًخ‬ٌُِٞ

ّ ّ‫اال‬
،‫٘غ‬ُٜٔ‫ٖ ح‬٤٣‫ًخ‬ٌُٞ‫ح‬ٝ ّ‫ٖ حُوخ‬٤٣‫ًخ‬ٌُٞ‫ٖ ح‬٤‫ حُلَم ر‬ٚ‫و‬٣ ‫ٔخ‬٤‫ “ك‬:‫ض حُطِذ هخثِش‬٠‫ش ٍك‬٤ٔ٤ِ‫إٔ حُٔلٌٔش حإله‬
َٕٞٛٓ َٓ‫ أ‬ٜٞ‫ ك‬َٙ٤٤‫ش طـ‬٤٠‫ أٓخ ه‬.ٕ٥‫ هخثْ ح‬ٞٛ ‫ٕ ًٔخ‬ٞٗ‫زن حُوخ‬١‫ أ‬٢٘ٗ‫ ا‬.ٕٞٗ‫ حُوخ‬ٞٛ ‫ٌح‬ٜ‫ك‬

‫رخٌُ‪ٗٞ‬ـَّ‪ .‬كخٌُ‪ٗٞ‬ـَّ ‪ ٞٛ‬حٌُ‪٘٣ ١‬ظَ ك‪ ٢‬حإلٍٗخىحص ‪٣ٝ‬وٍَ ٓخ اًح ًخٕ ٓ‪٠٤‬ؼ‪ٜ‬خ ك‪ ِ٤‬حُ٘لخً أّ ال‪ْ٤ُٝ… .‬‬
‫ًُي ٗؤٕ حُو‪٠‬خس رَ ‪ٗ ٞٛ‬ؤٕ حَُٔ٘ػ‪ُٝ .ٖ٤‬وي أى‪٣‬ض هٔٔخ إٔ أ‪١‬زن حُوخٗ‪ٌٛٝ ٕٞ‬ح ٓخ ٓ‪ٞ‬ف أكؼَ ك‪ٌٛ ٢‬ح‬
‫حُلٌْ‪( ”.‬حُِٔلن ؽ ُطِذ حُظٔ‪ٌٌٛٝ .)56-55 ِ٤٤‬ح‪ ،‬كٌٔض حُٔلٌٔش حإلهِ‪٤ٔ٤‬ش ػِ‪ ٍٞٓ ٠‬رخُلزْ ‪188‬‬
‫ٗ‪َٜ‬ح ‪ٝ‬اه‪٠‬خػ‪ُٔ ٚ‬ض ٓ٘‪ٞ‬حص ٖٓ حَُهخرش‪.‬‬

‫ُْ ‪ ٍٞٓ َٝ٣‬رخُوَحٍ كخٓظؤٗق حُلٌْ ُي‪ٓ ٟ‬لٌٔش حالٓظج٘خف ك‪ ٢‬حُ‪ٞ‬ال‪٣‬خص حُٔظليس حألَٓ‪٤ٌ٣‬ش ُِيحثَس حُؼخٓ٘ش‬
‫حُظ‪ ٢‬أًيص ػِ‪ ٠‬حإلىحٗش ‪ٝ‬حُلٌْ‪( .‬حُ‪ٞ‬ال‪٣‬خص حُٔظليس ‪ٟ‬ي ٓ‪ٍٝ .)ٍٞ‬ىح ػِ‪ ٠‬حىػخث‪ ٚ‬إٔ حُٔلٌٔش حإلهِ‪٤ٔ٤‬ش ًخٕ‬
‫ػِ‪ٜ٤‬خ إٔ طؤهٌ رخالػظزخٍ حُظلخ‪ٝ‬ص ر‪ ٖ٤‬حٌُ‪ًٞ‬خ‪ ٖ٤٣‬حُٔ‪ّٜ٘‬غ ‪ٝ‬حُوخّ‪ ،‬هخُض حُٔلٌٔش “أ‪ٛ‬خرض حُٔلٌٔش حإلهِ‪٤ٔ٤‬ش ك‪٢‬‬
‫حٓظ٘ظخؽ إٔ‪ :‬ال ه‪٤٠‬ش ر‪ٝ ًَٞ‬ال حُٔخىس ‪(3553‬أ) ٖٓ ٓـٔ‪ٞ‬ػش ه‪ٞ‬حٗ‪ ٖ٤‬حُ‪ٞ‬ال‪٣‬خص حُٔظليس‪ ،‬حُل‪ ،18 َٜ‬طو‪ٍٞ‬‬
‫حُٔلٌٔش حإلهِ‪٤ٔ٤‬ش رَك‪ٔٗ ٞ‬زش ًٔ‪٤‬ش حٌُ‪ًٞ‬خ‪ ٖ٤٣‬حُوخّ اُ‪ ٠‬حٌُ‪ًٞ‬خ‪ ٖ٤٣‬حُٔ‪ٜ٘‬غ حُظ‪ ٚٗ ٢‬ػِ‪ٜ٤‬خ حٌُ‪ٗٞ‬ـَّ‬
‫‪ٝ‬حُٔظزؼش ك‪ ٢‬حإلٍٗخىحص‪”.‬‬

‫‪ٝ‬ر‪ٔ٘٤‬خ ًخٕ ‪ِ١‬ذ حُظٔ‪ ِ٤٤‬حٌُ‪ ١‬طويّ ر‪ٓ ٍٞٓ ٚ‬خ ُحٍ ه‪٤‬ي حُيٍحٓش‪ ،‬أ‪ٛ‬يٍص ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حُٔلٌٔش ٍأ‪ٜ٣‬خ ك‪ ٢‬ه‪٤٠‬ش ًٔزَ‪ٝ‬‬
‫‪ٟ‬ي حُ‪ٞ‬ال‪٣‬خص حُٔظليس ٓٔظوِ‪ٜ‬ش أٗ‪٣“ ٚ‬ـ‪ُِ ُٞ‬وخ‪ ٢ٟ‬إٔ ‪٣‬ؤهٌ رؼ‪ ٖ٤‬حالػظزخٍ حُلَم ر‪ٓ ٖ٤‬ؼخِٓش حإلٍٗخىحص‬
‫ُـَحثْ حٌُ‪ٞ‬حً‪ ٖ٤٤‬حُوخّ ‪ٝ‬حُٔ‪ٜ٘‬غ” ػ٘ي ططز‪٤‬ن حُٔخىس ‪(3553‬أ) ٖٓ حُل‪ُٔ 18 َٜ‬ـٔ‪ٞ‬ػش ه‪ٞ‬حٗ‪ ٖ٤‬حُ‪ٞ‬ال‪٣‬خص‬
‫حُٔظليس حألَٓ‪٤ٌ٣‬ش “كظ‪ ٠‬ك‪ ٢‬حُو‪٠‬خ‪٣‬خ حُؼخى‪٣‬ش”‪.‬‬

‫‪ٝ‬رٌُي هزِ٘خ ‪ِ١‬ذ حُظٔ‪ ِ٤٤‬حُٔويّ ٖٓ ٓ‪ٍٝ ٍٞ‬ىىٗخ حُوَحٍ حُٔٔ‪ٟٞٞٓ ِ٤‬ػخ ُِيحثَس حُؼخٓ٘ش ُظؼ‪٤‬ي حُ٘ظَ ك‪ ٚ٤‬ػِ‪٠‬‬
‫‪ٟٞ‬ء ه‪٤٠‬ش ًٔزَ‪ٝ .ٝ‬ػ٘ي اػخىس حُ٘ظَ ك‪ ٢‬حُلٌْ ‪ٝ‬ى‪َٓ ٕٝ‬حكؼخص ؿي‪٣‬يس‪ ،‬أًيص حُيحثَس حُؼخٓ٘ش ػِ‪ ٠‬حُلٌْ‬
‫ٓـيىح ‪ٝ‬ك‪ ٌٙٛ ٢‬حَُٔس هخُض حُٔلٌٔش‪ُ“ :‬ؼيّ ‪ٛ‬ي‪ ٍٝ‬أ‪ٓ ١‬ؼخٍ‪ٟ‬ش ك‪ًُ ٢‬ي حُل‪ ٖٓ ٖ٤‬حُيحثَس حُؼخٓ٘ش [أ‪١‬‬
‫رو‪ ٜٙٞ‬حُوَحٍحص حُظ‪ٓ ٢‬خٍّ ك‪ٜ٤‬خ حُو‪٠‬خس حالؿظ‪ٜ‬خى ‪ٝ‬حُِٔطش حُظوي‪٣َ٣‬ش]‪ ،‬كبٗ٘خ ٗلظَ‪َّ ٝ‬‬
‫إٔ حُٔلٌٔش حإلهِ‪٤ٔ٤‬ش‬
‫ًخٗض طيٍى إٔ ه‪٤٠‬ش ر‪٘ٓ ًَٞ‬لظ‪ٜ‬خ حُِٔطش حُظوي‪٣َ٣‬ش ك‪ ٢‬حُِ٘‪ ٍٝ‬ػٖ حُلي حألىٗ‪ُِ ٠‬لٌْ ‪ٝ‬كوخ ألػَ اٍٗخىحص‬
‫حٌُ‪ًٞ‬خ‪ ٖ٤٣‬حُٔ‪ٜ٘‬غ ػِ‪ ٠‬حُٔيػ‪ ٠‬ػِ‪ٌُٜ٘ ،ٚ٤‬خ ٓغ ًُي حهظخٍص ػيّ ٓٔخٍٓش ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حُِٔطش حُظوي‪٣َ٣‬ش‪”.‬‬

‫اػَ ًُي‪ ،‬طَحكغ ٓ‪ ٍٞ‬ػٖ ٗلٔ‪ ٚ‬ى‪ٓ ٕٝ‬لخّ ‪ٝ‬هيّ ٓـيىح ‪ِ١‬زخ ُظٔ‪ ِ٤٤‬حُوَحٍ هخثال إ ط٘و‪ ٚ٤‬حُيحثَس حُؼخٓ٘ش‬
‫حُـي‪٣‬ي ُٔل‪ َ٠‬حُٔلٌٔش حإلهِ‪٤ٔ٤‬ش هخ‪١‬ت (‪ٞ٘٣‬ر‪ ٚ‬حُو‪ٝ )ٍٜٞ‬أٗ‪ً ٚ‬خٕ ٖٓ حُ‪ٞ‬ح‪ٟ‬ق ّ‬
‫إٔ “حُٔلٌٔش حإلهِ‪٤ٔ٤‬ش ظ٘ض‬
‫ألص حُو‪٠‬خس ال ‪٣‬ظٔظؼ‪ ٕٞ‬رلن ٓٔخٍٓش حُِٔطش حُظوي‪٣َ٣‬ش َُك‪ ”ٞ‬حُ٘ٔزش حُٔليىس ك‪ ٢‬حإلٍٗخىحص‪ .‬ط‪ٞ‬حكن‬
‫حُ‪ٞ‬ال‪٣‬خص حُٔظليس ػِ‪ ٠‬إٔ حُيحثَس حُؼخٓ٘ش هي ؿخٗذ حُ‪ٜٞ‬حد ‪ٗٝ‬لٖ َٗ‪ًُ ٟ‬ي أ‪٠٣‬خ‪.‬‬

‫ػ٘يٓخ هخُض حُٔلٌٔش حإلهِ‪٤ٔ٤‬ش ” كخٌُ‪ٗٞ‬ـَّ ‪ ٞٛ‬حٌُ‪٘٣ ١‬ظَ ك‪ ٢‬حإلٍٗخىحص ‪٣ٝ‬وٍَ ٓخ اًح ًخٕ ٓ‪٠٤‬ؼ‪ٜ‬خ ك‪ِ٤‬‬
‫حُ٘لخً أّ ال‪ًُ ْ٤ُٝ… .‬ي ٗؤٕ حُو‪٠‬خس رَ ‪ٗ ٞٛ‬ؤٕ حَُٔ٘ػ‪ ”ٖ٤‬كبٗ‪ٜ‬خ رٌُي طُظ‪ َٜ‬أٗ‪ٜ‬خ ُْ طٌٖ طؼظوي أٗ‪ٜ‬خ طظٔظغ‬
‫رخُِٔطش حُظوي‪٣َ٣‬ش حُظ‪ٍٓٞٓ ٢‬ض ك‪ ٢‬كظَس الكوش ك‪ ٢‬ه‪٤٠‬ش ً‪ٔ٤‬زَ‪ٝ .ٝ‬هي أهَص حُيحثَس حُؼخٓ٘ش ًُي ك‪ ٢‬هَحٍ‪ٛ‬خ‬
‫حأل‪ٝ ٍٝ‬ح‪ٛ‬لش “حُٔلٌٔش حإلهِ‪٤ٔ٤‬ش ػِ‪ ٠‬أٗ‪ٜ‬خ حٓظ٘ظـض (‪ٝ‬أ‪ٛ‬خرض ك‪ ٢‬حٓظ٘ظخؿ‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٝ‬كوخ ُِٔخروش حُو‪٠‬خث‪٤‬ش ُِيحثَس‬
‫حُؼخٓ٘ش) أٗ‪ٜ‬خ ُْ طٌٖ “ٓو‪ُٞ‬ش …َُك‪ ”ٞ‬حُظلخ‪ٝ‬ص ر‪ ٖ٤‬حٌُ‪ًٞ‬خ‪ ٖ٤٣‬حُٔ‪ٜ٘‬غ ‪ٝ‬حٌُ‪ًٞ‬خ‪ ٖ٤٣‬حُوخّ‪ٝ .‬ػِ‪ٟٞ ٠‬ء‬
‫طؼِ‪٤‬وخص حُٔلٌٔش حإلهِ‪٤ٔ٤‬ش ػ٘ي حُ٘طن رخُلٌْ ًخٕ ػِ‪ٓ ٠‬لٌٔش حالٓظج٘خف إٔ طَى حُو‪٤٠‬ش اُ‪ ٠‬حُٔلٌٔش حإلهِ‪٤ٔ٤‬ش‬
‫إلػخىس حُلٌْ ػِ‪ٟٞ ٠‬ء ه‪٤٠‬ش ً‪ٔ٤‬زَ‪ٗٝ .ٝ‬لٖ ال ٗزي‪ ١‬أ‪ٝ ١‬ؿ‪ٜ‬ش ٗظَ ك‪٤ً ٍٞ‬ل‪٤‬ش ٓٔخٍٓش حُٔلٌٔش حإلهِ‪٤ٔ٤‬ش‬
‫ُِٔطظ‪ٜ‬خ حُظوي‪٣َ٣‬ش ػ٘ي اػخىس حُلٌْ‪.‬‬

‫ٌُُي هٍَٗخ هز‪ِ١ ٍٞ‬ذ حُظٔ‪ٍٝ ِ٤٤‬ى حُوَحٍ حُٔٔ‪ٟٞٞٓ ِ٤‬ػخ ‪ًٌُٝ‬ي هٍَٗخ هز‪ِ١ ٍٞ‬ذ ٓ‪ ٍٞ‬رظؤؿ‪ َ٤‬ىكغ‬
‫حَُٓ‪٣ .ّٞ‬لٔن حُوَحٍ حُٔٔ‪ٟٞٞٓ ِ٤‬ػخ ‪٣ٝ‬ؼخى اُ‪ ٠‬حُيحثَس حُؼخٓ٘ش إلػخىس حُ٘ظَ ك‪ ٚ٤‬رٔخ ‪ٔ٘٣‬ـْ ٓغ ‪ٌٛ‬ح حَُأ‪.١‬‬

ٟٓ‫خ‬١ٓ-ٟ‫لف‬ٛ( ‫ًؽ طَؿّش‬ّٛٔ)

Into English ‫ش‬٤‫ٖٓ حُؼَر‬

Along the lines of the consistent and ١ٌُ‫ق ح‬ٟ‫ح‬ُٞ‫ح‬ٝ ‫ حُؼخرض‬٢ٓٞ‫ؾ حُو‬ُٜ٘‫خٍ ح‬١‫ ا‬٢‫ك‬
clear approach drawn by the ‫ُش‬ٝ‫ش ٌٓ٘ حٕ هخٓض حُي‬٤ٔٗ‫خ‬ُٜ‫خىس ح‬٤‫ حُو‬ٚ‫حهظطظ‬
Hashemites upon the foundation of َٓ‫ٖ كخ‬٤ٔ‫ رٖ حُل‬٢ٗ‫ش ًخٕ ػزيهللا حُؼخ‬٤ٗ‫حالٍى‬
the Jordanian state, King Abdullah II ‫ هٔش‬٢‫خ ك‬ٜ‫ذ هخىط‬١‫وخ‬٣ ٞٛٝ ‫ٍٓخُش حالٓش رلن‬
demonstrated that he was a truthful ‫ي‬٤‫ق رؼ‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝ ٕٞٔ٠ٔ‫ر‬ٝ ‫كش رِـش ٓزخَٗس‬ٝ‫حُي‬
bearer of the Nation‘s Message when ‫ حُٔٔظـيحص‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬٢‫ػ‬ٞ‫ر‬ٝ ‫يحف‬ٛ‫حال‬ٝ ٢ٓ‫حَُٔح‬
addressing the Doha Summit. Not ‫خص‬٣‫ش حُظلي‬ٜ‫حؿ‬ُٞٔ ‫ف‬َٝ‫ حُل‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬١‫ؼخ حُ٘وخ‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝ
only was his speech straightforward, ٠ِ‫ًُي ػ‬ٝ ٢ٓٞ‫يى حالٖٓ حُو‬ٜ‫ ط‬٢‫الص حُظ‬ٞ‫حُظل‬ٝ
clear and insightful, but it also ‫كيس ُِظؼخَٓ ٓغ‬ٞٓ ‫ش‬٤‫ـ‬٤‫ش حٓظَحط‬٣‫أٓخّ (ر٘خء ٍإ‬
showed awareness of current ‫خُل٘خ‬ٜٓ ‫ش‬٣‫ش ُلٔخ‬٤ِ‫حُٔٔظوز‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤ُ‫حُٔٔظـيحص حُلخ‬
developments putting record straight ).‫ حالكيحع‬٢‫َ حُلخػَ ك‬٤‫ حُظؤػ‬٠ِ‫هيٍحط٘خ ػ‬ٝ
in an (faithful) endeavor to face up
the challenges and changes that pose
a threat to the national security on the
basis of ―building a unified (Pan-
Arab) strategic vision to address
current and prospective
developments and our ability to be
effective players on the world arena.‖
in the context of.…‫خٍ ًٌح‬١‫ ا‬٢‫ك‬

‫ؾ‬ُٜ٘‫ ٓغ ح‬٠ٗ‫ظٔخ‬٣ ‫ؾ= رٔخ‬ُِٜ٘ ‫كوخ‬ٝ =‫ؾ‬ُٜ٘‫خٍ ح‬١‫ ا‬٢‫ك‬ approach ‫ؾ‬ٜٗ

……Along the lines of

which was drawn by =ٚ‫ حهظطظ‬clear ‫ق‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝ consistent ‫ػخرض‬

establishment/foundation :‫ُش‬ٝ‫خّ حُي‬٤‫ه‬

he demonstrated that he was a =‫ كخَٓ ٍٓخُش‬ٚٗ‫ أ‬٢ٛٝ ‫وش‬٤‫َ كو‬ٜ‫ أظ‬:‫ًخٕ كخَٓ ٍٓخُش‬
.…bearer of

when addressing the Doha Summit ‫كش‬ٝ‫ هٔش حُي‬٢‫خ ك‬ٜ‫ذ هخىط‬١‫وخ‬٣ ٞٛٝ

straightforward = ‫أٓخٗش‬ٝ ‫يم‬ٛ =ّ‫ حٌُال‬٢‫ال هيحع ك‬ٝ ‫٘خص‬٤ٔ٠‫ال ط‬ٝ ‫لخص‬٤ِٔ‫ٓزخَٗس = ال ط‬

clear ‫ق‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝ = ‫ق‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝ ٕٞٔ٠ٓ

enlightened = insightful =َ٤ُ٘‫ ح‬ِٚ‫ٔظَ٘ف حُٔٔظوزَ رؼو‬٣ ١ٌُ‫ = ح‬٢ٓ‫ي حَُٔح‬٤‫رؼ‬

developments = ‫حُٔٔظـيحص‬

putting record straight =‫خ‬ٜ‫خر‬ٜٗ ٢‫ٍ ك‬ٞٓ‫ؼخ حأل‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝ = ‫ف‬َٝ‫ حُل‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬١‫ؼخ ٗوخ‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝ

face up challenges ‫خص‬٣‫ حُظلي‬ٚ‫حؿ‬ٞ٣

changes ‫الص‬ٞ‫طل‬

main turning points/ detours = ‫ٔش‬٤‫الص ٍث‬ٞ‫طل‬

threaten/ pose threat on ‫يى‬ٜ٣

vision ‫ش‬٣‫ٍإ‬

to address ‫ُِظؼخَٓ ٓغ‬

according to his vision = ‫خ‬ٜ‫ؼ‬ٟٝ ٢‫ش حُظ‬٣‫ حَُإ‬٠ِ‫ر٘خء ػ‬

according to the plan he envisaged =‫خ‬ٛ‫ حٍطآ‬٢‫ حُظ‬٠‫ حُوط‬٠ِ‫ر٘خء ػ‬

interests ‫خُق‬ٜٓ

our good ‫خُل٘خ‬ٛٝ ‫ظلن‬٣ ‫ٓغ ٓخ‬

.You know your own good ‫ِلظي‬ٜٓ ‫أٗض طؼَف‬

ٖ٤ِ‫ٖ كخػ‬٤‫ٕ الػز‬ٌٞٗ ٕ‫ أ‬٠ِ‫َ حُلخػَ = هيٍحط٘خ ػ‬٤‫ حُظؤػ‬٠ِ‫هيٍحط٘خ ػ‬

Our ability to be effective players

vis-à-vis world events )‫ش‬٤ُٔ‫ حألكيحع (حُؼخ‬٢‫ك‬

But one main requirement of this ‫خ حُِٔي‬ٛ‫َح‬٣ ‫ش ًٔخ‬٤‫ـ‬٤‫ حالٓظَحط‬ٌٙٛ ‫ٍ ٓظطِزخص‬ٝ‫أ‬ٝ
strategy, as His Majesty envisages, is ‫ُ حُوالكخص‬ٝ‫طـخ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤‫حء حُؼَر‬ٞ‫ش حالؿ‬٤‫حٓظٌٔخٍ ط٘و‬
to pursue the clearing up of the Arab ٖٓ‫خ‬٠‫ِ ٓزيأ حُظ‬٣ِ‫طؼ‬ٝ ‫ى‬ٜٞ‫حُـ‬ٝ ‫حهق‬ُٞٔ‫ي ح‬٤‫ك‬ٞ‫ط‬ٝ
atmosphere, settle all differences, ‫ْ ٗؼخٍح‬٤ُ ٖٓ‫خ‬٠‫ٌح حُظ‬ٛ ٕ‫ ح‬٠ِ‫ ٓئًيح ػ‬٢‫حُؼَر‬
take up a unified stand, and boost ‫ حُؼالهخص‬٠ِ‫ّ ػ‬ٞ‫و‬٣ َٔ‫ػ‬ٝ َ‫ كؼ‬ٞٛ ‫اٗٔخ‬ٝ ‫َكغ‬٣
Arab solidarity, a principle that needs .‫ش‬٤ٔٓ‫حُٔئ‬
be not held as a hollow slogan but
turned into action based on
institutional relations.
This manifests the very attitude of ٚ٤‫ٓٔخػ‬ٝ ٚ‫ ًَ طلًَخط‬٢‫يٕ حُِٔي ك‬٣‫ ى‬ٞٛ ‫ٌح‬ٛٝ
His Majesty who has always been ٠ِ‫ش ػ٘يٗخ ىحثٔخ طظويّ ػ‬٤ٓٞ‫خ حُو‬٣‫خ‬٠‫ كخُو‬ٚ‫حط‬ٞ‫هط‬ٝ
keen in all his endeavors to give ِ٣ِ‫ طؼ‬٠ِ‫ ىحثٔخ ػ‬َٙ‫ل‬٣ٝ ١َ‫ هط‬ٞٛ ‫ًَ ٓخ‬
precedence to Pan-Arab concerns ‫خُق‬ُٜٔ‫لون ح‬٣ ‫ٕ رٔخ‬ٝ‫حُظؼخ‬ٝ ‫س‬ٞ‫َ حاله‬ٛ‫ح‬ٝ‫أ‬
over narrow national interests. That ْٓ‫أ‬ٝ ‫ٖٔ حطلخهخص‬ٟٝ ‫يحف حُٔ٘ظًَش‬ٛ‫حال‬ٝ
is why he is keen to improve ‫رٔخ‬ٝ ‫حُٔ٘خكغ حُٔظزخىُش‬ٝ ٕٝ‫َس طليى أْٓ حُظؼخ‬١‫ٓئ‬
brotherly ties and cooperation among ‫خ ػٖ ًَ حُوالكخص‬ٛ‫ي‬٤٤‫طل‬ٝ ‫ٓش‬ٞٔ٣‫ٌلَ حُي‬٣
Arab states but in a manner that ‫ش‬٣‫خى‬ٜ‫ حُٔـخالص حالهظ‬٢‫ش ك‬ٛ‫روخ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٤‫حُـخٗز‬
would serve common goals and ‫ي‬ُٜٔٔ‫ن ح‬٣َ‫ حُط‬٢ٛ ٢‫حُظ‬ٝ ‫غ حُٔ٘ظًَش‬٣ٍ‫حُٔ٘خ‬ٝ
interests that must be well governed .‫كيس‬ُِٞ
by rationalized agreements and rules
that make these ties sustainable and
neutral from any marginal
differences particularly in the
economic domain and joint
projects. And, this is what paves the
way to unity.
endeavors ٢‫ ٓٔخػ‬movements ‫ طلًَخص‬attitude ٕ‫ي‬٣‫ى‬

take precedence on ٠ِ‫طظويّ ػ‬ concerns ‫خ‬٣‫خ‬٠‫ ه‬Pan-Arab ‫ش‬٤ٓٞ‫خ ه‬٣‫خ‬٠‫ه‬

‫ش‬٣ٞ‫َ أه‬ٛ‫ح‬ٝ‫س = أ‬ٞ‫َ حأله‬ٛ‫ح‬ٝ‫ أ‬boosting ِ٣ِ‫طؼ‬ country-wide ١َ‫هط‬

interests ‫خُق‬ٜٓ achieve ‫لون‬٣ cooperation ٕٝ‫طؼخ‬ Brotherly ties

frameworks ‫َس‬١‫ أْٓ ٓئ‬agreements ‫حطلخهخص‬ common ‫ ٓ٘ظًَش‬goals ‫يحف‬ٛ‫أ‬

mutual ‫ٓظزخىُش‬ benefits ‫ٓ٘خكغ‬ principles ْٓ‫ أ‬shape ‫طليى‬

sideline ‫ش‬٤‫ؿخٗز‬ neutralizing it ‫خ‬ٛ‫ي‬٤٤‫طل‬ sustainability ‫ٓش‬ٞٔ٣‫ى‬

projects ‫غ‬٣ٍ‫ ٓ٘خ‬economic domain ‫ش‬٣‫خى‬ٜ‫ٓـخالص حهظ‬ particularly ‫ش‬ٛ‫روخ‬

that paves the way to ‫ي‬ٜٔٓ prelude to ‫ي‬٤ٜٔ‫ط‬

unity ‫كيس‬ٝ precursor َ‫ء آه‬٢ٗ ‫ع‬ٝ‫ كي‬٠ُ‫ ا‬١‫ئى‬٣ ٚ‫ػ‬ٝ‫ رلي‬١ٌُ‫ء ح‬٢ُ٘‫ح‬

norms ‫َس‬١‫حْٓ ٓئ‬

‫ئًي حُِٔي ٓـيىح‬٣ ‫ش‬٤٘٤‫ش حُلِٔط‬٤٠‫ حُو‬ٜٙٞ‫رو‬ٝ
‫ُش‬ٝ‫ حهخٓش حُي‬٠ُ‫ حُٔٔظ٘ي ح‬٢ٗ‫هق حالٍى‬ُٞٔ‫ح‬
‫ش‬٤٘٤‫ حُلِٔط‬ٍٝ‫ حال‬٠ِ‫ش حُٔٔظوِش ػ‬٤٘٤‫حُلِٔط‬
‫‪ٝ‬ػخ‪ٔٛ‬ظ‪ٜ‬خ حُويّ حَُ٘‪٣‬ق ‪ٝ‬رٔخ ‪ٖٔ٠٣‬‬
‫حالٗٔلخد ٖٓ ؿٔ‪٤‬غ حالٍح‪ ٢ٟ‬حُؼَر‪٤‬ش حُٔلظِش‬
‫ػخّ ‪ 1967‬رٔخ ك‪ٜ٤‬خ حُـ‪ٞ‬الٕ حُٔ‪ِٓٝ ١ٍٞ‬حٍع‬
‫ٗزؼخ ٓغ حُيػ‪ٞ‬س ُوطش ػَر‪٤‬ش ُلٔخ‪٣‬ش حُويّ‬
‫‪ٝ‬حُٔلخكظش ػِ‪٣ٞٛ ٠‬ظ‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٝ‬ػزخص أ‪ِٜٛ‬خ ك‪ٜ٤‬خ ‪٘ٛٝ ،‬خ‬
‫كبٕ حالٍىٕ ‪٣‬لَ‪ ٙ‬رخُؼَٔ ال رخُو‪ ٍٞ‬ػِ‪ ٠‬كٔخ‪٣‬ش‬
‫حُويّ ‪ٍٝ‬ػخ‪٣‬ش ٓويٓخط‪ٜ‬خ ‪٤ٛٝ‬خٗش ٓؼخُٔ‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٝ‬ىػْ‬
‫‪ٞٔٛ‬ى أ‪ِٜٛ‬خ‪.‬‬
‫‪٘ٓ ٖٓٝ‬طِن حالهال‪ُِ ٙ‬و‪٤٠‬ش حُلِٔط‪٤٘٤‬ش‬
‫‪ٝ‬حُلَ‪ ٙ‬ػِ‪ٝ ٠‬كيس حُ‪ٜ‬ق حُلِٔط‪٣ ٢٘٤‬لٌٍ‬
‫ؿالُظ‪ ٚ‬ر‪ٟٞٞ‬ف ٖٓ حٓظَٔحٍ حُظيهَ رخُ٘ؤٕ‬
‫حُلِٔط‪٣ٝ ٢٘٤‬يػ‪ُٞ ٞ‬كيس حُوَحٍ حُلِٔط‪ٝ ٢٘٤‬رٔخ‬
‫‪٣‬لَ٘ حُٔوططخص حالَٓحث‪٤ِ٤‬ش ُظٌَ‪ ْ٣‬حٗل‪ٜ‬خٍ‬
‫ؿِس ػٖ حُ‪٠‬لش حُـَر‪٤‬ش ؿـَحك‪٤‬خ ‪٤ٓٝ‬خٓ‪٤‬خ‪.‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬طزو‪ ٠‬حالٓظَحط‪٤‬ـ‪٤‬ش حُظ‪ٗ ٢‬خى‪ ٟ‬ر‪ٜ‬خ ؿالُش حُِٔي‬
‫طلظخؽ حُ‪ ٠‬ؿ‪ٜٞ‬ى ػَر‪٤‬ش ٌٓؼلش ‪ٝ‬ػَٔ ٓظ‪ٞ‬ح‪َٛ‬‬
‫ُظَٓ‪٤‬ن ٓؼخُٔ‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٟٝٝ‬غ أ‪َٛ١‬خ ك‪ ٢‬ظَ ٓظـ‪َ٤‬حص‬
‫ػخُٔ‪٤‬ش ٓظٔخٍػش ‪ٝ‬حُٔ‪ ْٜ‬إٔ ػزيهللا حُؼخٗ‪ ٢‬هي رِؾ‬
‫حَُٓخُش كخُِ‪ ْٜ‬اٗ‪ٜ‬ي‪.،‬‬

‫ حٌظَؿّش‬ٟ‫مخص ف‬١‫ططز‬

‫ّٔخًؽ ٌمطغ ِظَؿّش‬

The brain plays an immensely important role in the perception of pain.

Indians "Fakirs for instance sleep on beds of nails or apparently walk over
smouldering coals in their bare feet without apparently feeling anything.

‫ حَٓس‬ٍٝ‫ْ ػ‬ِٛ‫ٕخ‬٠ ‫ى‬ٌٕٛٙ‫خثفش حٌفمَحء ح‬١ : ‫ً حٌّؼخي‬١‫ ٓز‬ٍٝ‫ػ‬ٚ .ٌُ٤‫ حىٍحن ح‬ٟ‫٘خِخ ف‬ٚ ‫َح‬١‫ٍح وز‬ٚ‫ٍؼذ حٌّن ى‬٠
‫ء‬ٟٗ ٞ‫ٍ رؤ‬ٛ‫ْ حٌ٘ؼ‬ٚ‫ٗ ى‬١‫ُ حٌلخف‬ِٙ‫ق حٌـَّ رؤليح‬ٛ‫ْ ف‬ّٛ٘٠ ٚ‫َ ح‬١ِ‫ ِٓ ِٔخ‬.

Between September 1939 and September 1945 the world experienced a ―total
war " fought by countries that devoted their full human and material
resources to the complete destruction of their enemies.

.‫ي‬ٚ‫خ وخفش حٌي‬ٙ١‫رـ " كَد ٗخٍِٗ " كخٍرض ف‬1945 َ‫ ٓزظّز‬ٚ 1939 َ‫ٓ ٓزظّز‬١‫ حٌفظَٖ ِخ ر‬ٟ‫َِ حٌؼخٌُ ف‬
.٩ِ‫َح وخ‬١ِ‫ػيحء طي‬٤‫َ ح‬٠‫حٌطخلخص ٌظي‬ٚ ‫حٍى‬ٌّٛ‫لي ٓوَ ؿً ح‬ٚ

The human body can defend itself against hundreds of diseases. The body can
also repair itself after most small injuries. Many body parts, such as the heart
and kidneys, work continuously.

‫ وّخ‬.َٖ١‫غ‬ٌٜ‫ف ح‬َٚ‫ف ٔفٔٗ ِٓ حٌـ‬٩ٛ‫ّىٕٗ ح‬٠ ‫ وّخ‬,ٝ‫َِح‬٤‫َ حٌّجخص ِٓ ح‬ٚ‫مخ‬٠ ْ‫ ح‬َٞ٘‫غ حٌـٔي حٌز‬١‫ٔظط‬٠
. ٗ٠ٍ‫ربٓظَّح‬ٚ ٍٝ‫حٌى‬ٚ ‫خ وخٌمٍذ‬١ٌ‫خء حٌـُٔ ح‬٠‫َ ِٓ أػ‬١‫ؼًّ حٌىؼ‬٠

:ِٞ١ٍ‫ حٔـ‬ٌٝ‫ ح‬ٟ‫خى ) ِظَؿّٗ ِٓ ػَر‬ٜ‫لظ‬٨‫ًؽ ٌمطؼٗ( ػٓ ح‬ّٛٔ‫ح‬

ٓ٠‫ٍى‬ٛ‫َ حْ حٌّٔظ‬١‫ٗ غ‬١ٌّ‫ أِخَ ِٕظّش حٌظـخٍٖ حٌؼخ‬ٟ‫ى‬٠َِ‫ أ‬ٟ‫ْ ٍُحػ‬ٛٔ‫ع لخ‬َِٚ٘ ٟ‫خ رخٌطؼٓ ف‬١ٌ‫٘يىص حٓظَح‬
ٍ‫ أٓؼخ‬ٝ‫ حٔوفخ‬ٟٕ‫ؼ‬٠ ٗٔ٤ ‫ي ٔظَح‬٠‫ حٌـي‬ٟ‫ى‬٠َِ٤‫ْ ح‬ٛٔ‫ حٌيػُ ٌٍمخ‬ٞ‫ُ رؼ‬٠‫ٓ ٌظمي‬٠‫ح ِٔظؼي‬ٚ‫ٓ ري‬١٠ٛ١ٓ٢‫ح‬
‫َ حٌمّق‬٠‫ي‬ٜ‫ ط‬ٍٝ‫خص حٌّظليٖ ػ‬٠٨ٌٛ‫ح‬ٚ ‫خ‬١ٌ‫ٓ حٓظَح‬١‫ٗ ر‬٠ٍ‫خ‬ٟ ٗٔ‫ٍ ِٕخف‬ٚ‫طي‬ٚ. ‫خ‬ٙٔٚ‫ٍى‬ٛ‫ٔظ‬٠ ٟ‫حٌّٕظـخص حٌظ‬
. ٓ١١ٌ‫ٓظَح‬٤‫ حٌٔىَ ح‬ٍٞ‫ي‬ّٜ‫ ر‬ٟ‫ى‬٠َِ٤‫ْ ح‬ٛٔ‫ع حٌمخ‬َِٚ٘ َ٠٠ ْ‫ّىٓ ح‬٠ ‫ٗ وّخ‬٠ٛ١ٓ٤‫حق ح‬ٛٓ٥ٌ ٓ‫حٌمط‬ٚ
َّ‫ٔـ‬ٛ‫ حلَٖ حٌى‬ٌٌٞ‫ْ ح‬ٛٔ‫ع حٌمخ‬َِٚ٘ ‫ى‬٩‫ حٌز‬ٟ‫ٓ ف‬١‫ ٌٍِّحٍػ‬ٟٕ١ٌٛ‫طلخى ح‬٦‫ح‬ٚ ٗ١ٌ‫ٓظَح‬٤‫ِٗ ح‬ٛ‫حٔظميص حٌلى‬ٚ
ٍ٨ٚ‫خٍ ى‬١ٍِ 4,8 ٍ‫ٓ رّميح‬١‫خىس حٌيػُ حٌّميَ ٌٍِّحٍػ‬٠ِ‫ ر‬ٟ٠‫م‬٠ٚ َ‫ح‬ٛ‫ ٌّيس ٓظش أػ‬ٟٟ‫َ حٌـّؼٗ حٌّخ‬ٛ٠

Australia threatened to contest or (protest) against proposed American
Agricultural law at the International Trade Organization (ITO). However, the
Asians seemed willing to give some support for the American Law as it means a
reduction of the price of the goods they import. Moreover, theirs law may harm
the Australian sugar exporters, while a strong competition is taken place between
the Australians and the Americans over exporting wheat and cotton. Criticized
the law approved by the Congress last Friday and will last for six years. The law
will increase the annual support given to the farmers by 4, 8 Billions U.S.D.

:ٟ‫ ػَر‬ٌٝ‫ ح‬ِٞ١ٍ‫خٓش) ِظَؿّٗ ِٓ حٔـ‬١ٌٔ‫ًؽ ٌمطؼٗ (ػٓ ح‬ّٛٔ‫ح‬

The U.S. military in Iraq discovered two computer disks containing

photographs, evacuation plans and academic information from eight school
districts in six states. Government officials said the FBI has not found any link
to terrorism, and said there is no information including a plot against any
school in the United States.The material included exit strategies, school codes
of conduct, and information on creating a fearing environment, officials said.

The school districts mentioned in the material were notified in the past few
weeks so the would-be aware and could take any action they deemed
necessary. In some cases, they were asked not to make the information public
because it is classified.

‫ء‬٩‫ اه‬٢‫هط‬ٚ ٗ١ّ٠‫ِخص حوخى‬ٍٛ‫ ِؼ‬ٍٝ‫خْ ػ‬٠ٛ‫لظ‬٠ ٌٟ‫ كخٓذ آ‬َٟٛ‫ ل‬ٍٝ‫ش رخٌؼَحق ػ‬١‫ى‬٠َِ٤‫حص ح‬ٛ‫ػؼَص حٌم‬
‫ٍ٘خد‬٤‫ٍٗ ٌٌٌه رخ‬ٛ ٞ‫ٗ أ‬١ٌ‫يٍح‬١‫ٌُ طـي حٌّزخكغ حٌف‬ٚ .ٗ١‫ى‬٠َِ‫خص ح‬٠٨ٚ ‫ٗ رٔض‬١ٍٓ‫ك ِي‬١‫ٍ ٌؼّخْ ِٕخ‬ٛٛٚ
ٍ‫خى‬ٌّٜ‫َكض ح‬ٛ ‫خص حٌّظليٖ وّخ لي‬٠٨ٌٛ‫يف ِيحٍّ رخ‬ٙ‫ى ِئحَِٖ طٔظ‬ٛ‫ؿ‬ٚ ٌٝ‫َ ح‬١٘‫ِخص ط‬ٍٛ‫ ِؼ‬ٞ‫وّخ ٔفض أ‬
ّٗ‫ٓ ِٕظ‬١ٔ‫ح‬ٛ‫ل‬ٚ ٟٔ‫ؽ ِٓ حٌّزخ‬َٚ‫خص ٌٍو‬١‫ـ‬١‫ حٓظَحط‬ٍٝ‫خْ ػ‬٠ٛ‫لظ‬٠ ْ‫خ‬َٛ‫ي حْ حٌم‬ٚ‫َف ِٔئ‬ٛ ‫ وّخ‬.ٗ١ِٛ‫حٌلى‬
ٗ١ٟ‫غ حٌّخ‬١‫ٓخر‬٤‫ ح‬ٟ‫ٕٗ ف‬١‫طُ حهطخٍ حٌّيحٍّ حٌّؼ‬ٚ .‫ش‬١ّ١ٍ‫جش طؼ‬١‫ أ٘خء ر‬ٚ‫ـخى أ‬٠‫ِخص ػٓ ا‬ٍٛ‫ِؼ‬ٚ ‫ن‬ٌٍٍٛٔ
‫خ‬ٙ‫ظ‬٠ٌَٔ ‫ِخص‬ٍٛ‫ْ حٌّؼ‬٩‫ػيَ حػ‬ٚ ُِٕٙ ‫ٍذ‬١ ‫ص‬٨‫ حٌلخ‬ٞ‫ رؼ‬ٟ‫ف‬ٚ . َ١‫خ ِٓ طيحر‬٠ٍَٟٚ ٖ‫ طظوٌ ِخ طَح‬ٟ‫ًٌه و‬ٚ

ٟ‫ّىٓ ف‬٠ ‫غ‬١‫ ٓٓ حٌٔخرؼٗ رل‬ٌٝ‫ً حٌطفً ح‬ٜ٠ ‫ليع ًٌه ػٕيِخ‬٠ ,‫خ‬١‫ـ‬٠ٍ‫خَ طي‬١ٌٜ‫ ح‬ٍٝ‫ى ػ‬ٛ‫ظؼ‬٠ ً‫ف‬١ ‫ض‬١‫ وً ر‬ٟ‫ف‬
ْٛ‫ى‬٠ ٞ‫زق ِطخٌزخ رؤىحء حٌفَحث‬ٛ‫ح‬ٚ ‫ؽ‬ٍٛ‫ ٓٓ حٌز‬ٌٝ‫ً ح‬ٛٚ ‫ حًح ِخ‬ٝ‫ثً كظ‬٩‫خَ ل‬٠٤ َٜٛ٠ ْ‫ٓٓ حٌؼخِٕٗ ح‬
ٟ‫رخء ف‬٢‫ش ح‬١ٌٚ‫ ِٔئ‬ٟ٘ ‫طٍه‬ٚ ,َ‫ ِٓ وً ػخ‬٩ِ‫َح وخ‬ٙٗ َ‫ِٔخن ػٓ حٌطؼخ‬٦‫ٗ رخ‬١ٍ‫َ لخىٍح ػ‬ٌٜٛ‫ ح‬ٍٝ‫ِؼظخىح ػ‬
‫ليػٕخ‬٠ ‫ع‬ٌّٟٛٛ‫ي ٌ٘ح ح‬ٛ‫ك‬ٚ, َ‫خ‬١ٌٜ‫رٕخء حػٕخء فظَس ح‬٥ٌ ٍِٗ‫ش حٌىخ‬١‫ل‬ٌٜ‫ حْ طظُ حٌّظخرؼش ح‬ٍٝ‫ ػ‬,‫رٕخء‬٤‫خَ ح‬١ٛ

ً‫زيأ حٌطف‬٠ ‫ ػٕيِخ‬:‫ي‬ٛ‫م‬١‫ٓ ّْٗ ف‬١‫ش حٌطذ رـخِؼش ػ‬١ٍ‫ رى‬ّٟ٠ٌٙ‫خُ ح‬ٙ‫خد كٔٓ ٔ٘ؤص أٓظخً حٌـ‬ٙ٠‫ٍ ا‬ٛ‫حٌيوظ‬
‫ش‬١ّ‫خىس و‬٠ِ‫ًٌه ر‬ٚ .ّٗٔ‫رٗ ٌلخؿش ؿ‬ٍٛ‫ٗ حٌّط‬١ّ‫رخٌى‬ٚ ٗ‫ش غٌحث‬١‫ػ‬ٕٛ‫حٌيحٖ ر‬ٚ ُ‫ظ‬ٙ٠ ْ‫ـذ ح‬٠ َ‫خ‬١ٌٜ‫ طؼٍُ ح‬ٟ‫ف‬
ٗ١ٔ‫ف حٌّؼي‬٩ِ٤‫ح‬ٚ ‫ٕخص‬١ِ‫ظخ‬١‫ٗ ِٓ حٌف‬١ّ‫ِٕلٗ و‬ٚ ,ْ‫ِٕظـخص حٌزخ‬ٚ ٞ١‫ر‬ٚ ‫ي‬ٛ‫رم‬ٚ َٛ‫ٍس ٌل‬ٛٛ ٟ‫ٕخص ف‬١‫ط‬َٚ‫حٌز‬
٨‫كظش ح‬٩ِ ‫ ِغ‬,ٍُ٤‫ً ِٓ ح‬١ٍ‫ ل‬ٌٝ‫خفٗ ح‬ٟ٤‫ رخ‬,ٗ‫حو‬ٛ‫ف‬ٚ ٖٛٙ‫ ِط‬ٚ‫خُؿٗ ح‬١ ‫حص‬َٚ٠‫ٍس ه‬ٛٛ ٟ‫حٌّخء ف‬ٚ
.َ‫فط‬٠ ْ‫ـذ ح‬٠ ‫ٍ٘خق‬٦‫ٍٖ رخ‬ٛ‫ كخٌش ٗؼ‬ٟ‫ف‬ٚ ٗ١‫ل‬ٌٜ‫ حٌّظخػذ ح‬ٚ‫ٍ٘خق ح‬٧ٌ ً‫ حٌطف‬َٝ‫ظؼ‬٠


There is a kid who learns to fast gradually in every (or almost every) Muslim
house. It happens when the kid reaches the age of 7 (his seven birthday); so that
when reaches 8 he may be able to fast for afew days. When he is an adult and
obliged to perform his Islamic religious duties he will be used to refrain from
food and fast for a month each year. The whole process is a parental
responsibility; as they should care for their kids' health during this period.
About this matter, Dr Ehab H.N. the digestive system consultant in the faculty of
Medicine at 3en Shams University states that when the kid starts to practice
fasting, his parents should look after the quantity and quality of his nutrition.
They have to increase the amount of protein he gets by providing more meat,
eggs, legumes and dairy products, Vitamins and Minerals through fresh water,
vegetables, fruits and rice. They (parents) consider in mind that the kid shouldn't
get exhausted on suffering health problems. In case it happened he (must) break

‫ش‬٠ِ١ٍ‫ٔـ‬٨‫ ح‬ٌٝ‫ش ا‬١‫ش ِٓ حٌؼَر‬١‫لف‬ٛ ٜٙٛٔ

٢ِٛ‫ حأل‬ُٚ٘‫ح‬
ٌٟٚ‫ حٌي‬ٟ‫م‬٠َ‫ف‬٦‫ ح‬ٟ‫ش ٌٍزٕه حٌؼَر‬٠ٍ‫ِش طـخ‬٩‫ً ػ‬٠‫ؿخثِس أف‬
،2010 ّ‫ش ُؼخ‬٣ٍ‫َ ػالٓش طـخ‬٠‫ ُـخثِس أك‬٢ُٝ‫ حُي‬٢‫و‬٣َ‫ حإلك‬٢‫خٍ حُز٘ي حُؼَر‬٤‫ طْ حهظ‬٢ُ‫ح‬ٞ‫ حُظ‬٢ِ‫ُِؼخّ حَُحرغ ػ‬
َ٤٣‫ٓؼخ‬ٝ ْٓ‫ أ‬٢ِ‫خ ػ‬ٜٔ٤٤‫ طو‬٢‫يس طؼظٔي ك‬٣‫ ٓئٓٔش ٓلخ‬٢ٛٝ ‫ش‬٤ُٔ‫« حُؼخ‬superbrands 2010» ‫ٖٓ هزَ ٓئٓٔش‬
.‫ِس‬٤ٔ‫ش حُٔظ‬٣ٍ‫حألٓٔخء حُظـخ‬ٝ ‫ْ حُٔخًٍخص‬٤٤‫ش ُظو‬٤ُٔ‫ػخ‬
‫ حُز٘ي ٖٓ ٌٓخٗش‬ٚ‫ظٔظغ ر‬٣ ‫ِس طؼزَ ػٖ ٓخ‬٤ٔٓ ‫ش‬٤ٜ‫ ٗو‬٢ُٝ‫ حُي‬٢‫و‬٣َ‫ حإلك‬٢‫ش ُِز٘ي حُؼَر‬٣ٍ‫طٔؼَ حُؼالٓش حُظـخ‬
‫ كوي‬،َ‫ حُٔٔظوز‬٢‫ ك‬ٜٚ‫ؿ‬ٞ‫ط‬ٝ ‫خ‬ٜ‫ئٖٓ ر‬٣ ٢‫ْ حُظ‬٤‫ اػزخص حُو‬٢ِ‫خ ػ‬ٜ‫س ػٖ هيٍط‬ٝ‫ ػال‬،‫حُٔ٘طوش‬ٝ َٜٓ ٢‫ش ك‬ٛ‫هخ‬

ٍٙٞ‫ ىػْ طط‬٢ِ‫ ًٔخ ٓخػيص ػ‬،‫م‬ُٞٔ‫ ح‬٢‫َ ك‬ٛ‫ح‬ٞ‫ حُٔظ‬ٙٞٔٗٝ ٢‫و‬٣َ‫حإلك‬ٝ ٢‫ش حُؼَر‬٣ٍ‫ حُؼالٓش حُظـخ‬ٌٙٛ ‫هيٓض‬
‫حُٔٔؼش‬ٝ ٢ُٝ‫ حُي‬٢‫و‬٣َ‫ حإلك‬٢‫ْ كؼَحهش حُز٘ي حُؼَر‬٤ٓ‫غ طْ طؤ‬٤‫ش ٓظٌخِٓش ك‬٤ُ‫ػش ٓخ‬ٞٔ‫ ٓـ‬٢ُ‫ن ا‬٣َ‫ٖٓ ر٘ي ػ‬
‫ش رؼوش‬٤‫َك‬ُٜٔ‫ْ حُويٓخص ح‬٣‫ ٓـخٍ طوي‬٢‫ ك‬ٚ‫خىط‬٣ٍٝ ،1964 ّ‫ ػخ‬ٚ‫ ٌٓ٘ ٗ٘ؤط‬ٚ٤ٔٛ‫س ٓٔخ‬ٞ‫خ رو‬ٜ‫ حًظٔز‬٢‫زش حُظ‬٤‫حُط‬
‫ش‬٤ٔ٘‫ ط‬٢‫ق ك‬ٟ‫ح‬ٝ َ‫خ أػ‬ُٜ ٢‫حُظ‬ٝ ،‫خ‬ٜ‫ئٖٓ ر‬٣ ٢‫ش حُظ‬٤‫ش حالؿظٔخػ‬٤ُٞ‫ حُٔٔج‬ٙ‫ طـخ‬٢‫ـخر‬٣‫ حال‬ٍٙٝ‫ال ػٖ ى‬٠‫ ك‬،ِ٤ٔ‫ط‬ٝ
‫ اال طَؿٔش‬٢ٛ ‫حَٓ ٓخ‬ٞ‫ حُؼ‬ٌٜٙ‫ ك‬١َُٜٔ‫م ح‬ُٞٔ‫ ح‬٢‫س ك‬ٞ‫ رو‬ٙٞٔٗٝ ٍٙ‫ َٓػش حٗظ٘خ‬٢ُ‫خكش ا‬ٟ‫ رخإل‬،‫حُٔـظٔغ‬
٢ِ‫حّ ػ‬ٞ‫ ٓيحٍ أٍرؼش أػ‬٢ِ‫ش ػ‬٣ٍ‫َ ػالٓش طـخ‬٠‫ ُوذ أك‬٢ِ‫ ػ‬ُٜٚٞ‫ ك‬٢ِ‫ ٓخػيص ػ‬٢‫خثزش حُظ‬ُٜ‫يحف ح‬ٛ‫ُأل‬
‫ حُٔخكش‬٢ِ‫ى حَُحثيس ػ‬ٞ٘‫ٖٔ حُز‬ٟ ‫ِح‬٤ٔ‫يٍ ًَِٓح ٓظ‬ٜ‫ظ‬٣ ٕ‫ أ‬٢‫ ٖٓ ٗـخف ك‬ٚ‫ ٓخ كوو‬٢ِ‫خ ىالُش ػ‬ٜٗ‫ ًٔخ أ‬،٢ُ‫ح‬ٞ‫حُظ‬


AAIB Re-Achieves Superbrands Status 2010

Arab African International Bank (AAIF) has won for the fourth successive year
Superbrands‘ Award for the strongest brand 2010.

A Superbrand is a global independent network which evaluates trademarks and

brands worldwide through strict procedures and on the basis of objective criteria.
The winning of the award reflects the bank‘s fulfillment of its core values and
living up to its desired vision. Through its reputable brand, AAIB has already
achieved a steady growth in the local market developing eventually into an
integrated financial group comprising AAIM, AAIH, AAIMF and AAIS affiliates.
Since establishment in 1964, AAIB has earned a wide reputation throughout the
years thanks to its strong shareholders‘ support, and lead in the provision of
distinguished and trustworthy banking services. Its commitment to corporate
responsibility, with its remarkable impact on social development, is another factor
contributing to the bank‘s story of success entitling it to Superbrands‘ award for
the fourth consecutive year.

ٍٟٛ٤‫ ح‬ٌٕٚ‫ح‬
‫ ٓ٘لض ٓئٓٔش‬Superbrands ّ‫َ ػٖ ػخ‬ٜٓ ‫ش ُز٘ي‬٣ٍ‫َ حُؼالٓخص حُظـخ‬٠‫ ؿخثِس أك‬٢ُ‫ح‬ٞ‫ حُظ‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬٢ٗ‫ُِؼخّ حُؼخ‬
‫ٓئٓٔخص ٓوظِلش‬ٝ ‫ش ًَُ٘خص‬٣ٍ‫ ػالٓش طـخ‬3000 ٖ٤‫ ٖٓ ر‬ٍٙ‫خ‬٤‫غ طْ حهظ‬٤‫ ك‬،2010/2009.
َ٤٣‫ ػيس ٓؼخ‬٠ِ‫ٖ ػ‬٣ٍ‫ًزخٍ حُٔٔظ٘خ‬ٝ ‫ػش ٖٓ حُوزَحء‬ٞٔ‫ْ طظْ رٔؼَكش ٓـ‬٤٤‫ ؿِٔخص طو‬٠ُ‫طٔظ٘ي حُٔئٓٔش ا‬ٝ
ْٓ‫ٍ حال‬ٞ‫ هز‬ٟ‫ ُٔؼَكش ٓي‬،‫ش‬٣ٍ‫ ػالٓش طـخ‬3000 ٠ُ‫ش ٖٓ حؿٔخ‬٣ٍ‫ ػالٓش طـخ‬100 َ٠‫خٍ أك‬٤‫ش الهظ‬٤‫ػ‬ٟٞٞٓ
٢‫ِي ك‬ٜ‫ ٓٔظ‬1000 ٖٓ ‫ٗش‬ٌٞٓ ‫٘ش‬٤‫ ػ‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬٢ٗ‫يح‬٤ٓ ‫ٔظظزغ ًُي اؿَحء رلغ‬٣ٝ ،ُٚ ‫الء حُؼٔالء‬ٝ ‫ىٍؿش‬ٝ ١ٍ‫حُظـخ‬
،‫ش‬٤‫ـ‬٣َٝ‫حُلٔالص حُظ‬ٝ ‫ش‬٣ٍ‫َ حُؼالٓش حُظـخ‬٤٠‫ طل‬ٟ‫ش ُٔؼَكش ٓي‬٤‫ه‬ُٞٔ‫ حألرلخع ح‬٠ِ‫ طؼظٔي ػ‬١َُٜٔ‫م ح‬ُٞٔ‫ح‬
‫ش‬٣ٍ‫حالٗظٔخء ُِؼالٓش حُظـخ‬ٝ ٚ‫ـ‬٣َٝ‫ظْ ط‬٣ ‫ًٌح حالُظِحّ رٔخ‬ٝ.
‫ ٓئٓٔش‬ٍٙ‫ي‬ٜ‫ ط‬١ٌُ‫ ح‬١ُٞ٘ٔ‫َ ح‬٤ُ‫َ رخُي‬ٜٓ ‫هي طْ اىٍحؽ حْٓ ر٘ي‬ٝ Superbrands َ٠‫ٖٔ أك‬ٟ ٚ‫ل‬ٛٞ‫ر‬
٢‫حُظ‬ٝ ٢ٓٝ‫حَُ٘م حأل‬ٝ َٜٔ‫حًَُ٘خص ر‬ٝ ‫ حُٔئٓٔخص‬َٟ‫ٖ ًز‬٤‫ ر‬،2010/2009 ّ‫ش ُؼخ‬٣ٍ‫حُؼالٓخص حُظـخ‬
ْ٤٤‫ػش ُِظو‬ُٟٞٞٔ‫َ ح‬٤٣‫خ ًخكش حُٔؼخ‬ٜ٤ِ‫ط٘طزن ػ‬.


Banque Misr, for the second successive year, has been awarded Superbrands‘
Status for the strongest brand in Egypt and the Middle East. With 3000 brands
entering the contest, the winner is decided through strict procedures involving a
number of experts and serious consultants, who give their input based on objective
Top 100 brands are selected from 3000 in light of the brand‘s acceptance and
customers‘ loyalty. A field research is then conducted on a sample population of
1000 customers in the Egyptian market to get more insight on subject brand
preference, promotional campaigns and commitment to promoted features of the
given brand.
Fulfilling all set criteria, Banque Misr is now included in Superbrands‘ Yearbook
as one of the strongest brands for the year 2009-2010 in Egypt and the Middle East

‫ش‬١‫ أىر‬ٜٙٛٔ
First Story
There was a boy who was always losing his temper. His father gave him
a bag full of nails and said to him, ―My son, I want you to hammer a nail
into our garden fence every time you need to direct your anger against
something and you lose your temper.‖
So the son started to follow his father‘s advice. On the first day he
hammered in nails, but getting the nails into the fence was not easy, so
he started trying to control himself when he got.
As the days went by, he was hammering in less nails, and within weeks
he was able to control himself and was able to refrain from getting and
from hammering nails. He came to his father and told him what he had
achieved. His father was with his efforts and said to him: ―But now, my
son, you have to take out a nail for every day that you do not get.‖
The son started to take out the nails for each day thathe did not get, until
there were no nails left in the fence. He came to his father and told him
what he had achieved. His father took him to the fence and said, ―My
son, you have done well, but look at these holes in the fence. This fence
will never be the same again.‖ Then he added: ―When you say things in
a state of anger, they leave marks like these holes on the hearts of
others.You can stab a person and withdraw the knife but it
doesn‘t matter how many times you say ‗I‘m sorry,‘ because the wound
will remain.

‫ًخٕ ‪٘ٛ‬خى ‪ُٝ‬ي ػ‪ٜ‬ز‪ًٝ ٢‬خٕ ‪٣‬لوي ‪ٞٛ‬حر‪ ٚ‬رٌَ٘ ٓٔظَٔ كؤك‪ٝ ُٚ َ٠‬حُي‪ٔ٤ً ٙ‬خ ِٓٔ‪ٞ‬ءح‬
‫رخُٔٔخٓ‪ٝ َ٤‬هخٍ ُ‪:ٚ‬‬

‫‪٣‬خ ر٘‪ ٢‬أٍ‪٣‬يى إٔ طيم ٓٔٔخٍح ك‪٤ٓ ٢‬خؽ كي‪٣‬وظ٘خ حُو٘ز‪ًِٔ ٢‬خ حؿظخكظي ٓ‪ٞ‬ؿش ؿ‪٠‬ذ‬
‫‪....‬‬ ‫‪ٝ‬حُي‪ٙ‬‬ ‫ٗ‪٤ٜ‬لش‬ ‫رظ٘ل‪ٌ٤‬‬ ‫حُ‪ُٞ‬ي‬ ‫ريأ‬ ‫‪ٌٌٛٝ‬ح‬ ‫أػ‪ٜ‬خري‪.‬‬ ‫‪ٝ‬كويص‬
‫كيم ك‪ ٢‬حُ‪ ّٞ٤‬حأل‪ٔٔٓ 37 ٍٝ‬خٍح ‪ ٌُٖٝ ،‬اىهخٍ حُٔٔٔخٍ ك‪ ٢‬حُٔ‪٤‬خؽ ُْ ‪ٜٓ ٌٖ٣‬ال ‪.‬‬
‫كزيأ ‪٣‬لخ‪ ٍٝ‬طٔخُي ٗلٔ‪ ٚ‬ػ٘ي حُـ‪٠‬ذ ‪ٝ ،‬رؼي‪ٛ‬خ ‪ٝ‬رؼي َٓ‪ ٍٝ‬أ‪٣‬خّ ًخٕ ‪٣‬يم ٓٔخٓ‪ َ٤‬أهَ‪،‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬ك‪ ٢‬أٓخر‪٤‬غ طٌٖٔ ٖٓ ‪ٟ‬ز‪ٗ ٢‬لٔ‪ٝ ، ٚ‬ط‪ٞ‬هق ػٖ حُـ‪٠‬ذ ‪ٝ‬ػٖ ىم حُٔٔخٓ‪ ، َ٤‬كـخء‬
‫‪ٝ‬حُي‪ٝ ٙ‬أهزَ‪ ٙ‬ربٗـخُ‪ ٙ‬كلَف حألد ر‪ٌٜ‬ح حُظل‪ٝ ، ٍٞ‬هخٍ ُ‪ ٌُٖٝ : ٚ‬ػِ‪٤‬ي ح‪٣ ٕ٥‬خ ر٘‪٢‬‬
‫حٓظوَحؽ ٓٔٔخٍ ٌَُ ‪ َٔ٣ ّٞ٣‬ػِ‪٤‬ي ُْ طـ‪٠‬ذ ك‪ٝ.ٚ٤‬ريأ حُ‪ُٞ‬ي ٖٓ ؿي‪٣‬ي روِغ حُٔٔخٓ‪ َ٤‬ك‪ ٢‬حُ‪ّٞ٤‬‬
‫حٌُ‪ ١‬ال ‪٣‬ـ‪٠‬ذ ك‪ ٚ٤‬كظ‪ ٠‬حٗظ‪ ٖٓ ٠ٜ‬حُٔٔخٓ‪ َ٤‬ك‪ ٢‬حُٔ‪٤‬خؽ ‪ .‬كـخء اُ‪ٝ ٠‬حُي‪ٝ ٙ‬أهزَ‪ ٙ‬ربٗـخُ‪َٓ ٙ‬س‬
‫أهَ‪ ، ٟ‬كؤهٌ‪ٝ ٙ‬حُي‪ ٙ‬اُ‪ ٠‬حُٔ‪٤‬خؽ ‪ٝ‬هخٍ ُ‪٣ : ٚ‬خ ر٘‪ ٢‬أكٔ٘ض ‪٘ٛ‬ؼخ ‪ ٌُٖٝ ،‬حٗظَ ح‪ ٕ٥‬اُ‪ ٠‬طِي‬
‫حُؼو‪ٞ‬د ك‪ ٢‬حُٔ‪٤‬خؽ ‪ٌٛ ،‬ح حُٔ‪٤‬خؽ ُٖ ‪ًٔ ٌٕٞ٣‬خ ًخٕ أريح ‪ٝ ،‬أ‪ٟ‬خف ‪ :‬ػ٘يٓخ طو‪ ٍٞ‬أٗ‪٤‬خء ك‪ ٢‬كخُش‬
‫حُـ‪٠‬ذ كبٗ‪ٜ‬خ طظَى آػخٍح ٓؼَ ‪ ٌٙٛ‬حُؼو‪ٞ‬د ك‪ٗ ٢‬ل‪ ّٞ‬ح‪٥‬هَ‪ . ٖ٣‬طٔظط‪٤‬غ إٔ ططؼٖ حإلٗٔخٕ‬
‫‪ٝ‬طُوَؽ حٌُٔ‪ ٌُٖٝ ٖ٤‬ال ‪َٓ ًْ ْٜ٣‬س طو‪ : ٍٞ‬أٗخ آٓق ألٕ حُـَف ٓ‪٤‬ظَ ‪٘ٛ‬خى‪.‬‬

‫ش‬١ٔ‫ش حٌؼخ‬ٜ‫حٌم‬
‫ى‬ٚ‫ْ ٌٗ كي‬١ٌ ‫حٌلذ‬

While Dad was polishing his new car,

‫يس‬٣‫ حُـي‬ٚ‫خٍط‬٤ٓ ‫غ‬٤ِٔ‫ّ رظ‬ٞ‫و‬٣ ‫٘ٔخ ًخٕ حألد‬٤‫ر‬
His 4 yr old son picked stone & scratched lines on
the side of the car.
‫خٍس‬٤ُٔ‫ ؿخٗذ ح‬٠ِ‫ٕ ػ‬ٝ‫ّ رؼَٔ هي‬ٞ‫و‬٣ٝ ‫ كـَح‬٢‫ِظو‬٣ ‫حص‬ٞ٘ٓ ‫ حألٍرغ‬ًٝ ٖ‫اًح رخالر‬
In his anger, Dad took the child's hand & hit it many
times, not
‫خ ػيس َٓحص‬ٜ٤ِ‫ ػ‬ٚ‫َر‬٠٣ٝ ٚ٘‫ي حر‬٤‫ؤهٌ ر‬٣ ‫ اًح رخألد‬،ٚ‫ز‬٠‫ هٔش ؿ‬٢‫ك‬ٝ
Realizing he was using a wrench.
٢‫ٖ ك‬٤ً‫ ػخىس حُٔزخ‬ٚٓ‫ٔظوي‬٣ ‫' (ٓلي‬١ِ٤ِ‫ٔظويّ 'ٓلظخف حٗـ‬٣ ٕ‫ ًخ‬ٚٗ‫٘ؼَ أ‬٣ ٕ‫ٕ أ‬ٝ‫ري‬
)َ٤ٓ‫ح‬ُٞٔ‫ ح‬٢‫ٍر‬ٝ ‫كي‬
At the hospital, his child said 'Dad when will my fingers
grow back?'
‫؟‬٢‫خرؼ‬ٛ‫ح أ‬ٞٔ٘‫ف ط‬ٞٓ ٠‫ٔؤٍ حألد ٓظ‬٣ ٖ‫ ًخٕ حالر‬،٠‫ حُٔٔظ٘ل‬٢‫ك‬
Dad was so hurt.
ُْ‫ش حأل‬٣‫ ؿخ‬٢‫ًخٕ حألد ك‬ٝ
He went back to car and kicked it a lot of times.
‫خ ػيس َٓحص‬ًَِٜ٣ ‫ريأ‬ٝ ‫خٍس‬٤ُٔ‫ ح‬٠ُ‫ػخى حألد ا‬
Sitting back he looked at the scratches, child wrote
‫ هي ًظذ‬ٙ‫ؿي‬ٞ‫خ حألرٖ ك‬ٜ‫ أكيػ‬٢‫ٕ حُظ‬ٝ‫ حُوي‬٠ُ‫ ٗظَ ا‬،ٍٝ‫ حأل‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬ِٚٓٞ‫ػ٘ي ؿ‬ٝ
' ٢‫خ أر‬٣ ‫' أٗخ أكزي‬
Anger and Love has no limits…
‫ى‬ٝ‫ٔخ كي‬ُٜ ْ٤ُ ‫ذ‬٠‫حُـ‬ٝ ‫حُلذ‬

‫ش حٌؼخٌؼش‬ٜ‫حٌم‬

A little boy asked his mother, Why are you crying?

-Because I'm a woman, she told him I don't understand, he said. His
Mom just hugged him and said, And you never will Later the little boy
asked his father.
Why does mother seem to cry for no reason?
All women cry for no reason, was all his dad could say.
The boy still didn't get an answer! So he only had his
old grandfather to ask.
The little boy asked his grandfather, why do women cry so easily.
The grandfather said, when God made women, she had to
be special.
He made her shoulders strong enough to carry the weight of
the world, yet! Gentle enough to give comfort.
God gave her an inner strength to under child birth and
the rejection that many times comes from her children.
God gave her a hardness that allows her to keep going
when everyone else gives up,
and take care of her family through sickness and fatigue
without complaining.
God gave her the sensitivity to love her children under any and
all circumstances, even when her child has hurt her very badly
God gave her strength to carry her husband through his faults
and fashioned her from his rib to protect his heart.
God gave her wisdom to know that a good husband never hurts his wife,
but sometimes tests her strengths and her resolve to
stand beside him unfalteringly.
And finally, God gave her a tear to shed. This is hers exclusively
to use whenever it is needed.
You see my son, the beauty of a woman is not in the clothes she wears,
the figure that she carries, or the way she combs her hair.
The beauty of a woman must be seen in her eyes, because that is the
doorway to her heart...
‫ٓؤٍ ‪١‬لَ ‪ٛ‬ـ‪ َ٤‬أٓ‪ُٔ ..!!.. ٚ‬خًح طزٌ‪ ٖ٤‬؟…؟هخُض ُ‪ :ٚ‬ألٗ‪ ٢‬حَٓأس…‪ !.‬أؿخد حُطلَ‪ ُْ :‬أك‪ْٜ‬‬
‫‪..‬ػخٗوظ‪ ٚ‬حٓ‪ٝ ٚ‬هخُض ُٖ طل‪ ْٜ‬أريح‪....‬الكوخ‪ٓ :‬ؤٍ حُطلَ حُ‪ٜ‬ـ‪ٝ َ٤‬حُي‪ُٔ ٙ‬خًح طزٌ‪ ٢‬حألّ ري‪ٕٝ‬‬
‫ٓزذ…‪.‬؟ُْ ‪ٔ٣‬ظطغ ‪ٝ‬حُي‪ ٙ‬حُو‪ ٍٞ‬اال إٔ ًَ حُ٘ٔخء ‪٣‬زٌ‪ ٖ٤‬ري‪ٓ ٕٝ‬زذ‪٣ ُْ ..‬ـي حُطلَ حإلؿخرش ػِ‪٠‬‬
‫ٓئحُ‪٘ٛ ْ٤ُٝ ٚ‬خى ٖٓ ‪ٔ٣‬ؤُ‪ ٟٞٓ ٚ‬ؿي‪ٓ ٙ‬ؤٍ حُطلَ حُ‪ٜ‬ـ‪ َ٤‬ؿي‪ُٔ ٙ‬خًح طزٌ‪ ٢‬حُ٘ٔخء‬
‫رٔ‪..ُٜٚٞ‬؟؟؟؟هخٍ حُـي‪ :‬ػ٘يٓخ هِن هللا حَُٔأس ؿؼَ ُ‪ٜ‬خ ٓخ ‪ِٛ٤ٔ٣‬خ!!!…‬
‫‪ -‬ؿؼَ ُ‪ٜ‬خ حُو‪ٞ‬س حٌُخك‪٤‬ش ُظظلَٔ أػزخء حُل‪٤‬خس ‪ٝ‬حُط‪٤‬زش حٌُخك‪٤‬ش حُظ‪ ٢‬طزؼغ ػِ‪ ٠‬حَُحكش‪….‬‬
‫‪ٝ-‬أػطخ‪ٛ‬خ هللا حُو‪ٞ‬س حُيحهِ‪٤‬ش ُظلَٔ حُ‪ٞ‬الىس ‪ٝ‬حَُك‪ ٞ‬حٌُ‪ ١‬ؿخُزخ ٓخ ‪٣‬ؤط‪ ٖٓ ٢‬أر٘خث‪ٜ‬خ‬
‫‪ٝ-‬أػطخ‪ٛ‬خ هللا حُ‪ٜ‬الرش حُظ‪ ٢‬طٔٔق ُ‪ٜ‬خ رؤٕ طٔظَٔ ك‪ ٢‬حُ‪ٞ‬هض حٌُ‪ٔ٣ ١‬ظِْٔ ك‪ ٚ٤‬حُـٔ‪٤‬غ‪ٝ….‬حٕ‬
‫ط‪ٜ‬ظْ رؼخثِظ‪ٜ‬خ أػ٘خء حَُٔ‪ٝ ٝ‬حإلػ‪٤‬خء ري‪ ٕٝ‬إٔ ط٘ظٌ‪ ٝ ٢‬أػطخ‪ٛ‬خ حإلكٔخّ حُو‪ ١ٞ‬حٌُ‪٤٣‬يكؼ‪ٜ‬خ ُٔلزش‬
‫أ‪ٝ‬الى‪ٛ‬خ ك‪ ًَ ٢‬حُظَ‪ٝ‬ف كظ‪ ٠‬ػ٘يٓخ طؼخَٓ رؤ‪ٞ‬س ٖٓ هزِ‪ٝ….ْٜ‬أػطخ‪ٛ‬خ هللا حُو‪ٞ‬س ُظظلَٔ أػزخء‬
‫ُ‪ٝ‬ؿ‪ٜ‬خ (كوِو‪ٜ‬خ ٖٓ ‪ِٟ‬ؼ‪ُ ٚ‬ظلٔ‪ ٢‬هِز‪ٝ)....ٚ‬أػطخ‪ٛ‬خ هللا حُلٌٔش ُظؼِْ رؤٕ حُِ‪ٝ‬ؽ حُـ‪٤‬ي ال ‪٣‬ئً‪١‬‬
‫ُ‪ٝ‬ؿظ‪ ٌُٚ٘ٝ ٚ‬أك‪٤‬خٗخ ‪٣‬وظزَ ه‪ٞ‬ط‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٝ‬ػِ‪ٔ٣‬ظ‪ٜ‬خ ُظوق اُ‪ ٠‬ؿخٗز‪ ٚ‬رؼزخص‪ٝ....‬أه‪َ٤‬ح أػطخ‪ٛ‬خ هللا هيٍط‪ٜ‬خ‬
‫ػِ‪ ٠‬حُزٌخء حٓظؼ٘خ‪ٛ‬خ رٌُي كظ‪ ٠‬طزٌ‪ ٢‬ػ٘يٓخ طلظخؽ اُ‪ًُ ٠‬ي‪ٍ َٛ ....‬أ‪٣‬ض ‪٣‬خ ر٘‪ ٢‬حُـٔخٍ ك‪ ٢‬حَُٔأس‬
‫ُ‪ ْ٤‬رٔالرٔ‪ٜ‬خ أ‪ٗ ٝ‬و‪٤ٜ‬ظ‪ٜ‬خ حُظ‪ ٢‬طٔظٌِ‪ٜ‬خ ‪ ,‬أ‪ٝ‬ط‪ٜ‬ل‪٤‬ل‪ٗ ٚ‬ؼَ‪ٛ‬خ ؿٔخٍ حَُٔأس ك‪ ٢‬ػ‪ٜ٤٘٤‬خ ألٗ‪ٜٔ‬خ‬
‫حُٔلظخف ح ٌُ‪ِٛٞ٣ ١‬ي ُوِز‪ٜ‬خ‪...‬‬
‫حٌم‪ٜ‬ش حٌَحرؼش‬
‫‪- Love and Time -‬‬

‫‪Once upon a time, there was an island where all the feelings lived:‬‬
‫‪Happiness, Sadness, Knowledge, and all of the others, including Love.‬‬
‫‪One day it was announced to the feelings that the island would sink, so‬‬
‫‪all‬‬ ‫‪constructed‬‬ ‫‪boats‬‬ ‫‪and‬‬ ‫‪left‬‬ ‫‪Except‬‬ ‫‪for‬‬ ‫‪Love.‬‬
‫‪Love was the only one who stayed. Love wanted to hold‬‬
‫‪out until the last possible moment.‬‬
‫‪When the island had almost sunk, Love decided to ask for help.‬‬
‫‪Richness was passing by Love in a grand boat. Love said, "Richness,‬‬
‫"?‪can you take me with you‬‬
‫‪Richness answered, "No, I can't. There is a lot of gold and silver in my‬‬
‫‪boat. There is no place here for you." Love decided to ask Vanity who‬‬
was also passing by in a beautiful vessel. "Vanity, please help me!"
"I can't help you, Love. You are all wet and might damage my
boat," Vanity answered.
Sadness was close by so Love asked, "Sadness, let me go with you." "Oh
. . . Love, I am so sad that I need to be by myself!"
Happiness passed by Love, too, but she was so happy that
she did not even hear when Love called her.
Suddenly, there was a voice, "Come, Love, I will take you.
" It was an elder. So blessed and overjoyed, Love even forgot
to ask the elder where they were going. When they arrived
at dry land, the elder went her own way. Realizing how
much was owed the elder, Love asked Knowledge, another elder, "Who
Helped me?"
"It was Time," Knowledge answered.
"Time?" asked Love. "But why did Time help me?"
Knowledge smiled with deep wisdom and answered,
"Because only Time is capable of understanding how
valuable Love is.

‫لض‬ٌٛ‫ح‬ٚ ‫حٌلذ‬

ًَٝ ‫ حُٔؼَكش‬ٝ ِٕ‫حُل‬ٝ ‫حُٔؼخىس‬: ‫غ ًَ حُٔ٘خػَػخٗض‬٤‫َس ك‬٣ِ‫٘خى ؿ‬ٛ ٕ‫ْ حُِٓخٕ ًخ‬٣‫ هي‬٢‫ك‬
‫يس‬٤ُ٘ٔ‫حٍد ح‬ٞ‫ًَ حُو‬ٝ ,‫َس ٓظـَم‬٣ِ‫ حػِٖ رخٕ حُـ‬١ٌُ‫ّ ح‬ٞ٤ُ‫ ح‬٢‫ك‬, ‫ْ حُلذ‬ٜٟ٘ٔ ٖٓٝ ٖ٣َ‫ه‬٥‫ح‬
.‫ٓخ ػيح حُلذ‬,‫ؿخىٍص‬
.‫َس‬٤‫ حُِلظش حُٔلظِٔش حاله‬٠‫ى كظ‬ُٜٞٔ‫حُلذ حٍحى ح‬. ٠‫ رو‬١ٌُ‫ي ح‬٤‫ك‬ُٞ‫ ح‬ٞٛ ٕ‫حُلذ ًخ‬
ّ‫ ٖٓ حٓخ‬٢٘‫َٓ حُـ‬. ‫ حُلذ هٍَ حُٔئحٍ ػٖ حُٔٔخػيس‬, ‫زخ‬٣َ‫َس طو‬٣ِ‫ػ٘يٓخ ؿَهض حُـ‬
‫ حٗخ ال‬،‫ " ال‬: ٢٘‫ حُـ‬ٚ‫ ٓؼي ؟ حؿخر‬٢ٌٗ‫َ رخالٌٓخٕ حٕ طؤه‬ٛ : ‫هخٍ حُلذ‬, َ٤‫حُلذ ٖٓ ًَٓذ ًز‬
". ‫٘خى ٌٓخٕ ُي‬ٛ ْ٤ُ , ٢‫ ًَٓز‬٢‫ ك‬ٚ٠‫حُل‬ٝ ‫ذ‬ٌُٛ‫َ ٖٓ ح‬٤‫٘خى حٌُؼ‬ٛ , ‫غ‬٤‫حٓظط‬
‫ ؟‬٢ٗ‫ى ٓخػي‬ٞ‫ حٍؿ‬,ٍَٝ‫ حُـ‬: ِٚ٤ٔ‫٘ش ؿ‬٤‫ ٓل‬٢‫خ ك‬٠٣‫َٔ ح‬٣ ١ٌُ‫ٍ ح‬َٝ‫هٍَ حُلذ ٓئحٍ حُـ‬
" .٢‫هي طظِق ًَٓز‬ٝ ‫غ ٓٔخػيطي حٗض ٓزظَ طٔخٓخ‬٤‫ " حٗخ ال حٓظط‬: ٍَٝ‫حؿخد حُـ‬
:ِٕ‫ حُل‬ٚ‫ذ ٓؼي " حؿخر‬ًٛ‫ ح‬٢٘‫ " حُلِٕ ىػ‬: ‫ حُلذ‬ُٚ‫زخ ٖٓ حُلذ ٌُح ٓؤ‬٣َ‫حُلِٕ ًخٕ ه‬

‫ح‪ ... ٙٝ‬حُلذ حٗخ كِ‪ ٖ٣‬ؿيح رل‪٤‬غ ٖٓ حُ‪ ١ٍَٝ٠‬حٕ حً‪ُٞ ٕٞ‬كي‪.١‬‬
‫َٓص حُٔؼخى‪ ٙ‬رخُلذ ح‪٠٣‬خ ٌُ٘‪ٜ‬خ ًخٗض ٓؼ‪٤‬يس ؿيح رل‪٤‬غ ُْ طٔٔغ حُلذ ػ٘يٓخ ًخٕ ‪٘٣‬خى‪ٜ٣‬خ ‪.‬‬
‫كـؤس ًخٕ ‪٘ٛ‬خى ‪ٞٛ‬ص " طؼخٍ حُلذ حٗخ ٓؤهٌى " ‪ً ٞٛ‬خٕ ٗ‪٤‬وخ ًز‪َ٤‬ح ٓظ‪ٞ‬ح‪ٟ‬ؼخ‪ ,‬كظ‪ ٠‬حُلذ‬
‫؟‬ ‫ٓ‪ٌٛ٤‬ز‪ٕٞ‬‬ ‫‪ْٛ‬‬ ‫ح‪ٖ٣‬‬ ‫حُ٘‪٤‬ن‬ ‫‪ٔ٣‬ؤٍ‬ ‫حٕ‬ ‫ٗٔ‪٠‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬ػ٘يٓخ ‪ ِٞٛٝ‬حُ‪ ٠‬حُ‪٤‬خرٔ‪ٓ ٚ‬خٍ حُ٘‪٤‬ن ك‪٣َ١ ٢‬و‪ ٚ‬حُوخ‪ٝ . ٙ‬حىٍى ًْ ًخٕ ‪٣‬ي‪٤ُِ٘ ٖ٣‬ن ‪.‬‬
‫؟"‬ ‫ٓخػيٗ‪٢‬‬ ‫ٖٓ‬ ‫"‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫حهَ)‬ ‫(ٗ‪٤‬ن‬ ‫حُٔؼَكش‬ ‫حُلذ‬ ‫ٓؤٍ‬
‫"‬ ‫حُ‪ٞ‬هض‪.‬‬ ‫ًخٕ‬ ‫‪ٞٛ‬‬ ‫"‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫حُٔؼَكش‬ ‫حؿخرش‬
‫"‬ ‫ٓخػيٗ‪٢‬؟‬ ‫حُ‪ٞ‬هض‬ ‫ُٔخًح‬ ‫ٌُٖ‬ ‫"‬ ‫حُلذ‬ ‫‪ٔ٣‬ؤٍ‬ ‫!‬ ‫حُ‪ٞ‬هض‬
‫حرظٔٔض حُٔؼَكش رخُلٌٔش حُؼٔ‪٤‬و‪ٝ ٚ‬أؿخرش ‪ " :‬ألٕ حُ‪ٞ‬هض ‪ ٞٛ‬حُ‪ٞ‬ك‪٤‬ي حُوخىٍ ػِ‪ ٠‬ك‪–ْٜ‬‬
‫ًْ حُلذ ػٔ‪"ٖ٤‬‬

‫ش حٌوخِٔش‬ٜ‫حٌم‬
Put the glass down now
A professor began his class by holding up a glass with
some water in it.
He held it up for all to see; asked the students,' How much
do you think this glass weighs?'
'50gms!' .... '100gms!' ......'125gms' ......the students answered.
'I really don't know unless I weigh it,' said the professor,
'but, my question is:
What would happen if I held it up like this for a few minutes?'
'Nothing' the students said.
'Ok what would happen if I held it up
like this for an hour? ' the professor asked.
'Your arm would begin to ache' said one of the students.
'You're right, now what would happen if I held it for a day? '
'Your arm could go numb, you might have severe muscle stress;
paralysis; have to go to hospital for sure!' ventured another student;
all the students laughed.
'Very good. But during all this, did the weight of the glass change?'
asked the professor.
'No' the students said.
Then what caused the arm ache & the muscle stress? '
The students were puzzled.
'Put the glass down!' said one of the students.
'Exactly!' said the professor.' Life's problems are something like this.
Hold it for a few minutes in your head; they seem OK.
Think of them for a long time & they begin to ache.
Hold it even longer & they begin to paralyze you. You will
not be able to do anything.

‫‪It's important to think of the challenges (problems) in your life,but‬‬
‫‪EVEN MORE IMPORTANT to 'put them down' at the end of‬‬
‫‪every day before you go to sleep.‬‬
‫‪That way, you are not stressed, you wake up every day‬‬
‫‪fresh & strong & can handle any issue, any challenge that‬‬
‫'!‪comes your way‬‬

‫ك‪ ٖٓ ّٞ٣ ٢‬حأل‪٣‬خّ ىهَ حُزَ‪ٝ‬ك‪ ٍٞٔ٤‬حُوخػ‪ٝ ٚ‬ك‪٣ ٢‬ي‪ً ٙ‬ؤّ ‪ٝ‬ك‪ ٚ٤‬هِ‪ ٖٓ َ٤‬حُٔخء ‪١ ,‬زؼخ ٍكغ‬
‫حٌُؤّ ٓخثال ٖٓ ك‪ ٢‬حُوخػ‪٣ ٌْ٘ٓ ٖٓ ٚ‬ؼَف ًْ ؿَحٓخ طِٕ ‪ ٌٙٛ‬؟‬
‫طؼيىص حؿخرخص حُطالد ‪ٝ‬حهظِلض ‪30 :‬ؿْ ‪40 /‬ؿْ ‪80 /‬ؿْ ‪100 /‬ؿْ‪...‬‬
‫ٍى حُزَ‪ٝ‬كٔ‪ٝ : ٍٞ‬هللا حٗخ الأػَف رخُ‪٠‬ز‪ ًْ ٢‬كظ‪ ٠‬حُٗ‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٓ ٌُٖ ,‬ئحُ‪ٓ : ٞٛ ٢‬خًح ٌٖٓٔ‬
‫حٕ ‪٣‬ليع حًح ٍكؼظ‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٌٌٛ‬ح (ٓي ‪٣‬ي‪ ٙ‬حُ‪ ٠‬حألػِ‪ُ )٠‬ز‪٠‬غ ىهخثن ؟‬
‫‪٘ٛ‬خ ُْ ‪َ٣‬ى أكي‪.‬‬
‫أًَٔ حُزَ‪ٝ‬كٔ‪ ٍٞ‬هخثال ‪ٓ :‬خًح حًح أرو‪٤‬ظ‪ٜ‬خ ُٔيس ٓخػ‪ ٚ‬؟‬
‫ٍى أكي حُ٘٘‪٤‬ط‪ : ٖ٤‬رَ‪ٝ‬ف ٓظئُٔي ًٍحػي‪.‬‬
‫حُزَ‪ٝ‬ف ‪ٔٓ :‬ظخُ أكٔ٘ض ‪ٓٝ ,.‬خًح حًح أرو‪٤‬ظ‪ٜ‬خ ُ‪ً ّٞ٤‬خَٓ ؟‬
‫ٍى أكي حُـَ‪٣‬ج‪ : ٖ٤‬رَ‪ٝ‬ف ٓظزيأ ‪٣‬يى ك‪ ٢‬حُظ٘ٔ‪ َ٤‬ػْ ٗي ػ‪ٝ ٢ِ٠‬طُُُُُُُُُُُِٔم ‪ٌٖٔ٣ٝ‬‬
‫َِٗ ‪ٝ‬أً‪٤‬ي ٓ٘٘وِي حُ‪ ٠‬حُٔٔظ٘ل‪ٟ(. ٠‬لي ًَ ٖٓ ك‪ ٢‬حُوخػ‪).ٚ‬‬
‫حُزَ‪ٝ‬ف ‪ٔٓ :‬ظخُ ػظ‪ ٌُٖٝ , ْ٤‬أػ٘خء ًُي ًِ‪ َٛ , ٚ‬طـ‪ ُٕٝ َ٤‬حٌُؤّ ؟ حُٔخء؟‬
‫الء ‪١‬زؼخ ًخٕ ٍى حُزَ‪ٝ‬ف ( ‪ ٝ‬حٌَُ كظ‪ ٠‬هخٍ‪١‬ء‪ٌٛ‬ح حُٔ‪ٟٞٞ‬ع‪) .‬‬
‫حًح ه‪ُٞٞ‬ح ُ‪ٓ ٢‬خ‪ٓ ٞٛ‬زذ أُْ حٌٍُحع ‪ٝ‬حُ٘ي حُؼ‪ ٢ِ٠‬؟‬
‫ٍى أكي‪ : ْٛ‬أٍِٗ ‪٣‬يى ‪ٝ‬حطَى حٌُؤّ‪.‬‬
‫حُزَ‪ٝ‬ف ‪ :‬رخُ‪٠‬ز‪٣ ٢‬خأه‪ٞ‬حٕ ‪ٌٌٛ‬ح ٓ٘خًَ حُل‪٤‬خس كٌَ ك‪ٜ٤‬خ ُيهخثن حٗ‪ٜ‬خ ‪ٝ‬هللا الٗ‪٢‬ء ‪,‬‬
‫‪ٝ‬كٌَ ك‪ٜ٤‬خ ُ‪ٞ‬هض أ‪ٓ ٍٞ١‬ظزيأ طئُٔي ‪ ,‬ػْ أل‪ِ٤ٓ ٍٞ١‬ىحى أُٔ‪ٜ‬خ كظ‪ِٛٞ٣ ٠‬ي حُ‪٠‬‬
‫كظ‪ٜ‬زق ؿ‪ َ٤‬هخىٍح ػِ‪ ٠‬كؼَ أ‪٢ٗ ١‬ء‪.‬‬
‫ٓ‪ ْٜ‬حُظلٌ‪ َ٤‬ك‪ ٢‬طلي‪٣‬خص حُٔ٘خًَ ك‪ ٢‬ك‪٤‬خطي ‪ ٌُٖٝ ,‬حألًؼَ أ‪٤ٔٛ‬ش ( ‪ٟٝ‬غ طلظ‪ٜ‬خ‬
‫حُق ه‪ , )٢‬إٔ ط‪٠‬غ ًَ حُؼوش ك‪ ٢‬هللا ٓزلخٗ‪ٝ ٚ‬طؼخُ‪ٝ ٠‬طظَى حٌُِٔ٘‪ٝ ٚ‬حُظلٌ‪َ٤‬‬

‫ك‪ٜ٤‬خ ػ٘يٓخ طٌ‪ٛ‬ذ حُ‪ ٠‬حُ٘‪.ّٞ‬‬
‫رظِي حُطَ‪٣‬وش ال ٗي ‪ٝ‬ال ؿ‪ٜ‬ي ‪ٝ‬ال ح‪٢ٗ ١‬ء ‪ٓٝ ,‬ظٔظ‪٤‬وع حٕ ٗخء هللا ٗ٘‪ ٢٤‬ه‪١ٞ‬‬
‫(كَٕ) ‪ٝ‬طويٍ طٔظ‪ٞ‬ػذ ح‪ ١‬ؿي‪٣‬ي ‪ٝ‬ط‪ٞ‬حؿ‪ ٚ‬أ‪ ٌِٚ٘ٓ ١‬ح‪ ٝ‬طلي‪ ١‬ؿي‪٣‬ي هي ‪٣‬ؼظَ‪ٝ‬‬
‫‪٣َ١‬وي ‪ٝ‬طظؼخَٓ ٓؼخ‪ٛ‬خ ر٘لْ ‪٣َ١‬وش حُ‪ ّٞ٤‬حُٔخرن‪.‬‬

‫ش حٌٔخىٓش‬ٜ‫حٌم‬
A Lion had come to the end of his days and lay sick unto death
at the mouth of his cave, gasping for breath. The animals, his
subjects, came round him and drew nearer as he grew more and
more helpless. When they saw him on the point of death they thought to
themselves: "Now is the time to pay off old grudges." So the Boar
came up and drove at him with his tusks; then a Bull gored him
with his horns; still the Lion lay helpless before them: so the
Ass, feeling quite safe from danger, came up, and turning his tail
to the Lion kicked up his heels into his face. "This is a double
death," growled the Lion. Only cowards insult dying majesty.

ٞ٠ٌَّ‫ٓي ح‬٤‫ح‬

ٚ‫ل‬ًٜ َ‫ص ػ٘ي ٓيه‬ُٞٔ‫ ح‬٠ِ‫خ َٓ٘كخ ػ‬٠٣َٓ ‫ كظٔيى‬،‫َس‬٤‫ حأله‬ٚٓ‫خ‬٣‫٘خى أٓي هي رِؾ أ‬ٛ ٕ‫ًخ‬
.‫َس‬٤‫ حأله‬ٚٓ‫ِلع أٗلخ‬٣
‫ػ٘يٓخ‬ٝ .‫س‬ٞ‫ال ه‬ٝ ُٚ ٍٞ‫ ال ك‬ٞٛ ‫٘ٔخ‬٤‫ ر‬ٚ٘ٓ ‫حهظَرض‬ٝ ‫حٗخص‬ٞ٤‫ ٖٓ حُل‬ٙ‫خ‬٣‫ ٍػخ‬ُٚٞ‫حؿظٔؼض ك‬
‫ حهظَد‬."ٖ‫ـخث‬٠ُ‫ش ح‬٤‫ل‬ٜ‫هض ط‬ٝ ٞٛ ‫ٌح‬ٛ" :ْٜٔ‫ح ألٗل‬ُٞ‫ص هخ‬ُٞٔ‫ٗي ح‬ٝ ٠ِ‫ ػ‬ٚٗ‫ح أ‬ٝ‫ى‬ٞ‫ؿ‬ٝ
‫خ ػخؿِح‬٤‫حألٓي ٓخُحٍ ٓٔظِو‬ٝ ‫؛‬َٚٗ‫ٍ رو‬ٞ‫ حُؼ‬ٚ‫؛ ػْ ؿَك‬ٚ‫ ر٘خر‬ٚ‫َر‬ٟٝ ١َ‫َ حُز‬٣ِ٘‫ حُو‬ٚ٘ٓ
ٚ‫َر‬ٟٝ ٙٞ‫ ٗل‬ِٚ٣ً ‫٘ؼَ رخألٓخٕ كخهظَد ٖٓ حألٓي ٍحكؼخ‬٣ ٍ‫ْ؛ ٓٔخ ؿؼَ حُلٔخ‬ٜٓ‫أٓخ‬
.‫ ُٓـَ حألٓي‬،"‫خػق‬٠ٓ ‫ص‬ٞٓ ‫ٌح‬ٛ" .ٜٚ‫ؿ‬ٝ ٠ِ‫ ػ‬َٙ‫حك‬ٞ‫رل‬
. َ٠‫لظ‬٣ ‫ٕ ِٓطخٗخ‬ٞ٘٤ٜ٣ ‫ حُـز٘خء‬٢‫كو‬

‫ش حٌٔخرؼش‬ٜ‫حٌم‬
The Lion went once a-hunting along with the Fox, the Jackal, and the
Wolf. They hunted and they hunted till at last they surprised a Stag, and
soon took its life. Then came the question how the spoil should be
divided. "Quarter me this Stag," roared the Lion; so the other animals
skinned it and cut it into four parts. Then the Lion took his stand in front
of the carcass and pronounced judgment: The first quarter is for me in
my capacity as King of Beasts; the second is mine as arbiter; another
share comes to me for my part in the chase; and as for the fourth quarter,
well, as for that, I should like to see which of you will dare to lay a paw
upon it." "Humph," grumbled the Fox as he walked away with his tail
between his legs; but he spoke in a low growl."You may share the
labours of the great, but you will not share the spoil."

‫ٓي‬٤‫ش ح‬ٜ‫ك‬
ٕ‫ أ‬٠ُ‫ي ا‬٤ُٜ‫ح رخ‬َٝٔ‫ حٓظ‬.‫حٌُثذ‬ٝ ٟٝ‫حرٖ آ‬ٝ ‫ي ٓغ حُؼؼِذ‬٤ُِٜ ‫ذ حألٓي ًحص َٓس‬ًٛ
.‫ٔش‬٤٘‫حُـ‬ ‫غ‬٣ُٞ‫ط‬ ٍٞ‫ك‬ ٍ‫حُٔئح‬ ٕ‫كٌخ‬ ،ٙٝ‫طخى‬ٛ‫ح‬ٝ ‫خ‬٤‫ظز‬ ‫ح‬ٞ‫رخؿظ‬
٠ُ‫ ا‬ٚ‫ؼ‬٤‫طوط‬ٝ ٚ‫ش رِٔو‬٤‫ كوخّ حُزو‬،‫ ُأٍ حألٓي‬،"‫ أٍرؼش أؿِحء‬٠ُ‫ ا‬٢‫ٌح حُظز‬ٛ ‫ح‬ٞٔٔ ّ ‫"ه‬
٢‫لظ‬ٜ‫ ر‬٢ُ ٍٝ‫ "حَُرغ حأل‬:ٌٚٔ‫يٍ ك‬ٛ‫أ‬ٝ ‫هق حألٓي أٓخّ حُـؼش‬ٝ ْ‫ ػ‬،ٜٚ‫أٍرؼش ك‬
‫ي؛‬٤ُٜ‫ ح‬٢‫ ك‬١ٍٝ‫ ُي‬٢ُ َ‫ٍرغ آه‬ٝ ‫ حُ َل ٌَْ؛‬٢‫لظ‬ٜ‫ ر‬٢ُ ٢ٗ‫حَُرغ حُؼخ‬ٝ ‫حٗخص؛‬ٞ٤‫ِٓي حُل‬
."‫خ‬ٜ٤ِ‫ ػ‬ٚ‫غ ٓوِز‬٠٣ٝ ‫ـَإ‬٤ٓ ٌْ٘ٓ ٖٓ ‫ إٔ أػَف‬١‫ى‬ٞ‫ ر‬...‫ش حَُحرؼش‬ٜ‫أٓخ رخُ٘ٔزش ُِل‬
‫ى‬ُِٞٔ‫ٌٔ٘ي إٔ ط٘خٍى ح‬٣" :ٞ‫ص ٓ٘ول‬ٜٞ‫هخٍ ر‬ٝ ،ٚ٤ٓ‫ٖ هي‬٤‫ ر‬ِٚ٣ًٝ ‫حرظؼي حُؼؼِذ ٓيٓيٓخ‬
."ْ‫ْ حُـ٘خث‬ًٍٜ‫ْ ٌُٖ ُٖ ط٘خ‬ُٜ‫أػٔخ‬

‫ش حٌؼخِٕش‬ٜ‫حٌم‬

In the old days, when men were allowed to have many wives, a
middle-aged Man had one wife that was old and one that
was young; each loved him very much, and desired to see him like
Now the Man's hair was turning grey, which the young Wife did not
like, as it made him look too old for her husband. So every night she
used to comb his hair and pick out the white ones. But the elder Wife
saw her husband growing grey with great pleasure, for
she did not like to be mistaken for his mother. So every morning
she used to arrange his hair and pick out as many of the black
ones as she could. The consequence was the Man soon
found himself entirely bald. Yield to all and you will soon have nothing
to yield.
ٗ١‫ؿظ‬ُٚٚ ً‫ٍؿ‬
ًَٝ ‫ ؿيح‬ٚٗ‫ٔخ طلزخ‬ٛ‫ ًال‬،‫ ٗخرش‬َٟ‫أه‬ٝ ‫ؿش ٓٔ٘ش‬ُٝ ٚ٣‫ق حُؼَٔ ُي‬٣َ‫ ه‬٢‫٘خى ٍؿَ ك‬ٛ ٕ‫ًخ‬
.٢ٛ ‫خ‬ٜ‫لز‬٣ ٕ‫ أ‬٠٘ٔ‫حكيس طظ‬ٝ
‫ ٌُُي حػظخىص‬،‫ُح‬ٞ‫خ ػـ‬ٜ‫ؿ‬ُٝ ٝ‫زي‬٣ ٕ‫ؿش حُ٘خرش أ‬ُِٝ‫ؼـذ ح‬٣ ِْ‫ ك‬،َ‫ ٍأّ حَُؿ‬ِٝ‫ـ‬٣ ‫ذ‬٤ُ٘‫ريأ ح‬
‫ذ‬٤ُ٘ ‫يس‬٤‫ؿش حُٔٔ٘ش ًخٗض ٓؼ‬ُِٝ‫ ٌُٖ ح‬.‫خء‬٠٤‫طوظِغ حُ٘ؼَحص حُز‬ٝ َٙ‫ ٗؼ‬٢٘ٔ‫ِش إٔ ط‬٤ُ ًَ
‫طوظِغ أًزَ ػيى‬ٝ َٙ‫ ٗؼ‬٢٘ٔ‫ِش ط‬٤ُ ًَ ‫ كٌخٗض‬،ٚٓ‫ ًؤ‬ٝ‫خ ُْ طٌٖ طَؿذ إٔ طزي‬ٜٗ‫خ أل‬ٜ‫ؿ‬ُٝ
.‫ِؼخ‬ٛ‫ أ‬ٚٔ‫ؿي حَُؿَ ٗل‬ٝ ‫ـش َٓػخٕ ٓخ‬٤‫رخُ٘ظ‬ٝ .‫ىحء‬ُٞٔ‫ٌٖٓٔ ٖٓ حُ٘ؼَحص ح‬
.ٚ٘‫ء ُظظ٘خٍُ ػ‬٢ٗ ‫ي‬٣‫ ُي‬٠‫زو‬٣ ُٖٝ ‫غ‬٤ٔ‫حٓظِْٔ ُِـ‬

‫ش حٌظخٓؼش‬ٜ‫حٌم‬

One wintry day a Woodman was tramping home from his work when
he saw something black lying on the snow. When he came closer he
saw it was a Serpent to all appearance dead. But he took it up
and put it in his bosom to warm while he hurried home. As soon as
he got indoors he put the Serpent down on the hearth before the
fire. The children watched it and saw it slowly come to life
again. Then one of them stooped down to stroke it, but the
Serpent raised its head and put out its fangs and was about to
sting the child to death. So the Woodman seized his axe, and with
one stroke cut the Serpent in two. "Ah," said he,
"No gratitude from the wicked."

ّ ‫حٌل‬
ٝ‫فؼ‬٤‫ح‬ٚ ‫طخد‬
٢‫ٔظِو‬٣ ‫ى‬ٞٓ‫جخ أ‬٤ٗ ٟ‫ ٍأ‬ٚ‫ظ‬٤‫ ر‬٠ُ‫ ا‬ِٚٔ‫ظٌٔغ ػخثيح ٖٓ ػ‬٣ ‫٘ٔخ ًخٕ حُلطخد‬٤‫ ر‬١ٞ‫ّ ٗظ‬ٞ٣ ‫ًحص‬
٢‫خ ك‬ٜ‫ؼ‬ٟٝٝ ‫خ‬ٌٛ‫ كؤه‬.ٖ٣َ‫ظش ُِ٘خظ‬٤ُٔ‫ ًخ‬ٝ‫ طزي‬٠‫خ ًخٗض أكؼ‬ٜٗ‫ؿي أ‬ٝ ‫ػ٘يٓخ حهظَد‬ٝ ،‫ حُؼِؾ‬٠ِ‫ػ‬
‫خ‬ٜ‫ ٍحهز‬.ٍ‫هي أٓخّ حُ٘خ‬ُٞٔ‫ ح‬٠ِ‫خ ػ‬ٜ‫ؼ‬ٟٝ ٠‫َ كظ‬ٛٝ ٕ‫ ٓخ ا‬.‫ض‬٤‫ حُز‬ٞ‫ ٗل‬ًٍٞٝ ‫خ‬ٜ‫ ُظيكجظ‬ٍٙ‫ي‬ٛ
‫ ٍكؼض‬٠‫ ٌُٖ حألكؼ‬ٙ‫ي‬٤‫خ ر‬ٜ‫يحػز‬٤ُ ‫خ‬ٜ٤ِ‫ْ ػ‬ٛ‫ أكي‬٠٘‫ ػْ حٗل‬،‫ء‬٢٘‫جخ ك‬٤ٗ ‫خس‬٤‫ى ُِل‬ٞ‫ طؼ‬٢ٛٝ ‫الى‬ٝ‫حأل‬
‫ُي ُيؿش هخطِش ػ٘يٓخ أٓٔي حُلطخد‬ُٞ‫ٗي إٔ طِيؽ ح‬ٝ ٠ِ‫ًخٗض ػ‬ٝ ‫خ‬ٜ‫أهَؿض ٓوخُز‬ٝ ‫خ‬ٜٓ‫ٍأ‬
.ْ٤‫َ ٖٓ حُِج‬٤ٔ‫ ال ػَكخٕ رخُـ‬:‫ٖ هخثال‬٤ٔٔ‫ ه‬٠ُ‫خ ا‬ٜ‫حكيس هطؼ‬ٝ ‫َرش‬٠‫ر‬ٝ ٚٓ‫رلؤ‬

‫ش حٌؼخَٗس‬ٜ‫حٌم‬

A young Man had been caught in a daring act of theft and had
been condemned to be executed for it. He expressed his desire to
see his Mother, and to speak with her before he was led to
execution, and of course this was granted. When his Mother came
to him he said: "I want to whisper to you," and when she brought
her ear near him, he nearly bit it off. All the bystanders were
horrified, and asked him what he could mean by such brutal and
inhuman conduct. "It is to punish her," he said. "When I was
young I began with stealing little things, and brought them home
to Mother. Instead of rebuking and punishing me, she laughed and
said: "It will not be noticed." It is because of her that I am
here to-day." "He is right, woman," said the Priest; "the Lord hath said:
"Train up a child in the way he should go; and when he is old he will not
depart therefrom."

ِٗ‫أ‬ٚ َ١‫غ‬ٌٜ‫ ح‬ٌٍٚ‫ح‬

‫ش‬٣‫ رَإ‬ٚ‫ كؼزََّ ػٖ ٍؿزظ‬،ّ‫ رخإلػيح‬ٚ٤ِ‫ ُك ٌِ َْ ػ‬ٝ ‫جش‬٣َ‫ش َٓهش ؿ‬٤ِٔ‫ّ رؼ‬ٞ‫و‬٣ ‫ ٗخد‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬ٞ‫ حُوز‬٢‫أُُو‬
.ٚ‫ِز‬١ ‫ش‬٤‫طِز‬ ْ‫كظ‬ ،ّ‫ُإلػيح‬ ‫ٔخم‬٣ ٕ‫أ‬ َ‫هز‬ ‫خ‬ٜ٤ُ‫ا‬ ٌِْ‫حُظ‬ٝ ٚٓ‫أ‬
ٕ‫ ًخ‬ٚ٘ٓ ‫خ‬ًٜٗ‫ػ٘يٓخ ىٗض رؤ‬ٝ "‫ء‬٢٘‫ْٔ ُي ر‬ٛ‫ي إٔ ح‬٣ٍ‫ "أ‬:‫خ‬ُٜ ٍ‫ هخ‬ٚٓ‫ػ٘يٓخ ؿخءص أ‬
‫حُال‬ٝ ٢٘‫ك‬ُٞ‫ى ح‬ُِٞٔ‫ٌح ح‬ٛ ‫ ػٖ ٓزذ‬ُٙٞ‫ ٓؤ‬ٝ ٚ‫َك‬ٜ‫ٕ ٖٓ ط‬ٞ‫حٍطخع حُٔظلَؿ‬.‫خ‬ٜ‫ٗي حهظالػ‬ٝ ٠ِ‫ػ‬
‫ً٘ض‬ٝ ‫َس‬٤‫ـ‬ٛ ‫خء‬٤ٗ‫َح ريأص رَٔهش أ‬٤‫ـ‬ٛ ‫ ػ٘يٓخ ً٘ض‬٢٘ٗ‫ أل‬،‫خ‬ُٜ ‫ "ػوخرخ‬:‫كؤؿخد‬،٢ٗ‫اٗٔخ‬
‫خ‬ٜ‫رٔزز‬ٝ ."‫الكع ًُي أكي‬٣ ُٖ" :ٍٞ‫طو‬ٝ ‫لي‬٠‫ ًخٗض ط‬٢‫ػوخر‬ٝ ٢‫ز‬٤ٗ‫ريال ٖٓ طؤ‬ٝ ٍُِِ٘ٔ َْٛ٠‫أك‬
:‫ق‬٤ُٔٔ‫ٍ ح‬ٞ‫و‬٣" ‫ٖ؛‬ٛ‫" هخٍ حٌُخ‬،‫خ حَُٔأس‬ٜ‫ظ‬٣‫ ٓلن أ‬ٚٗ‫ا‬."ّٞ٤ُ‫٘خ ح‬ٛ ‫أٗخ‬
."‫ن‬٣َ‫ٌح حُط‬ٛ ٍ‫ـخى‬٣ ُٖ َ‫ٌز‬٤ٓ ‫ػ٘يٓخ‬ٝ ٚ٤‫ ك‬٢٘ٔ٣ ٕ‫ـذ أ‬٣ ١ٌُ‫ن ح‬٣َ‫ حُط‬٠ِ‫ح حُطلَ ػ‬ٞ‫"ىٍر‬

Useful Dictionaries and articles