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2011 International Conference on Environment and Industrial Innovation

IPCBEE vol.12 (2011) © (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore

Urban Corridor Noise Pollution: A case study of Surat city, India

Bhaven Tandel 1, Dr. Joel Macwan 2, Pratik N. Ruparel 3


1
Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat
2
Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat
3
M. Tech (Scholar), Civil Engineering Department, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat

Abstract. Traffic related noise pollution accounts for nearly two-third of the total noise pollution in an
urban area. Noise, a by product of urbanization, industrialization and motorization, is increasingly recognized
as an environmental nuisance that effects human health and wellbeing. Traffic noise on existing urban road-
ways lowers the quality of life and property values for persons residing near these urban corridors
Surat is now the tenth largest city of India having an estimated population of 40 lakhs plus at present. An
inconceivable population growth rate of 76.02 % was observed in the last decade as a result of rapid
industrialization. Surat is well known as diamond city and is also famous for silk and jari industry. Owing to
its rapid industrialization and better job opportunities, observation is made for the migration from all over
India and particularly from Orissa, U.P., M.P., Bihar and Rajasthan.
Due to explosion of population and rapid industrialization the transportation in the city increased to un-
imaginary heights, but due to the want of efficient Mass Transit System, individual vehicular growth also
touched escalating heights. As on 31-12-2006, the vehicles registered at R.T.O. is 13 lakhs plus. This is
equivalent to the highest growth rate of Delhi. Thus the explosion of population, rapid industrialization and
highest growth rate in vehicle population made the traffic problems complicated.
This research paper highlights the noise pollution study carried out on three of the busiest urban corridors of
Surat city.
Keywords: Urban corridor, noise pollution, traffic noise

1. Introduction
Due to urbanization, there is a huge increase in the vehicular population on the urban corridors. In India,
transportation demand in urban areas continues to increase rapidly as a result of both population growth and
changes in travel patterns. During the first decade of the 21st century only, the urban areas in the country
confront a historic transportation crisis that has become a planning war against increasing mobility gridlock
and noise pollution. Due to absence of a good, convenient and efficient public transport system in urban
areas, there has been a need to develop the major corridors of the cities.
Traffic related noise pollution accounts for nearly two-third of the total noise pollution in an urban area.
Traffic noise on existing urban road-ways lowers the quality of life and property values for person residing in
vicinity of these urban corridors. Thus, the study of road traffic noise in big cities is an important issue. Due
to limited availability of land resources and finances, many highways and important roads are in the
residential and commercial areas. Hence there will be some adverse and environmental effects including
psychological and physiological effects to those living to proximity of these corridors.
The recognition of road traffic noise as one of the main sources of environmental pollution has led to
develop models that enable to predict noise level from fundamental variables. Traffic noise prediction
models are required as aids for urban corridors and highways. In addition, sometimes these models are used
in the assessment of existing or envisaged changes in traffic noise conditions.
So the present study was carried out to analyze the present state of noise pollution in three major
corridors of the Surat city and to develop a linear regression model to analyze the corridors and to suggest
proper measures to reduce the noise within permissible limits.
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2. Studyy Area Profile
In Indiaa, geographical point of view Surat city is 260 km north off Mumbai ciity and 224 km k south off
Ahmedabadd city. On map m it is locatted at Latituude 210o 12' N, Longitudde 72o 52'E near bank of o river Tapi..
Surat is a ciity located onn the westernn part of Inddia in the statte of Gujaratt. It is one off the most dy
ynamic citiess
of India witth one of thee fastest grow
wth rate due to t immigratiion from variious parts off Gujarat and d other statess
of India.
Surat iss now the tennth largest citty of India haaving an estiimated popullation of 40 llakhs plus att present. Ann
inconceivabble populatioon growth rate r of 76.022 % was ob bserved in thhe last decaade as a ressult of rapidd
industrializaation. Surat is
i well know wn as diamonnd city and iss also famouus for silk andd jari industrry. Owing too
its rapid inddustrializatioon and betterr job opportuunities, obseervation is made
m for the migration frrom all overr
India and paarticularly frrom Orissa, U.P.,
U Bihar.
Due to explosion of o populationn and rapid industrializaation the traansportation in the city increased too
unimaginaryy heights buut due to the want of effiicient Mass Transit
T systeem, individuual vehicular growth alsoo
touched thee heights. AsA on 31-122-2006, the vehicles
v reggistered at R.T.O.
R is 133.00 lakhs plus.
p This iss
equivalent tot the higheest growth raate of Delhii (capital of India) Thuss the explosiion of population, rapidd
industrializaation and higghest growthh rate in vehiccle populatio
on made the traffic
t probleems compliccated.
Surat ciity is an outccome of the expansion
e off the city’s liimits at varioous intervals geared to acccommodatee
the additionnal populatioon and the inccreasing economic activiities. In the year y 1664, thhe city was liimited to thee
inner walledd city coveriing an area of o 1.78 sq. kmms. In 1707,, with the coonstruction off the outer wall,
w the areaa
of the city increased
i to 7.36 sq. kmss. For the neext almost 25 50 years the increase in tthe city area wasn’t veryy
a in 1963 the city covered an area of 8.18 sq. kms. In the same year 133.77 sq. kmss. was addedd
significant and
to the city area,
a increasiing its total area
a to 21.955 sq. kms. Fro om 112.27 sq. kms, the ppresent area of Surat cityy
is 326.515 sq.
s kms. Surat’s populatiion has grow wn drastically y. In the yearr 2001 the poopulation of the city wass
around 25 laakhs and at present
p it is 40
4 lakhs pluss. (As shown n in Fig-1)

F 1: Year wise
Fig. w populatio
on of Surat cityy

Source: Suraat Municipal Corporation


C (S
SMC)

3. Vehiccular Growth of Su
urat city
The enoormous grow wth of the texxtile, diamonnd, and other Industries within
w the cityy, and setting
g up of largee
scale industtries in Hazirra and other industrial
i poockets aroun
nd the city haave resulted iin the increasse in trade &
commerce activities
a andd uplift of thhe socio-econnomic statuss of the peopple of Surat ccity. This is evident
e from
m
the exponenntial growth of vehicles; particularly the 2-wheelers and cars (fig 2). The composition n of vehicless
is shown in Fig 3.

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Fig. 2: Growth of vehicles registered at Surat city

Source: Regional Transport Office (RTO)

Fig. 3: Composition of registered vehicles (As on 31st March 2007)

Source: Regional Transport Office (RTO)

Total there are six corridors in Surat city. These corridors are (i) Kamrej-Varachha corridor (ii) Olpad-
Rander corridor (iii) Hazira-Adajan corridor (iv) Sachin-Udhna corridor (v) Kadodara-Sahara corridor (vi)
Dumas-Athwa corridor. These six corridors include diversified activities of business, residence,, commerce
and industries. A mix type of traffic has been observed on these corridors. Different type of land- use pattern
has been seen along these corridors. Due to these reasons, out of the six corridors, Athwa, Sahara and Udhna
corridors were selected for the study purpose.

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Fig. 4: Map of Surat city showing major corridors

4. Materials and methodology


The sound level meter used for this study was model no SL-4001. The step wise procedure followed in
the study has been illustrated below:
Profile of the road and its surroundings was prepared i.e. height of the building along the road, open
spaces along the road. Different main factors affect the traffic noise generation in most of the cities. In study
the main factors like traffic flow (vehicles/min), open space, building height along the road were measured.
The noise levels were measured at rush hours (5-8 pm). The readings were taken on 3 major corridors of
Surat city viz. (i) Kadodara-Sahara Darwaja road (ii) Dumas-Athwa Gate road & (iii) Sachin-Udhna Darwaja
road. The readings were taken at an interval of 150m. A total of 32 reading (16 on each side) were taken on 1
corridor. Following this procedure a total of 96 readings were taken on the three corridors. The urban
corridor noise model was built on the basis of readings of two corridors-sahara darwaja road & athwa gate
road and the model was tested on the third corridor- udhna darwaja road.
For a one single corridor, the 1st point was taken as 0 m and the no. of vehicles i.e. no. of 2-wheelers, 3-
wheelers, 4-wheelers passing through that section in 5 minutes were counted and a total of 16 readings were
taken on one side of the road .Following this procedure, 32 readings on both side of the road were taken for
one single corridor. After this the no. of vehicles were converted in Passenger Car Unit i.e. PCU. A factor of
0.75 for 2-w, 1 for 3 & 4 wheelers, 2.8 for buses and trucks respectively was adopted.

5. Results and discussion


Maximum noise was observed on Sahara corridor, the reason for this that on this corridor many business
activities take place in addition to that big shopping malls are located. Average noise is highest on Udhna
corridor due small scale industries and their related traffic movement. Maximum buildings are on Athwa
corridor, which greatly affects the noise produced by traffic. Maximum open spaces are available on Sahara
corridor and thus Sahara corridor has minimum average noise produced.
On all study corridors the maximum noise limits were ranging between (112-118) dB which was almost
1.5 times the permissible limits for commercial zone. The minimum noise level values were ranging between
(69-78) dB, which was still crossing permissible limits. Average noise level values were between (92-98) dB
which was crossing permissible limits.
Multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) was done for the combined effect of PCU, building height
and open spaces. The regression was done by the help of ORIGIN Software. The noise levels were regressed
2
against the different building heights and observed R value was found 0.81. This is indicating fairly strong
relationship between urban corridor noise and building height. When noise levels were regressed against the

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2
PCU, observed R value was found 0.77. This proves existence of direct relation between PCU and corridor
2
noise level. There is an inverse relationship between open space and noise level, with R value 0.60.
On the basis of the experimental values, the major parameters PCU, building height and open space were
regressed with noise level and regression model was built which is as follows.

Y = 73.99 + 0.05 X1 + 1.14 X2 – 0.088 X3

Where Y denotes noise recorded in decibels


X1 denotes road PCU per minute
X2 denotes building height along the road side
X3 denotes open space for section considered
2
This model has R value 0.76, which indicates good combined relationship of the three parameters upon
noise. If PCU and building height increases the noise increases, but when the open space increases the noise
level decreases. When regression was done by keeping noise as dependent variable and building height, PCU
2
as independent variable, the value of R obtained is 0.80. This shows that PCU and building height are
dominating factor for urban noise.
From the study, it is clearly observed that the contribution of 2-Wheelers and 3-Wheelers in the PCU
values are 38% and 43% respectively. This means that the maximum noise is produced by 2-W and 3-W
only.

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