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2 CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS

I. Multiple choice questions: (Tick the correct option).


1. In the combined state, carbon occurs as
(a) petroleum (b) diamond (c) graphite (d) none of the above

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2. A crystalline form of carbon is
(a) lamp black (b) gas carbon (c) sugar (d) fullerene

B
3. Diamond is used for

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(a) making electrodes of electric furnaces

A
(b) making crucible for melting metals
A
(c) cutting and drilling rocks and glass

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(d) making carbon brushes for electric motors
4. Carbon forms innumerable compounds because

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(a) it has four electrons in its outermost shell
(b) it behaves as a metal as well as a non-metal
(c) it combines with other elements to form covalent compounds

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(d) carbon atoms can form long chains
5. Burning of phosphorus is an example of
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(a) rapid combustion (b) spontaneous combustion
(c) explosion (d) none of the above
6. During fractional distillation of petroleum, which of the following
liquids is obtained in the range of 30°C to 120°C?

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(a) Diesel oil (b) Petrol

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(c) Lubricating oil (d) None of the above
7. Lamp black is
(a) an amorphous form of carbon (b) a crystalline form of carbon
(c) a pure form of carbon (d) a cluster of carbon atoms
8. The process by which decaying plants slowly convert into coal is
called
(a) petrification (b) carbonisation (c) carbonification (d) fermentation
9. The purest form of amorphous carbon is
(a) wood charcoal (b) sugar charcoal
(c) bone charcoal (d) lamp black
10. When diamond is heated in vacuum for a very long time, it changes to
(a) graphite (b) charcoal (c) lamp black (d) carbon dioxide
Chemistry Class VIII 1 Question Bank
11. Fullerene molecule [C60] is named after
(a) H.W. Kroto (b) R.F. Curl
(c) Robert Buckminster Fuller (d) R.E. Smalley
12. For combustion reactions
(a) air is essential (b) a combustible substance is essential
(c) both (a) and (b) are essential (d) none of the above
13. Petrol is
(a) combustible (b) a supporter of combustion

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(c) non-combustible (d) none of the above
14. Which of the following is a solid fuel?

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(a) Petrol (b) Kerosene (c) Coke (d) Methanol

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15. Graphite is used as lubricant because it is

A A
(a) good conductor of heat (b) good conductor of electricity
(c) very soft (d) soluble in oil

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16. The property due to which gases and liquids accumulate on the outer
surface of solids is known as

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(a) absorption (b) adsorption (c) adhesion (d) cohesion
17. When steam is passed over white hot coke, it forms

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(a) carbon dioxide and water (b) carbon dioxide and hydrogen
(c) carbon monoxide and hydrogen

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(d) carbon monoxide and methane

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18. The process due to which heated ferric oxide changes to metallic iron
on passing carbon monoxide gas over it is called
(a) oxidation (b) reduction (c) dehydration (d) decomposition

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19. The content of carbon in anthracite variety of coal is
(a) 90% – 95% (b) 75% – 80% (c) 60% – 70% (d) 50% – 60%

IN
20. The product which is not obtained from the fractional distillation of
crude petroleum is
(a) kerosene oil (b) lubricating oil (c) linseed oil (d) diesel oil
21. Activated charcoal is used in
(a) the extraction of metals from their ores
(b) removing bacteria from drinking water
(c) making black paints (d) making kajal
22. Anthracite is a/an
(a) inferior type of coal (b) superior type of coal
(c) cheapest form of coal (d) none of the above
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23. Destructive distillation of coal yields
(a) coal tar (b) coal gas (c) coke (d) all the above
24. The allotrope of carbon that conducts electricity is
(a) coke (b) diamond (c) coal (d) graphite
25. Wood charcoal floats on water, because it is
(a) lighter than air (b) heavier than water
(c) porous (d) not soluble in water

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26. Carbon is a good
(a) reducing agent (b) oxidising agent

B
(c) displacing agent (d) hydrating agent

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27. On destructive distillation, bituminous coal yields

A
(a) water gas (b) producer gas (c) coal gas (d) none of the above
A
28. Which poisonous gas is formed as a result of incomplete

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combustion?
(a) Carbon monoxide (b) Coal gas

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(c) Carbon dioxide (d) Nitrogen dioxide
29. Diamond and graphite are
(a) metals (b) homologues (c) allotropes (d) organic compounds

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30. Buckminsterfullerene has
(a) 60 C-atoms (b) 60 H-atoms (c) 60 O-atoms (d) all the above
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31. When heated at 700°C in oxygen, graphite is oxidised to
(a) carbon dioxide (b) carbon monoxide
(c) diamond (d) none of these
32. Wood charcoal is used

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(a) in gas masks (b) as a pesticide

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(c) in making jewellery (d) in cutting diamonds
33. The compounds of which of the following makes up the structure of
all living things?
(a) Carbon (b) Hydrogen (c) Iodine (d) Iron
34. Organic chemistry is the study of
(a) organs (b) carbon compounds
(c) hydrogen compounds (d) none of the above
35. Diamond is
(a) made up of carbon atoms (b) an oxide of carbon
(c) a compound of carbon (d) solidified carbon dioxide
36. When carbon-rich compounds burn we get
(a) lampblack (b) petrol (c) oxygen (d) none of the above
Chemistry Class VIII 3 Question Bank
37. Which one of the following is a mixture of charcoal, potassium
nitrate and sulphur?
(a) Printing ink (b) Graphite (c) Gun powder (d) Soot
38. The chemicals used in soda-acid fire extinguisher are
(a) sodium carbonate and acetic acid
(b) calcium bicarbonate and sulphuric acid
(c) sodium bicarbonate and sulphuric acid
(d) magnesium bicarbonate and sulphuric acid
39. Coal mainly contains
(a) carbon

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(b) nitrogen and sulphur
(c) carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen (d) none of the above
40. Calorific value of a fuel is the heat energy produced when
(a) one gram of the fuel is completely burnt

A
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(b) one kilogram of the fuel is completely burnt
(c) one milligram of the fuel is completely burnt
(d) hundred grams of the fuel is completely burnt
41. Good fuels have

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(a) low ignition temperature and high calorific value
(b) low ignition temperature and low calorific value

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(c) high ignition temperature and high calorific value
(d) high ignition temperature and low calorific value

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Ans. 1. (d) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (b) 6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (b) 9. (b) 10. (a)
11. (c) 12. (c) 13. (a) 14. (c) 15. (c) 16. (b) 17. (c) 18. (b) 19. (a)
20. (c) 21. (b) 22. (b) 23. (d) 24. (d) 25. (c) 26. (a) 27. (c) 28. (a)
29. (c) 30. (a) 31. (a) 32. (a) 33. (a) 34. (b) 35. (a) 36. (a) 37. (c)
38. (c) 39. (a) 40. (a) 41. (a).
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II. Match the statements/words in Column A with those in Column B.

IN Column A
1. A compound formed by the
combination of haemoglobin
Column B
(a) No air pollution

and carbon monoxide.


2. A mixture of metallic oxides. (b) Petroleum
3. Fossil fuel (c) Carboxyhaemoglobin
4. Biogas (d) Hopcolite
5. Non-luminous (e) Zone of complete combustion
6. Purified kerosene oil (f) Jet engine fuel
Ans. 1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (e) 6. (f)
Chemistry Class VIII 4 Question Bank
III. A. Fill in the blanks with appropriate word.
1. ........................ is a crystalline allotrope of carbon built up from a
tetrahedral unit.
2. ........................ an amorphous allotrope of carbon, is used for making
printer’s ink and black shoe polish.
3. To increase the adsorption capacity of wood charcoal, a process
called ........................ is carried out.

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4. Organic wastes such as animal dung are made to decay in the absence
air to give ........................, a gaseous fuel.

B
5. A ........................ fire extinguisher contains sodium bicarbonate

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solution and a bottle containing conc. sulphuric acid.

A
6. ........................ is formed when carbon is burnt in a free supply of air
or oxygen.
A
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7. Carbon monoxide burns in air with a ........................ flame to form
carbon dioxide.

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8. Carbon monoxide is a ........................ of combustion.
9. A mixture of 95% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide is called
........................ .

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10. Carbon monoxide is used as a ........................ in the extraction of pure

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metals from their corresponding ores.

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11. Coal and petroleum are ........................ fuels.
12. The temperature at which a combustible substance catches fire is
called its ........................ .

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13. ........................ is added to LPG to detect its leakage.
14. Combustion is an ........................ reaction.

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15. ................. is formed when charcoal is burnt in a limited supply of air.
16. Coal is a/an ........................ form of carbon.
17. ........................ is the most inferior form of coal.
18. Wood charcoal is a ........................ conductor of heat and electricity.
19. The element ........................ is present in both living and non-living
things.
20. The tendency of an element to exist in two or more forms but in the
same physical state is called ........................ .
21. ................... and .................... are the two major allotropes of carbon.
22. ........................ is the hardest substance that occurs naturally.
23. The name ‘carbon’ is derived from the Latin word ........................ .
Chemistry Class VIII 5 Question Bank
24. Wood charcoal is an excellent ........................ agent.
25. Gas carbon is used for making electrodes used in ........................ .
26. Purified coal gas is used as a household ...................... .
27. Black diamonds are used for cutting and polishing other .................. .
28. Coal is formed due to removal of hydrogen from the buried forests
by ........................ bacteria.
29. The fractions obtained by the ........................ of residual oil are
asphalt, paraffin wax and lubricating oils.

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30. Natural gas consists of 95% ........................ and 5% of other
hydrocarbons.
31. An ideal fuel should leave no ........................ on combustion.
32. Domestic gas cylinders contain mostly ........................ .

A A
33. Burning of wood and coal causes ........................ of air.
34. Fossil fuels are obtained from ........................ matter.

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35. Water gas is obtained by passing steam over white hot coke at
temperatures above ........................ .

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36. Haemoglobin has a great affinity for ........................ .
37. ........................ is the simplest hydrocarbon.

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Ans. 1. Diamond 2. Lamp black 3. activation 4. biogas 5. soda-acid 6. Carbon
monoxide 7. pale blue 8. non-supporter 9. carbogen 10. reducing agent

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11. fossil 12. ignition temperature 13. Ethyl mercaptan 14. oxidation
15. Carbon dioxide 16. amorphous 17. Peat 18. bad 19. carbon
20. allotropy 21. Coal; graphite 22. Diamond 23. carbo 24. adsorbing
25. dry cells 26. fuel 27. diamonds 28. anaerobic 29. fractional

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distillation 30. methane31. residue/ash 32. LPG 33. pollution 34. organic
35. 1000°C 36. carbon monoxide 37. Methane

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B. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the given list.
[List: sodium bicarbonate, marsh gas, carbon, solid fuels, hydrogen, coke,
solid carbon dioxide, gaseous substances, carbon, gasoline, sulphuric acid.]
1. The important chemicals used in fire extinguishers are ........................
and ........................ .
2. Dry ice is ........................ .
3. Hydrocarbons are compounds of ........................ and ........................ .
4. Dry distillation of coal leaves behind ........................ as residue.
5. Methane is also called ........................ .
6. Another name for petrol is ........................ .
Chemistry Class VIII 6 Question Bank
7. ........................ have low calorific value than liquid fuels.
8. A flame is a zone of combustion of ........................ .
9. All organic compounds contain the element ........................ .
Ans. 1. sodium bicarbonate, sulphuric acid
2. solid carbon dioxide 3.carbon, hydrogen
4. coke 5. marsh gas 6. gasoline 7. Solid fuels
8. gaseous substances 9. carbon.

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C. Choose the correct word from the brackets.
1. Oxides of carbon and bicarbonates are considered as (inorganic/

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organic) compounds.

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2. The crystal of (graphite/diamond) is opaque to light and X-rays and

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is a good conductor of heat.
3. (Coal/coke) is used as a reducing agent in the iron and steel industry.

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4. Adsorption capacity of wood charcoal is increased by passing (steam/
carbon dioxide) over it at high temperatures.

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5. Petroleum is refined by (distillation/fractional distillation) to
separate the various hydrocarbon constituents present in it.
Ans. 1. Inorganic 2. Graphite 3. Coke 4. Steam 5. Fractional distillation.

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IV. A. State whether the following statements are true or false. If false,

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write the correct statements

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1. Carbon burns in a free supply of air forming carbon monoxide.
Ans. False: Carbon burns in free supply of oxygen forming carbon dioxide.
2. Oxygen is a combustible gas and a supporter of combustion.
Ans. False: Oxygen is not a combustible gas but a supporter of
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combustion.

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3. A foam type of fire extinguisher can be used for fighting electrical
fires.
Ans. False: A foam type fire extinguisher can be used for fighting oil fires.
4. Both diamond and graphite are good conductors of electricity.
Ans. False: Graphite is a good conductor of electricity.
5. Coke is prepared by destructive distillation of coal.
Ans. True
6. All carbon compounds are called hydrocarbons.
Ans. False: All compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are called
hydrocarbons.
7. Carbon is an organogen element.
Chemistry Class VIII 7 Question Bank
Ans. True
8. Diamond is the purest form of carbon.
Ans. True
9. Lamp black is used in the manufacture of gun powder.
Ans. False: Lamp black is used in the manufacture of shoe polishes.
10. Gas carbon is a gaseous form of carbon.
Ans. False: Gas carbon is an amorphous form of carbon.
11. Petroleum gas consists mainly of methane.
Ans.
12.
Ans.
13.
True

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Graphite is the purest form of carbon.
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False: Petroleum gas consists mainly of butane.
Carbon constitutes 0.03% of the earth’s crust.

Ans.
14.

Ans.
A A
False: Diamond is the purest form of carbon.
Coloured diamonds are costlier than colourless and transparent

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diamonds.
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False: Colourless, transparent diamonds are costlier than coloured

15.
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diamonds.
Graphite has layers of hexagonal carbon bondings.

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Ans. True
16. Diamond is insoluble in all solvents.

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Ans. True
17. Asphalt is used for making candles and lubricants.
Ans. False: Asphalt is used for paving roads and making waterproof
materials.

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18. Petrol is used as a domestic fuel.
Ans. False: Petrol is used as a motor fuel.

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19. Natural gas contains mainly methane.
Ans. True
20. Liquid sulphur is added to LPG to detect its leakage.
Ans. False: Ethyl mercaptan is added to LPG to detect its leakage.
21. Sleeping in a closed room with a charcoal fire burning can be harmful.
Ans. True
22. Charcoal is a good adsorbent.
Ans. True
23. Coke is obtained by the destructive distillation of sugar.
Ans. False: Coke is obtained by the destructive distillation of coal.

Chemistry Class VIII 8 Question Bank


24.Activated charcoal is a good conductor of electricity.
Ans.False: Activated charcoal is a good disinfectant.
25.Wood charcoal is an important constituent of gun powder.
Ans.True
26.Coal gas is used in the preparation of artificial fertilisers.
Ans.False: Coal gas is used as a household fuel.
27.Carbonisation of an organic substance means converting it to carbon

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by heat.
Ans. True

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28. A fuel is a substance that can produce heat at a reasonable cost.
Ans. True
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A
29. Petroleum is also called crude oil.
Ans. True
A
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30. Coal gas is formed when plant matter breaks down under water.
Ans. False: Coal gas is obtained by the destructive distillation of coal.

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31. Methane and nitrogen are the main components of biogas.
Ans. False: Methane and hydrogen are the main components of biogas.

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B. The statements given below are incorrect. Write the correct
statements

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1. A mixture of powdered charcoal and copper oxide, on heating, forms

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copper metal and carbon dioxide gas.
Ans. A mixture of powdered charcoal and copper oxide, on heating forms
copper metal and carbon monoxide gas.
2. Black diamond is not very hard and is used for making cheap

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jewellery.

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Ans. Black diamond is extremely hard and is used for polishing other
diamonds.
3. Graphite is a good conductor of heat and a bad conductor of
electricity.
Ans. Graphite is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
4. Bone charcoal is used for making boot polishes.
Ans. Bone charcoal is used for decolourising sugarcane juice during the
manufacture of sugar.
5. In a limited supply of air, charcoal burns to form carbon dioxide.
Ans. In a limited supply of air, charcoal burns to form carbon monoxide.
6. Carbon monoxide is produced when petrol is burnt in excess of air.
Ans. Carbon dioxide is produced when petrol is burnt in excess of air.
Chemistry Class VIII 9 Question Bank
7. Petroleum deposits are usually mixed with muddy water.
Ans. Petroleum deposits are usually mixed with salt water.
8. During fractional distillation of petroleum, petrol separates at a
temperature between 170°C to 250°C.
Ans. During fractional distillation of petroleum, petrol separates at a
temperature between 40°C to 170°C.
V. Name the following.
1. The allotrope of carbon used in making lead pencils.

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2. The term used for substances which have low ignition temperatures
and catch fire easily.
3. The type of fire extinguisher used for fighting electrical and oil fires.
4. The organic compound mixed with LPG so that its smell can be

A A
detected in case of leakage.
5. The allotropes of carbon which form a crystal.

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6. The type of coal with the highest carbon content.
7. The amorphous allotrope of carbon which floats on water.

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8. The fraction of petroleum used in making candles.
9. The gas formed by the decomposition of plant and animal wastes in

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the absence of air.
10. The main constituent of biogas.

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11. The main constituent of LPG.

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12. Substances whose atoms or molecules are arranged in a definite
pattern.
13. Different forms of an element found in the same physical state.
14. A greyish black non-metal that is a good conductor of electricity.
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15. The third crystalline form of carbon other than diamond and graphite.

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16. The zone that lies at the bottom of a flame.
17. A form of carbon used in gas masks.
18. A hydrocarbon used as a fuel for aeroplanes.
19. A mixture of gases obtained by passing steam through white hot
charcoal.
20. A gas mined from the earth containing 95% of methane and 5% of
other gaseous hydrocarbons.
21. A substance known as black lead or plumbago.
22. Substances whose atoms or molecules are not arranged in a
geometrical pattern.
23. The purest form of amorphous carbon.
Chemistry Class VIII 10 Question Bank
24. An amorphous form of carbon that contains about 98% carbon.
25. Mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
Ans. 1. Graphite 2. Inflammable 3. Liquid carbon dioxide fire extinguisher
4. Ethyl mercaptan 5. Diamond, graphite, fullerenes 6. Anthracite
7. Wood charcoal 8. Paraffin wax 9. Methane 10. Methane 11. Butane
12. Crystals 13. Allotropes 14. Graphite 15. Fullerenes 16. Blue zone
17. Activated charcoal 18. Purified kerosene oil 19. Water gas

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20. Natural gas 21. Graphite 22. Amorphous substances 23. Sugar
charcoal 24. Lamp black 25. Water gas.

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VI. Find the odd one out. Give reasons for your choice.

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1. Petroleum, coal, natural gas, kerosene.

A A
Ans. Kerosene: It is a product of fractional distillation of petroleum.
Others are fossil fuels, which are obtained directly from the earth’s
crust.

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2. Peat, lignite, bituminous, coke, anthracite

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Ans. Coke: It is obtained by destructive distillation of coal. Others are the
various types of coal.
3. Gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, methane, lubricating oil.

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Ans. Methane: It is a natural gas. Others are the various fractions of
petroleum obtained on destructive distillation.
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VII. Give reasons for the following.
1. Diamond and graphite are the allotropic modifications of carbon.
Ans. The number of carbon atoms are different and they are arranged in a
different manner in diamond and graphite.

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2. Electrodes in an electrolytic cell used in the electrolysis of molten

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lead bromide are made of graphite.
Ans. Graphite is a good conductor of electricity, it can withstand high
temperatures and is not affected by acids or alkalis.
3. A piece of wood charcoal floats on water, but if the water is boiled the
charcoal sinks to the bottom.
Ans. Wood charcoal is porous and adsorbs gases in its pores. Thus it floats
on water.
When water is boiled, the adsorbed gases in wood charcoal escape and
it sinks.
4. It is necessary to keep all windows open and allow proper ventilation
during winter nights when a person sleeps in a closed room with a
coal fire burning.
Chemistry Class VIII 11 Question Bank
Ans. In a closed room there is a limited supply of oxygen and hence coal
burns forming carbon monoxide which cannot escape out. This carbon
monoxide if inhaled combines with haemoglobin forming a stable
compound carboxy-haemoglobin which prevents haemoglobin from
taking up oxygen. Thus the person dies of suffocation.
5. A burning candle can be extinguished by blowing air on it.
Ans. When air is blown over a burning candle, cool air creates a fall in
temperature. Thus, the temperature of the burning vapours of the

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candle falls below its ignition temperature and it extinguishes.
6. A soda acid fire extinguisher is not used for fighting oil fires.
Ans. A jet of water comes out along with CO2 when the chemicals in the
fire extinguisher is made to react. Oil being lighter than water floats

A A
and continues burning on top of water.
7. Carbon monoxide interferes with the normal process of respiration.

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Ans. Carbon monoxide combines with haemoglobin to form carboxy-
haemoglobin. It destroys the oxygen carrying capacity of blood and

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therefore the person dies of suffocation.
8. Diamond is used as a tip for deep boring drills.

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Ans. Diamond is the hardest substance known and it can cut rocks and other
materials. Therefore, it is used for making the tip of deep boring

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drills.
9. It is dangerous to stand in a closed garage with the car engine running.
Ans. In a closed garage there is a limited supply of oxygen and hence petrol
burns forming carbon monoxide which cannot escape out. This carbon

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monoxide, if inhaled, combines with haemoglobin present in the
blood, forming a stable compound carboxy-haemoglobin which

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prevents haemoglobin from taking up oxygen. Thus a person dies of
suffocation.
10. Graphite is used for making lubricants.
Ans. Graphite is soft and slippery and therefore, it is used in making
lubricants.
11. LPG used for domestic consumption smells even though it is an
odourless gas.
Ans. LPG forms an explosive mixture with air. Since it is used as a
domestic fuel, if the gas leaks in the kitchen, the explosive mixture
will burst into flames on lighting a match stick. Therefore, LPG is
Chemistry Class VIII 12 Question Bank
mixed with ethyl mercaptan, a foul smelling volatile liquid, so that its
leakage can be easily detected.
VIII. Question – Answers.
1. What are organogens? Name four elements which are called
organogens.
Ans. The elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are known as
organogens or substance from which organic life (i.e., plants and
animals) starts.

(i) solid state

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2. Name two substances in which carbon occurs in:

B
(ii) liquid state
Ans. (i) Diamond, graphite — solid state
(iii) gaseous state.

3. Define: A
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A
(ii) Petrol, diesel — liquid state
(iii) Carbon dioxide, methane — gaseous state.

(i) Allotropy (ii) Ignition temperature

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(iii) Combustion (iv) Inflammable substances.
Ans. (i) The phenomenon due to which an element exhibits different

D physical forms which have the same chemical properties is called


allotropy.

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(ii) The minimum temperature to which a substance is heated before
it catches fire is called ignition temperature.
(iii) The chemical process in which a substance burns in air or
oxygen, with the release of heat and light energy is called

T combustion.
(iv) The substances which have very low ignition temperatures are

IN known as inflammable substances.


4. How is wood charcoal prepared?
Ans. Wood charcoal is prepared by burning wood in the absence of air or
in a limited supply of air.
5. State four uses of black diamond.
Ans. Black diamond is used for :
(i) cutting glass as well as diamonds
(ii) polishing diamonds
(iii) making bearings in watches
(iv) making tips of deep boring drills.

Chemistry Class VIII 13 Question Bank


6. Explain the use of graphite in nuclear reactors.
Ans. Graphite is used to slow down the excess neutrons produced by the
splitting of atoms of uranium and thorium in nuclear reactors.
7. State one important use of bone charcoal.
Ans. Bone charcoal is used for decolourising sugarcane juice during the
manufacture of sugar.
8. What is the composition of bone charcoal?
Ans. Bone charcoal contains 60% calcium phosphate and 40% organic

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matter.
9. What is ivory black or bone black?

B
Ans. Bone charcoal is treated with concentrated hydrochloric acid when

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calcium phosphate dissolves leaving behind carbon. The carbon is

A
filtered out from the solution and is called bone black or ivory black.
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10. How is lamp black prepared on a large scale?

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Ans. Kerosene oil, burnt in an insufficient supply of air, burns with a
smoky flame. When this smoke is allowed to cool, the carbon settles

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down in the form of black powder called soot or lamp black.
11. What are the products obtained on destructive distillation of coal?
Give one use of each of the products.

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Ans. Coke, coal tar, ammonia liquor and coal gas are the products obtained
by the destructive distillation of coal.
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Uses of:
(i) Coke: As a reducing agent in the extraction of metals from their
ores.
(ii) Coal tar: The chemicals obtained by fractional distillation of

Tcoal tar is used for making dyes, drugs and explosives.

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(iii) Coal gas: Used as a household fuel.
12. What is crude oil? Name five major fractions obtained from crude oil
and one use of each.
Ans. Crude oil or petroleum is a complex mixture of solid, liquid, and
gaseous hydrocarbons, salt water and earthy particles.
The five major fractions obtained from crude oil are:
(i) Gasoline or petrol: Used as a fuel for light vehicles such as
scooters, cars, etc.
(ii) Kerosene oil: Used as an aviation fuel in the purified form.
(iii) Diesel oil: Used as a fuel in heavy vehicles.
(iv) Fuel oil: Used as a fuel in industrial furnaces.
Chemistry Class VIII 14 Question Bank
13. Define LPG. State the advantages of using LPG as a domestic fuel.
Ans. The petroleum gas when subjected to high pressure at room
temperature gets liquefied. It is highly volatile in nature and changes
to gas as soon as the pressure is removed. This liquefied petroleum
gas is known as LPG.
14. (a) State the composition of natural gas.
(b) State two uses of natural gas.

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Ans. (i) Natural gas contains 95% methane and 5% mixture of ethane,
propane and ethylene.
(ii) (a) It is used as a fuel in homes, automobiles and industries.
(b) As a source of hydrogen and carbon, on pyrolysis of the gas.

A A
The hydrogen obtained is used in the manufacture of
ammonia which is further used to make fertilizers.

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15. How is biogas prepared? What are the advantages of using biogas?
Ans. A slurry of animal dung or crop waste and water is allowed to ferment

U AT
for 30 to 40 days in a digester tank at a temperature of 35°C in the
absence of air. During this process anaerobic bacteria slowly breaks

D
down complex organic compounds in it to biogas.
Advantages of using biogas:

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(i) It is a clean fuel with high calorific value.
(ii) It is a cheap fuel and produces manure as a by product.
(iii) It has no storage problem and can be supplied to homes by a
network of pipelines.

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16. What are three conditions necessary for combustion?
Ans. The three conditions necessary for combustion are:

IN
(i) Presence of a combustible substance.
(ii) Presence of a supporter of combustion.
(iii) Heat required to raise the temperature of the combustible
substance above ignition temperature.
17. How can you control a fire?
Ans. A fire can be controlled by:
(i) Removing all combustible substances from the vicinity of fire.
(ii) Cutting off the supply of oxygen.
(iii) Lowering the temperature of the combustible substance below
its ignition point.
18. What steps are taken to rescue a person whose clothes have caught
Chemistry Class VIII 15 Question Bank
fire?
Ans. The person is wrapped in a thick blanket when his clothes have caught
fire. This helps to cut off the supply of air and extinguishes the fire.
19. What are the various zones of a candle flame? Describe each of them
in brief.
Ans. The various zones of a candle flame are:
(i) Blue zone: This zone is formed at the base of the wick where
rapid and complete combustion of wax vapours take place.
Therefore, this zone appears light blue in colour.

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(ii) Dark inner zone: The zone surrounding the wick of the candle
contains unburnt wax vapours, which partially decomposes to
form free carbon. No combustion takes place in this zone and
therefore, it is the coolest part of the candle flame.

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L ION
A
(iii) Visible zone: The zone surrounding the dark inner zone where
incomplete combustion of wax vapours takes place with the
liberation of free carbon particles. These carbon particles
become very hot and emit yellow light.

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(iv) Invisible zone: The outermost zone where complete
combustion of wax vapours take place. It is the hottest part of

20.
D the candle flame.
How does a soda acid fire extinguisher work?

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Ans. A soda acid fire extinguisher contains a metallic cylinder filled with
sodium bicarbonate. At the base of the cylinder is a sealed thin glass
tube filled with concentrated sulphuric acid. It is surrounded by a
fixed wire gauze cage. A plunger is placed at the bottom whose sharp

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end is just above the glass test tube. On the top of the cylinder is a

IN
nozzle which is sealed with wax.
In case of a fire, the plunger is hit against the floor which breaks the
glass test tube. The acid in the test tube reacts with sodium
bicarbonate to produce carbon dioxide gas. The carbon dioxide
produced, increases the pressure inside the cylinder. Due to this, the
wax seal blows off and the solution within the cylinder along with
carbon dioxide comes out with great force through the nozzle. This is
directed at the fire which in turn goes off.

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Chemistry Class VIII 16 Question Bank