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Soap and detergent

 Give the definition of soap and some examples of soap

 Salt that are formed by neutralization between a fatty acid and an


 One example of soap is sodium palmitate, CH₃(CH₂)₁₄COONa. It is

formed when palmatic acid is neutralized by sodium hydroxide, NaOH.

CH₃(CH₂)₁₄COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) → CH₃(CH₂)₁₄COONa(aq) +H₂O(l)

 Briefly explain the history of the soap manufacturing in a flowchart.

 In the past, soap was made by mixing animal fats with alkaline and wood
 Large-scale commercial soapmaking occurred in 1791 when a French
Chemist, Nicholas Leblanc patented a process for making soda ash or
sodium carbonate from common salt. The process yielded large quantities of
quality soda ash.
 Soap can be prepared through saponification. Use a flow chart to show soap
preparation process in the laboratory, starting with the raw materials. Include
any relevant chemical equation.

 Oils and fats are esters formed from glycerol and fatty acids.

 It made up through heating oils or fats with an alkali such as sodium

hydroxide, NaOH.

 The oil or fat molecules are “broken up” or hydrolyzed to glyce ro l and fatty

 This reaction is the reverse of esterification (saponication)

 The fatty acids formed then react with sodium hydroxide, NaOH to form a salt

Saponification of oils or fats

 Fats and oils are hydrolyzed (split) with a high-pressure steam to yield crude fatty
acids and glycerol.
 The fatty acids are then purified by distillation and neutralized with an alkali to
produce soap and water (neat soap-soap in liquid form).
 Fatty acid + NaOH → Glycerol + Sodium soap

 Sodium soaps are "hard" soaps.

 The more saturated the oil (tropical vegetable oils such as coconut
oil), the harder the soap.

 Fatty acid + KOH → Glycerol + Potassium soap

 Potassium soaps are softer and are found in some liquid hand soaps
and shaving creams.
 Give the definition of detergent and some examples of detergents.

 Salt that are formed by neutralizing an alkyl hydrogen sulphate with an alkali.

 One example of detergent is sodium lauryl sulphate

 Detergents may contain many other substances in addition to the substances

that does the cleaning and also to make it more effective.

 These substances are called additives

 Use a flow chart to summarize the steps in the preparation of detergent.

Include any relevant chemical equation.

A synthetic detergent, a sodium alkyl sulfate called sodium dodecylsulfate, will be

prepared by reacting dodecyl alcohol (dodecanol) with sulfuric acid.

Dodecanol Sulfuric acid Dodecylsulfate

The resulting dodecylsulfate is converted to the sodium salt by a reaction with

sodium hydroxide.

Dodecylsulfate sodium
 Both soap and detergent clean so much better than water alone. Use a flow
chart and colourful diagram to summarize the cleansing action of soap and

 One part of the soap and detergent anion is negatively charged (polar end).
- It dissolves in water. It is hydrophilic or “likes water”.

 The other part has no charge (non-polar end)

- It dissolves in oil or grease. It is hydrophobic or “hates water”.

 These two parts work together to remove grease.

 When soap or detergent is added to the dirty surface of a piece of cloth covered with
a layer of oil or grease

(a) The negatively charged ‘heads’ (hydrophilic) of soap ions or detergents ions
in water

(b)The hydrocarbon ‘tails’ (hydrophobic) of soap or detergent ions dissolves in the layer
of grease

 If the water is agitated slightly, the grease begins to lifted off the surface.

 When the cloth is rinsed with water, the droplets will be carried away

 Heating and stirring may help to loosen the dirt particles from the material being
 Compare and contrast the effectiveness of cleansing action of soap and
detergent in hard water by using mind maps or table.

Hard water contains a great amount of calcium and magnesium ions. These ions react with
the soap to form an insoluble precipitate known as soap scum.

Properties Soap Detergent

Cleaning power Less powerfull More powerfull

Ease of rinsing It is difficult to wash away all soap Rinse out well from clothes
on clothes. The soap that remains
leave and odour and spoils the
pH Slightly alkaline Can be controlled to suit the
cleaning task
Molecular structure Determined by the fatty acids found Can be modified to suit the
in the oil or fat used to produce soap cleaning task. For example,
a detergent can be made
specially for cleaning toilet
Formation of scum Form scum with hard water Does not form scum with
hard water
 Detergent consists of various additives. What is the purpose of adding
detergent additives? Construct a mind map to show the additives in detergent
and their respective functions.

Addictives Example Function

Biological enzyme Amylases, proteases, To remove protein
cellulases stains such as blood
Whitening agent Sodium perborate To convert stains into
colourless substances
Optical whitener Fluorescent dyes To add brightness and
whiteness to white
Builder Sodium tripolyphosphate To enhance the
cleaning efficiency of
detergent by softening
the water
Suspension agent carboxymethylcellulose To prevent the dirt
particles removed from
redepositing onto
cleaned fabrics.
Filler Sodium sulphate, sodium To add to tha bulk of the
silicate detergents and enable it
to be poured easily
Foam control agents Silicones To control foaming in
Fragrance - To add fragrance to
both detergent and