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-AéU Hw$‘ma Cnmܶm¶, H$Q>H$-753001 (Amo{‹S>em)
0671-2304172/2304433, (‘mo) 09437034172
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(gmam§e)
gy¶© {gÕmÝV VWm Aݶ g^r {gÕmÝV J«ÝWm| ‘| {H$gr ñWmZ na MÝÐ VWm gy¶© J«hU H$s JUZm {d{Y ~Vm¶r J¶r h¡& {H$gr ^r J«ÝW ‘|
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CëboI h¡ {H$ ÛmaH$m go ^JdmZ² H¥$îU VWm Aݶ ¶mXd gy¶©-J«hU XoIZo Ho$ {b¶o Am¶o Wo Vmo CZH$s ^|Q> d¥ÝXmdZ go Am¶o ZÝX Or go
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JaZm H¡$go R>rH$ hmoVr Wr Bg {df¶ ‘| MMm© h¡&
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1. J«hU nÕ{V-gy¶© {gÕmÝV VWm Aݶ J{UV Á¶mo{Vf J«ÝWm| ‘| {H$gr ñWmZ na J«hU H$s gå^mdZm, J«hU H$m ‘ܶH$mb, J«mg ‘mZ
VWm ñne©-‘moj H$s {Xem VWm CZHo$ n[aboI H$s {d{Y¶m§ ~Vm¶r J¶r h¢& {H$ÝVw MÝÐ-J«hU {H$g joÌ ‘| hmoJm ¶m gy¶© J«hU ‘| MÝБm
H$s N>m¶m H$m ‘mJ© ³¶m hmoJm BgH$s {d{Y Zht Xr J¶r h¡& ¶o {d{Y¶m§ nyd© H$mb ‘| kmV Wt, BgH$m à‘mU h¡ {H$ lr‘X²^mJdV nwamU,
1/82 Aܶm¶ Ho$ AZwgma ^JdmZ² H¥$îU VWm Aݶ ¶mXd JU ÛmaH$m go Hw$éjoÌ ‘| gy¶©-J«hU XoIZo Ho$ {b¶o ‘hm^maV go Hw$N> nyd©
Am¶o Wo& Cgr g‘¶ d¥ÝXmdZ go ZÝX Or ^r Jmon JUm| Ho$ gmW Am¶o Wo& V~ CZH$s ^|Q> hþ¶r Wr& Bggo ñnîQ> h¡ {H$ Cg H$mb ‘| ^r
¶h nVm Wm {H ${H$g ñWmZ ‘| gy¶© J«hU H$~ hmoJm& {deofH$a ‘Wwam Ho$ ~Xbo Hw$éjoÌ ‘| XrIoJm ¶m A{YH$ A§e XrIoJm, BgH$m ^r
kmZ Wm& ‘Wwam VWm Hw$éjoÌ$Ho$ ~rM grYr Xÿar 250 {H$.‘r. go A{YH$ Zht h¡& gy¶J© h« U H$m joÌ àm¶: BVZm hr hmoVm h¡& ‘hm^maV
H$mb ‘| Am¶©^Q> Ho$ ‘hm {gÕmÝV (2/2) Ho$ AZwgma 2 àH$ma Ho$ ‘V àM{bV Wo-Am¶©-‘V VWm namea-‘V& Am¶© ‘V Ho$ AZwgma
Am¶©^Q> Zo 2 J«ÝW {bIo-Am¶©^Q>-{gÕmÝV (AZwnbãY) VWm Am¶©^Q>-VÝÌ ¶m Am¶©^Q>r¶& Am¶©^Q> Zo AnZm g‘¶ OÝ‘-H$mb 327
H${b {X¶m Wm (60 df© Ho$ 6 MH«$ nyU© hmoZo na 23 df© Am¶w)& na nmíMm˶m| H$mo ¶h ghZ Zht hþAm, VWm 60 df© Ho$ 6 MH«$m| H$mo
60 MH«$ ~Zm¶m J¶m& Cg H$mb ‘| nmQ>{bnwÌ Zht Wm VWm {ejm H$m Ho$ÝÐ Hw$gw‘nwa H$hbmVm Wm& namea ‘V H$m dU©Z {dîUw-nwamU ‘|
h¡, {OgHo$ AmYma na ~«÷JwßV Zo ~«m÷-ñ’w$Q>-{gÕmÝV {bIm& CZHo$ {nVm {OîUw-Jwá H$m CëboI damh{‘{ha Zo ~¥hX² OmVH$
(Am¶wXm©¶) ‘| {H$¶m h¡ ({dîUwJwá) {Ogo H$m{bXmg Zo Á¶mo{V{d©Xm^aU (20/8-9) ‘| {OîUw H$hm h¡& do g^r CÁO{¶Zr Ho$ na‘ma
amOm {dH«$‘m{X˶ (82 B©.ny.-19 B©. VH$) Ho$ g‘H$mbrZ Wo& na g^r H$m H$mb BZH$s ‘¥Ë¶w Ho$ 100 df© ~mX Aaå^ hþ¶o em{bdmhZ
eH$ (78 B©.) ‘| {bIm J¶m h¡& damh{‘{ha Zo AnZo H$mb Ho$ eH$ H$m Amaå^ 612 B©.ny. ‘| ~Vm¶m h¡ (~¥hV² g§{hVm 13/3)&
~«÷JwßV Ûmam {dîUw nwamU H$m òmoV {X¶m J¶m h¡ na A^r {dîUw nwamU Ho$ 18,000 íbmoH$m| ‘| Ho$db 5,400 CnbãY h¢& gy¶© {gÕmÝV
VWm ~«m÷-ñ’w$Q>-{gÕmÝV H$s gm‘J«r {dîUw-Y‘m}Îma nwamU ‘| VWm g§jon ‘| ZmaX nwamU ‘| {‘bVr h¡& BZ g^r nwñVH$m| ‘| J«hU Ho$
ñWmZr¶ n[apñW{V¶m| H$m hr dU©Z h¡&

2. Aݶ ^yb|-BgHo$ A{V[aº$ gy¶© {gÕmÝV VWm Am¶©^Q>r¶ ‘| gy¶© H$s Xÿar dmñV{dH$ H$m 27 dm§ ^mJ Xr J¶r h¡& XmoZm| Zo CÎmar Y«wd
H$mo Ob Ho$ ^rVa ~Vm¶m h¡ O~{H$ 1909 B©. ‘| ~mb J§JmYa {VbH$ Zo Am¶m] H$m ‘yb {Zdmg CÎmar Üwd ‘| à‘m{UV H$aZo Ho$ {b¶o
nwñVH$ {bIr& ñnîQ>V: ‘hm^maV H$mb ‘| CÀM H$mo{Q> H$m kmZ Wm, {Ogo ~mX Ho$ boIH$ g‘PZo ‘o Ag‘W© aho& A§J«O
o r emgZ ‘| {VbH$

O¡go Xoe^º$ {dÛmZ² ^r A§Jo«Or {‘϶m àMma Ho$ Omb ‘| ’§$g J¶o& CZH$s nwñVH$ go ¶hr {ZîH$f© {ZH$b gH$Vm h¡ {H$ ~rgdt eVmãXr ‘|
¶h nVm Zht Wm {H$ CÎmar Y«dw g‘wÐ ‘| h¡, Omo Am¶©^Q> H$mb ‘| nVm Wm & BgHo$ A{V[aº$ BZ g~Zo ݶyOrb¡ÊS> Ho$ X{jU npíM‘r VQ>
(CÁO¡Z go 900 nyd© H$m EH$‘mÌ ^yIÊS>), amo‘H$ nÎmZ (CÁO¡Z go 900 npíM‘-‘moa³H$mo H$m a~mV ¶m CgHo$ {ZH$Q>), VWm {gÕnwa
(CÁO¡Z go 1800 nyd©, Ohm§ dmë‘r{H$ am‘m¶U {H$pîH$ÝYm H$mÊS>, 40/54,64 Ho$ AZwgma ~«÷m Zo nyd© {Xem H$m AÝV gy{MV H$aZo Ho$
{b¶o Ûma ={nam{‘S> ~Zm¶m Wm) H$m ^r CëboI {H$¶m h¡ Ohm§ OmZo H$m CZHo$ nmg H$moB© gmYZ Zht Wm& Z¡{‘fmaʶ ‘| em¡ZH$ H$s
‘hmembm ({díd{dÚmb¶) ‘| nwamUm| H$m gL²>H$bZ hmoZo go {dîUw nwamU Ûmam namea ‘V gwa{jV hmo J¶m& AV: ‘JY ‘| àM{bV
Am¶©‘V H$mo gwa{jV aIZo Ho$ {b¶o Am¶©^Q> Zo Hw$gw‘nwa ‘| ‘mݶ ‘V Ho$ AZwgma Am¶©^Q>r¶ {bIm& na ¶o bmoJ AbJ AbJ àH$ma H$s
BH$mB¶m| H$m AÝVa Zht g‘P nm¶o& BgH$m à‘mU h¡ {H$ gm¡a ‘ÊS>b H$s MH«$mH$ma J«hH$jm H$mo BÝhmoZo n¥Ïdr J«h ‘mZ {b¶m VWm CgHo$
Ûrnm| VWm n¥Ïdr Ho$ Ûrnm| H$m AÝVa Zht OmZ nm¶o& AmH$me ‘| gm¡a ‘ÊS>b, AmH$meJ§Jm VWm Cggo ~‹S>o bmoH$m| H$s {d{^Þ BH$mB¶m| ‘|
‘mn H$m ahñ¶ ^r AkmV ahm& na Omo Hw$N> ^r nVm Wm, Cgo gwa{jV aIZo Ho$ {b¶o {b{n~Õ H$a {X¶m& H$mb‘mZ ‘| ^r ‘w»¶ ^yb hþ¶r
{H$ Á¶mo{Vfr¶ ¶wJ VWm Eo{Vhm{gH$ ¶wJm| H$m AÝVa H$s Á¶mo{Vf nwñVH$m| ‘| MMm© VH$ Zht hþ¶r& nwamUm| ‘| {Xì¶ df© Ho$ 2 AW© h¡-gßV
{f© gådËga Ho$ àg§J ‘| ¶h gm¡a df© VWm Á¶mo{Vfr¶ ¶wJ Ho$ {b¶o 360 gm¡a df© h¡& Bgr àH$ma A¶Z J{V H$m ê$n ñnîQ> Zht hmoZo Ho$
H$maU nwamU d{U©V gßV{f©, Y«dw dËga VWm A¶ZmãX ¶wJm| H$s MMm© VH$ Zht hþ¶r& J{UV nÕ{V¶m| H$m à¶moJ nÄMm“ {Z‘m©Vm H$aVo aho
na CZH$m ahñ¶ AkmV Wm& Am¶©^Q>r¶ H$s ì¶m»¶m ‘| ^mñH$a-1 Zo {bIm h¡ {H$ CZH$s nÕ{V¶m§ ‘hm^maV H$mb Ho$ 4 ‘w»¶ J{UV
nwñVH$m| na AmYm[aV Wr-nyaU, nyVZ, ‘ñH$ar Am¡a ‘wÒb& ^mñH$a-2 Zo ^r {gÕmÝV {eamo‘{U ‘| ~rO g§ñH$ma Ho$ 24,000 dfu¶ MH«$
Ho$ ~mao ‘| ¶hr {bIm h¡ {H$ ¶h AmJ‘ (nwamU naånam) go Mbm Am ahm h¡, BgHo$ A{V[aº$ Hw$N> ^r kmV Zht h¡& ~«÷Jwá Zo ^r nyam
emñÌ hr {dîUw nwamU na AmYm[aV ‘mZm h¡&

3. J«hU H$s ^yb|-(1) gy¶© H$s Xÿar H$m’$s H$‘ ‘mZZo na ^r H$moUr¶ Xyar R>rH$ hmoZo Ho$ H$maU J«hU H$m g‘¶ R>rH$ kmV hmoVm h¡&
bå~Z Ho$ H$maU Aën Xmof hmoJm Omo {~Zm XÿadrjU Ho$ Zht XrIoJm&
(2) MÝÐ H$jm ‘| gy¶© Ho$ AmH$f©U Ho$ H$maU AÝVa hmoVm h¡ na CgHo$ H$maU ny{U©‘m Am¡a A‘mdmñ¶m H$mo MÝБm H$s {Xem ‘| H$moB© AÝVa
Zht hmoJm& J«hU Bgr g‘¶ hmoVm h¡, AV: BgH$s JUZm ‘| Á¶mXm ^yb Zht hmoVr&
(3) n¥Ïdr H$m ì¶mg {dfwdV aoIm na A{YH$ h¡, ¶h ‘hm^maV H$mb Ho$ ~mX kmV Zht Wm& {gÕmÝV {eamo‘{U ‘| 2 àH$ma H$s n[a{Y
H$s MMm© h¡, na ^mñH$amMm¶© ¶h g‘P Zht nm¶o {H$ EH$ {dfwdV VWm Xÿgar Y«wdr¶ n[a{Y h¡& CÝhm|Zo Y«wdr¶ n[a{Y H$mo A{YH$ gyú‘
‘mZ ‘mZm h¡& {Xëbr Ho$ {dîUwÜdO (Hw$Vw~‘rZma ¶m ‘oJmñWZrO Ho$ AZwgma haHw$bg-ñVå^) ‘| Ho$ÝÐ aoIm VWm eL²>Hw$ gVh Ho$ ~rM H$m
H$moU {Xëbr Ho$ ñnîQ> VWm ‘ܶ‘ Ajm§e Ho$ AÝVa Ho$ ~am~a h¡& ¶h ‘hm^maV nyd© Ho$ kmZ na gå^dV: 456 B©.ny. ‘| lrhf© Ûmam
~Zm Wm& AmO ^r J«hU joÌ kmV H$aZo Ho$ {b¶o n¥Ïdr H$mo nyU© Jmob ‘mZm OmV h¡& AV: ¶h kmZ Zht ahZo Ho$ H$maU H$moB© ^yb Zht
hmoVr&
(4) ~O}g H$s gy¶© {gÕmÝV Q>rH$m (1865) H$s ZH$b na g^r ^maVr¶ boIH$m| Zo {bIm {H$ ^maVr¶ Á¶mo{Vf ‘| gy¶© H$s R>rH$ Xÿar kmV
Zht Wr& ໶mV ~rOJ{UVk d¡ÊS>a dmS>}Z Zo ^maVr¶ J«h-JUZm H$mo MVwa AZw‘mZ ~Vm¶m& BgHo$ ~mX {H$gr Zo ñnîQ> J«h H$s JUZm
H$m J{UV g‘PZo H$s MoîQ>m Zht H$s& gd©àW‘ lr Yy{bnmb AH©$ gmo‘¶mOr Zo 1978 ‘| Ymadm‹S> {díd{dÚmb¶ Ho$ emoY-à~ÝY ‘|
[XIm¶m {H$ gy¶© {gÕmÝV ‘| erK« n[a{Y H$m ‘mZ {XImVm h¡ {H$ J«h H$jmAm| H$m AZwnmV R>rH$ nVm Wm& CZH$s {gÕmÝV [eamo‘{U Q>rH$m
({Vén{V) ‘| BgH$m dU©Z h¡& Cggo AmJo nyU© ì¶m»¶m {gÕmÝV-Xn©U H$s ì¶m»¶m ‘| AéU Hw$‘ma Cnmܶm¶ Zo (1999) ‘| AmYw{ZH$ Á¶mo
{Vf ‘| 2 ~ma AZÝV loUrHo$ à¶moJ Ûmam XrK©d¥Îm H$jm H$s JUZm VWm ^maV ‘| n[adV©Zerb ‘ÝX n[a{Y Ûmam JUZm H$mo g‘Vwë¶ à‘m
{UV {H$¶m& 2 H$jmAm| Ho$ H$maU Vmam J«hm| H$s JUZm Ho$ 4 H«$‘m| H$s ^r àW‘ ~ma grS>ob Ho$ AÝVamb-{d^mOZ (Bisecting the
interval-Seidel) Ûmam H$s& ~mX ‘| {d{^Þ àH$ma Ho$ ¶moOZ ‘mZm| Ho$ AZwgma gm¡a‘ÊS>b Ho$ g^r joÌm|, AmH$me-J§Jm, Vn: bmoH$

(Visible universe) H$s {d{^Þ ‘mnm| H$mo kmV {H$¶m&
(5) AmO ^r XrK©d¥Îmr¶ H$jm H$s gQ>rH$ JUZm {d{Y Zht h¡& BgH$s ewÕVm H«$‘e: ~‹T>m¶r OmVr h¡& J{UVr¶ {gÕmÝV Ho$ AZwgma
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J«hm| H$m à^md Ho$ {b¶o g§emoYZ H$aZm n‹S>Vm h¡& MÝÐ J«hU ‘| Am¡a A{YH$ H${R>ZmB© h¡-MÝÐ H$jm H$m 50 PwH$md, n¥Ïdr H$s Aj J{V
VWm H$jm J{V (¶m gy¶© H$s à˶j J{V)-BZ g~H$s JUZm H$aZr n‹S>Vr h¡& AV: A{YH$ AZw‘mZ VWm ñWybVm hmoVr h¡&

4. J«hU JUZm H$m {dH$mg-(1) Eo{Vhm{gH$ H«$‘ ‘| àW‘ CnbãY J«hU gyMr h¡-ho‘m“X R>³Hw$a (1530-1590 B©.) H¥$V J«hU‘mbm& Bg‘| 1542-2630 em{bdmhZ eH$ VH$ Ho$ g^r J«hUm| H$s gyMr Xr J¶r h¡& ¶h ݶyQ>Z VWm Ho$nba go àm¶: 200 df© nyd© H$s
aMZm h¡& Bg‘| à{V eH$ ‘| ÚwdÝ¥ X (dfm©aå^ go AhJ©U) MmÝБmg {V{W, J«hU H$m ñne©, pñW˶Y© VWm ‘w{º$ H$mb [X¶m J¶m h¡&
(H$m‘oída qgh g§ñH¥$V {díd{dÚmb¶ Xa^“m, 1983 B©.)& gyMr ~ZmZo H$s {d{Y Zht Xr J¶r h¡&
(2) BgHo$ ~mX {W¶moS>moa dmZ AmonmobOa (Theodor Von Oppolzer, Austria, 26-10-1841to 26-12-1885) Ûmam H¡$ZZ
S>a {’$Ýñba{Zg (Canon der Finslernisse, 1887) CZH$s 45 df© ‘| ‘¥Ë¶w Ho$ ~mX àH$m{eV hþAm& Bg‘| CÝhm|Zo 1200 B©.ny.
go 2161 B©. VH$ Ho$ g^r J«hUm| H$s gyMr ~Zm¶r& à˶oH$ JhU H$m g‘¶ VWm joÌ ^r {X¶m& J«hUm| Ho$ Eo{Vhm{gH$ CëboIm| Ho$ AmYma
na CÝhm|Zo MÝÐJ{V àMrZ H$mb ‘| Vrd« hmoZo H$s J{V {ZH$mbr& à˶oH$ J«hU Ho$ g‘¶ gy¶m}X¶, ‘ܶm•, AñV H$mb (¶m ñWmZ) H$s
JUZm H$s& H$B© àH$a Ho$ ñWyb AZw‘mZm| Ûmam J«hU nW {ZH$mbm {Og‘| 500 go 1000 {H$.‘r. VH$ H$s ^yb h¡& BgH$m A§J«O
o r AZwdmX
1927 ‘| H¡$ZZ Am¡’$ Bp³bßg (Canon of Eclipse) Ho$ Zm‘ go àH$m{eV hþAm& ‘yb nwñVH$ H$m nwZ‘w©ÐU 1962 ‘| hþAm&
(3) n¥Ïdr H$m Aj-^«‘U Ádma ^mQ>m Ho$ Kf©U Ho$ H$maU Yr‘m hmo ahm h¡ VWm CgHo$ H$maU MÝБm Yrao Yrao Xÿa hQ> ahm h¡& àmMrZ
J«hUm| VWm Aݶ Aܶ¶Zm| Ho$ AmYma na H$B© AZw‘mZ {H$¶o J¶o h¢ VWm AmYw{ZH$ ¶wJ ‘| 3 ‘w»¶ nwñVHo$§ A‘o[aH$s Á¶mo{Vf g§ñWm
(NASA)Ûmam àH$m{eV h¢-(H$) OmZ ‘r¶wg VWm ha‘Z ‘¡H$-H¡$ZZ Am’$ Bp³bßg-1979, (I) ~mAmo {bZ {bC-H¡$ZZ Am’$ byZa
Bp³bßg-1500B©.ny. go 3000 B©. VH$, (J) ’«o$S> EñnoZmH$ VWm OmZ ‘r¶wg-’$mBd {‘bo{Z¶‘ Am’$ gmoba Bp³bßg-2000 B©.ny. go
3000 B©. VH$-Zmgm A³Qy>~a, 2006&$
(4) AmBgH$ A{g‘mod Zo-BÊQ>{o bOoÊQ> ‘¡Ýg JmBS> Qw> gmB§g (1955) ‘| {bIm Wm {H$ n¥Ïdr Ho$ Aj-^«‘U Yr‘m hmoZo H$s J{V Ho$
{ZYm©aU ‘| 2 à‘wI J«hU Wo-3139 B©.ny. ‘| Hw$éjoÌ H$m J«hU {OgHo$ ~mX ‘hm^maV ¶wÕ hþAm-H$m{Îm©H$ H¥$îU ̶moXer {Og {XZ
A‘mdmñ¶m ^r Wr (16-10-3139 B©.ny. H$mo)& ¶wÕ Amaå^ Ho$ {XZ ^r MÝÐ VWm gy¶© amhþ go J«ñV Wo, AV: gy¶© J«hU {ZíM¶ Wm, na
dh Hw$é joÌ ‘| hr Wm-¶h Zht {bIm h¡& CgHo$ ~mX H$B© bmoJm| Zo ¶wÕ Ho$ 15d| {XZ O¶ÐW dY Ho$ g‘¶ ^r gy¶©-J«hU H$s H$ënZm
H$s h¡, na A‘mdmñ¶m Ho$ 15d| {XZ ¶h gå^d Zht h¡-j¶ {V{W Ho$ ~mX 17 {XZ H$m ew³b nj Wm, {Og {XZ MÝÐ-JhU hmo gH$Vm
h¡& Cg {XZ Hw$éjoÌ ‘| MÝБm H$m ‘{bZ hmoZm hr {bIm h¡& BgHo$ 36 df© ~mX ÛmaH$m ‘| ^r 13 {XZ Ho$ H¥$îU nj H$m Amaå^ hþAm
Wm-BZ g^r H$mo {‘bmH$a 3 J«hU H$s MMm© h¡ {OgH$mo EH$ hr ‘mg ‘| ‘mZH$a VWm H${WV d¡km{ZH$m| Ûmam ‘Z‘mZr JUZm Ûmam
‘hm^maV H$m {b{IV H$mb ~XbZo H$s MoîQ>m hmoVr ahVr h¡& BgHo$ ~mX ‘w»¶ J«hU 992 B© ‘| bÝXZ ‘| hþAm Wm & ¶o g^r J«hU
dÎm©‘mZ JUZm Ho$ AZwgma nyd© ‘| hmoZo Mm{h¶o ³¶m|{H$ n¥Ïdr àmMrZ H$mb ‘| A{YH$ J{V go Ky‘ ahr Wr& 2004 ‘| àH$m{eV
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BZH$s ew{Õ H$s OmVr h¡ Z {H$ ‘Z‘mZm gyÌ boH$a Cggo {V{W ‘| hr 1500 df© VH$ H$s ^yb CËnÝZ H$s OmVr h¡& ewÕ JUZm Ho$ {b¶o
goH$ÊS> H$s n[a^mfm h¡-gr{O¶‘ 133 ^ma Ho$ AUw H$s AmYma COm© ñVa Ho$ {d{H$aU Ho$ AdÎm© H$mb H$m 9192631.770 JwU g‘¶&
MÝБm H$s J{V ‘| Ádma Ho$ H$maU J{V ‘| H$‘r 267 à{V eVmãXr h¡& {díd g‘¶ ‘| g§emoYZ H$mo S>bo Q>m Q>r H$hVo h¢ Omo nÄMm“ g‘¶
‘o¶ {díd g‘¶ H$mo KQ>mZo go {‘bVm h¡-xT = TAI-UTI +32.184 Sec. xT = -20+32 (year-1820/100)2 Sec.

BZ AZw‘mZm| Ho$ AmYma na emoYZ VWm ‘ܶ‘ ^yb H$m ‘mZ h¡1000B©.ny. 25400 goH$ÊS> 640 goH$ÊS>
500 B©.ny. 17190 goH$US> 430 goH$ÊS>
3102 B©.ny. ‘| 10 d¡H$pënH$ gyÌm| Ho$ AZwgma g§emoYZ 1261 go 1574 {‘ZQ> VH$ h¡& BZ g^r ‘| Aew{Õ H$m H$moB© AZw‘mZ Zht h¡& na
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AZw‘mZ Zht h¡& Hw$N> J{V AÝVa$H$s JUZm h¡& {h‘¶wJr¶ Ob-ßbmdZ Ho$ H$maU ^r n¥Wdr H$m Aj-^«‘U àm¶: 1000 dfm] Ho$ {b¶o
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hþAm Wm-Cgr H$mb H$mo {díd H$s A{YH$m§e àMrZ H$WmAm| ‘| Ob-ßbmdZ ‘mZm J¶m h¡& Cg H$mb ‘| H¡${b’$mo{Z©¶m Ho$ goH$moB¶m d¥jm| ‘|
VWm gyS>mZ Ho$ Hw$N> I{ZOm| ‘| A{YH$ {d{H$aU Ho$ à‘mU h¢& ¶h AmU{dH$ ¶wÕ Ho$ H$maU ^r gå^d h¡&
(5) doL²>H$Q>oe ~mnyOr Ho$VH$a Zo AmYw{ZH$ J{UV Ûmam Hw$N> g§emoYZ H$a Ho$VH$s J«h J{UV‘² {bIm (1896 B©.) {OgH$s Q>rH$m CZHo$ nwÌ
lr am‘H¥$îQ> Zo {bIr& Cgr nwñVH$ Ho$ AYma na -^maV ^y‘ÊS>br¶ gy¶J© «hU J{UV‘²- {bIm& Bg‘| 1-1 KÊQ>m Ho$ AÝVa na AbJ
AbJ Ajm§em| na J«hU Ho$ ñWmZr¶ ‘mZ {ZH$mbo J¶o h¢& BZgo J«hU ‘mJ© H$s JUZm H$s Om gH$Vr h¡&
(6) 1927 ‘| ~ogob Zo Z¶o àH$ma Ho$ {Z¶m‘H$m| Ûmam J«hU JUZm H$s& Bg‘| n¥Ïdr H$m ^«‘U Aj H$mo EH$ {Z¶m‘H$, n¥Ïdr-MÝÐ Ho$ Ho$ÝÐ
H$mo {‘bmZo dmbr aoIm VWm Bg aoIm Ho$ Vb ‘| bå~ aoIm Xÿgam {Z¶m‘H$, VWm BZ XmoZm| na bå~ {dfwdV aoIm H$s {Xem ‘| Vrgam
{Z¶m‘H$ hmoJm& BZ {Z¶m‘H$m| Ho$ AZwgma gy¶© J{V H$s JUZm à{V 10 {‘ZQ> na H$s OmVr h¡ Vm n¥Ïdr H$s gVh na N>m¶m H$s J{V
{ZH$mbVo h¡&
gÝX^©-(1) {gÕmÝV Xn©U, gm§»¶ {gÕmÝV-XmoZm| AéU Hw$‘ma Cnmܶm¶-ZmJ àH$meZ {Xëbr& (2) gy¶©J«hU J{UV-H$ë¶mU XÎm e‘m©gånyUm©ZÝX g§.{d.{d.,dmamUgr, (3)Astronomical Applications of Vedic mathematics-Kenneth WilliamsMotilal Banarsidass, Delhi-2003, (4)Canon of Eclipse-Jean Meus, 1979.

&& lr gy¶m©¶ Z‘:&&
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J«hU‘mbm

gånmXH$:
n§. lr ~«O{H$emoa Pm
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H$m‘oída qgh Xa^“m g§ñH¥$V {díd{dÚmb¶:,
H$m‘oídaZJa‘², Xa^“m

eH$mãX: 1905

‘y붑² - 20.00 é.

gdm©{YH$ma: àH$meH$mYrZ:
àW‘ g§ñH$aU‘²-1000
àH$meZ df©‘²-1983 B©.

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‘hm‘hmonmܶm¶ ho‘m“X R>³Hw$a H¥$Vm J«hU‘mbm
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J«hU‘mbm ‘| 1542 go boH$a 2630 eH$mãX (1620 B©. go 2708 B©.) VH$ Ho$ 1089 dfm] Ho$ g^r
gy¶© Ed§ MÝÐJ«hUm| H$m {ddaU {X¶m J¶m h¡, {OZH$m g§{jßV n[aM¶ {ZåZ{b{IV h¡1. J«hU {ddaU Ho$ H«$‘ ‘| gd© àW‘ eH$mãX H$m CëboI h¡ {Ogo emHo$ Ho$ Zm‘ go {bIm J¶m h¡&
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4. J«hU{V{W Ho$ ~mX J«hU{Xdgr¶ Apídݶm{X ZjÌ H$m XÊS>nbmË‘H$ ‘mZ {bIm J¶m h¡& ¶WmemHo$ 1602 ‘| ny{U©‘m 27&1 Ho$ ~mX nyd’© $mëJwZr H$m ‘mZ 30 XÊS> 51 nb h¡&
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‘| d¥{Õ 5&53 Ho$ ~mX ‘§Jb {XZ VWm ì¶VrV {XZ g§»¶m 26 h¡&

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18 {X¶m J¶m h¡&
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