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Reasoning Aptitude Book

I feel immense pleasure in presenting the first edition of


this reasoning book. It is useful for IBPS PO, RRB, Clerk,
RBI, SSC, LIC ADO, LIC AAO, Railways etc.
The salient features of this book are-
1. Fully solved examples with a unique techniques
2. Short cut methods
3. Coverage of all types of questions based on latest
pattern.

In this very first edition author has put sincere efforts to


satisfy all the requirements.

Banking Shortcuts® (A Vision to a Mission)


Website- www.bankingshortcuts.com

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Any suggestions from the readers for the improvement of the


book are most welcome.

Prashant Chaturvedi
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This book is dedicated to my grandparents,


parents, sisters and brother in laws for their
unconditional love and support and to my
loving brother Sushant.

Dedicated to Saanvi, Varanya and Savya for


keeping me entertained.

Prashant Chaturvedi

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Table of Contents

Preface 4

Chapter 1- Coding-Decoding 5

Chapter 2- Order & Ranking 10

Chapter 3- Direction & Distance 13

Chapter 4- Mathematical Operator/Inequality 17

Chapter 5- Blood Relations 29

Chapter 6- Alphabetical & Miscellaneous Series 40

Chapter 7- Syllogism 46

Chapter 8- Input-Output 63

Chapter 9- Sitting Arrangement 75

Chapter 10- Puzzle 94

Chapter 11-Data Sufficiency 104

Chapter 12-Statement and Course of Action 116

Chapter 13-Statement and Assumptions 123

Chapter 14- Statement and Arguments 129

Chapter 15-Cause and Effect 133

Chapter 16- Decision Making 139

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Preface

This book covers everything a banking aspirant needs during


the exams.
It starts with Coding-Decoding to Statement and Argument,
touching all the important topics.

This book is written in very simple language so that Non-


Mathematics students can easily understand.

The book is complete in itself, you can pick and read at your
leisure. To fully utilize and better understand this book, our
recommendation is that you practice more and more.

Feedback from our readers is always welcome. Let us know what


you think about this book- what you liked or disliked.

If you come across any illegal copies of our book, in any


form, on the internet, please provide us with the location
address or website name immediately so that we can pursue a
remedy.
Please contact us at
info@bankingshortcuts.com or bankingshortcuts@gmail.com

For authentication of this book check Watermark or digital


signature id.

Printing, Scanning, Photocopying is strictly


prohibited. No part of this book may be
reproduced in any form or without prior written
permission of the owner.

Prashant Chaturvedi

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CHAPTER 1- CODING-DECODING
There are two types of this module.

Type 1- When the letters or alphabets or numbers are replaced


by other according to specific rule.

Type 2- In this type there are some codes given, and you have
to find code for every word.

ALPHABETS IN NATURAL SERIES


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

1ST 5TH 10TH 15TH 20TH 25TH

ALPHABETS IN REVERSE SERIES


Z Y X W V U T S R Q P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A

1ST 5TH 10TH 15TH 20TH 25TH


Coded language can be framed by
1. Moving letters one or more steps forward or backward.
2. Substituting numbers for letters and vice-versa.
3. Replacing letters in their natural series by the same
positioned letter in their reverse series.
4. Writing letters of the given word in reverse order in
part of in whole.

*NOT-(None of These)

Questions and Solutions


1. In a certain code BALL is written as CALL, then how will
be PACK written as?
A)PCAK B)PKAC C)QCAK D)QACK E)QKAC
Solution- The first letter of the word is moved one step
forward, while the other letters remain unchanged.

2. In a certain code BALL is written as AALL, then how will


be PACK written as?

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A)QCAK B)OCKA C)OACK D)COAK E)PACK


Solution- The first letter of the word is moved one step
backward, while the other letters remain unchanged.

3. In a certain code PARROT is written as QZSQPS, then how


will be LEADER written in that code?
A)MDBCFQ B)MDBCQF C)MCQFDB D)MDBCFS E)MSDFBQ
Solution- The first, third and fifth letter of the word is
moved one step forward, while the second, fourth and sixth
letter of the word moved one step backward.

4. In a certain code MIND is written as KGLB, then how will


be DOOR written as?
A)BMMB B)MBMR C)BMBM D)BMMP E)NOT
Solution- Each letter in the code is moved two steps backward.

5. In a certain code COMPUTER is written as RFUVQNPC, then how


will be MEDICINE written in that code?
A)EOJDJEFM B)EOJDMEFJ C)EOJMFDJE D)MFGDJEEOJ E)NOT
Solution- Each letter of the word except the first and last
letters is moved one step forward and then reversed the order.
6. In a certain code FLOWER is written as 36, then how will
be SUNFLOWER written in that code?
A)81 B)63 C)36 D)49 E)NOT
Solution- The word FLOWER has six letters so 6^2 is 36, the
word SUNFLOWER has nine letters so answer is 9^2=81

7. In a certain code LIFE is written as 8192, RIPPLE is written


as 613882 then how will be PILLER written in that code?
A)718826 B)316826 C)318826 D)318862 E)NOT
Solution- L-8 I-1 F-9 E-2 & R-6 I-1 P-3 P-3 L-8 E-2. In both
the codes LIE is common and 812 is common
So PILLER will be written as
P-3 I-1 L-8 L-8 E-2 R-6

8. In a certain code PUSH is written as 1234, ROUGH is written


as 65274, then how will be SOUP written in that code?
A) 3471 B)3741 C)3521 D)3621 E)NOT

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Solution- P-1 U-2 S-3 H-4 & R-6 O-5 U-2 G-7 H-4. In both codes
UH is common and 24 is common
So SOUP will be written as
S-3 O-5 U-2 P-1

9. In a certain code MADRAS is written as NZEQBR, then how


will be CALCUTTA written in that code?
A)DZMBVSZU B)DZMVBSZU C)DZMBVSUZ D)SBZDZMVU E)NOT
Solution- M +1 N C +1 D
A -1 Z A -1 Z
D +1 E L +1 M
R -1 Q C -1 B
A +1 B U +1 V
S -1 R T -1 S
T +1 U
A -1 Z

10. In a certain code BRASS is written as CTBUT, AMIT is


written as BOJV then how will be ADITYA written in that code?
A)BFJCVZ B)CVZBFJ C)BFJVZC D)ZVCFBJ E)NOT
Solution- B +1 C A +1 B A +1 B
R +2 T M +2 O D +2 F
A +1 B I +1 J I +1 J
S +2 U T +2 V T +2 V
S +1 T Y +1 Z
A +2 C

Questions and Solutions


Note- Is tarah ke questions me aapko sirf common words aur
code ko dhund ke fir compare karna hota hai.

1. In a certain language ‘mok dan sil’ means ‘nice big villa’;


‘fit kon dan’ means ‘villa is good’; ‘fit tir warm’ is ‘cost
is high’. Which word stands for good?
A)mok B)kon C)warm D)dan E)fit
Solution- In ‘mok dan sil’ & ‘fit kon dan’ there is a common
code is ‘dan’ and in reference to that particular code ‘nice
big villa’ & ‘villa is good’, there is a common code is

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‘villa’. Same like in other codes ‘fit’ is for the code ‘is’.
So remaining code for ‘good’ is ‘kon’.

2. In a certain language A is written as B, B is written as


C, C is written as D and so on, then how will be PARAS written
in that code?
A)TSNBU B)QSBBT C)QBSBT D)TSBBQ E)NOT
Solution- The letters are coded by moving one step forward.

3. In a certain code language ‘237’ means ‘sushant and fire’,


‘756’ means ‘sushant is cause’ and ‘258’ means ‘fire is
effect’. What stands for the ‘cause’?
A)3 B)7 C)5 D)6 E)8
Solution- Same procedure as in example 1.

4. If white is called blue, blue is called yellow, yellow is


called red, red is called orange, orange is called green, What
is the color of human blood?
A)Red B)Green C)Orange D)Yellow E)Blue
Solution- Color of human blood is red, but it is given that
red is orange. So Orange is the answer.

5. If red is white, white is green, green is yellow, yellow


is blue, what is the color of sky?
A)Blue B)Red C)Green D)Yellow E)NOT
Solution- Color of the sky is blue, but it is given above that
yellow is blue but not given the code of blue. So answer is
none of these.

6. In a certain code co di po means Rahul lives Kanpur, po as


er means he is Rahul, di as df means Kanpur is great city,
co er ok means he lives Patna.
A) Which of the following is the code of Kanpur?
A)co B)di C) as d)df E)er
B) Which of the following is the code of he?
A)co B)di C)po D)er F)NOT
Solution- Match the perfect combination as given below-
(po and Rahul) is common in first two statements, same as (di
and Kanpur) is common in first and third statement, same as

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(as and is) is common in second and third statement and vice
versa.

7. In a certain code, SUBSTITUTION is written as ITSBUSNOITUT.


How is DISTRIBUTION written in that code?
A)IRTDISNOITUB B)IRTSIDNOITUB C)IRTDISNOIUTB D)IRTSIDNOIBUT
E)NOT
Solution-

SUB STI TUT ION DIS TRI BUT ION

ITS BUS NOI TUT IRT SID NOI TUB

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CHAPTER 2-ORDER AND RANKING


Ranking Test
No Rank from top Rank from bottom
A 1 8
B 2 7
C 3 6
D 4 5
E 5 4
F 6 3
G 7 2
H 8 1

Let’s understand the concept of Ranking from the above table

Let’s discuss about E


E’s ranking from top=5 and from bottom=4
But total ranks given here are 8.
So formula of total rank=(Rank from top)+(Rank from bottom)-1
How to find E’s rank from top and bottom?
E’s rank from top=(total rank+1)-rank from bottom
E’s rank from bottom=(total rank+1)-rank from top

Hindi Explanation-(Jab top se rank poochi jaaye to bottom ko


substract karte hain aur jab bottom se rank poochi jaaye to
top ko substract karte hain)

Questions and Solutions


1.In a class of 72 students Sameer’s rank is 28 from top, what
is his rank from bottom?
A)46 B)44 C)47 D)45 E)48
Solution- Total ranks and rank from top are given.
So rank from bottom=(total rank+1)-rank from top
rank from bottom=72+1-28
rank from bottom=45

2. In a class of 72 students Sameer’s rank is 46 from bottom,


what is his rank from top?
A)23 B)24 C)27 D)25 E)26
Solution- Total ranks and rank from bottom are given.

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So rank from bottom=(total rank+1)-rank from bottom


rank from bottom=72+1-46
rank from bottom=27

3. Forty boys are standing in a row facing the north. Sameer


is eleventh from the left and Sushant is thirty-first from the
right end of the row. How far will Nidhi, who is third to
right of Sameer in the row, be from Sushant?
A)2nd B)4th C)5th D)3rd
E)NOT
Solution- Total number of boys=40 and Sushant is 31 st from
right end, from left (40-31)=9, so Sushant is 10th from left.
Nidhi is third to right of Sameer, who is eleventh from left.
So Nidhi is 14th from left. Clearly Nidhi is 4th to right of
Sushant.

4. In a row of boys, If Sushant is tenth from left and Sameer


who is ninth from the right interchange their positions,
Sushant becomes fifteenth from the left. How many boys re
there in the row?
A)29 B)32 C)23 D)24
E)NOT
Solution- When Sushant interchanges his position, he becomes
15th from the left, Which was earlier occupied by Sameer who
was 9th from right.
Total number of boys=(15+9)=24-1=23

Hindi Explanation-(Sameer ki position thi 9th right side se,


jab Sushant ne position change ki to Sameer ki position pe aa
gaya aur 15th left end se hai jo 9th right hand se tha. Clearly
ab aap number of boys find kar saktey hain because Sushant ki
left aur right side dono taraf se position pata chal gayi.
15th from left and 9th from right.
Total number of boys=(15+9)=24-1=23
1 substract is liye kiya because Sushant ek person hai aur ek
position dono taraf se calculate ki hai.

5. A certain amount was distributed among six persons A, B,


C, D, E and F. B received more than only A, F received more

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than B, F received less than C, E received more than C, but


he didn’t get the highest amount. Who among the following
received less amount than C?
A)DEB B)DEF C)FBA D)ADE
E)BED
Solution- First statement--B>A (B received more than only A)
look at the statement, Only A, it means A is the smallest and
B is 2nd Smallest.
Hindi Explanation-(Jab bhi aisa likha ho B more than only A,
to A smallest hoga aur B 2nd Smallest)
Second Statement— F>B>A (F received more than B)
Third Statement— C>F>B>A (F received less than C)
Fourth Statement— E>C>F>B>A (E received more than C, but he
didn’t get the highest amount, so who did get the highest
amount, it should be D)

Final Conclusion- D>E>C>F>B>A


Who received less than C, from above conclusion, you can see
that F, B and A received less than C.

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CHAPTER 3-DIRECTION AND DISTANCE


Direction Test
LEFT RIGHT

North-West North North-East

West East

South-West South South-East

Up- North
Down- South
Left- West
Right- East

Questions and Solutions


1. If Z is to the south of B and C is to the east of B, in
what direction is Z with respect to C?
A)North-East B)North-West C)South-East
D)South-West E)NOT

Solution- B C(East)

(South)Z

2. Raman starts from his house towards west. After walking a


distance of 30 metres, he turned towards right and walked 20
metres. He then turned left and moving a distance of 10 metres,
turned to his left again and walked 40 metres. He now turns
to the left and walks 5 metres. Finally he turns to his left.
In which direction is he walking now?
A)South B)North C)South-West D)East
E)West
Solution- 10m

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20m
40m 30m(West)
Raman
5m (Up Direction- North)

3. A man is facing south. He turns 135 degrees in the anti-


clockwise direction and then 180 degrees in the clockwise
direction. Which direction is he facing now?
A)North-West B)North-East C)South-West D)South-East E)NOT
Solution-

MAN

135(90+45)degrees(ACW)

South

180 degreees clockwise

Man is facing south, now turns 135 degrees in anti-clockwise


direction means in left direction so new direction is North-
East and then turns 180 degrees (Semi Circle) in clockwise
direction means in right direction, so new direction will be
South-West.

Hindi Explanation- Anti-clock wise hamesha left side ki taraf


jaaney pe hota hai aur clockwise right side jaaney pe hota
hai. See diagram below)

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4. Aditi starts at point T, walks straight towards North to


point U which is 4 metres away. She turns left at 90 degrees
and walks 1 metre to Q, turns left at 90 degrees and goes to
V, who is 1 metre away and turns 90 degrees right and goes to
R, 3 metres away. What is the distance between R and T?
A)7m B)5m C)9m D)6m
E)NOT

Solution-
Q 1m U NORTH

3m 1m
R V A(assume) LEFT RIGHT

4m

T
From figure, it is clear that distance from T to A is 3 metres,
and A to R is 4 metres. Find distance from T to R by Pythagoras
Theorem.
(TR)^2=(AT)^2+(AR)^2
(TR)^2=3^2+4^2
(TR)^2=9+16
(TR)^2=25
TR=√25
TR=5 metres

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5. How many such pair of letters are there in the word “LABOUR”
each of which has as many letters between them in the word(in
both forward and backward direction) as they have between them
in English alphabetical series.
A)2 B)1 C)3 D)0 E)NOT
Solution-

L A B O U R

See the above diagram (A to B) and (L to O).Similarly in


dictionary there is no alphabet between A & B, same as there
are 2 alphabets between L & O. (LMNO)

Hindi Explanation-(Is tarah k questions me pata karna hota hai


ki is poorey word me kitney aisey combination hai jinkey beech
ka difference utna hi ho jitna dictionary me hota hai.Jaisey
upar example me A & B k beech me koi alphabet nahi hota. Aur
L & O k beech me 2 alphabet hotey hain LMNO aur upar question
me bhi L & O k beech me 2 alphabet hain.)

6. How many such pair of letters are there in the word


“EDUCATION” each of which has as many letters between them in
the word(in both forward and backward direction) as they have
between them in English alphabetical series.
A)2 B)4 C)3 D)5 E)NOT
Solution-

E D U C A T I O N

From figure you can see the 5 pairs (DE, ABCD, ABCDE, DEFGHI,
NO) same as in dictionary.
Follow above rule.

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CHAPTER 4-MATHEMATICAL OPERATOR/INEQUALITY

INEQUALITY CONCEPT
=EQUAL TO
<LESS THAN
≤LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO
>GREATER THAN
≥GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO

You have to check the direction of inequality whether it is


similar or dissimilar and you have to check common inequality.

Hindi Explanation-(aapko inequality ka direction check karna


hoga.agar same direction hai to similar inequality aur agar
direction different hai to dissimilar inequality, aur iske
saath me common inequality kaun si hai ye bhi dekhna hai)

A>B≥C=D {Similar Inequality}


A<B≤C=D {Similar Inequality}

See the direction (all inequalities in same direction)

A>B≤C=D
A≥B<C=D
A≥B≤C<D {Dissimilar Inequality}
A≤B≥C>D
A<B>C=D
See the direction (all inequalities in different direction)

Note- For either or case (both conclusions should be wrong and


subject/predicate should be same). See the image file below.

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There are two types of module in this chapter.


Type 1- Inequality

Questions and Solutions


Directions: In each of the following questions, assuming the
given statements to be true, find which of the following two
conclusions I and II is/are definitely true. Give answers.
1. Only conclusion I is true
2. Only conclusion II is true
3. If either I or II is true
4. If neither I nor II is true
5. If both I and II are true

1. Statements: R≥A=T≤U<V>Z
Conclusion I: Z<T Conclusion II: A>V
Solution- In conclusion I, See the direction of Inequality
from Z to T. There are dissimilar inequalities, hence answer
is wrong.
In conclusion II, see the direction of inequality from A to
V. There are similar inequalities but In conclusion it is
asked A>V (Greater than) and in statement it is given A=T≤U<V
(Less than). Hence it is wrong.

Hindi Explanation-(pehle conclusion me Z se T tak inequality


symbol ki direction alag alag hai, isliye wrong hai…aur 2nd
conclusion me poocha hai A>V jabki statement me dekhiye dhyan
se A=T≤U<V..yahan se dekhenge to A<V aayega naaki A>V..Isliye
ye conclusion bhi wrong hai).
Answer 4. Neither I nor II is true.

2. Statements: W≤F, F<D, K≥J, D<K


Conclusion I: K>W Conclusion II: F≤K
Solution- First combine the statement. It can be written as
W≤F<D<K≥J
Hindi Explanation-(Is tarah ke questions me aapko sabse pehle
statement ko combine krna padta hai, jaisey ki upar kiya huya
hai).

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Now see the conclusions, in conclusion I you can see the


direction of inequality is same from K to W. Hence it is
correct.
Note- K>W or W<K both are correct.

In conclusion II it is asked F≤K (less than or equal to), but


in statement it is given that F<D<K (only less than). Hence
it is wrong.
Hindi Explanation-(Conclusion II me poocha hai F, K se chota
hona chahiye aur barabar, jabki statement me diya hai F, K se
sirf chota hai, isliye ye follow nahi karta).

3. Statement: J≥R>Z, R>F<W, G>J


Conclusion I: J>F Conclusion II: G>W
Solution- First combine the statement.

G>J≥R>Z or G>J≥R>F<W

Now see the conclusion I, it is asked J>F. Correct. You can


check the direction of inequality from J to F.
Now in conclusion II, it is asked G>W. Wrong. You can check
the direction from G to W, there is dissimilar inequality from
G to W.

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Type 2- Coded Inequality

Questions and Solutions


In this topic inequality symbol is given in coded form, you
have to identify the symbol and follow the same procedure as
described in Inequality concept.

Coded Inequality Concept

M © N means M is not smaller than N


M * N means M is not greater than N
M % N means M is neither equal nor greater than N
M @ N means M is neither smaller nor equal to N
M $ N means M is neither smaller nor greater than N.

First of all change the above code into inequality symbol.


M © N M ≥ N
M * N M ≤ N
M % N M < N
M @ N M > N
M $ N M = N

1. Statement: H % G, G @ F, F * E
Conclusion I: F % H Conclusion II: G © E
Solution- Change these codes into inequality form as shown in
above.
Now Statement will be H < G, G > F, F ≤ E. Now combine the
statement.
H<G>F≤E
In conclusion I, it is asked F<H, wrong (Dissimilar Inequality)
In conclusion II, it is asked G≥E, wrong (Dissimilar
Inequality). Hence both conclusions are wrong.

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M © N means M is not smaller than N


M * N means M is not greater than N
M % N means M is neither equal nor greater than N
M @ N means M is neither smaller nor equal to N
M $ N means M is neither smaller nor greater than N.

First of all change the above code into inequality symbol.


M © N M ≥ N
M * N M ≤ N
M % N M < N
M @ N M > N
M $ N M = N

2. Statement: A © B, B @ C, C * D
Conclusion I: D @ B Conclusion II: C % A
Solution- Change these codes into inequality form as shown in
above.
Now Statement will be A ≥ B, B > C, C ≤ D. Now combine the
statement.
A≥B>C≤D
In conclusion I, it is asked D>B, wrong (Dissimilar Inequality)
In conclusion II, it is asked C<A, correct (Similar
Inequality). Hence only conclusions is correct.

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CHAPTER 5-BLOOD RELATIONS

Family Tree
Generations

Grandmother Grandfather

Mother Father

MYSELF

Daughter Son

Grand-Daughter Grand-Son

Remember: We will use (+) sign for male and (–) sign for
female.

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1. For same generation or no generation gap (like brother-


sister, husband-wife)-0
2. For one generation gap (like mother-son, father-son,
mother-daughter, father-daughter, grandfather-father,
grandmother-father etc.)-1
3. For two generation gap (like grand father-son, grand
mother-son, grandfather-daughter etc.)-2

Hindi Explanation- Agar Same Generation hai to 0(Zero) use


karenge, agar ek generation gap hai to 1(One) use karenge,
agar do generation gap hai to 2(Two) use karenge.
Brother-Sister, Husband-Wife ye same generation hai.
Mother-Son, Mother-Daughter, Father-Son, Father-Daughter ye
one genreation gap hai.
Grandmother-Son, Grandfather-Son, Grandfather-Daughter ye two
generation gap hai.

How to draw family tree?

Horizontal Arrow (Same Generation or No Gap)

1 Vertical Arrow (One Generation Gap)

2 Vertical Arrows (Two Generation Gap)

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Questions and Solutions

1. Pointing towards a person, a man said to a woman, “His


mother is the only daughter of your father”. How is the woman
related to that person?
A)Wife B)Mother C)Sister D)Daughter E)NOT
Solution- The only daughter of woman’s father is she herself.
So the person is woman’s son, i.e. woman is the mother of that
person.

2. Arun said, “This girl is the wife of the grandson of my


mother.” Who is Arun to that girl?
A)Father-in-law B)Aunt C)Uncle D)Mother-in-law E)All above
Solution- Grand son of Arun’s Mother- Arun himself or herself.
In first case Arun can be Father-in-law or Mother-in-law
depending upon gender of Arun. In other case Arun can be Uncle
or Aunt depending upon gender. Therefore all relations are
possible.

3. A,B and C are sisters. D is the brother of E and E is the


daughter of B. How is A related to D?
A)Cousin B)Niece C)Mother D)Sister E)NOT
Solution-
(-) For Female (+) For Male
A(-) B(-) C(-)

Daughter

How is A related to D?

E(-) Brother D(+)

Here Generation Gap is 1 so, it can be Mother, Aunt. But B is


Mother so A can be Aunt. Answer is None of These.

Hindi Explanation-(Yahan par generation gap 1 hai to ye mother


ya aunt ho sakta hai but B already E ki mother hai aur D E ka

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brother hai to D ki bhi mother B hogi, A mother nahi ho sakti.


Wo Aunt ho sakti hai.)
4. A is father of C and D is son of B. E is brother of A. If
C is sister of D, How is B related to E?
A)Husband B)Sister-in-law C)Brother-in-law D)Daughter E)NOT
Solution-

B(-) A(+) Brother E(+)

Father

How is B related to E?

D(+) Sister C(-)

Hindi Explanation-(A is father of C, iska matlab A male hai.


Iske baad 3rd statement hai E is brother of A, iska matlab E
bhi male hai. 4th Statement hai C is sister of D, iska matlab
C female hai, aur 2nd statement me hai D is son of B iska
matlab D male hai.)

A, C ka father hai aur C, D ki sister hai , iska matlab D ka


bhi father A hoga, aur D B ka son hai to A aur B husband wife
honge.E A ka brother hai to B jo A ki wife hai wo E ki sister-
in-law hogi.

English Explanation- A is father of C, it means A is male


person. In 3rd statement it is given that E is brother of A,
it means E is male person. In 4th statement it is given that C
is sister of D, it means C is female person. In 2 nd statement
it is given that D is son of B, it means D is male person.
Note- C is sister of D, so Father of D will be A and D is son
of B, so A and B will be husband wife. B is wife of A. E is
brother of A, so B will be sister-in-law of E.

5.If A#B means A is the mother of B; A-B means A is brother


of B; A%B means A is father of B; AXB means A is sister of B,

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which of the following shows that P is the maternal uncle of


Q?
A)Q-N#MXP B)P#SXN-Q C)P-M#NXQ D)Q-S%P E)NOT
Solution- No need to draw family tree, we can find the relation
by using generation gap.

Follow the instructions given in question.

# means Mother, - means Brother, % means Father, X means Sister

Start with option A

Q-N#MXP
Q-N means Q is brother of N (Same Generation). N#M means N is
mother of M (One Generation). MXP means M is sister of P(Same
Generation)

(+) (-) (-)


Q – N # M X P
0 1 0

{Generation Gap}
Q is brother of N, it means Q is male (Same generation)
N is mother of M, it means N is female (1 Generation)
M is sister of P, it means M is female (Same Generation)
But in question it is asked how P is maternal uncle of Q? So
it cannot be, because we don’t know the gender of P.

Now Option B

P#SXN-Q

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P#S means P is mother of S (One Generation), SXN means S is


sister of N (Same Generation), N-Q means N is brother of Q
(Same Generation).

(-) (-) (+)


P # S X N – Q
1 0 0

{Generation Gap}
P is mother of S, it means P is female (1 generation)
S is sister of N, it means S is female (Same Generation)
N is brother of Q, it means N is male (Same Generation)
In question it is asked how P is maternal uncle of Q? So it
cannot be, because P has {Negative sign}. So it cannot be male
person. (Negative sign is for female)

Now Option C

P-M#NXQ
P-M means P is brother of M (Same Generation), M#N means M is
mother of N (One Generation), NXQ means N is sister of Q (Same
Generation)

(+) (-) (-)


P – M # N X Q
0 1 0

{Generation Gap}
P is brother of S, it means P is male (Same generation)
M is mother of N, it means M is female (1 Generation)

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N is sister of Q, it means N is female (Same Generation).


In question it is asked how P is maternal uncle of Q? Total
generation gap is (0+1+0) =1, and P is male person, so it can
be.

Hindi Explanation- Total generation gap 1 hai, iska matlab ya


to ye Mother hoga ya Father, Ya Uncle ya Aunt, Ya Maternal
Uncle ya Maternal Aunt. Aur yahan par P male person hai aur
total generation gap 1 hai to ye Maternal Uncle hoga.

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CHAPTER 6-ALPHABETICAL & MISCELLANEOUS SERIES

Questions and Solutions


Directions (Q. No. 1-5): Study the following digit-letter-
symbol sequence carefully and answer the questions given
below:

Left Right

Z * T J L 2 $ D = M # 8 C % B < K 1 & A W ? P E + Q @ 7 F 6

1. How many such numbers are there in the above sequence, each
of which is immediately preceded by a consonant and immediately
followed by a symbol?
(1) Nil
(2) One
(3) Three
(4) Four
(5) None of these
Solution- L 2 $ …………… K 1 &
Hindi Explanation- Is tarah ke questions me numbers, symbols,
vowels and consonant pe dhyan dena padta hai.
First question me poocha hai aisey kitne number hain jinke
peechey(preceded) consonant ho aur aagey(followed) symbol ho.
Aisey sirf 2 numbers hain. Ek L 2 $ aur dusra K 1 &.
So Answer is (5)none of these.

2. Which of the following is sixth to the left of eighteenth


element from the left?
(1) %
(2) C
(3) 1
(4) 8
(5) None of these
Solution-
6 5 4 3 2 1 Left
Z * T J L 2 $ D = M # 8 C % B < K 1 & A W ? P E + Q @ 7 F 6

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18th Element
18th from left is 1, and 6th to the left of 1 is 8.
Hindi Explanation- Left se 18th element hai 1, aur iskey left
me 6th element hai 8.
Answer is (4) 8.

3. If the above sequence is written in reverse order then


which of the following will be sixth to the right of sixteenth
element from the right end?
(1) M
(2) A
(3) B
(4) ?
(5) None of these
Solution-
Actual Sequence

Z * T J L 2 $ D = M # 8 C % B < K 1 & A W ? P E + Q @ 7 F 6

Reverse Sequence
Right 1 2 3 4 5 6
6 F 7 @ Q + E P ? W A & 1 K < B % C 8 # M = D $ 2 L J T * Z
Left Right

16th Element

16th Element from right is <, and 6th to the right of 16th
element is M.
Hindi Explanation- Right side se 16th element hai <, aur fir
iske right me 6th element hai M.
Answer is (1) M.

4. If the first fifteen elements in the above sequence are


written in reverse order, then which of the following will be
twenty-first from the right end?
(1) 2
(2) $
(3) =

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(4) L
(5) None of these
Solution-
Actual Sequence
15th Element
Z * T J L 2 $ D = M # 8 C % B < K 1 & A W ? P E + Q @ 7 F 6

Reverse Sequence (First 15 elements)

B % C 8 # M = D $ 2 L J T * Z < K 1 & A W ? P E + Q @ 7 F 6
Left Right

21st from right end

Answer is (1)2.

5. What should come in place of question mark in the following


on the basis of above sequence?
* Z J : F 6 @ : L J $ : Q @ E : D $ M : ?
(1) # M C
(2) P E W
(3) P ? +
(4) P E ?
(5) None of these
Solution-
Actual Sequence

Z * T J L 2 $ D = M # 8 C % B < K 1 & A W ? P E + Q @ 7 F 6

See the arrangements


* R J, first * then an element in backward direction (R), and
an element +1(One Gap) in forward direction (J).
F 6 @, First F then an element in forward direction (6), and
an element -1(One Gap) in backward direction (@).
Follow the same procedure.
Answer is (2) P E W

Directions (Q. No.1-4): Study the following sequence carefully


and answer the questions given below:

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SKY THE BUT SON HID

1. If the positions of the first and third alphabets of each


words are interchanged, which of the following would form
meaningful words with the new arrangement?
A)SON B)HID C)CAR D)BUT E)NOT
Solution- Answer is option D, BUT after interchange TUB.

2. If the given words are arranged in the order as they would


appear in a dictionary from left to right, which of the
following will be fourth from the left?
A)SKY B)BUT C)SON D)HID E)NOT
Solution- According to dictionary, new sequence will be
BUT, HID, SKY, SON, THE
So 4TH letter from the left will be SON. Answer is option C.

3. How many letters are there in the English alphabetical


series between the 3rd letter of the word, which is 3rd from
the right and 1st letter of the word, which is 1st from the
left of the given words?
A)Three B)Zero C)One D)Two E)NOT
rd rd
Solution- 3 word is BUT, and 3 letter of this word is T.
Similarly 1st word is SKY, and 1st letter is S. How many letters
between S & T. Answer is option B.

4. If 2nd alphabet in each of the words is changed to next


alphabet in the English alphabetical order, how many words
having no vowels will be formed?
A)One B)Two C)Three D)Four E)NOT
Solution-
SKY THE BUT SON HID
After changing 2nd alphabet, new sequence is-
SLY TIE BVT SPN HJD

Answer is option D. Because except TIE, all 4 words having no


vowels.
Hindi Explanation- Sabse pehle beech k alphabet ko uske agle
alphabet se change kiya. Fir poocha hai aisey kitney words ban
rahey hain jisme vowels nahi hain. TIE ko chor kar baaki saarey

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words aisey hain jinme vowel nahi hai.To answer hoga 4 words,
Answer is Option D.
Directions (Q.No.1-5): Study the following sequence carefully
and answer the questions given below:
927 463 765 572 684

1. If in each number the first two digit are replaced by their


sum which number will be largest.
A)463 B)765 C)972 D)572 E)684
Solution- Sum of first two digit
For 927, 9+2=11, so new number 117
For 463, 4+6=10, so new number 103
For 765, 7+6=13, so new number 135
For 572, 5+7=12, so new number 122
For 684, 6+8=14, so new number 144
Largest number is 144, so answer is option (E).

2. If in each number the position of first and second digits


are interchanged, which number will be the largest?
A)463 B)684 C)972 D)572 E)765
Solution-
Actual Sequence
927 463 765 572 684
After interchange first and second digit
297 643 675 752 864
Largest Number
Answer is option (B).

3. If in each number the position of first and second digits


are interchanged, which number will be the smallest?
A)463 B)684 C)972 D)572 E)765
Solution-
Actual Sequence
927 463 765 572 684
After interchange first and second digit
297 643 675 752 864

Smallest Number
Answer is option (C).

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4. If ‘1’ is added to the last digit and then the position of


second and third digits are interchanged, which number will
be largest?
A)972 B)684 C)463 D)572 E)765
Solution-
Actual Sequence
927 463 765 572 684
After adding ‘1’ to the last digit
928 464 766 573 685
After interchange second and third digit
982 446 766 537 658

Largest Number
Answer is option (A).

5. If the order of first and last digit is reversed and then


the numbers are arranged in descending order, which numbers
will be second from right.
A)684 B)765 C)463 D)572 E)972
Solution-
Actual Sequence
927 463 765 572 684
After interchange first and last digit
729 364 567 275 486
Descending order
729 567 486 364 275

2nd from right


Answer is option (C).

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CHAPTER 7-SYLLOGISM
There are four cases in Syllogism.
1. ALL
2. SOME
3. NO/NOT
4. SOME NOT

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POSSIBILITY RULES OF SYLLOGISM

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Hindi Explanation of Syllogism


There are 4 types of Statement.
1) All A are B
2) Some A are B
3) Some A are not B
4) No A are B

There r 8 types of conclusion—


All A are B
All B are A
Some A are B
Some B are A
Some A are not B
Some B are not A
No A are B
No B are A

Syllogism me humara conclusion ya to definitely true hota hai


ya doubt me hota hai ya phir definitely wrong hota h.
kuch log doubt ko pahle hi definitely wrong tick kar dete h,
lekin ye galat tarika hai.
is se kabi kabi ans galat aa jate h specially either or case
me….to hum kisi bi statement ke kisi bi conclusion ke liye
wahi sign use karenge jaisa ki wo h…
Definitely true = ok ka sign
Doubt ke liye = ---- (ek sidhi line)
Definitely wrong ke liye = X (cross ka sign)
Ab 1-1 statement lenge aur uske 8 case ke bare me padhenge….
All A are B ke liye 8 conclusion----
All A are B= true
All B are A= doubt
Some A are B= true
Some B are A= true
Some A are not B= wrong
Some B are not A= doubt
No A are B= wrong
No B are A= wrong
Some A are B -----
All A are B= doubt

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All B are A= doubt


Some A are B= true
Some B are A= true
Some A are not B=doubt
Some B are not A= doubt
No A are B= wrong
No B are A= wrong
Some A are not B ---isme diagram me dhyan de....A ke ander jo
BLACK part wo A kabi B nai ho sakta...
All A are B= wrong
All B are A= doubt
Some A are B= doubt
Some B are A=doubt
Some A are not B= true
Some B are not A= doubt
No A are B= doubt
No B are A= doubt
No A are B ---- isme hum 2 gole banayenge aur unhe simple ek
line se aattach kar denge jo ye show karega ki in dono me NO
ka relation h...
All A are B=wrong
All B are A= wrong
Some A are B= wrong
Some B are A=wrong
Some A are not B= true
Some B are not A= true
No A are B= true
No B are A= true
Bhai ye cases aap ko yaad nai karne h inhe gole wale diagram
bana kar samjhe…
NOTE-- maine 4 case ke jo diagram banye h aap ko har us case
ke waise hi diagram banane h...koi aur diagram na use
kare...ans galat aa sakte h...so plzzz learn it...
Either or case ke liye 3 condition h---
1) 2 conclusion jo h wo dono DOUBT me hona chayie.
2) Unke element same hone chayie…matlb ek me A aur B ki bat h
to dusre me bi A aur B hi hone chayie…
3) Unme se ek +ve sentence ho aur dusra -ve sentence ho….(+ve
matlab ki usme NOT use na ho…… -ve matlb usme NOT use hua ho)

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NOTE --- dhyan de agr 2 conclusion me se ek h “all A are B”


aur dusra h “No A are B” …isme maan lijiye ki dono doubt me h
aur elements bi same h ek +ve to dusra –ve h….lekin yahan par
either or case nai lagega…ye ek EXEPTION ki tarah yaad kar
le…ki All aur NO ek sath h aur sari condition satisfy bi hoti
h tb bi unme either or case nai aata….
Kuch ques dekh lijiye…..
1) some A are B, some B are C…..to conclusion h some A are C
…..
ye doubt me hoga
dhyan de hum Definitely True aur Definitely Wrong ye conclusion
tbi bta sakte h jab usme koi direct relation diya ho…jaise isi
ques me agr pucha hota some A are B to wo Definitely true h
kyuki direct reaction given h….lekin jaise is ques me A aur C
me koi direct relation nai diya hua h isliye doubt h Is case
me…A jo h wo C ho bi sakta h aur nai bi ho sakta....
2) some A are B, all B are not C ….to conclusion h some A are
C, some A are not C
isme some A are C ye doubt me hoga kyuki isme koi direct
relation nai diya h….ho bi sakta h aur nai bi...
some A are not C ye Definitely true h…ab aap sochenge ki isme
bi koi direct relation nai h to bi ye True kyu h…ise jab aap
gole wala diagram banayenge tb aap ko clear hoga ki “jo part
A ka B me h (some A are B se) aur all B are not C diya h to
wo A jo B me h wo C kabi nai ho sakta…
in 2 ques ke diagram khud banaye aur kare....koi prblm ho to
contact kare...
Possibility wala case dekh le ab….
Ye bahut easy h karna…isme aap pahle possibility ko hide kar
le aur baki conclusion ko padhe aur dekhe ki wo Definitely
true h ya doubt me h ya Definitely wrong h….ab use possibility
ke sath relate kare aur ye 3 result dekhe….iske according
apnea ns ko tick kare…
Definitely true + possibility = wrong
Doubt + possibility = true
Definitely wrong + possibility = wrong
At least wale case dekhe…..

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Isme bi aap pahle at least ko hide kare aur baki ke conclusion


ko padhe aur dekhe ki wo Definitely true h ya doubt me h ya
Definitely wrong h…then
At least + Definitely true = true
At east + Definitely wrong = wrong
At least + doubt = doubt
Means at least lagane se koi farak nai padta….
Ab kuch alag type ke statement ke conversion dekhe….
STATEMENT ---- CONVERSION
Only A are B--- all B are A
Each A are B---- all A are B
Every A are B---- all A are B
Most A are B----- some A are B
A is B----- all A are B
Few A is B ---- some A are not B
A few A is B ---- some A are B

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Questions and Solutions


1.
Statement- All A are B. All B are C. All C are D.

Conclusion- All B are D. All C are B.

Answer- Only conclusion I follows.

In 1st conclusion B is small circle and D is large circle, from


diagram we can say that All part of B can be D, in 2nd conclusion
C is Outer Circle and some part of C can be B but not whole
part of C. So it is wrong.

Hindi Explanation- B small circle hai aur D large circle hai.


B ka total part D k andar hai, isliye ye conclusion right hai,
jabki 2nd conclusion me All C are B nahi ho sakta, kyunki C
large circle hai aur C ka total part B k andar nahi hai. Haan
All B are C jarur ho sakta hai but All C are B nahi ho sakta.

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2.
Statement- Some A are B. Some B are C. Some C are D.

Conclusion- Some D are B. Some B are A.

Answer- Only conclusion II follows.

In 1st conclusion B & D are not connected with each other. In


2nd conclusion A & B are connected with each other and some
part of A can be B, same as some part of B can be A.

Hindi Explanation- 1st conclusion me B aur D alag alag circle


hain, koi bhi ek dusrey se connect nahi hai, isliye Some D are
B nahi ho sakta hai, jabki 2nd conclusion me A aur B ek dusrey
se connect hain, aur A ka kuch part B hai to B ka kuch part A
bhi hoga. Isliye 2nd conclusion sahi hai.

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3.
Statement- All A are B. No B is C. Some C are D.

Conclusion- Some D are A. No D is A.

Answer- Either I or II follows.

Hindi Explanation- Agar conclusion me Some or No ya Some Not


hoga, aur dono conclusion me elements same honey chahiye, to
hamesha either or case hoga.

Rule for either or case- Some and No, Some and Some not with
same elements should be either or.

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4.
Statement- All A are B. Some B are C. Some C are D.

Conclusion- Some C are A. Some D are B.

Answer- Neither I nor II follows.

According to diagram in 1st conclusion A & C are separate with


each other, similarly in 2nd conclusion D & B are separate with
each other. We cannot find any relation among them.

Hindi Explanation- C & A aur D & B ek dusrey se connect nahi


hain, isliye hum koi bhi relation find nahi kar sakte hain.

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5.
Statement- Some A are B. Some B are C. All C are D.

Conclusion- Some D are B. Some D are C.

Answer- Both conclusion follow.

According to diagram B & D are connected with each other, same


as C & D are connected with each other, hence both conclusion
follow.

Hindi Explanation- 1st conclusion me B & D ek dusrey se connect


hain aur D ka kuch part B hai, isi tarah 2nd conclusion me C &
D bhi ek dusrey se connect hain aur D ka kuch part C hai,
isliye dono conclusion sahi hain.

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Possibility Case Questions and Solutions


1.
Statement- Some A are B. All B are C.

Conclusion- There is a possibility that all A are C. There is


a possibility that all B are A.

Answer- Both conclusion follow.

Hindi Explanation- If Some A is B hai to ye bhi possible hai


ki All A is B bhi ho sakta hai. Starting me jo rules diye hain
usi k according ye bhi hoga. Possibility k sums me aapko hare
k ek possible diagram draw karna hota hai, ki kitne jyada se
jyada diagram possible hain. Jo possible hain unko draw karne
k baad fir conclusion ko check karte hain.

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2.
Statement- All A are B. All B are C. All C are D. No D is E.

Conclusion- All C are E is a possibility. All A are C is a


possibility. Some B are E is a possibility.

Answer- Only Conclusion II is right.


According to statement NO D is E, and D is the largest circle.
So E cannot be merged with A, B, C, D.

Hindi Explanation- Statement ke according D, E nahi ho sakta,


isliye E kisi ke bhi saath me merge nahi ho sakta hai, kyunki
D sabse bahar hai, aur D aur E me koi relation nahi hai to E,
D k andar nahi aa sakta, isliye kisi ke (A, B, C) saath merge
nahi ho sakta hai.

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3.
Statement- Some fruits are flowers. Some flowers are buds. No
bud is a leaf. All leaves are plants.

Conclusion- No leaf is flower is a possibility. Some buds are


plants is a possibility. All buds are plants is a possibility.

This is the possible case. You have to think before applying


concept. In statement it is given that No Leaf is Bud. Leaf
can be connect with anyone except Bud.
Hindi Explanation- Statement me diya huya hai hai NO Leaf is
Bud, isliye Leaf sirf bud se connect nahi ho sakta hai, baaki
sabse connect ho sakta hai. All buds are plants bhi ho sakta
hai, some buds are plants ye bhi ho sakta hai. Aapko sirf
possible cases draw karney hain.

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CHAPTER 8-INPUT/OUTPUT
In the topic of input output there are primarily four types
of operation that can be asked in a particular question. The
four operations are as follows:

1. Ordering input according to given criteria, e.g.


alphabetically, in increasing/decreasing order etc.

2. Mathematical Manipulations on the output which would in


this case obviously be numerical. The operations could be
doubling, squaring, adding.

3. Shifting or Inter changing positions of


characters/alphabets/words etc., in the input according to
questions e.g. ‘shift 1st character to last’ or ‘interchange
1st & last’ etc.

4. Others like making an alphabet capital, replacing alphabet


by corresponding number etc.
So, which out of these is being used can be decided as:
• If words (of the input) do not change in the output after
an operation, the operations is either reordering or shifting.
In this case check for rearrangement first, if it is not the
operations performed then check for shifting next.
• If words (of the input) do change in the output, the
operation is either Mathematical (if numbers are used) or fall
into category of other operations (if alphanumeric data is
used).

The step should be following.


 Words are in the ascending order, for example- a, b, c,
d, e, f, g
 Words are in descending order, for example- g, f, e, d,
c, b, a
 Numbers are in the ascending order, for example- 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, 6
 Numbers are in the descending order, for example- 6, 5,
4, 3, 2, 1

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 Count of words are in the ascending order, for example-


Apple, Bowl, Goat, Hen, I, Man
 Count of words in the descending order, for example- Man,
I, Hen, Goat, Bowl, Apple
 Sum of numbers are in the ascending order, for example-
12, 35, 38, 49, 57, 78, 93
 Sum of numbers are in the descending order, for example-
93, 78, 57, 49, 38, 35, 12

Note: - We cannot find previous step means if last step, 6 th


step & 5th step is given and we have to find out 4 th, 3rd, 2nd
step & input. Then we cannot find it. Answer will be cannot
be determined (CND).

Questions and Solutions


Direction (1-3): In Arrangement machine when given an input
of words, rearrange them following a particular rule & solve
it.

Input: tea 49 cat 36 mango 25 lan 16


Step1: cat tea 49 36 mango 25 lan 16
Step2: cat 16 tea 49 36 mango 25 lan
Step3: cat 16 lan tea 49 36 mango 25
Step4: cat 16 lan 25 tea 49 36 mango
Step5: cat 16 lan 25 mango tea 49 36
Step6: cat 16 lan 25 mango 36 tea 49

1.If 3rd step of input is: “is 4 mango 36 track 16 prashant


64”.Which of the following will be the 5th step?
a) is 4 mango 16 prashant 64 track 36
b) is 4 mango 16 prashant 36 track 64
c) there are only four steps
d) is 4 mango 36 track 64 prashant 16
e) None of these

2. If the input is “the 36 issue 49 became 9 serious 25”, how


many steps will be required to complete the rearrangement?
a) Six b) Four c) seven d) Three e) Five

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3. If 5th step of input is “4 Jack Mango 16 Sushant 24”, which


of the following will be the input?
a) 4 mango 16 sushant jack 24
b) 4 sushant 24 mango 16 jack
c) Sushant 24 mango jack 4 16
d) jack 24 sushant mango 4 16
e) cannot be determined

Solutions-
1. First see the output
2. See the input
3. See other steps that how the output formed

In this arrangement the logic is (Words & Numbers are in the


ascending order alternatively).

Detailed Solution(1)- After giving numbers to each words &


numbers we can easily solve these type of questions.
[1][2] [3]
Third step is given, which is “is 4 mango 36 track 16 prashant
64”. It means we have to solve after 3rd step or after “mango”
Now according to arrangement greater number is 16, after that
greater word is Prashant
[1][2] [3] [4] [5]
“is 4 mango 16 prashant 36 track 64”

Write the remaining arrangement as it is. So 5 th step would


be- “is 4 mango 16 prashant 36 track 64”

Detailed Solution(2)-
Input is given, and we have to find how many steps will be
required to complete the rearrangement?

Again follow the same procedure by giving numbers


Logic is First smaller word then number then greater word then
greater number.

[6] [3] [1] [2] [5] [4]


Input- “the 36 issue 49 became 9 serious 25”

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Total six steps required to complete the rearrangement,


because remaining word “the” & number “49” already fixed at
their position.

Detailed Solution(3)- Answer is cannot be determined.


Note: - We cannot find previous step means if last step, 6 th
step & 5th step is given and we have to find out 4th, 3rd, 2nd
step & input. Then we cannot find it. Answer will be cannot
be determined (CND).

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Directions (1-5): Study the following information carefully


and answer the given questions:
A word and number arrangement machine when given an input line
of words and numbers rearranges them following a particular
rule in each step. The following is an illustration of input
and rearrangement.

Input: sushant 17 table 20 68 oven desk 39


Step I: 17 sushant table 20 68 oven desk 39
Step II: 17 table sushant 20 68 oven desk 39
Step III: 17 table 20 sushant 68 oven desk 39
Step IV: 17 table 20 sushant 39 68 oven desk
Step V: 17 table 20 sushant 39 oven 68 desk
And Step V is the last step of the rearrangement.

As per the rules followed in the above steps, find out in each
of the following questions the appropriate step for the given
input.

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1. Step II of an input is “15 yes 62 51 48 talk now gone”


which of the following will be step VI?
a) 15 yes 48 talk 51 now gone 62
b) 15 yes 48 talk 51 62 now gone
c) 15 yes 48 talk 51 now 62 gone
d) There will be no such step
e) None of these

2. Step III of an input is “21 victory 30 joint 64 47 all


gone” How many more steps will be required to complete the
rearrangement?
a) Three
b) Four
c) Five
d) Six
e) None of these

3.Input is “89 bind 32 goal house 61 12 joy” How many steps


will be required to complete the arrangement?
a) Four
b) Five
c) Six
d) Seven
e) None of these

4.Input is “Save 21 43 78 them early 36 for” Which of the


following steps will be the last but one?
a) VI
b) VII
c) VIII
d) V
e) None of these

5.Input is “desire 59 63 all few 38 46 zone” How many steps


will be required to complete the rearrangement?
a) Four
b) Five
c) Six
d) Seven

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e) None of these

As per the above procedure, do it yourself.


Answers-

1. (c)
Step II : 15 yes 62 5148 talk now gone
Step III : 15 yes 48 62 51 talk now gone
Step IV : 15 yes 48 talk 62 51 now gone
Step V : 15 yes 48 talk 51 62 now gone
Step VI : 15 yes 48 talk 51 now 62 gone

2. (e)
Step III : 21 victory 30 joint 64 47 all gone
Step IV : 21 factory 30 joint 47 64 all gone
Step V : 21 victory 30 joint 47 gone 64 all

3. (c)
Input : 89 bind 32 goal house 61 12 joy
Step I : 12 89 bind 32 goal house 61 joy
Step II : 12 joy 89 bind 32 goal house 61
Step III : 12 joy 32 89 bind goal house 61
Step IV: 21 victory 30 joint 47 64 all gone
Step V : 21 victory 30 joint 47 gone 64 all

4. (e)
Input : save 21 43 78 them early 36 for
Step I : 21 save 43 78 them early 36 for
Step II : 21 them save 43 78 early 36 for
Step III : 21 them 36 save 43 78 early for
Step IV : 21 them 36 save 43 for 78 early

5. (b)
Input : desire 59 63 all few 38 46 zone
Step I : 38 desire 59 63 all few 46 zone
Step II : 38 zone desire 59 63 all few 46
Step IV: 38 zone 46 few desire 59 63 all
Step V : 38 zone 46 few 59 desire 63 all

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Q(1-5)Input: goa none 53 39 18 for again 97


Step 1 : 97 goa none 53 39 18 for again
Step 2 : 97 again goa none 53 39 18 for
Step 3 : 97 again 53 goa none 39 18 for
Step 4 : 97 again 53 for goa none 39 18
Step 5 : 97 again 53 for 39 goa none 18
Step 6 : 97 again 53 for 39 goa none 18
Step 7 : 97 again 53 for 39 goa 18 none
Step 7 is the last step of the rearrangement of the above
input. As per the rules followed in the following questions
the appropriate step for the given input.

1.Input: trees 18 27 date are 91 hour zero 31 16 chairs.


Which of the following will be step 4 ?
a) 91 are 31 trees 18 27 date hour zero 16 chairs
b) 91 trees 18 27 date are hour zero 31 16 chairs
c) 91 are 31 chairs trees 18 27 date hour zero 16
d) 91 are 31 chairs 27 date 18 trees hour zero 16
e) none of these

2.Input: how too 38 23 87 43 role over


Which of the following steps will be the last?
a) Step 4
b) Step 5
c) Step 6
d) Step 7
e) none of these

3.Step 2 of an input is: 94 car 86 wood shut 52 31 house


Which of the following is definitely the input?
a) 94 car wood 86 shut 52 31 house
b) 86 wood 94 car shut 52 31 house
c) car shut wood 86 52 31 house 94
d) cannot be determined
e) none of these

4.Input: show 51 37 note for 82 49 goot


Which of the following steps will be the last but one?
a) Step 7

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b) Step 8
c) Step 6
d) Step 5
e) none of these

5.Step 4 of an input is: 58 boot 47 den 15 21 town pure


Which of the steps will be the last?
a) Step 7
b) Step 6
c) Step 8
d) Step 9
e) none of these

Answers
1.c
2.c
3.d
4.c
5.b

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CHAPTER 9-SITTING ARRANGEMENT

Sitting arrangement can be explained under two


categories:

1) Circular/Square/Rectangle
2) Linear

As the name indicates circular arrangement means we


have to arrange given number of persons in circular
order, while in linear arrangement we have to arrange
given number of persons in a single line or parallel
lines.

Note: Generally as soon as seeing the questions people


tend to draw the shape mentioned in the questions and
latter put lines or dot or cross sign. It’s not good
way to solve sitting arrangement as it ruins your
valuable time.

So it’s better to use straight lines instead of shapes


& circles.

Now try to remember some important points. It will help


to solve any questions easily.

A) It’s always better idea to assume that you are one


of them.
B) If A is sitting immediate right of B that means B
is immediate left of A.
C) If you are unable to get the idea from a line then
better skip that line and go to the next line. You
can revisit to the skipped line after getting a
clue.

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Now understand the concept of left & right


When Facing inward or facing towards center

When Facing outward or facing outwards of center

Above diagram is assumption only. Change the direction


according to your position.

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Note- To avoid confusion of left & right in circular or square


arrangement problems, you should assume that all people are
facing towards the center.(unless & until they specify the
direction)
Square/Rectangle-

Line/Row-

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In linear (row) arrangement problems, we have to arrange the


data linearly. The arrangement is done only one “axis” and
hence, the position of people or objects assumes importance
in terms of order like first position, second position, and
last position. In this type of arrangement, we take directions
according to our left and right.

There are two types of problems asked in competitive exams,


from this topic.

One Row arrangement – In one row arrangement problems, people


or objects sits in a row either facing North or South. So, we
have to make arrangement according to the direction of face
of the people.
Two Row arrangement – In two row arrangement problems, there
are two groups of people or objects sits in a two rows and
people sitting in a first row facing North or South and vice
versa.

Read the entire information and understand the statements


correctly

One Row arrangement

Now, let us understand with the figure. Four people A, B, C,


D are sitting in a row facing North direction.

From the above figure, we can draw these conclusions:

(i) A and D are sitting at the extreme end of the line.

(ii) Right of A = B, C, D.

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(iii) Left of D = C, B, A

(iv) A is sitting immediate left of B. B is sitting immediate


left of C. C is sitting immediate left of D.

(v) B is sitting immediate right of A. C is sitting immediate


right of B. D is sitting immediate right of C.

(vi) A is sitting second to the left of C. B is sitting second


to the left of D.

(vii) C is sitting second to the right of A. D is sitting


second to the right of B.

(viii) A is sitting third to the left of D. D is sitting third


to the right of A.

Four people A, B, C, D are sitting in a row facing South


direction

From the above figure, we can draw these conclusions:

(i) A and D are sitting at the extreme end of the line.

(ii) Left of A = B, C, D.

(iii) Right of D = C, B, A

(iv) A is sitting immediate right of B. B is sitting immediate


right of C. C is sitting immediate right of D.

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(v)B is sitting immediate left of A. C is sitting immediate


left of B. D is sitting immediate left of C.

(vi) A is sitting second to the right of C. B is sitting second


to the right of D.

(vii) C is sitting second to the left of A. D is sitting second


to the left of B.

(viii) A is sitting third to the right of D. D is sitting


third to the left of A.

Two Row arrangements

Now, let us understand with the figure. Eight people are


sitting in two parallel rows containing four people each in
row, such a way that there is an equal distance between
adjacent persons. In row 1, A, B, C, and D are sitting and all
of them are facing South. In row 2, P, Q, R, and S are sitting
and all of them are facing North.

From the above figure, we can draw these conclusions:

(i) A, D, and P, S are sitting extreme end of the line.

(ii) A is sitting opposite to P. B is sitting opposite to Q.


C is sitting opposite to R. D is sitting opposite to S.

(iii) A and S is sitting diagonally opposite to each other.

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(iv) D and P is sitting diagonally opposite to each other.

(v) B and R is sitting diagonally opposite to each other.

(vi) C and Q is sitting diagonally opposite to each other.

Example- A, B, C, D, E & F are sitting around a circular table,


B sitting to the immediate right of E. C is not sitting next
to F, F is sitting opposite to B & D is sitting opposite to
E. Who is to the immediate left of D?
Solution- It is given that there are 6 people sitting around
a circular table. It means you should represent 6 points or 3
lines.
Now it is given that B is sitting to the right of E, so we
should start with E. Chose any end point and mark as E.
And B is sitting immediate right of E
So put B at right side of E

E (Start from here)

Now it is given that C is not sitting next to F, we don’t have


any clue regarding C & F, so skip this line and go to the next
line. It is given that F is sitting opposite to B & D is
sitting opposite to E. So place F & D opposite to B & E

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F B

It is given that C is not next to F, so it should be next to


B.

F B

Answer is- C is to the left of D. If you have any doubt about


the direction. Assume that you are at D point, and see your
left hand while facing towards center. That is C.

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Question: V, U & T are sitting in a circle facing the centre. A,B & C are also seated in the same
circle but two of them are not facing the centre (facing opposite direction of the centre). V is
second to the left of C, U is second to right of A. B is third to left of T, C is second to the right of
T. A is seated next to V.
Solution: First of all you need to understand the concept.
It is given that U, V & T are facing Inside, but the direction of A, B & C is not confirmed.
Now go to the statement- "V is second to left of C" (As direction of C is not given so you cannot
place V).
Now go to the next statement- "U is second to right of A" (Again direction of A is not given so
you cannot place U).
Now go to the next statement- "B is third to left of T" (Here direction of T is given). (T- Facing
Inside given in question). Now you can place T in any Position.
B is third to left of T
Now go to the next statement- "C is second to the right of T". Now place C.
Now go to the next statement- "A is seated next to V". There are 3 vacant position and you
don't know where to place V. Don't worry, now go to the next statement again, that is first
statement- "V is second to left of C.

But here you don't have any clue about the direction of C. Let us assume that if C is facing
inside. Now see the above diagram. If C is facing inside then second left of C is T. That is
already occupied by T. Hence It is wrong. Now it clear that C is facing outside. Now place
V. Direction of V is given in question. V is facing inside. See the diagram below.
Now go to the next statement- "U is second to right of A". There are two vacant positions and
you are still confused where to place A & U. Now there is one more statement left that is "A is
seated next to V. See the diagram below.
As we don't know the direction of A. Now go to the next statement. "U is second to right of A".
Suppose if A is facing outside, you cannot place U, because that position is already occupied by
B. It means A is facing inside and direction of U is given in the question. U is facing outside.
Now you have to find the direction of B only. It is given in the question that A,B & C are also
seated in the same circle but two of them are not facing the centre (facing opposite direction of
the centre). A is facing inside, C is facing outside. The direction of B will be outside according
to question it is given that two of them are facing outside.
Detailed Explanation is available here- http://www.bankingshortcuts.com/2016/05/how-to-solve-
sitting-arrangement-inward-outward/

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Practice Questions

Directions (Questions 1 to 4): Study the given information


carefully and answer the questions that follow:

1. A, B, C, D, E, F and G are sitting on a wall and all of


them are facing east.
2. C is on the immediate right of D.
3. B is at an extreme end and has E as his neighbor.
4. G is between E and F.
5. D is sitting third from the south end.

1. Who is sitting to the right of E?


a) A
b) C
c) D
d) F
e) None of these

2. Which of the following pairs of people are sitting at the


extreme ends?
a) AB
b) AE
c) CB
d) FB
e) Cannot be determined

3. Name the person who should change place with C such that
he gets the third place from the north end.
a) E
b) F
c) G
d) D
e) None of these

4. Immediately between which of the following pairs of people


is D sitting?
a) AC

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b) AF
c) CE
d) CF
e) None of these

Directions (Questions 1 to 4): Study the given information


carefully and answer the questions that follow:
1. Eleven students A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J and K are
sitting in the first row of the class facing the teacher.
2. D who is to the immediate left of F is second to the right
of C.
3. A is second to the right of E, who is at one of the ends.
4. J is the immediate neighbor of A and B and third to the
left of G.
5. H is to the immediate left of D and third to the right
of I.

1. Who is sitting in the middle of the row?


a) B
b) C
c) G
d) I
e) None of these

2. Which of the following groups of friends is sitting to the


right of G?
a) CHDE
b) CHDF
c) IBJA
d) ICHDF
e) None of these

3. Which of the following statements is true in the context


of the above sitting arrangement?
a) There are three students sitting between D and G
b) K is between A and J.
c) B is sitting between J and I.
d) G and C are neighbors sitting to the immediate right of H.
e) None of these

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4.If E and D, C and B, A and H, and K and F interchange their


positions, which of the following pairs of students is
sitting at the ends?
a) D and E
b) E and F
c) D and K
d) K and F
e) None of these

Answers
1. e
2. a
3. c
4. d
1. d
2. b
3. c
4. c

Directions (Q. 1-4): Study the following information to answer


the given questions :( SBI Clerk 2012)
P, Q, R S, T, V and W are sitting in a straight line facing
north but not necessarily in the same order. R sits third to
the left of W. Neither R nor W sits at extreme ends of the
line. Only one person sits between R and T. S is not an
immediate neighbor of either R or W. Two people sit between T
and P. Q is an immediate neighbor of S.

1. Who amongst the following sits exactly between R and T?


1)P 2)Q 3)V 4)S 5) None of these

2. How many persons are sitting between P and W?


l)One 2) Two 3) Three 4) Four 5) More than four

3. What is the position of T with respect to Q?


1) Third to the left 2) Fourth to the right 3) Second to the
right 4) Second to the left 5) Immediate left

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4. Which of the following pairs represents persons sitting at


two extreme ends of the line?
1)S,V 2)P,S 3 ) T,V 4)P,Q 5)P,T

Directions (Q. 1-5): Study the following information


carefully and answer the given questions.(SBI Clerk 2012)
A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are sitting around a circular
table facing the center but not necessarily in the same
order.
• C is an immediate neighbor of both G and A. E sits second
to the left of C.
• Two people sit between E and H.
• B is an immediate neighbor of G. Only one person sits
between B and F.

1. What is the position of D with respect to H in the above


arrangement?
1) Third to the left
2) Immediate left
3) Fifth to the right
4) Immediate right
5) Second to the right

2. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and


thus form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to
that group?
1)CH 2)FE 3)AB 4)GF 5) DC

3. Who sits second to the left of A?


1)F 2)B 3)D 4) H 5) Cannot be determined

4. Who among the following is an immediate neighbor of both


B and F?
1)G 2)C 3)D 4)A 5) H
5. B is related to E in a certain way based on the given
seating arrangement. In the same way A is related to H.
To whom amongst the following is D related to, following
the same pattern?
1)B 2)C 3)A 4)G 5)F

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CHAPTER 10-PUZZLE
The questions on Puzzle test may be any of the following types:

1. Classification type questions


2. Family based questions
3. Floor based questions

First of all we will try to solve simple question, this topic


is same like as seating Arrangement, you have to read every
line and solve step by step.

Example-
1. Five friends P, Q, R, S & T travelled to five different
cities Chennai, Kolkata, Delhi, Bangalore & Hyderabad by
different modes of transport of Bus, Train, Aero plane,
Car & Boat from Mumbai.
2. The person who travelled to Delhi did not travel by boat.
3. R went to Bangalore by car & Q went to Kolkata by aero
plane.
4. S travelled by boat whereas T travelled by train.
5. Mumbai is not connected by Bus to Delhi & Chennai.

Solution- In every puzzle questions, two statements are given


there. One is positive & other is negative.
Try to make a list of Positive & Negative separately.

In above example

Positive statement- R went to Bangalore by car & Q went to


Kolkata by aero plane.
R----Bangalore----Car
Q----Kolkata----Aero plane

Positive statement- S travelled by boat whereas T travelled


by train.
S---- ----Boat
T---- ----Train

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Negative Statement- The person who travelled to Delhi did not


travel by boat and Mumbai is not connected by Bus to Delhi &
Chennai.

We have given R, Q, S & T and Car, Aero plane, Boat,


Train….Remaining is P & Bus
It is also given that Mumbai is not connected by Bus to Delhi
& Chennai, so remaining city is Hyderabad.
It is given that S travelled by Boat, but it is also given,
the person who travelled to Delhi did not travel by boat, So
remaining person is T.

Final Answer-
R----Bangalore----Car
Q----Kolkata----Aero plane
S----Chennai----Boat
T----Delhi----Train
P----Hyderabad----Bus

Example-
1. Eight persons A, B, C, D, E, F, G & H work in three
different companies X, Y & Z
2. There are two females who work in different companies &
their specification is also different.
3. Two of them have specialization in Finance, another two
have specialization in Human Resources, two have
specialization in Marketing, one is Engineer & one is
computer specialist.
4. D is specialist in HR working in company X while her
friend G is a Finance specialist & works in company Z.
5. H is a HR specialist who works with marketing specialist
B but does not work in company Y.
6. The two persons with same specialization do not work
together.
7. Marketing Specialist F works in company Y and his friend
A who is Finance specialist works in company X with only
one other specialist.
8. In no company more than three persons work.
9. C is an Engineer and his sister works in company Z.

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10. No lady is an Engineer or Computer specialist.

Solution- First try to find positive statements and write it


down.
It is given that D & H HR specialist, G & A Finance specialist,
B & F marketing Specialist, C is an Engineer. Remaining E is
Computer specialist.
Now try to find the Company names.
It is given D works in company X. G works in company Z.
F works in company Y & A works in company X. It is written in
point 7 that A works in company X with only one other
specialist that is given D.

Negative statement- H does not work in company Y, it means he


works in company Z with B.
It is also given that C’s sister works in company Z.

So we found the following details

A-----Finance Specialist------Company X
D-----HR Specialist------Company X
H-----HR Specialist------Company Z
B-----Marketing Specialist------Company Z
G-----Finance Specialist------Company Z

Now we can easily find the remaining terms. It is given in


point 8 that in no company more than three persons work. So
remaining company is Y, hence all three remaining persons work
in Company Y.

Answer is-
A-----Finance Specialist------Company X(Male)
D-----HR Specialist------Company X(Female)
H-----HR Specialist------Company Z(Male)
B-----Marketing Specialist------Company Z(Male/Female)
G-----Finance Specialist------Company Z(Male/Female)
C-----Engineer------Company Y(Male)
E-----Computer Specialist------Company Y(Male)
F-----Marketing Specialist------Company Y(Male)

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Example- In a sports event, different games are scheduled to


be held on seven days, starting on Monday and ending on Sunday.
Two games are scheduled to be held on Saturday as well as on
Sunday and one game on each of the remaining five days. The
games to be held in these seven days are: Basketball, Football,
Boxing, Archery, Swimming, Shooting, Weightlifting, Wrestling
& Cycling, but not necessary in the same order. Shooting is
scheduled to be held on Thursday. Boxing & Cycling are
scheduled to be held on the same day. Wrestling is scheduled
to be held three days before Basketball i.e. two sports are
scheduled immediately after the day Boxing is scheduled.
Football is scheduled immediately after the day Wrestling is
scheduled. Swimming is not scheduled on Monday.

Solution-

As it is given that “Two games are scheduled to be held on


Saturday as well as on Sunday” and “Boxing & Cycling are
scheduled to be held on the same day”.
It is also given that “two sports are scheduled immediately
after the day Boxing is scheduled”. So Boxing & Cycling is
scheduled on Saturday.
It is given that “Shooting is scheduled to be held on Thursday”
Now remaining is Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday & Sunday
It is given that “Wrestling is scheduled to be held three days
before Basketball” so we can chose Basketball on Friday,
because Basketball cannot be scheduled on Thursday (Shooting
is already Scheduled) and Basketball cannot be scheduled on
Wednesday because Wrestling is scheduled three days before
Basketball. Football immediate after Wrestling. Swimming is
not scheduled on Monday, so Archery is scheduled on Monday.

Monday- Archery
Tuesday- Wrestling
Wednesday- Football
Thursday- Shooting
Friday- Basketball
Saturday- Boxing/Cycling
Sunday- Swimming/Weightlifting

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Practice Questions
Directions (Q. 1-6); Study the following information carefully
and answer the given questions.
A committee has nine members A, B, C, D, E. F. G, H and I and
it is divided into three groups i.e. Play group, Entertainment
group and Food group — with three members in each group. There
are certain conditions for the formation of the groups.
Only three members will be selected in each group. One person
cannot be selected for more than one group. A is in the Play
group. H is in the Entertainment group. C and D are in the
same group but not in the group of I. A and B are not in the
same group. E is not in the same group as I but is in the Food
group. F is in the group in which either H or B or both of
them are present. I and H are not in the same group. F is
neither with E nor with I.
1. C and D are in which of the following groups?
A) Play group
B) Entertainment group
C) Food group
D) Both Play and Food group
E) Can’t be determined
2. Which of the following statements is true about G?
A) G is in the Play group with H.
B) G is in the Food group with A.
C) G is in the Play group with C and D,
D) Can’t be determined
E) None of these
3. Which of the following members represents the Food group?
A) ECD

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B) AHG
C) CDI
D) HBF
E) None of these
4. F is associated with which of the following groups?
A) Play group
B) Food group
C) Both Play and Food group
D) Entertainment group
E) Can’t be determined.
5. A can be grouped with whom among the following?
A) GH
B) IG
C) CD
D) CH
E) None of these
6. Which of the following combinations is true‘?
A) Play group —ABF
B) Food group — ECB
C) Entertainment group— HFB
D) Food group — AIG
E) None of these
Directions (Q.7-12); Study the following information carefully
and answer the given questions.
Six persons A, B, C, D, E and F are sitting in row - I facing
South but not necessarily in the same order and each of them

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is working in a different company among Flipkart, Amazon, TCS,


FACEBOOK , HDFC and Axis. Six persons P, Q, R, S, T and U are
sitting in row - II facing north but not necessarily in the
same order and each of them is working in a different company
among Google, Infosys, Accenture, IBM, Capital One and ICICI.
Each person in one row faces exactly one person from the other
row.
A is third from the left end and is opposite the person who
is to the immediate right of the IBM employee. The IBM employee
is opposite the person who is to the immediate left of the TCS
employee. The Google employee and the FACEBOOK employee sit
at right ends in their respective rows. C is a FACEBOOK
employee, and is adjacent to E. D sits opposite Q and to the
left of A but does not sit at any extreme. B is not adjacent
to D but opposite P. The ICICI employee sits neither at an end
nor opposite A, but sits to the right of P. The Accenture
employee is adjacent to neither the Infosys employee nor the
Capital One employee. S sits at an end. R is opposite the
Amazon employee but sits at neither end. T is opposite the
HDFC employee and the Flipkart employee is second to the right
of the Axis employee. The Capital One employee is not adjacent
to P.
7. Who is sitting opposite the Flipkart employee?
A) S
B) P
C) A
D) R
E) None of these.
8. In which of this are sitting in extreme ends of Row -1
A) C-F
B) E-B

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C) C-B
D) D-F
E) None of these
9. What is the position of Amazon Employee with respect to F?
A) Third to left
B) Second to left
C) opposite
D) Second to right
E) None of these
10. What is the Position of T with Respect to R?
A) Second to Right
B) Third to Right
C) Third to Left
D) Can’t Say
E) Fourth to Right
11. Which One works in ICICI Bank?
A) R
B) Q
C) T
D) U
E) P
12. What is the position of U with respect to Q?
A) Immediate right
B) Immediate left
C) Second to the right

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D) Third to the left


E) None of these.
Direction for Q. (13- 15) Seven boys Raju, Prashant, Sushant,
Sameer, Suvi, Nitin and Piyush sitting in a row facing North,
not necessarily in the same order.
1. Nitin sits to the left of Prashant.
2. Sameer and Piyush are not adjacent to each other.
3. Prashant sits adjacent to Sameer and Sushant.
4. Piyush sits at an end.
5. Raju sits second to the left of Suvi and is at an end.
13. Four of the following five pairs are alike in a certain
way and so form a group. Which is the pair that does not belong
to that group?
A) Raju, Sameer
B) Prashant, Raju
C) Sameer, Piyush
D) Suvi, Sushant
E) Sameer, Raju
14. Who sits second to the right of Sameer?
A) Raju
B) Suvi
C) Prashant
D) Sushant
E) None of these
15. Who is/are the neighbour/s of Piyush?
A) Prashant
B) Sushant
C) Raju

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D) Suvi
E) None of these

Answers-
1. C
2. E
3. A
4. D
5. B
6. C
7. B
8. A
9. D
10. A
11. B
12. D
13. B
14. D
15. B

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CHAPTER 11-DATA SUFFICICENCY


There are different topics which can be asked in Data
Sufficiency.
1. Blood Relation
2. Inequality/Mathematical Operator
3. Sitting Arrangement
4. Ranking & Direction
5. Coding-Decoding

Here are some concrete tips to get you on track:

1. Be very familiar with the answer choices.


No excuses: On Data Sufficiency, they’re always the same!
Know in the blink of an eye what choice C is. On test day,
if you find that Statement 1 is insufficient, be able to
cross out choices A and D without hesitation.

2. Write down what you absolutely need in order to find


certain quantities.
Each statement alone will be sufficient if both of the
statements on their own contain all the information
necessary to answer the question. The statements will be
sufficient together if they contain every piece of necessary
information between them. Take the area of a parallelogram:
Do you need to know every side length to determine the area?
If you have every side length, can you find the area?

3. Don’t look at the statements together.


Statement 2 may tell you that x is negative, but that fact
has no bearing on Statement 1 when viewed by itself. Explore
all the possibilities offered by each statement
individually. If you’ve scrutinized Statement 1 and found it
sufficient, be equally merciless when it comes to Statement
2.

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4. Important information is often buried in the prompt.


Don’t pay so much attention to the statements that you
forget the rest of the question. Often, half the information
that you need is in the set-up.

5. Know when it’s actually necessary to solve single-


variable equations.
If the question asks for the value of z and you whittle the
problem down to an equation like 30z = 2(500) – 925, don’t
waste your time solving for z! It’s only important to know
that you COULD solve if you wanted to. Remember, all linear
one-variable equations have a unique solution, but quadratic
equations—equations with an x^2 term—can have zero, one, or
two solutions.

6. Know when it’s necessary to solve a system of equations.


Again, you never need to solve a DS problem—you only need to
know that you could. A system of n independent linear
equations with n variables can be solved for ALL of the n
variables. The key word here is “independent”: Equations are
independent if they’re not multiples of one another. For
example, y = 2x and 3y = 6x are NOT independent equations
because the second equation is just three times the first.
If on test day you don’t feel comfortable declaring that a
system of equations is solvable, get the system down to one
single-variable equation and then reassess.

7. Study prime factorizations and divisibility.


If x is divisible by 15, will x^2 be divisible by 27? What
about x^3?

8. Study overlapping sets.


Be comfortable representing these overlapping sets with Venn
diagrams. This topic is a DS favorite. A statement like,
“The number of widgets that were not made in Factory A or
Factory B is three times greater than the number of widgets

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that were made in Factory B” can be difficult to unpack in


the heat of the moment. Train yourself to answer questions
about sets methodically and quickly.

9. Remember that only 2 out of the 5 answer choices involve


looking at both statements TOGETHER.
This means that there’s a 60% chance that the correct answer
will treat the statements on an individual footing. It can
be tempting to use all the information the problem provides,
but keep these odds in mind. Choices C and E, as a group,
are 20% less likely to be correct than choices A, B, and D,
as a group.

10. Be on the lookout for statements that give no new


information.
The area of a square, for instance, contains just as much
information as the side length of the square. If you know
the area, you can find the side length; conversely, if you
know the side length, you can find the area. Often on the DS
section, Statement 2 will just be a repackaging of the same
information provided by Statement 1.

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Questions & Answers


In each of the questions below consists of a question and two
statements numbered I and II given below it. You have to decide
whether the data provided in the statements are sufficient to
answer the question. Read both the statements and give answer
(A) If the data in statement I alone are sufficient to answer
the question, while the data in statement II alone are not
sufficient to answer the question
(B) If the data in statement II alone are sufficient to answer
the question, while the data in statement I alone are not
sufficient to answer the question
(C) If the data either in statement I alone or in statement
II alone are sufficient to answer the question
(D) If the data given in both statements I and II together are
not sufficient to answer the question and
(E) If the data in both statements I and II together are
necessary to answer the question.
1: How much was the total sale of the company?
Statements:
I. The company sold 8000 units of product A each costing Rs.
25.
II. This company has no other product line.
A. I alone is sufficient while II alone is not sufficient
B. II alone is sufficient while I alone is not sufficient
C. Either I or II is sufficient
D. Neither I nor II is sufficient
E. Both I and II are sufficient
Solution- We can find the value of total sale of the company
from statement 1 only. Total cost =8000X25=200000 Rs.

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From 2nd statement we know that the company deals only in


product A, because it is given that company has no other
product line.
So Answer is E (Both Statements are sufficient)

2. What will be the total weight of 10 poles, each of the


same weight?
Statements:
I. One-fourth of the weight of each pole is 5 kg.
II. The total weight of three poles is 20 kilograms more than
the total weight of two poles.
A. I alone is sufficient while II alone is not sufficient
B. II alone is sufficient while I alone is not sufficient
C. Either I or II is sufficient
D. Neither I nor II is sufficient
E. Both I and II are sufficient
Solution- From 1st statement, it is given that one fourth of
the weight of each pole is 5 kg., so weight of total pole is
20 kg.(5X4), Hence we can find the weight of 10 poles, which
is 20X10=200 kg.
From 2nd statement it is give that Total weight of three poles
is 20 kg more than the total weight of two poles.
Weight of each pole = (weight of 3 poles) - (weight of 2 poles)
= 20 kg.
So, total weight of 10 poles = (20 x 10) kg = 200 kg.
Answer is C ( Either I or II statement is sufficient)
Practice Questions
Q1. In which year was Rahul born?

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Statements:
1. Rahul at present is 25 years younger to his mother.
2. Rahul's brother, who was born in 1964, is 35 years younger
to his mother.
A. 1 alone is sufficient while 2 alone is not sufficient
B. 2 alone is sufficient while 1 alone is not sufficient
C. Either 1 or 2 is sufficient
D. Neither 1 nor 2 is sufficient
E. Both 1 and 2 are sufficient
Q2. What will be the total weight of 10 poles, each of the
same weight?
Statements:
1. One-fourth of the weight of each pole is 5 kg.
2. The total weight of three poles is 20 kilograms more than
the total weight of two poles.
A. 1 alone is sufficient while 2 alone is not sufficient
B. 2 alone is sufficient while 1 alone is not sufficient
C. Either 1 or 2 is sufficient
D. Neither 1 nor 2 is sufficient
E. Both 1 and 2 are sufficient
Q3. How many children does M have?
Statements:
1. H is the only daughter of X who is wife of M.
2. K and J are brothers of M.
A. 1 alone is sufficient while 2 alone is not sufficient
B. 2 alone is sufficient while 1 alone is not sufficient

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C. Either 1 or 2 is sufficient
D. Neither 1 nor 2 is sufficient
E. Both 1 and 2 are sufficient
Q4. How much was the total sale of the company?
Statements:
1. The company sold 8000 units of product A each costing Rs.
25.
2. This company has no other product line.
A. 1 alone is sufficient while 2 alone is not sufficient
B. 2 alone is sufficient while 1 alone is not sufficient
C. Either 1 or 2 is sufficient
D. Neither 1 nor 2 is sufficient
E. Both 1 and 2 are sufficient
Q5. The last Sunday of March, 2006 fell on which date?
Statements:
1. The first Sunday of that month fell on 5th.
2. The last day of that month was Friday.
A. 1 alone is sufficient while 2 alone is not sufficient
B. 2 alone is sufficient while 1 alone is not sufficient
C. Either 1 or 2 is sufficient
D. Neither 1 nor 2 is sufficient
E. Both 1 and 2 are sufficient
Q6. Question: What is the code for 'sky' in the code language?
Statements:
1. In the code language, 'sky is clear' is written as 'de ra
fa'.

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2. In the same code language, 'make it clear' is written as


'de ga jo'.
A. 1 alone is sufficient while 2 alone is not sufficient
B. 2 alone is sufficient while 1 alone is not sufficient
C. Either 1 or 2 is sufficient
D. Neither 1 nor 2 is sufficient
E. Both 1 and 2 are sufficient
Q7. Question: How many children are there between P and Q in
a row of children?
Statements:
1. P is fifteenth from the left in the row.
2. Q is exactly in the middle and there are ten children
towards his right.
A. 1 alone is sufficient while 2 alone is not sufficient
B. 2 alone is sufficient while 1 alone is not sufficient
C. Either 1 or 2 is sufficient
D. Neither 1 nor 2 is sufficient
E. Both 1 and 2 are sufficient
Q8. How is T related to K?
Statements:
1. R's sister J has married T’s brother L, who is the only son
of his parents.
2. K is the only daughter of L and J.
A. 1 alone is sufficient while 2 alone is not sufficient
B. 2 alone is sufficient while 1 alone is not sufficient
C. Either 1 or 2 is sufficient

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D. Neither 1 nor 2 is sufficient


E. Both 1 and 2 are sufficient
Q9. How is J related to P?
Statements:
1. M is brother of P and T is sister of P.
2. P's mother is married to J's husband who has one son and
two daughters.

A. 1 alone is sufficient while 2 alone is not sufficient


B. 2 alone is sufficient while 1 alone is not sufficient
C. Either 1 or 2 is sufficient
D. Neither 1 nor 2 is sufficient
E. Both 1 and 2 are sufficient
Q10. How is X related to Y?
Statements:
1. Y and Z are children of D who is wife of X.
2. R's sister X is married to Ys father.
A. 1 alone is sufficient while 2 alone is not sufficient
B. 2 alone is sufficient while 1 alone is not sufficient
C. Either 1 or 2 is sufficient
D. Neither 1 nor 2 is sufficient
E. Both 1 and 2 are sufficient
11. Among A, B, C, D, E and F, who is the heaviest?
Statements:
I. A and D are heavier than B, E and F but none of them is the
heaviest.

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II. A is heavier than D but lighter than C.


A. I alone is sufficient while II alone is not sufficient
B. II alone is sufficient while I alone is not sufficient
C. Either I or II is sufficient
D. Neither I nor II is sufficient
E. Both I and II are sufficient
12. What is the two-digit number?
I. The difference between the two digits is 3.
II. The sum of the two digits is 4 more than their difference.
A. I alone is sufficient while II alone is not sufficient
B. II alone is sufficient while I alone is not sufficient
C. Either I or II is sufficient
D. Neither I nor II is sufficient
E. Both I and II are sufficient
13. What will be the ratio between the two digits in the two
digit number?
I. The largest digit is 9.
II. The sum of the digits in the number is 5 times their
difference.
A. I alone is sufficient while II alone is not sufficient
B. II alone is sufficient while I alone is not sufficient
C. Either I or II is sufficient
D. Neither I nor II is sufficient
E. Both I and II are sufficient
14. How many New Year's greeting cards were sold this year in
your shop ?

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Statements:
I. Last year 2935 cards were sold.
II. The number of cards sold this year was 1.2 times that of
last year.
A. I alone is sufficient while II alone is not sufficient
B. II alone is sufficient while I alone is not sufficient
C. Either I or II is sufficient
D. Neither I nor II is sufficient
E. Both I and II are sufficient
15. How is Divya related to Shaloo?
Statements:
I. Divya's mother is sister of Shaloo's father.
II. Shaloo is the daughter of Divya's grandfather's only child.
A. I alone is sufficient while II alone is not sufficient
B. II alone is sufficient while I alone is not sufficient
C. Either I or II is sufficient
D. Neither I nor II is sufficient
E. Both I and II are sufficient
16. How many children does M have?
Statements:
I. H is the only daughter of X who is wife of M.
II. K and J are brothers of M.
A. I alone is sufficient while II alone is not sufficient
B. II alone is sufficient while I alone is not sufficient
C. Either I or II is sufficient

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D. Neither I nor II is sufficient


E. Both I and II are sufficient
17. On which day in April is Gautam's birthday?
Statements:
I. Gautam was born exactly 28 years after his mother was born.
II. His mother will be 55 years 4 months and 5 days on August
18 this year.
A. I alone is sufficient while II alone is not sufficient
B. II alone is sufficient while I alone is not sufficient
C. Either I or II is sufficient
D. Neither I nor II is sufficient
E. Both I and II are sufficient
18. What is the code for 'is' in the code language ?
Statements:
I. In the code language, 'shi tu ke' means 'pen is blue'.
II. In the same code language, 'ke si re' means 'this is
wonderful'.
A. I alone is sufficient while II alone is not sufficient
B. II alone is sufficient while I alone is not sufficient
C. Either I or II is sufficient
D. Neither I nor II is sufficient
E. Both I and II are sufficient
Answers
1: E, 2: C, 3: D, 4: E, 5: C, 6: D, 7: E, 8: E, 9: B, 10: C,
11: A, 12: E, 13: B, 14: E, 15: C, 16: D, 17: E, 18: E

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CHAPTER 12-Statement and Course of Action


What is Course of Action?

A course of Action is a step or administrative decision to be


taken up for improvement or follow – up for further action in
regard to the problem, policy etc. on the basis of the
information given in statement.

STEPS TO EVALUATE A COURSE OF ACTION


If we analyze the questions asked in the examinations till
now, we can classify the question into two patterns or types.
I. The first pattern talks of a problem and the suggested
courses of action talk of a solution.
II) The second pattern talks of a situation or fact and the
courses of actions are ways of improving that situation.

Type 1. Problem Solution Relation


In this type of pattern, the suggested course of action can
be followed if.
1) It solves / reduces of minimize the problem
2) The solution or course of action is practically possible.

Type 2: Fact - Improvement Relation


This pattern is solved just by applying the same rules of
Type 1. First we have to identify whether the fact or situation
will improve due to the course of action mentioned. Second
thing to do is to check whether the, course of action is
practically possible.

Never allow our personal perceptions to come into play while


evaluating the suggested courses of action. We should always
give importance to the way public departments and systems
function and we should accept them even if we don't trust
them. Our decisions and views should be impartial and
impersonal.

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1. Problem & Solution based


Statement: A large number of people in ward X of the city are
diagnosed to be suffering from a fatal malaria type.
Courses of Action:
A. The city municipal authority should take immediate steps
to carry out extensive fumigation in ward X.
B. The people in the area should be advised to take steps to
avoid mosquito bites.
(1). Only I follows
(2). Only II follows
(3). Either I or II follows
(4). Neither I nor II follows
(5). Both I and II follow
Answer is (5) – Clearly, prevention from mosquitoes and
elimination of mosquitoes are two ways to prevent malaria. The
action will reduce the problem. So, both the courses follow.

2. Fact and Improvement based

Statement: Exporters in the capital are alleging that


commercial banks are violating a Reserve Bank of India
directive to operate a post shipment export credit denominated
in foreign currency at international rates from January this
year.
Courses of Action:
A. The officers concerned in the commercial banks are to be
suspended.
B. The RBI should be asked to stop giving such directives to
commercial banks.
(1)Only I follows
(2) Only II follows
(3) Either I or II follows
(4) Neither I nor II follows
(5) Both I and II follow
Answers (4) – The statement mentions that the commercial banks
violate a directive issued by the RBI. The remedy is only to
make the banks implement the Act. So, none of the courses
follows.

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Steps to Solve

1. Don’t make your individual perception.


2. Act according to the rules of any organization.
3. Go for impartial and personal thinking.
4. Existing practices are not effective Course of Action.
5. Whenever problem arises, it is always sensible course of
action to find out the cause.
Important Points to proceed step by step to reach final
courses of action:
1. Extreme or strict action is not valid course of action.
2. The actions should be a positive step towards the solution
of the problem, rather harsh and undemocratic.
3. Analyses course of action whether it will solve the
problem or lessen it. For proper analysis check with
(a) Universal truth
(b) Experience
(c) Logic
4. Check out practical course of action. Simple problem must
have simple course of action, not a complex one which might
create more problem than to solve or reduce.
5. In most of the cases, a situation has more than one course
of action. But they are never exclusive to each other. So our
answer should be always “both follow” and not “either of them
follows”.
6. If course of action and problems are properly balanced
and if the course of action is also feasible than that action
can be followed.

1. Statement: Youngsters are often found staring at obscene


posters.
Courses of Action:
1. Children should be punished and penalized if they are found
doing so.
2. Any display of such materials should be banned.
(1) Only I follows
(2) Only II follows
(3) Either I or II follows
(4) Neither I nor II follows

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(5) Both I and II follow


Answer (2) only II follows.
Explanation: Bad things attract more and punishment after the
act has been committed is no remedy. The act should be
prevented so only II follows.

2. Statement: Footpaths of a busy road are crowded with


vendors selling cheap items.
Courses of Action:
I) The help of police should be sought to drive them away.
II) Some space should be provided to them where they can earn
their bread without blocking footpaths.
(1) Only I follows
(2) Only II follows
(3) Either I or II follows
(4) Neither I nor II follows
(5) Both I and II follow
Answer (5) Both I and II follow
Explanation: The best solution for the problem is to give an
alternative to it. II suggests an alternative and hence
follows. But how can we be sure that the vendors would leave
the footpaths if they are given alternative means of
livelihood? For that we have to use force and hence I also
follows.

3. Statement: Rapid growth of urban population has led to a


severe shortage of living space resulting in a drop in living
conditions.
Courses of Action:
1. The Government should draw plans for urban re planning and
development.
2. All village to town migrations should be stopped.
3. The Government should demolish the five-star hotels and
build peoples cottages there.
(1) Only I follows
(2) Only III follows
(3) I & III follow
(4) I & II follow
(5) All follow

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Answer (1) Only I follows.


Explanation: I is a positive step towards the solution of the
problem. III is rather harsh and undemocratic. II too is an
extreme action. Both II & III would violate the Fundamental
Rights of the Indian Constitution.

4. Statement: Although advancement medical science has


raised life expectancy, the rate of child mortality remains
high in India.
Courses of Action:
1. Efforts should be made to lower life expectancy.
2. Medical scientists should be asked to give up their jobs.
3. Efforts should be made to decrease the rate of child
mortality.
(1) I & II follow
(2) II & III follow
(3) I & III follow
(4) Only I follows
(5) Only III follows
Answer (5) Only III follows.
Explanation: I is an absurd suggestion. II is an extreme action
not required in the present circumstances. III is undeniably
a proper course of action.

Practice Questions

1) Statement: The State Government has decided to declare


"Kala Azar" as a notifiable disease under the Epidemics Act.
1987. Family members or neighbors of the patient are liable
to be punished in case they do not inform the state
authorities.
Courses of Action:
I) Efforts should be made to effectively implement the Act.
II) The cases of punishment should be propagated through mass
media so that more people become aware of the stern action.

2) Statement: Every year, at the beginning or at the end of


the monsoons, we have some cases of conjunctivitis, but this

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year it seems to be a major epidemic witnessed after nearly


four years.
Courses of Action:
I) Precautionary measures should be taken after every four
years to check this epidemic.
II) People should be advised to drink boiled water during
winter season.

3) Statement: A recent study shows that children below five


die in the cities of the developing countries mainly of
diarrhea and parasitic intestinal worms.
Courses of Action:
I) Governments of the developing countries should take
adequate measures to improve the hygienic conditions in the
cities.
ii) Children below five years in the cities of the developing
countries need to be brought under constant medication.

4) Statement: One of the problems facing the food- processing


industry is the irregular supply of raw material to other
industries also.
Courses of Action:
I) The government should regulate the supply of raw material
for the food processing industry.
II) The government should announce an attractive Package to
ensure regular supply of raw material. The producers of raw
material are not getting a reasonable price.

5) Statement: Most the development plans develop on paper


only.
Courses of Action:
I) The in charge should be instructed to supervise the field
- work regularly.
II) The supply of paper to such departments should be cut
short.

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Answers-
1)e
When the Government takes such an action it is necessary that
people are made aware of the consequences they would face if
they do not obey the directive. Hence II follows. I is obvious.

2)d
Against an epidemic, precautionary measures should be taken
every year and not every four years. Hence I does not follow.
II is not a preventive action against conjunctivitis. Hence
II also does not follow.

3)a
To improve the hygienic conditions is always a welcome step
and in view of the statement it becomes even more necessary.
Hence, I unquestionably follows. But II does not. We should
not medicate any child unless he has actually contracted the
disease. Prevention is all right but curing should begin only
after the disease has been contracted.

4)b
I is an absurd suggestion. When one industry is facing trouble
because of regulations, it talks of regulating the supply of
other industrial raw materials too. II is a better action
because it would tend to solve the problem.

5)a
The Statement mentions a problem that most of the development
plans develop on paper only. They are not materialized in
reality. This problem could be solved if field work was
supervised properly. Hence I follows. But II is a absurd
suggestion. The issue is lack of actual field work and not
misuse of paper.

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CHAPTER 13-Statement and Assumptions

1. Assumption is always Indefinite & Positive


2. Some words like only, each, any, every, all, question
indicating word (why, these, what), Answer indicating words
(therefor), Definitely, But, Certainly exist in the assumption
that assumption will always be explicit (False).
3. Some words like some, to large extent, many, much, exist
in the assumption that assumption will always be implicit
(True).
4. Any assumption that is conveying the message of
advertisement, notice, appeal that assumption will always be
implicit (True).
5. Any assumption that is talking about the social welfare
(positive), govt. policies that assumption will always be
implicit (True).
6. If any assumption is talking about past & future that
assumption will always be explicit (False).
7. If any assumption showing the word like suggestion, order,
request that will always be implicit (True).
Restatement is never implicit.
8. Comparison always wrong.

Questions & Solutions

1) Statement: Everybody loves reading adventure stories


Assumption:
1. Adventures stories are the only reading material.
2. Nobody loves Reading any other material.

2) Statement: "If you want to study account join institute Y",


A advice to B.
Assumption:
1. Institute Y provides good account education.
2. B listen to A advice.

3) Statement: The college administration has instructed all


the students to stop using cell phone within the college
premises.

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Assumption:
1. The student may stop using cell phone in the college
premises
2. The student may continue to use cell phone in the college
premises.

4) Statement: Read the Notice before entering the club


Assumption:
1. People are literate.
2. Club is not for blind person.

5) Statement: BS is the only magazine that provides good notes


on English & Mathematics.
Assumption:
1. It will have some effect on those who read.
2. People always wait for latest Notes on English &
Mathematics.

Answers-
Both False, Both true, Only 1, Both true, Only 1

Practice Questions

Directions: In each question below a statement (or a passage)


is followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption
is something supposed or taken in for granted. You have to
consider the statement and the following assumptions and then
decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.
Give answer:
(a) if only assumption I is implicit.
(b) if only assumption II is implicit.
(c) if either assumption I or assumption II is implicit.
(d) if neither of the assumptions is implicit.
(e) if both the assumptions are implicit.

1. Statement: A sentence in the letter to candidates called


for written examination - 'You have to bear your expenses on
travel etc.

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Assumptions:
I. If not clarified all the candidates may claim reimbursement
of expenses.
II. Many organizations reimburse expenses on travel to
candidates called for written examination.

2. Statement: It is through participative management policy


alone that indiscipline in our industries can be contained and
quality of life ensured to the workers.
Assumptions:
I. Quality of life in our industry is better.
II. Indiscipline results in poor quality of life.

3. Statement: Many people have expressed surprise as the


princes has broken the royal tradition of marriage by choosing
a commoner as her life partner.
Assumptions:
I. People expect royal families to observe customs and
traditions.
II. People still value purity of royal blood and status when
it comes to a marriage of members of royal family.

4. Statement: The chairman and secretary of the housing society


have requested society members to use water economically to
help society to save on water-tax.
Assumptions:
I. Majority of members of the society are likely to follow the
request.
II. It is desirable to reduce expenditure whenever possible.

5. Statement: The economic prosperity of any nation is


dependent on the quality of its human resources.
Assumption:
I. It is possible to measure the quality of human resources
of a nation.
II. Achieving economic prosperity is a cherished goal of every
nation.

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6. Statement: The campaign of keep your city clean started by


the civic council did not evoke any response from the citizen.
Assumptions:
I. People do not desire to keep their city clean.
II. The civic council has failed in its campaign.

7. Statement: The private bus services in the city has


virtually collapsed because of the ongoing strike of its
employees.
Assumptions:
I. Going on strike has become the right of every employee.
II. People no more require the services of private bus
operators.

8. Statement: The new scheme gives people the opportunity to


voluntarily declare their disclosed property and legitimize
it by paying the lowest ever rate of tax.
Assumptions:
I. The new scheme is much better than the earlier scheme.
II. People may desire to pay less tax and own things
legimately.

9. Statement: An advertisement of a bank "Want to open a bank


account, Just dial our 'room service' and we will come at your
door steps."
Assumptions:
I. There is a section of people who require such service at
their home.
II. Nowadays banking has become very competitive.

10. Statement: Do not copy our software without our permission


- A notice
Assumptions:
I. It is possible to copy the software.
II. Such warning will have some effect.

Answers
1.(e) It is clearly mentioned in the call letter itself in
order to avoid a situation in which the candidates demand for

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their travelling expenses. So assumption I is implicit.


Special mentioning of the fact means that some companies do
reimburse the travel expenses.

2.(d) Clearly assumption I is not implicit. Indiscipline in


industry and poor quality of life for worker are the two
problems pointed at in the statement. But it-is not mentioned
that one is the cause of other. So assumption II is also not
implicit.

3. (e) As the people surprise the fact that the princes has
married a commoner , i.e, a person not of her status and 'not'
of royal blood' suggest that assumptions I and II are implicit.

4. (e) When a notice is issued it is expected that the people


for which it is issued will pay attention to it. Also the
theme of the statement is desirable. Here the theme is
reduction of tax, which can be constructed as reduction in
expenditure. Hence, the required answer is 5.

5. (a) Since the statement itself says that economic prosperity


is measured by the quality of its human resources, we can say
that assumption I is implicit. However, assumption II leaves
much to be desired for.

6. (b) The people were not enthused by the campaign does not
imply that people do not want to keep their city clean. Thus
assumption I is not implicit. Also the main notice. Of the
campaign was to involve as many citizens as possible to keep
the city clean but it failed to achieve its stipulated target.
Thus assumption II is implicit.

7.(d) Assumption I is not at all related to the statement just


because private bus operators have gone on strike does not
mean that every employee has a right to go for strike (even
though it may be true legally, but it is not relevant in this
statement). Assumption II is totally irrelevant, hence both
the assumptions are not implicit.

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8.(b) Since nothing has been said about the earlier scheme or
law so we cannot say about the efficiency of the new scheme.
Thus assumption I is not implicit. The highlight of the scheme
is that people may retain their property by paying lowest ever
rate of tax. Thus it can be safely assumed that people desire
to pay less tax and own things legally. Thus assumption II is
implicit. Hence the required answer is (2).

9.(a) The advertisement is published with a view to attract


customers. Unless and until there exists a section of people
who require such kind of services, the bank would not have
published the advertisement. The assumption I is implicit. But
from the statement we cannot assume that banking has become
competitive (though we can definitely draw the above said as
inference). Hence, the required answer (1).

10.(e) Both the assumptions are implicit. If it was not


possible to copy the software, such statement would not have
made. The warning is given because it may have some effect.
Thus assumptions I and II are implicit.

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CHAPTER 14-Statement and Arguments

While testing the strength of arguments, imagine yourself


sitting in the group while interviewer gives you a topic for
discussion.
Note- You cannot cross question, either you can argue in favor
of or against the given topic.

Each of the following questions consists of a statement


followed by two arguments I and II.
Give answer:
(A) If only argument I is strong
(B) If only argument II is strong
(C) If either I or II is strong
(D) If neither I nor II is strong and
(E) If both I and II are strong.

1. Statement: Should the railways immediately stop issuing


free passes to all its employees?
Arguments:
I. No. The employees have the right to travel free.
II. Yes. This will help railways to provide better facility.
a. Only argument I is strong
b. Only argument II is strong
c. Either I or II is strong
d. Neither I nor II is strong
e. Both I and II are strong

Explanation: The free passes given to railway employees is a


privilege for them, not their right so, argument I is not
strong, and argument II seems to be vague. Answer is D

2. Statement: Should government stop spending huge amounts of


money on international sports?
Arguments:
I. Yes. This money can be utilized for poor.
II. No. Sports-persons will be frustrated and will not get
international exposure.
a. Only argument I is strong

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b. Only argument II is strong


c. Either I or II is strong
d. Neither I nor II is strong
e. Both I and II are strong

Explanation: Clearly spending money on sports cannot be


avoided merely for social economic problems. But Argument II
is strong. Be a sports man and then think on this question.
Answer is B.

Practice Question

Each of the following questions consists of a statement


followed by two arguments I and II.
Give answer:
(A) If only argument I is strong
(B) If only argument II is strong
(C) If either I or II is strong
(D) If neither I nor II is strong and
(E) If both I and II are strong.

1. Statement : Should number of holidays of government


employees be reduced ?
Arguments :
I. Yes. Our government employees are having maximum number
of holidays among the other countries of the world.
II. Yes. It will lead to increased productivity of government
offices.
a. Only argument I is strong
b. Only argument II is strong
c. Either I or II is strong
d. Neither I nor II is strong
e. Both I and II are strong

2. Statement : Should there be reservation of seats and posts


on communal basis ?
Arguments :
I. Yes. It will check most of the inter-communal biases.
II. No. Ours is a secular state.

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a. Only argument I is strong


b. Only argument II is strong
c. Either I or II is strong
d. Neither I nor II is strong
e. Both I and II are strong

3. Statement : Should education be made compulsory for all


children up to the age of 14 ?
Arguments :
I. Yes. This will help to eradicate the system of forced
employment of children.
II. Yes. This would increase the standard of living.
a. Only argument I is strong
b. Only argument II is strong
c. Either I or II is strong
d. Neither I nor II is strong
e. Both I and II are strong

4. Statement : Should the tuition fees in all post graduate


courses be hiked considerably ?
Arguments :
I. Yes. This will bring some kind of seriousness among the
students and will improve quality.
II. No. This will force the meritorious poor students to stay
away from post-graduate courses.
a. Only argument I is strong
b. Only argument II is strong
c. Either I or II is strong
d. Neither I nor II is strong
e. Both I and II are strong

5. Statement: Should students union in universities be


abolished ?
Arguments :
I. Yes. Students can pay full attention to their career
development.
II. No. All the great leaders had been students union leaders.
a. Only argument I is strong
b. Only argument II is strong

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c. Either I or II is strong
d. Neither I nor II is strong
e. Both I and II are strong

6. Statement: Should persons convicted of criminal offences


in the past be allowed to contest elections in India?
Arguments:
I. No. Such persons cannot serve the cause of the people and
country.
II. Yes. It is democracy - let people decide whom to vote.
a. Only argument I is strong
b. Only argument II is strong
c. Either I or II is strong
d. Neither I nor II is strong
e. Both I and II are strong

7. Statement: Should cutting of trees be banned altogether?


Arguments:
I. Yes. It is very much necessary to do so to restore
ecological balance.
II. No. A total ban would harm timber based industries.
a. Only argument I is strong
b. Only argument II is strong
c. Either I or II is strong
d. Neither I nor II is strong
e. Both I and II are strong

8. Statement: Should the political parties be banned?


Arguments:
I. Yes. It is necessary to teach a lesson to the politicians.
II. No. It will lead to an end of democracy.
a. Only argument I is strong
b. Only argument II is strong
c. Either I or II is strong
d. Neither I nor II is strong
e. Both I and II are strong

Answers- B, B, D, B, A, A, E, D

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CHAPTER 15-CAUSE AND EFFECT

What is Cause and Effect?


Cause is an event that leads to another event, which in turn
is called the effect of the triggering event if there are
sequence of events, the event which is an effect shall always
be preceded by an event which was its triggering cause event.
Let us understand this with an example:
1. The Australian Cricket Team worked hard for four years to
rebuild itself after all the key senior players retired.
2. The Australian team won the Cricket World cup after their
consistent efforts.
3. The Australian team reached number 1 ranking after the huge
success.
if we consider statements 1 and 2, we can clearly see that
statement 2 is the result of statement 1. Hence, statement 1
is the cause for the effect in statement 2.
Similarly, if statement 2 and 3 are analyzed in a pair, you
will see that statement 2 was the cause for the effect in
statement 3.
Hence, any particular statement may play the role of both the
cause and effect, depending on the other statement in whose
respect this particular statement is being analyzed.
You will never be asked to comment on a statement for being a
cause or effect at absolute level. It will always be given
with other statements in lieu of which you will have to decide
the role of a given statement as a cause or effect.

Key to solve Cause and Effect questions lies in the fact of


identifying by going through the sequence of events that which
event will lead to which event. The event which becomes the
reason for another event to happen becomes the cause of the
later event, which is called effect.

Cause - Reason for something to happen


Effect - Thing that happened
Cause and Effect - Explains what made what to happen

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It must be a scientifically proven fact that the cause leads


to the said effect.
The said effect should be a logical consequence of the said
cause.
There may be several necessary conditions for the occurrence
of an event and that they must all be included in the
sufficient condition.

Immediate Cause: An immediate cause means a cause that


immediately precedes the effect. Immediate cause are the most
proximate in time, to the effect.

Principal Cause: The principal cause is the main and the most
important reason behind the effect.

Independent Cause: An independent cause means a cause that


does not have any relationship with the given statement.

Rule: Cause is always antecedent. Naturally the cause will


occur before the effect. Hence, if two events are given then
the effect that is chronologically antecedent to the other one
can only be regarded as a possible cause.

Statements:
Indian Economy is observing remarkable growth.
Standard of living among the middle class society is constantly
going up since part of few years.

A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect.


B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect.
C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes.
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent
causes.
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common
cause.

Answer (B) Since the standard of living among the middle class
society is constantly going up so Indian Economy is observing
remarkable growth.

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Statements:
The government has decided to make all the information related
to primary education available to the general public.
In the past, the general public did not have access to all
these information related to primary education.

A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect.


B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect.
C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes.
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent
causes.
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common
cause.

Answer (B) The government must have seen the unawareness of


the people as a strong factor in the primary education
programme being not successful. The steps indicated in I must,
thus have been sought for as a remedy for the same. So, option
(b) is our answer.

Statements:
The prices of petrol and diesel in the domestic market have
remained unchanged for the past few months.
The crude oil prices in the international market have gone up
substantially in the last few months.
A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect
B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect
C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent
causes
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common
cause

Answer (D):The prices of petrol and diesel being stagnant in


the domestic market and the increase in the same in the
international market must be backed by independent causes.

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Statements:
The government has recently fixed the fees for professional
courses offered by the unaided institutions which are much
lower than the fees charged last year.
The parents of the aspiring students launched a severe
agitation last year protesting against the high fees charged
by the unaided institutions.
A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect
B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect
C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent
causes
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common
cause
Answer (B) The parents’ protest against high fees being charged
by the institutions led the government to interfere and fix
the fees at a more affordable level.

Important note:

(a) If first event I is in present perfect tense and II is in


future tense. Eliminate choice (a) and (c). As event II cannot
be a cause or event I.
(b) If event I is in present perfect and event II is in present
continuous, so event I occurs before II. Thus eliminate choice
(a) and (c).
(c) Event I is in present perfect tense and event II is in
present continuous, so event I occurs before event II. Hence,
event II cannot be a cause. Thus eliminate choices (a) and
(c).

Practice Questions

Statements:
The Reserve Bank of India has recently put restrictions on few
small banks in the country.
The small banks in the private and co-operative sector in
India are not in a position to withstand the competitions of
the bigger in the public sector.

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A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect


B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect
C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent
causes
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common
cause

Statements:
All the schools in the area had to be kept closed for most
part of the week.
Many parents have withdrawn their children from the local
schools.
A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect
B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect
C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent
causes
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common
cause

Statements:
India has surpassed the value of tea exports this year over
all the earlier years due to an increase in demand for quality
tea in the European market.
There is an increase in demand of coffee in the domestic market
during the last two years.
A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect
B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect
C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent
causes
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common
cause

Statements:
There is unprecedented increase in the number of young
unemployed in comparison to the previous year.

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A large number of candidates submitted applications against


an advertisement for the post of manager issued by a bank.
A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect
B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect
C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent
causes
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common
cause

Statements:
The police authority has recently caught a group of house
breakers.
The citizens group in the locality have started night vigil
in the area.
A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect
B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect
C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent
causes
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common
cause

Answers- B, D, C, A, E

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CHAPTER 16-DECISION MAKING

Decision Making Process


Decision making is the study of identifying and choosing
alternatives based on the values and preferences of the
decision maker. Making a decision implies that there are
alternative choices to be considered, and in such a case we
want not only to identify as many of these alternatives as
possible but to choose the one that best fits with our goals,
objectives, desires, values, and so on.

Step 1. Define the problem


This process must, as a minimum, identify root causes, limiting
assumptions, system and organizational boundaries and
interfaces, and any stakeholder issues. The goal is to express
the issue in a clear, one-sentence problem statement that
describes both the initial conditions and the desired
conditions. Of course, the one-sentence limit is often
exceeded in the practice in case of complex decision problems.
The problem statement must however be a concise and unambiguous
written material agreed by all decision makers and
stakeholders. Even if it can be sometimes a long iterative
process to come to such an agreement, it is a crucial and
necessary point before proceeding to the next step.

Step 2. Determine requirements


Requirements are conditions that any acceptable solution to
the problem must meet. Requirements spell out what the solution
to the problem must do.” In mathematical form, these
requirements are the constraints describing the set of the
feasible (admissible) solutions of the decision problem. It
is very important that even if subjective or judgmental
evaluations may occur in the following steps, the requirements
must be stated in exact quantitative form, i.e. for any
possible solution it has to be decided unambiguously whether
it meets the requirements or not. We can prevent the ensuing
debates by putting down the requirements and how to check them
in a written material.

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Step 3. Establish goals


Goals are broad statements of intent and desirable
programmatic values. Goals go beyond the minimum essential
must have (i.e. requirements) to wants and desires.” In
mathematical form, the goals are objectives contrary to the
requirements that are constraints. The goals may be
conflicting but this is a natural concomitant of practical
decision situations.

Step 4. Identify alternatives


Alternatives offer different approaches for changing the
initial condition into the desired condition. Be it an existing
one or only constructed in mind, any alternative must meet the
requirements. If the number of the possible alternatives is
finite, we can check one by one if it meets the requirements.
The infeasible ones must be deleted (screened out) from the
further consideration, and we obtain the explicit list of the
alternatives. If the number of the possible alternatives is
infinite, the set of alternatives is considered as the set of
the solutions fulfilling the constraints in the mathematical
form of the requirements.

Step 5. Define criteria


Decision criteria, which will discriminate among alternatives,
must be based on the goals. It is necessary to define
discriminating criteria as objective measures of the goals to
measure how well each alternative achieves the goals.” Since
the goals will be represented in the form of criteria, every
goal must generate at least one criterion but complex goals
may be represented only by several criteria.

Hindi Explanation:- Is tarah ke sums me aapko ek ek criteria


check karna hota hai, agar saarey criteria full fill ho rahey
hain to answer positive aayega, aur agar ek bhi criteria miss
hai ya k bhi condition full fill nahi kar rahi hai to answer
negative aayega.

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Questions and Answers

Read the following information carefully and then answer the


questions given below it.
Following are the conditions for allotment of flats built by
Town Council in the newly developed area of city Gurgaon. The
applicant must:
A. produce domicile certificate of the State
B. be employed or self-employed in Gurgaon for minimum of 5
years
C. be ready to pay the entire amount in 5 years period
D. not be owner or co-owner (if spouse is owner) of a
residential accommodation in the city limit of Gurgaon
E. not be less than 35 years of age as on 31st Dec 1996.
In case of applicant who satisfies all other criteria except:
I. at A above, be referred to President of Town Council
II. at B above, but is ready to produce ration card of last
five years should be referred to Vice-Chairman of House
Allotment Committee.
III. At C above, but is a freedom fighter or an ex-serviceman
or first relation i.e., son/daughter/husband/wife of freedom
fighter/ex-serviceman should be referred to Vice-Chairman of
House Allotment Committee who can give concession per payment
up to 15 years in such cases. The last date for receipt of
application was 31st Dec, 1996. Conditions set out in terms
of age or duration of stay are to be fulfilled as on 31st Dec,
1996. Based on these criteria and information provided below,
decide the course of action in each case. You are not to assume
anything extra. If the data provided is not adequate to decide
the given course of action, your answer will be `data
inadequate’. The cases are given to you as on 1st Jan, 1997.

1. Sushant Chaturvedi is a son of an industrialist and from


other state who has set his factory in 1990 and has a domicile
certificate of the state. He is ready to pay the entire amount
in 4 years if required. He does not own a house in Gurgaon

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city limits but his wife owns a flat in Gurgaon. His date of
birth is 11th Nov 1960.

A. Do not allot flat


B. Refer to the Chairman
C. Refer to the President
D. Allot flat
E. Data inadequate
ANSWER- Do not allot flat
Explanation: Mr. Sushant is the co-owner of the flat in
Gurgaon, and hence can’t be allotted any flat.

2. Mrs. Poulomi Gupta, aged 45 years, is wife of an ex-


serviceman. She has been staying in rented house in Gurgaon
for last 10 years. She is having certificate of domicile of
the State. She is not employed anywhere. She is ready to pay
the entire amount in 10 years.

A. Refer to Chairman
B. Allot flat
C. Do not allot flat
D. Refer to the Vice-Chairman
E. Data inadequate
ANSWER- Do not allot flat
Explanation: Mrs. Poulomi Gupta does not fulfil Condition C
and, hence does not qualify for allotment of flat.

3. Ms. Shweta Shukla is daughter of a renowned freedom fighter


from another state. She is domiciled in the state and employed
in the Town Council of Gurgaon for last 6 years. She can pay
the entire amount in 5 years. She has completed 34 years on
10th Dec, 1994. She does not own a house in Gurgaon.

A. Refer to the Chairman


B. Allot flat
C. Do not allot flat
D. Refer to the President
E. Data inadequate
ANSWER-Allot flat

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Explanation: Ms. Shweta Shukla fulfils all the conditions laid


down. Hence, she qualifies for the allotment of flat.

4. Rajkumar is a 38 years’ old senior clerk in a local


builder’s office in Gurgaon. He has put in service of 13 years
but still does not own a house. He has produced domicile
certificate and is ready to pay the entire amount in 8 years.
He is nephew of freedom fighter Chunnilal who stays in a nearby
village.

A. Do not allot flat


B. Data inadequate
C. Refer to the Vice-Chairman
D. Refer to the Chairman
E. Allot flat
ANSWER- Do not allot flat
Explanation: Rajkumar does not satisfy Condition C of
depositing the entire amount in 5 years’ period. He is a nephew
of freedom fighter but is not in the first relation. Therefore,
flat will not be allotted to him.

5. Mrs. Aditi Kalia, a domicile of the state and a married


woman of 36 years, has been running a beauty parlor in the
city since 4th March 1992. Her husband is employed in a nearby
city but both of them do not own a house in Gurgaon. She can
pay the entire amount in 5 years.

A. Allot flat
B. Data inadequate
C. Do not allot flat
D. Refer to the Chairman
E. Refer to the Vice-Chairman
ANSWER- Data inadequate
Explanation: Mrs. Aditi Kalia does not fulfill the Condition
B. It is also not given in the question whether Mrs. Aditi
Kalia is ready to show the ration card for last 5 years. Hence,
data is not adequate.

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