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1.1 Brief introduction to Instrumentation
The technology of using instruments to measure and control the physical and chemical properties of materials is called instrumentation. Therefore instrumentation is an aggregation or assembly of devices united by some form of regular interaction interdependence .When the instruments are used for measurement and control of industrial manufacturing, conversion or treating process, the term process instrumentation is applied. When the measuring and controlling instruments are confined so that measurement provides impulses for remote automatic action, the result is called control system. Data acquisition systems via analog signals are used in communication electronic and medical applications. Conversion to digitalized system is widely used today because complex circuits are low cost accurate simple to implement. In addition there is rapid growth of microprocessor and microcomputers to perform difficult measurements and control functions. The demand for more and faster information from physical systems and devices used for space and nuclear research and development and for industrial automation have produced many new and effective instrumentation for data acquisition and reduction. Data acquisition systems are used to measure and record analog signals in basically two different ways: 1) Signals which originate from direct measurement of electrical quantities. These signals may be DC and AC voltages, frequency or resistance etc.
2) Signals which originate from the transducers.
Types of instrumentations:
The instrumentation systems can be classified into two distinct categories: 1. Analog systems: These system deals with information in analog form. An analog signal may be defined as continuous function such as a plot of voltage versus time or displacement verses force.
2. Digital Systems: A digital quantity may consist of a number of discrete or discontinuous pulses whose time relationship contains information about the magnitude and the nature of the quantity under measurement.
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1.2 Control system
The control system is that means by which any quantity of interest in a machine, mechanism or other equipment is maintained or altered in accordance with a desired manner. Consider for example, the driving system of an automobile, speed of the automobile is a function of the position of its accelerator. The desired speed can be maintained (or a desired change in speed can be achieved) by controlling pressure on the accelerator pedal. This automobile driving system (accelerator, carburetor and engine-vehicle) constitute a control system. For the automobile driving system the input (command) signal is the force on the accelerator pedal which through linkages causes the carburetor valve to open (close) so as to increase or decrease fuel (liquid form) flow to the engine bringing the engine-vehicle speed (controlled variable) to the desired value.
Fig. 1: The Basic control system
The diagrammatic representation of Fig. 1 is known as block diagram representation wherein each block represents an element, a plant, mechanism, device etc., whose inner details are not indicated. Each block has an input and output signal which are linked by a relationship characterizing the block. It may be noted that the signal flow through the block is unidirectional.
Classification of Control System
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1.2.1 Closed-loop control
Let us reconsider the automobile driving system. The route, speed and acceleration of the automobile are determined and controlled by the driven by observing traffic and road conditions and by properly manipulating accelerator, clutch, gear-lever, brakes and steering wheel etc. suppose the driver wants to maintain a speed of 50 Km. per hour (desired output). He accelerates the automobile to this speed with the help of the accelerator and then maintains it by holding the accelerator steady. No error in the speed of the automobile occurs so long as there are no gradients or other disturbances along the road. The actual speed of the automobile is measured by the speed meter and indicated on its dial. The driver reads the speed dial visually and compares the actual speed with the desired one mentally. If there is a deviation of speed from the desired speed, accordingly he takes the decision to increase or decrease the speed. The decision is executed by change in pressure of his foot (through muscular power) on the accelerator pedal.
Fig. 2: Schematic diagram of a manually Controlled Closed-loop System
These operations can be represented in a diagram form as shown in Fig.2. In contrast to the sequence of events in Fig.1, the events in the control sequence of Fig.2 follow a closedloop, i.e., the information about the instantaneous state of the output is feedback to the input and is used to modify it in such a manner as to achieve the desired output. It is on account of this basic difference that the system of Fig.1 Is called an open-loop system, while the system of Fig. 2 is called closed-loop system. System of the represented in Fig.(2) and (3) involve continuous manual control by a human operator. These are classified as manually controlled systems. In many complex and fast acting systems, the presence of human element in the control loop is undesirable because Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 3
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the system response may be too rapid for an operator to follow or the demand on operator’s skill may be unreasonably high. Furthermore, some of the systems, e.g. missiles are self destructive and in such systems human element must be excluded. Even in situations where manual control could be possible, an economic case can often be made out reduction of human supervision. Thus in most situations the use of some equipment which performs the same intended functions as a continuously employed human operator is preferred. A system incorporating such equipment is known as automatic control system. In fact in most situations an automatic control system could be made to perform intended functions better than a human operator, and could further be made to perform such functions as would be impossible for a human operator. The general block diagram of an automatic control system which is characterized by a feedback loop is shown in Fig.3. An error detector compares a signal obtained through feedback elements, which is a function of the output response, with the reference input. Any difference between these two signals constitutes an error or actuating signal, which actuates the control elements. The control elements in turn alter the conditions in the plant (controlled number) in such a manner as to reduce the original error.
Fig.3 General block diagram of an automatic control system.
Examples of closed loop control system
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Following are some examples of closed loop control system in which controlled output is continuously measured and a proportional signal is feed back for comparison with the input signal and the error, if any, is used for bringing about correction in the actual output. i) Home heating system with feed back control:
Fig.4 Home heating system
In a feedback home heating system as shown in fig.4 there is a thermostat which adjusts the burner in accordance to the room temperature. The oil input to the a furnace depends on a comparison of the actual room temperature with the desired temperature. This comparison produces an error signal. The controller opens the oil value if the error signal indicates that the room temperature is lower than the desired valve in this example, different components of the closed loop system are as follows: (a) Process: Heating of home at a desired value of temperature. (b) Measuring devices: thermostat, furnace with oil (c) Error detector: oil input to the furnace
(d) Controller: oil valve
(e) Control elements(actuator) thermostat
ii) Gasoline engine :
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Thus the throttle is automatically adjusted to maintain the desired speed. The tachometer reading is sent to an error detector which compares the actual speed to the desired speed and a controller adjusts the throttle to maintain the desired speed.The actual speed is compared with the desired speed. A speed sensor on the speed meter cable generates a signal proportional to the actual speed. The throttle is automatically adjusted to maintain the desired speed.5 iii) Cruise control of automobiles : This is a familiar form of closed loop system.5. and a controller sends a demand signal to the actuator (usually a pneumatic device) which adjusts fuel flow to the engine.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 For feedback a tachometer is attached observing the speed as shown in fig. Fig. iv) Machine tool positioning : Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 6 . an electronic error detector compares the actual speed to the desired speed. Any change in speed is detected by the tachometer and the signal is feedback for comparison with the reference input for throttle operation.
position commands may be coded on a magnetic tap. Control elements (Actuator): An actuator or control elements finally accomplishes the job according to the signal obtained from the controller. Error detector: The error detector receives the measured signal and compares it with the required signal value or set point. corrections are made automatically.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 In particular machine tools. V. The difference between these two provides the error signal. they can be used in hazards or remote areas. Moreover. II. such as an automatic room heating system. temperature flow and speed or whatever variable is to be controlled. Components of closed-loop control system I. areas with high nuclear radiations. Advantages and disadvantages of closed loop control system: The major advantages of closed loop control systems are as follows: 1. III. Closed-loop systems can perform a job faster than human beings. In this way a complete loop with feedback is produced. In a more descriptive way a process is a voluntary progressively continuing operation. This principle of comparing commanded positions with actual positions is the vital point that forms the basis of automatic control. Process: Process represents what we are going to control by the feedback loop. If not. such as chemical plants. and places at very high or very low temperatures. Measuring devices (sensors): In a closed loop systems these devices are used to measure the controlled variable and send a signal to the error detector. these devices are used for sensing pressure. fertilizer plants. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 7 . IV. Feedback is used to check to see if the machine actually reaches each position commanded. that consists of a series of controlled actions or movements systematically directed towards a particular result or end. Basically. Controller: It is responsible for what is to be done with the error signal and accordingly sending out signals to an actuator.
whereas a human being is not capable of handling several operations simultaneously. any physical system which does not automatically correct for variation in its output.2 Open-loop control system As stated already.2. Moreover it can be done only by persons who have training in this related fields. is called an open-loop system. It may occur due to open circuit or short circuit in the inner circuitry.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 2. Closed-loop control systems are more expansive than simple man operated system. different operators in a control room are prone to changed behavior and quite obviously often may get tired of making system corrections. 3. Such a system may be represented by Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 8 . Some of the chemical process cannot be controlled manually because temperature or pressures changes rapidly. Closed-loop control system can be adjusted to optimum control performance. Their behavior is not a changed variable whereas. 1. Decision making and initiative action is very fast. 3. may be in milliseconds. 2. 4. Disadvantages of closed-loop control system: 1. If there is any fault in the instrument itself which leads to a faulty error signal then no type of control is possible. A number of variables can be handled simultaneously by closed loop control system. In such a case fault location becomes difficult and time consuming. They are more reliable than a human operator. Installation and adjustment is intricate. Maintenance is difficult as it involves complicated electronics. 5. 4. as compared to a human operator requiring several seconds to take a control decision.
for example.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 the block diagram of fig. The system will be termed open loop if red and green lights are put on by a timer mechanism set for predetermined fixed intervals of time. there is no guarantee that the output obtained will be the desired output. Further any part of the clothes. If on the other hand a scheme is introduced in which the rates of traffic flow along both directions are measured( some distance ahead of the crossing) and are compared and the difference is used to control the timings of red and green lights. the machine stops automatically with the result that we may not get the desired amount of cleanliness of washed clothes as the machine cannot measure the output. Examples of open-loop control system: Following are the examples of the open loop control systems 1.e. After a particular set time. the cleanliness of the clothes. As no part of the machine is able to provide feedback to the machine operating time. i. Consider. a traffic control system for regulating the flow of traffic at the crossing of two roads. The output may be changed to any desired value by appropriately changing the input signal but variations in external conditions on internal parameters of the system may cause the output to vary from the desired value in an uncontrolled fashion. and Re-adjust the machine operating time automatically. It is obvious that such an arrangement takes no account of varying rates of traffic flowing to the road crossing from the two directions. In this system the output remains constant for a constant input signal provided the external conditions remain constant. Automatic washing machine: In this machine the operating time is set by the operator based upon his experience of the time required for washing different types of cloths. Thus the concept of feedback can be usefully employed to traffic control. 6 General block diagram of open-loop system It is important to note that the fundamental difference between an open and closedloop control system is that of feedback action.6. satisfactory only if such fluctuations can be tolerated or system components are designed and constructed so as to limit parameter variations and environmental conditions are well controlled. The open loop control is therefore. like collars Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 9 . Fig. a closed loop system (feedback control) results.
They are usually inaccurate and unreliable. 2.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 and the cuffs. 3. 2. Open loop control systems are slow because they are manually controlled. 3. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 10 . Disadvantages of open-loop control system: 1. Automatic traffic light system: For automatic control of traffic. These systems do not adapt to variations in environmental conditions or external disturbances. Advantages and disadvantages of open-loop control system: Advantages of open-loop control system: 1. Maintenance of the equipments is not difficult because complicated electronic circuitry is not involved. yellow and green are installed at road crossings. 4. Open-loop control systems represent the simplest and most economical type of control systems.red. The time and sequence of operation of these signal lamps are fixed when they are installed. A human being is not sufficient enough to control several parameters simultaneously and taking decisions and initiative action in a short interval of time. Only a few variables can be introduced in these systems. The control adjustment of open loop control systems depends on human judgment and estimate which is likely to give inaccurate result due to variations in atmospheric and such other conditions. still may remain dirty and the system is not able to detect such inaccuracies of the output for extra washing. Proper calibration is not a problem as the operation of the system is fully controlled by a human operator. 6. Open-loop control systems are not expansive. 5. 4. Optimization in control is not possible in these types of operation. 2. lamps of three different colours .
To decrease the required power of a system.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 1. and size of a control system. weight. It should be emphasized that for system in which the inputs are known ahead of time and in which there are no disturbances it is advisable to use open loop control.2. The number of components used in a closed loop control system is more than that for a corresponding open loop control system. whereas doing so is impossible in the open loop case. Closed loop control systems have advantages only when unpredictable disturbances and/or unpredictable variations in system components are present. On the other hand.4 Servo mechanism Basic elements of a servo mechanism: A servo mechanism or servo mainly represents a particular group of feedback control systems choose controlled output are mechanically positions. 7 Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 11 . From the point of view of stability. Moreover the output power rating partially determines the cost. open loop control may be used where applicable.2. Thus the closed loop control system is generally higher in cost and power. the open loop control system is easier to build because system stability is not a major problem. stability is a major problem in the closed loop control system. A typical servo system is represented by a block diagram as shown in fig.3 Closed-loop versus open-loop control systems An advantage of the closed loop control system is the fact that the use of feedback makes the system response relatively insensitive to external disturbances and internal variations in system parameters. It is thus possible to use relatively in accurate and inexpensive components to obtain the accurate control of a given plant. which may end to overcorrect errors and thereby can cause oscillations of constant or changing amplitude. 1. A proper combination of open loop and closed loop control is usually less expansive and will give satisfactory overall system performance.
The manner in which the automatic controller produces the control signal is called the control action.3. The error detector compares the reference input with the actual output for some function of the output signal and sends out an error signal proportional to the difference to improve the performance of the system. 1. 7 Block diagram showing the basic components of a servo system The feedback path consists of transducers and compensating networks.1 Automatic controller: An automatic controller compares the actual value of the plant output with the reference input (Desired value) determine the deviation and produces a control signal that will reduce the deviation to zero on to a small value.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Fig. Fig(a) is a block diagram of Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 12 .3 Basic control action 1.
Proportional plus integral plus derivative controllers Most industrial controllers use electricity or pressurized fluid such as oil or air as power sources. controllers may also be classified according to the kind of power employed in the operation. such as an electric motor. The set point of the controller must be converted to a reference input with the some units as the feed back signal from the sensor or measuring element. which consists of an automatic controller. an actuator.9(a) Block diagram of an industrial control system Classification of industrial controller: Industrial Controller may be classified according to their control actions as. or a pneumatic motor or valve. This element is in the feedback path of the closed-loop system. which is usually at a very low power level. Proportional controllers 3. a plant and a sensor (measuring element). The o/p of an automatic controller is fed to an actuator. (The actuator is a power device that produces the input to the plant according to the control signal so that the output signal will approach the reference input signal.2 Two position or on-off control action: Page 13 Department of Instrumentation Technology . 1. including such considerations as safety. Consequently. hydraulic controllers. Proportional plus integral controllers 5. that can be used to compare the output to the reference input signal.3.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 an industrial control system. reliability. a hydraulic motor.) The sensor or measuring element in a device that converts the output variable into another suitable variable. availability. accuracy. or electronic controllers. such as pneumatic controllers. Proportional plus derivative controllers 6. Two position or on-off controllers 2. Integral controllers 4. 1. What kind of controllers to use must be decided based on the nature of the plant and the operating conditions. weight and size. cost. The controller detects the actuating error signal. and amplifies it to a sufficiently high level. Fig.
On-Off Temperature Control 2010 In a two position control system. the signal u(t) remain at either a maximum and minimum value. quite often it is intentionally provided in order its prevent too frequent operation of the on-off mechanism.10(a) and (b) shows the block diagrams for two position or on-off controllers. which are in many cases. Let. With this two position control.11. one corresponding to the filling curve and the other to the emptying curve. The minimum value U2 is usually either zero or – U1. Such a differential gap causes the controller output U(t) to maintain its present value until the actuating error signal has moved slightly beyond the zero value. Fig. Notice that the output curve follows one of two exponential curves. the actuating element has only two fixed positions. In two position control. so that u(t) = U1 for e (t) > 0 = U2 for e (t) < 0 Where U1 and U2 are constant. depending on whether the actuating error signal is positive or negative. in very widely used in both industrial and domestic control system. the output signal from the controller be u(t) and the actuating error signal be e(t).12 the output signal continuously moves between the two limits required to cause the actuating element to move from one fixed position to the other. A differential gap is indicated in fig(b). the water inflow rate is either a position constant or zero. As shown in fig. The range through which the actuating error signal must move before the switching occurs is called the differential gap. Pneumatic proportional controllers with very high act two position controllers and are sometimes called pneumatic two position controllers. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 14 . This valve is either open or closed. simply on and off. In some cases the differential gap is a result of unintentional friction and lost motion. Such output oscillation between two limits is a typical response characteristic of a system under two position control. however. Consider the liquid level control system shown in the fig. The two position controllers are generally electrical devices and on electric solenoid operated valve is widely used in such controllers.
3. the relationship between the output of the controller u(t) and the actuating error signal e(t) is U(t) = KP e(t) Or.3 Proportional control action For a controller with proportional control action.12 level h(t) versus t curve for the system 1.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Fig.11 Liquid system level control Fig. in Laplace transformed quantities Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 15 .
the proportional controller is essentially an amplifier with an adjustable gain. Where Ki is an adjustable constant. The control action of a proportional plan derivative controller is defined by – And the transfer function is Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 16 .On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Where. Kp is termed the proportional gain whatever the actual mechanism may be and whatever the form of the operating power. 184.108.40.206 Integral Control Action: In a controller with integral control action.3. the value of the controller o/p u(t) is changed at a rate proportional to the actuating error signal e(t).5 Proportional-plus-integral control action. The control action of a proportional-plus-integral controller is defined by Or the transfer function of the controller is Where Ti called the integral time.6 Proportional-plus-derivative control action. 1. that is. The transfer function of the integral controller is – 1.
The block of a proportional plan integral plan derivative controller is shown in fig.1 Aim of the project We are familiar with the sensation which is called warmth. Ti is the integral time.12. The combination of proportional control action integral control action and derivative control action is termed proportional-plus-integral plus derivative control action. to some extent and we express this by saying a body is either hot or cold. The measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 17 . Our sense enables us to distinguish between different degrees of warmth.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Where Td is called the derivative time.12 Block diagram of a Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative control action 2.3. This combined action has the advantages of each of the three individual control action. Project overview 2. The equation of a controller with this combined action is given by – Or the transfer function is – Where Kp is the proportional gain. 1.7 Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative control action. and Td is the derivative time. Fig.
The action responds quickly but it is sensitive to input noise which causes chattering (on-off switching at short intervals). Circuit description 3.1 Circuit diagram Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 18 . The aim of our project “on-off temperature control” is to keep the temperature at a desired value by using the on-off control action. It compares the actual temperature to the desired control output. 2.3 Necessity and it’s application Many electrical and electronic devices produce heat when they are in the working state. and the whole system should be analyzed in selecting the proper controller. In our day to day life and also in the industry the temperature of certain body. By using on-off temperature control system we can do heatsink cooling. metal cooling when drilling etc. room or space may keep constant.2 Working principle of the system On-off temperature control action takes if any deviation occurs from a set point. or set point. computer emergency cooling.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 body is known as its temperature. a temperature control system release upon a controller. If we do not cool the device then the device will damage. The controller is one part of entire control system. For this purpose we must apply the temperature control system. 2. 3. and on output to a control element. To accurate control process temperature without extensive operator involvement. which accepts a temperature sensor diode or input.
On-Off Temperature Control 2010 3.2 Circuit analysis Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 19 .
DC supply. The potentiometer is connected with the non inverting terminal of the OP-Amp. 3. reverse biased zener diode is connected parallel with a potentiometer and the both are in series with resister R1.200mA max). in series. Through resistor R4.3 Simplified circuit arrangement Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 20 . The emitter of the transistor is connected with the form S1 (12V. In the first branch B1. A LED connected in series with resistor R 5 is connected across the fan. It constitutes of three branches B1. The anode of the sensing diode is connected with the inverting input of OP-Amp. The pin no. DC. The LED will indicate that the fan (motor) is passing current through its armature and it is in the condition of movement.4 is grounded. D2 is used with a resistor R3. The collector of the transistor is connected 12V.8 of the OP-Amp is the supply voltage and the pin no.1) is connected with the base of the transistor T1. a forward biased sensor diode.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 The on-off temperature control circuit is supplied with 12v.B2 and B3. In the second branches B2. The output of the OP-Amp (pin no.
So when the temperature rises above the set point the forward voltage drops under the reference voltage and the comparator output is Vcc turning on the transistor and so the fan starts rotating and will try to decrease the temperature to a value which is approximately equal to the set point. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 21 . The set point is taken with reference voltage which is found by the combination of a zener diode and a potentiometer.5 Working principle of the circuit These circuit moves a motor (fan) based on a temperature compared with a set point.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 3. The inverting terminal of the OP-Amp is connected with the sensor diode which can sense temperature and transducer to respective voltage. The zener diode supplies constant voltage across the potentiometer & with the help of potential meter desired value of reference voltage can be supplied to the non.inverting input of the OP Amp (as a comparator).
On-Off Temperature Control 2010 3.2 kilo ohm_5%) 1 1 1 1 1 Variable resistor R2 (50 kilo ohm_50%) Motor. usually a fan 12V.5 List of the components used in the circuit Specification 0 to 12 V 1N4007GP Component Adapter Temperature Sensor Diode Number 1 1 Zener Diode Operational Amplifier as comparator Transistor LED Resistors 2. 200mA max 1 Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 22 .6 V LM358 1 1 2N3904 1 1 R1 (10 kilo ohm_5%) R3 (1.0 kilo ohm_5%) R4 (820 ohm_5%) R5 (2.
“Universal” adapters attempt to replace missing or damaged ones. and supply at least as much current as. Overload protection Power supplies should have some type of overload protection. Because they consume standby power. and reduce their working frequency to get a gulp of energy once in a while to power. This interrupts the power supply. use powerless MOSFETs. often in a casing that improves its electrical characteristic.mode power supplies can cut off leaky electrolyte-capacitors. for example. the wire overheats and melts. the transformer has magnetic field continuously present and normally cannot be completely turned off unless unplugged. AC Adapter An AC Adapter disassembled to reveal a simple unregulated DC supply circuit. The least expensive AC units consist solely of a small transformer.“ domestic mains adapter or just “power adapter” . Fuses and circuit breakers are two of the more frequent mechanisms used for overload protection. Overload protection is important to protect the electronic equipment hooked up to the power supply and to also prevent overheating. Expensive switched.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 3. a clock . or a different plug offering the same voltage. A linear or switched-mode power supply (or in some cases just a transformer ) that is built into the top of a plug is known as a “plug pack”. they are sometimes known as “electricity vampires” and may be plugged into a power strip to allow turning them off. which could potentially lead to an electrical fire. often with either the same kind of DC plug offering different voltage or polarity. Replacement power supplies must match the voltage of. “adapter block”. Whether or not a load is connected to the power adapter. A fuse is a piece of wire. while DC adapters include a few additional diodes. and the equipment stops working until the problem that caused the overload is identified and the fuse is replaced. They are even more divers than their names. Slang terms include “wall wart” and “power brick”. “plug-in adapter”.6 Description of the components 1. which would otherwise need a battery. using multiple plugs and selectors for different voltages and polarities. If too much current flows. the original power supply. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 23 .
• • • Fast blow fuses cut the power as quick as they can Slow blow fuses tolerate more short term overload Circuit breaker One benefit of using a circuit breaker as opposed to a fuse is that it can simply be reset instead of having to replace the blown fuse. Some such cutouts are self resetting. and have poorer overload characteristics than glass and ceramic fuses. Once the element cools. Wire link fuses are just an open piece of wire.A more accurate term for devices that convert one form of electric power into another form(such as transformers and linear regulators) is power converter. The common conversion is from AC to DC. Some power supplies use a very thin wire link soldered in place as a fuse.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Fuses There are various types of fuses used in power supplies. Thermal cutouts Some PSUs use a thermal cutout buried in the transformer rather than a fuse. some are signal use only. bends triggers a spring which shuts the circuit down. Current limiting Some supplies use current limiting instead of cutting off power if overloaded. The advantages is it allows greater current to be drawn for limited time than the unit can supply continuously. the latter is common on supplies of less than 3 watts output. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 24 . Power conversion The term “power supply” is sometimes restricted to those devices that convert some other form of energy into electricity (such as solar power and fuel cells and generators). A circuit breaker contains an element that heats. The 2 types of current limiting used are electronic limiting and impedance limiting The former is common on lab bench PSUs. and the problem is identified the breaker can be reset and the power restored.
Transistor A transistor consists of two pn junctions formed by sandwiching either p-type or n-type semiconductor between a pair of opposite types. namely. a p-n-p transistor is formed by two p-sections separated by a thin section of n-type as shown in Fig. 1(i). one taken from each type of semiconductor. the following points may be noted: (i) These are two pn junctions. Fig. The section on one side is the emitter and the section on the opposite side is the collector. (ii) There are three terminals. (iii) The middle section is a very thin layer. This is the most important factor in the function of a transistor. (i) n-p-n transistor (ii) p-n-p transistor An n-p-n transistor is composed of two n-type semiconductors separated by a thin section of p-type as shown in Fig. a transistor may be regarded as a combination of two diodes connected back to back. Accordingly there are two types of transistors. 1 In each type of transistor.1 (ii). The middle section is called the base and forms two junctions between the emitter and collector. Naming the Transistor Terminals A transistor (pnp or npn) has three sections of doped semiconductors. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 25 . Therefore.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 2. However.
This constitutes the emitter current Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 26 . the emitter (p-type) of pnp transistor is forward biased and supplies hole charges to its junction with the base. Similarly. The base-emitter junction is forward biased. In Fig.2 Transistor Action The emitter-base junction of a transistor is forward biased whereas collector-base junction is reverse biased. If the emitter current is zero. in Fig. then forward bias on it causes the emitter current to flow. In Fig.r.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 (i) Emitter: The section on one side that supplies charge carriers (electrons or holes) is called the emitter. We shall now discuss this transistor action for npn and pnp transistors. (ii) Collector: The section on the other side that collects the charges is called the collector.2 (ii). (iii) Base: The middle section which forms two pn-junctions between the emitter and collector is called the base. Its function is to remove charges from its junction with the base.2 (ii). allowing low resistance for the emitter circuit. if the emitter current is 1mA. the emitter (n-type) of npn transistor has a forward bias and supplies free electrons to its junction with the base.2 (i).However. However. then practically no current would flow in the collector circuit because of the reverse bias. It is seen that this emitter current almost entirely flows in the collector circuit. The emitter is always forward biased w. If for a moment. The forward bias causes the electrons in the n-type emitter to flow towards the base. in Fig. then collector current is nearly zero . The base-collector junction is reverse biased and provides high resistance in the collector circuit. Fig. if the emitter-base junction is also present. The collector is always reverse biased.2 (i). the collector (ntype) of npn transistor has reverse bias and receives electrons. base so that it can supply a large number of *majority carriers. we ignore the presence of emitter-base junction. Therefore. 3 shows the npn transistor with forward bias to emitterbase junction and reverse bias to collector-base junction. the current in the collector circuit depends upon the emitter current. then collector current is also about 1mA. the collector (p-type) of pnp transistor has a reverse bias and receives hole charges that flow in the output circuit. Similarly.t. (i) Working of npn transistor: Fig. This is precisely what happens in a transistor.
therefore. In this way. they tend to combine with the electrons. As these holes cross into n-type base. almost the entire emitter current flows in the collector circuit. As the base is lightly doped and very thin.e. As the base is lightly doped and very thin. The forward bias causes the holes in the p-type emitter to flow towards the base. they tend to combine with holes. As these electrons flow through the p-type base.3 (ii) Working of pnp transistor: Fig. only a few holes (less than 5%) combine with the Fig. only a few electrons (less than 5%) combine with holes to constitute base current IB. IE = IB + IC Fig . 4 electrons. therefore. In this way. Fig. The remainder (more than 95%) cross over into the collector region to constitute collector current IC.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 IE. the current is still by electrons. almost the entire emitter current flows in the collector circuit. in the external connecting wires. It may be noted that current conduction within pnp transistor is by holes. This constitutes the emitter current IE.4 Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 27 . It is clear that emitter current is the sum of collector and base currents i. However. 4 shows the basic connection of a pnp transistor. The remainder (more than 95%) cross into the collector region to constitute collector current IC.
a transistor can be connected in a circuit in the following three ways: (i) Common base connection. the transistors are represented by schematic diagrams. Similarly. for the sake of convenience. Transistor Connections There are three leads in a transistor viz. However.5 Note that emitter is shown by an arrow which indicates the direction of conventional current flow with forward bias. However. while the collector always has a reverse bias. The output is obtained between the common terminal and the remaining terminal. It may be noted here that regardless of circuit connection. The symbols used for npn and pnp transistors are shown in Fig. it is clear that conventional current flows out of the emitter as indicated by the outgoing arrow in Fig. emitter.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Transistor Symbols In the earlier diagrams. the emitter is always biased in the forward direction. 5. For npn connection. for pnp connection. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 28 . The input is fed between this common terminal and one of the other two terminals. In this project we have used the common emitter connection. (iii) Common collector connection. (ii) Common emitter connection. the conventional current flows into the emitter as indicated by inward arrow in Fig. base and collector terminals. Accordingly. the transistors have been shown in diagrammatic form. 5 Fig. when a transistor is to be connected in a circuit. we require four terminals.. This difficulty is overcome by making one terminal of the transistor common to both input and output terminals. 5. Each circuit connection has specific advantages and disadvantages. two for the input and two for the output.
Input characteristic. 9. Fig . This gives the input characteristic at VCE = 10V as shown in Fig. The input characteristics of a CE connection can be determined by the circuit shown in Fig.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Common Emitter Connection In this circuit arrangement. Fig. 6 (ii) shows common emitter pnp transistor circuit. a family of input characteristics can be drawn. This is expected since the base-emitter section of transistor is a diode and it is forward biased.8 1. The following points may be noted from the characteristics: (i) The characteristic resembles that of a forward biased diode curve. I B increases less rapidly with VBE. Therefore. emitter of the transistor is common to both input and output circuits and hence the name common emitter connection. Fig. Keeping VCE constant (say at 10 V). note the base current IB for various values of VBE. Then plot the readings obtained on the graph. taking IB along y-axis and VBE along x-axis. It is the curve between base current IB and base-emitter voltage VBE at constant collector-emitter voltage VCE. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 29 . 8. input is applied between base and emitter and output is taken from the collector and emitter. (ii) As compared to CB arrangement. Here. Following a similar procedure. 6 (i) shows common emitter npn transistor circuit whereas Fig.6 Characteristics of Common Emitter Connection The important characteristics of this circuit arrangement are the input characteristics and output characteristics.
note the collector current IC for various values of VCE. Following similar procedure. 5 µA. 2. ri = at constant VCE ΔI B The value of input resistance for a CE circuit is of the order of a few hundred ohms. 10 (i). This gives the output characteristic at IB = 5 µA as shown in Fig. Keeping the base current IB fixed at some value say.10 Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 30 . 9 current (ΔIB) at constant VCE i. ΔVBE Input resistance. Fig. Then plot the readings on a graph.9 Input resistance: It is the ratio of change in base-emitter voltage (ΔVBE) to the change in base Fig. 10 (iii). Fig.e. a family of output characteristics can be drawn as shown in Fig. The output characteristics of a CE circuit can be drawn with the help of the circuit shown in Fig.8. taking IC along y-axis and VCE along x-axis. It is the curve between collector current IC and collector-emitter voltage VCE at constant base current IB.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 input resistance of a CE circuit is higher than that of CB circuit. The test can be repeated for IB = 10 µA to obtain the new output characteristic as shown in Fig10 (ii). Output characteristic.
the output resistance of a CE circuit is less than that of CB circuit. Small load switch transistor with high gain and low saturation voltage. (ii) Above knee voltage. High-speed switching. It may be noted that whereas the output characteristics of CB circuit are horizontal. called p-type semiconductor. Its value is of the order of 50 kΩ. Suitable for through-hole pcb assembly. The crystal conducts conventional Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 31 . collector current becomes almost constant and independent of VCE. DESCRIPTION NPN switching transistor in a TO-92. 40 V). is where the action of the diode takes place. After this.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 The following points may be noted from the characteristics: (i) The collector current IC varies with VCE for VCE between 0 and 1V only. However. IC is almost constant. FEATURES • • • • • • Low current (max. The transistors are always operated in the region above knee voltage.e. (iii) For any value of VCE above knee voltage. APPLICATIONS 3. The diode's terminals are attached to each of these regions. they have noticeable slope for the CE circuit. the collector current IC is approximately equal to Output resistance: It is the ratio of change in collector-emitter voltage (ΔVCE) to the change in collector current (ΔIC) at constant IB i. This value of VCE up to which collector current IC changes with VCE is called the knee voltage (Vknee). SOT54 plastic package. called a PN junction. 200 mA) Low voltage (max. and a region on the other side that contains positive charge carriers (holes). The boundary within the crystal between these two regions. PNP complement: 2N3906. In this project we have used the transistor 2N3904. a small increase in IC with increasing VCE is caused by the collector depletion layer getting wider and capturing a few more majority carriers before electron-hole combinations occur in the base area. Therefore. called n-type semiconductor. Well suitable for tv and home appliance equipment. Diodes Semiconductor diodes A modern semiconductor diode is made of a crystal of semiconductor like silicon that has impurities added to it to create a region on one side that contains negative charge carriers (electrons).
Forward Voltage Drop Electricity uses up a little energy pushing its way through the diode.7V for all normal diodes which are made from silicon. Reverse Voltage When a reverse voltage is applied a perfect diode does not conduct. all diodes have a maximum reverse voltage (usually 50V or more) and if this is exceeded the diode will fail and pass a large current in the reverse direction. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 32 . Ordinary diodes can be split into two types: Signal diodes which pass small currents of 100mA or less and Rectifier diodes which can pass large currents. Another type of semiconductor diode. This means that there is a small voltage across a conducting diode. is formed from the contact between a metal and a semiconductor rather than by a p-n junction Circuit symbol: Function Diodes allow electricity to flow in only one direction. rather like a person pushing through a door with a spring. However. The forward voltage drop of a diode is almost constant whatever the current passing through the diode so they have a very steep characteristic (current-voltage graph). Diodes are the electrical version of a valve and early diodes were actually called valves. but not in the opposite direction. the Schottky diode. In addition there are LEDs (which have their own page) and Zener diodes (at the bottom of this page). this is called breakdown.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 current in a direction from the p-type side (called the anode) to the n-type side (called the cathode). This can be ignored in most circuits because it will be very much smaller than the current flowing in the forward direction. but all real diodes leak a very tiny current of a few µA or less. The arrow of the circuit symbol shows the direction in which the current can flow. it is called the forward voltage drop and is about 0.
. . . . unless otherwise specified.1000V V R (continuous reverse voltage) . .On-Off Temperature Control 2010 In this Project we use sensor diode (1N4007GP)which can sense temperature. . . . . . . Features • Diffused Junction • High Current Capability and Low Forward Voltage Drop • Surge Overload Rating to 30A Peak • Low Reverse Leakage Current • Lead Free Finish. .. . . . . . . It’s brief description is as follows: 1N4007 Silicon Diode Pack of 4 (Four) 1N4007 Silicon Rectifier Diodes: The 1N4007 is a general purpose plastic encapsulated silicon rectifier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 A IF SM non-repetitive peak forward current . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Zener diode Current-voltage characteristic of a Zener diode with a breakdown voltage of 17 volt. . . . V RRM (repetitive peak reverse voltage) . but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1000V IF ( AV ) average forward current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notice the change of voltage scale between the forward biased (positive) direction and the reverse biased (negative) direction. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -65 +175 °C Tj junction temperature . Maximum continuous ratings. . . . . A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current not only in the forward direction like a normal diode. .20 A Tstg storage temperature . . . . . . . -65 +175 ° 4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RoHS Compliant ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Tj = 25 °C. . . . . . . . .1 A IF RM repetitive peak forward current . . . . . . . . . . . .
05% are available. A Zener diode exhibits almost the same properties. The amount of the voltage drop depends on the semiconductor material and the doping concentrations. In case of large forward bias (current in the direction of the arrow). In silicon diodes up to about 5. or as a voltage stabilizer for low-current applications.6 V diode. the diode exhibits a voltage drop due to its junction built-in voltage and internal resistance.2 V will exhibit a voltage drop of 3. for an amplifier stage).6 volts.g. The Zener diode's operation depends on the heavy doping of its p-n junction allowing electrons to tunnel from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the n-type material. Above 5. In a 5. the diode will be permanently damaged. By contrast with the conventional device. A conventional solid-state diode will not allow significant current if it is reversebiased below its reverse breakdown voltage. the temperature coefficient rises dramatically. Modern manufacturing techniques have produced devices with voltages lower than 5. the so-called Zener voltage. The device was named after Clarence Zener. who discovered this electrical property.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 breakdown voltage known as "Zener knee voltage" or "Zener voltage".6 volts. this tunneling corresponds to the transport of valence band electrons into the empty conduction band states.2 volts to 200 volts.6 V with negligible temperature coefficients. a reverse-biased Zener diode will exhibit a controlled breakdown and allow the current to keep the voltage across the Zener diode at the Zener voltage. A 75 V diode has 10 times the coefficient of a 12 V diode. When the reverse bias breakdown voltage is exceeded. Unless this current is limited by circuitry.6 V diode is the component of choice in temperaturecritical applications. as a result of the reduced barrier between these bands and high electric fields that are induced due to the relatively high levels of dopings on both sides. the most widely used tolerances are 5% and 10%. The Zener diode is therefore ideal for applications such as the generation of a reference voltage (e. the avalanche effect becomes predominant and exhibits a positive temperature coefficient. except the device is specially designed so as to have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage. For example.2 V if reverse bias voltage applied across it is more than its Zener voltage. a diode with a Zener breakdown voltage of 3. In the atomic scale. the two effects occur together and their temperature coefficients neatly cancel each other out. Breakdown voltage for commonly available Zener diodes can vary widely from 1. Another mechanism that produces a similar effect is the avalanche effect as in the avalanche diode. but as higher voltage devices are encountered. the Zener effect is the predominant effect and shows a marked negative temperature coefficient. The breakdown voltage can be controlled quite accurately in the doping process. All such diodes. The two types of diode are in fact constructed the same way and both effects are present in diodes of this type. regardless of breakdown voltage. a conventional diode is subject to high current due to avalanche breakdown. are usually marketed under the umbrella term of "Zener diode" Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 34 . thus the 5. While tolerances within 0.
but modern versions are available across the visible. ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. optoelectronic Electroluminescence Nick Holonyak Jr. electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device. When a diode is forward biased (switched on). Light-emitting diode Light-emitting diode Red. green and blue LEDs of the 5mm type Type Working principle Invented Passive.early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light. The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices. and are increasingly used for lighting.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 5. with very high brightness. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962. (1962) Electronic symbol Pin configuration Anode and Cathode A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. releasing energy Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 35 .
An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2). They also enjoy use in applications as diverse as replacements for traditional light sources in aviation lighting. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed. Current LED products for general lighting are more expensive to buy than fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. automotive lighting (particularly indicators) and in traffic signals. and greater durability and reliability. However. smaller size. they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources. longer lifetime. faster switching. improved robustness. while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology Technology Parts of an LED Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 36 .On-Off Temperature Control 2010 in the form of photons. and integrated optical components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor.
Typical on voltages are 2-3 Volt 6.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 The inner workings of an LED I-V diagram for a diode an LED will begin to emit light when the on-voltage is exceeded.Resistor Resistor Three resistors Type Passive Electronic symbol Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 37 .
such as nickel/chrome). Less well-known is critical resistance. Usually. with neighboring contacts electrically isolated from each other. noise. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient. with acceptable accuracy requires four-terminal connections. maximum working voltage and the power rating. The resistance is then calculated using Ohm's Law Ohm's law The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified in Ohm's law: Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 38 . probes on the ends of test leads connect to the resistor. materials and dimensions of the resistor. kilohm (1x103). Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films. Commonly used multiples and submultiples in electrical and electronic usage are the milliohm (1x10−3). calibrated current to the resistor. while the other pair senses the voltage drop across the resistor.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 (Europe) (US) A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current passing through it in accordance with Ohm's law: V = IR Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. named after Georg Simon Ohm. and have special test clips with jaws insulated from each other. as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy. such as fractional-ohm resistors. while the other senses the voltage drop. the tolerance. Units: The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI unit of electrical resistance. One pair of terminals applies a known. Some laboratory test instruments have spring-loaded pairs of contacts. and inductance. generally used with special test leads. Better digital multimeters have four terminals on their panels. and above which the limit is applied voltage. The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance. Measurement The value of a resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. These comprise four wires in all. and megohm (1x106). Measuring low-value resistors. which may be one function of a multimeter. the value below which power dissipation limits the maximum permitted current flow. One jaw provides the measuring current. Critical resistance is determined by the design.
The current through resistors in series stays the same. if V is 12 volts and R is 400 ohms. Ohm's law can be stated: This formulation of Ohm's law states that. Equivalently. For example. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 39 .On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I) through it where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R). a current of 12 / 400 = 0. To find their total equivalent resistance (Req): The parallel property can be represented in equations by two vertical lines "||" (as in geometry) to simplify equations. but the voltage across each resistor can be different. For two resistors. a current (I) will flow through the resistance. Series and parallel resistors Resistors in a parallel configuration each have the same potential difference (voltage). For instance.03 amperes will flow through the resistance R. The sum of the potential differences (voltage) is equal to the total voltage. This formulation is often used in practice. To find their total resistance: A resistor network that is a combination of parallel and series can be broken up into smaller parts that are either one or the other. when a voltage (V) is maintained across a resistance (R).
such as the Y-Δ transform. Ohm’s Law derives the other two from that. For example.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 However. or else matrix methods must be used for the general case. each edge of which has been replaced by a resistor. Excessive power dissipation may raise the temperature of the resistor to a point where it burns out. and other factors can reduce acceptable dissipation significantly. many resistor networks cannot be split up in this way. The practical application to resistors is that a resistance of any non-standard value can be obtained by connecting standard values in series or in parallel. Inside an equipment case at 60 °C. Air circulation and proximity to a circuit board. the corner-to-corner resistance is 5⁄6 of any one of them. Power dissipation The power dissipated by a resistor (or the equivalent resistance of a resistor network) is calculated using the following: All three equations are equivalent. Note that the nominal power rating of a resistor is not the same as the power that it can safely dissipate in practical use. if we are dissipating a bit less than Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 40 . The first is derived from Joule's first law. which could cause a fire in adjacent components and materials. ambient temperature. rated dissipation will be significantly less. There are flameproof resistors that fail (open circuit) before they overheat dangerously. Rated power dissipation may be given for an ambient temperature of 25 °C in free air. determining the resistance between two opposite vertices requires additional transforms. The total amount of heat energy released is the integral of the power over time: If the average power dissipated is more than the resistor can safely dissipate. Consider a cube. if all twelve resistors are equal. the resistor may depart from its nominal resistance and may become damaged by overheating. However.
linear or logarithmic track. but most are for mounting through a hole drilled in the case containing the circuit with stranded wire connecting their terminals to the circuit board. Variable Resistors Construction Variable resistors consist of a resistance track with connections at both ends and a wiper which moves along the track as you turn the spindle. Logarithmic (LOG) track means that the resistance changes slowly at one end of the track and rapidly at the other end. Miniature versions called presets are made for setting up circuits which Standard Variable Resistor Photograph will not require further adjustment.7 k linear track. cermet (ceramic and metal mixture) or a coil of wire (for low resistances). The track is usually rotary but straight track versions. and their physical size. Linear (LIN) and Logarithmic (LOG) tracks Linear (LIN) track means that the resistance changes at a constant rate as you move the wiper. This is the standard arrangement and you should assume this type is required if a project does not specify the type of track.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 the maximum figure given by the manufacturer we may still be outside the safe operating area. They are specified by their maximum resistance. Some variable resistors are designed to be mounted directly on the circuit board. usually called sliders. 4K7 LIN means 4. Variable resistors may be used as a rheostat with two connections (the wiper and just one end of the track) or as a potentiometer with all three connections in use.7 k linear track. Presets always have linear tracks. are also available. The standard spindle diameter is 6mm. and courting premature failure. The track may be made from carbon. The resistance and type of 4K7 LIN means 4. so halfway along the track is not half the total resistance! This arrangement is used for volume (loudness) controls because the human ear has a Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 41 track are marked on the body: . 6. Variable resistors are often called potentiometers in books and catalogues.
Potentiometer Variable resistors used as potentiometers have all three Potentiometer Symbol terminals connected. The widespread use of potentiometers in consumer electronics has declined in the 1990s. or control the volume (loudness) in an amplifier circuit. If the rheostat is mounted on a printed circuit board you may find that all three terminals are connected! However. for example to control the brightness of a lamp or the rate at which a capacitor charges. Rheostat This is the simplest way of using a variable resistor. This arrangement is normally used to vary voltage. Theory of operation Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 42 . Turning the spindle changes Rheostat the resistance between the two terminals from zero up to the maximum resistance. However they remain in many applications. It is important to connect the ends of the track the correct way round. if you find that turning the spindle increases the volume rapidly followed by little further change you should swap the connections to the ends of the track.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 logarithmic response to loudness so fine control (slow change) is required at low volumes and coarser control (rapid change) at high volumes. This improves the mechanical strength of the mounting but it serves no function electrically. such as volume controls and as position sensors. one of them will be linked to the wiper terminal. for example to set the switching point of a circuit with a sensor. with digital controls now more common. and may control a very wide variety of equipment functions. If the terminals at the ends of the track are connected across the power supply then the wiper terminal will provide a voltage which can be varied from zero up to the maximum of the supply. Symbol the other to the moveable wiper. Rheostats are often used to vary current. Two terminals are used: one connected to an end of the track. Potentiometer applications Potentiometers are widely used as user controls.
however. The potentiometer can be used as a voltage divider to obtain a manually adjustable output voltage at the slider (wiper) from a fixed input voltage applied across the two ends of the pot. Presets These are miniature versions of the standard variable resistor. however. showing equivalent fixed resistors for clarity.623 V. dividers are able to vary the output voltage from maximum (VS) to ground (zero volts) as the wiper moves from one end of the pot to the other. the output voltage VL will be approximately: Due to the load resistance. it will actually be slightly lower: ≈ 6. They are designed to be mounted directly onto the circuit board and adjusted only when the circuit is built. depending on the load. The voltage across RL can be calculated by: If RL is large compared to the other resistances (like the input to an operational amplifier). . the load resistance is often not known and therefore simply placing a variable resistor in series with the load could have a negligible effect or an excessive effect. the output voltage can be approximated by the simpler equation: As an example.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 A potentiometer with a resistive load. For Preset Symbol Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 43 . There is. . and Since the load resistance is large compared to the other resistances. while variable resistors have a maximum resistance where some current will always flow. One of the advantages of the potential divider compared to a variable resistor in series with the source is that. always a small amount of contact resistance. assume . In addition. This is the most common use of pots.
For example. giving very fine control. 7. Its appearance is as shown in Figure 2.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 example to set the frequency of an alarm tone or the sensitivity of a light-sensitive circuit. Internally frequency compensated for unity gain Page 44 Department of Instrumentation Technology . Low Power Dual Operational Amplifier LM358 • • Available in 8-Bump micro SMD chip sized package. even though operated from only a single power supply voltage. Multiturn presets are used where very precise adjustments must be made. Application areas include transducer amplifiers. Figure 2: LM 358 This circuit consists of two independent. In the linear mode the input common-mode voltage range includes ground and the output voltage can also swing to ground. Presets are much cheaper than standard variable resistors so they are sometimes used in projects where a standard variable resistor would normally be used. high gains. The screw must be turned many times (10+) to move the slider from one end of the track to the other. The low power supply drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage. internally frequency compensated which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operational Amplifier LM 358 Op-amp LM 358 is a low power dual operational amplifier. these circuits can be directly supplied with the standard +5V which is used in logic systems and will easily provide the required interface electronics without requiring any additional power supply. dc gain blocks and all the conventional op-amp circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. A small screwdriver or similar tool is required to adjust presets.
The input bias current is also temperature compensated. even though operated from only a single power supply voltage.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 • • • • • • • • • Large dc voltage gain: 100 dB Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature compensated) Wide power supply range: Single supply: 3V to 32V or dual supplies: ±1. Page 45 Department of Instrumentation Technology .5V to ±16V Very low supply current drain (500 µA)-essentially independent of supply voltage Low input offset voltage: 2 mV Input common-mode voltage range includes ground Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage Large output voltage swing Pin Connection LM358 Unique Characteristics • • • In the linear mode the input common-mode voltage range includes ground and the output voltage can also swing to ground. The unity gain cross frequency is temperature compensated.
Internally frequency compensated for unity gain Large dc voltage gain: 100 dB Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature compensated) Wide power supply range: Single supply: 3V to 32V or dual supplies: ±1. The cross-sectional diagram and the specifications are provided below – Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 46 .5V to ±16V Very low supply current drain (500 μA)—essentially independent of supply voltage Low input offset voltage: 2 mV Input common-mode voltage range includes ground Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage. Compatible with all forms of logic Power drain suitable for battery operation Available in 8-Bump micro SMD chip sized package. Large output voltage swing • • • • • 8.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Advantages • • • Features • • • • • • • • Two internally compensated op amps Eliminates need for dual supplies Allows direct sensing near GND and VOUT also goes to GND . 12V DC Brushless Fans: The fans used for this project are of the DC Brushless type.
0 4.160 7. Weight (gm) – 86 3.4 8. Noise (dB/A) – 34.Observation table: Set temperature point Pin no.6 6. Voltage – 12 2. as obtained from the manufacturer are as follows: 1. Air Flow (CFM) – 38. Current – 0. RPM – 3010 5. Pressure (inches) – 0. Power – 3. IC voltage Voltage Fan status Page 47 Department of Instrumentation Technology .25 3.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 The specifications of the fan.
Troubleshooting: Serial no Problem found Cause Solution Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 48 .66 v 2.95 v 0.44 v 0.65 v 1. 5.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 1 2 8.37 v 0 Not connected Not connected Not connected 10.7 v Room temperature (Below set point) 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 OFF High temperature (Above set point) ON Remarks: We are not able to take the actual reading of the temperature because the temperature sensing diode is so small that we can not insert temperature measurement device to get the temperature.2 v 9.03 v 0 Not connected Not connected Not connected 9.
Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 49 . Large error in the temperature controller. Conclusion 6. 2 3 Low sensitivity of the sensing diode.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 The cause may be variation of the a. We take a average value of voltage from several reading voltage displaced in the multimeter. 1 Variable output of the adapter which is used in our project to give power supply to the circuit. In this control system. We apply only two temperature (i) Room temperature (ii) High temperature 4 6. We change the LED. an amplifier is used as comparator. Large temperature change is applied around the diode.1 Features 1. The cause may be inability of LED to bear the voltage for long period. It is difficult to give heat at proper place of the diode. Damage of LED. It may cause due to non-correct input type being used for the temperature sensor.c input to the adapter or the improper function of the components of the adapter.
4 . 6. . Proper research on this control in future is very necessary to fulfill our day to day life. Reference: • • • Control System Engineering (I. or one substitute a relay. proportional control and PID control . But till today it has limited application such as heatsink cooling. We think that this on-off temperature control will replace air conditioner or room heater in future. 5. A temperature sensor diode is used to sense the temperature.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 2.J. computer emergency cooling. MOSFET etc to control higher loads (and higher voltages). 7.2 Conclusion Temperature control can be done by three methods : on-off temperature control. 3.But the simplest and non-expensive method of temperature control is the on-off temperature control where the motion (fan)or relay has two state only on or off.Gopal) Modern Control Engineering (Katsuhiko Ogata) Control System (Samarajit Ghosh) Page 50 Department of Instrumentation Technology . The set point is adjusted with the help of potentiometer.Nagrath & M. This circuit comparators a precise voltage reference (due to the Zener diode) with the forward voltage drop of the diode forward biased with 11mA of current.High power transistors can be substituted for bigger fans.
com www.scribd. Mehta) www.com Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 51 .com www. Mehta & R.wikipedia.electronices-lab.google.com www.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 • • • • • • Principles of Electronics (V.edupedia.K.com www.
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