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1. Introduction
1.1 Brief introduction to Instrumentation
The technology of using instruments to measure and control the physical and chemical properties of materials is called instrumentation. Therefore instrumentation is an aggregation or assembly of devices united by some form of regular interaction interdependence .When the instruments are used for measurement and control of industrial manufacturing, conversion or treating process, the term process instrumentation is applied. When the measuring and controlling instruments are confined so that measurement provides impulses for remote automatic action, the result is called control system. Data acquisition systems via analog signals are used in communication electronic and medical applications. Conversion to digitalized system is widely used today because complex circuits are low cost accurate simple to implement. In addition there is rapid growth of microprocessor and microcomputers to perform difficult measurements and control functions. The demand for more and faster information from physical systems and devices used for space and nuclear research and development and for industrial automation have produced many new and effective instrumentation for data acquisition and reduction. Data acquisition systems are used to measure and record analog signals in basically two different ways: 1) Signals which originate from direct measurement of electrical quantities. These signals may be DC and AC voltages, frequency or resistance etc.
2) Signals which originate from the transducers.

Types of instrumentations:
The instrumentation systems can be classified into two distinct categories: 1. Analog systems: These system deals with information in analog form. An analog signal may be defined as continuous function such as a plot of voltage versus time or displacement verses force.

2. Digital Systems: A digital quantity may consist of a number of discrete or discontinuous pulses whose time relationship contains information about the magnitude and the nature of the quantity under measurement.

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1.2 Control system
The control system is that means by which any quantity of interest in a machine, mechanism or other equipment is maintained or altered in accordance with a desired manner. Consider for example, the driving system of an automobile, speed of the automobile is a function of the position of its accelerator. The desired speed can be maintained (or a desired change in speed can be achieved) by controlling pressure on the accelerator pedal. This automobile driving system (accelerator, carburetor and engine-vehicle) constitute a control system. For the automobile driving system the input (command) signal is the force on the accelerator pedal which through linkages causes the carburetor valve to open (close) so as to increase or decrease fuel (liquid form) flow to the engine bringing the engine-vehicle speed (controlled variable) to the desired value.

Fig. 1: The Basic control system

The diagrammatic representation of Fig. 1 is known as block diagram representation wherein each block represents an element, a plant, mechanism, device etc., whose inner details are not indicated. Each block has an input and output signal which are linked by a relationship characterizing the block. It may be noted that the signal flow through the block is unidirectional.

Classification of Control System

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1.2.1 Closed-loop control
Let us reconsider the automobile driving system. The route, speed and acceleration of the automobile are determined and controlled by the driven by observing traffic and road conditions and by properly manipulating accelerator, clutch, gear-lever, brakes and steering wheel etc. suppose the driver wants to maintain a speed of 50 Km. per hour (desired output). He accelerates the automobile to this speed with the help of the accelerator and then maintains it by holding the accelerator steady. No error in the speed of the automobile occurs so long as there are no gradients or other disturbances along the road. The actual speed of the automobile is measured by the speed meter and indicated on its dial. The driver reads the speed dial visually and compares the actual speed with the desired one mentally. If there is a deviation of speed from the desired speed, accordingly he takes the decision to increase or decrease the speed. The decision is executed by change in pressure of his foot (through muscular power) on the accelerator pedal.

Fig. 2: Schematic diagram of a manually Controlled Closed-loop System

These operations can be represented in a diagram form as shown in Fig.2. In contrast to the sequence of events in Fig.1, the events in the control sequence of Fig.2 follow a closedloop, i.e., the information about the instantaneous state of the output is feedback to the input and is used to modify it in such a manner as to achieve the desired output. It is on account of this basic difference that the system of Fig.1 Is called an open-loop system, while the system of Fig. 2 is called closed-loop system. System of the represented in Fig.(2) and (3) involve continuous manual control by a human operator. These are classified as manually controlled systems. In many complex and fast acting systems, the presence of human element in the control loop is undesirable because Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 3

On-Off Temperature Control

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the system response may be too rapid for an operator to follow or the demand on operator’s skill may be unreasonably high. Furthermore, some of the systems, e.g. missiles are self destructive and in such systems human element must be excluded. Even in situations where manual control could be possible, an economic case can often be made out reduction of human supervision. Thus in most situations the use of some equipment which performs the same intended functions as a continuously employed human operator is preferred. A system incorporating such equipment is known as automatic control system. In fact in most situations an automatic control system could be made to perform intended functions better than a human operator, and could further be made to perform such functions as would be impossible for a human operator. The general block diagram of an automatic control system which is characterized by a feedback loop is shown in Fig.3. An error detector compares a signal obtained through feedback elements, which is a function of the output response, with the reference input. Any difference between these two signals constitutes an error or actuating signal, which actuates the control elements. The control elements in turn alter the conditions in the plant (controlled number) in such a manner as to reduce the original error.

Fig.3 General block diagram of an automatic control system.

Examples of closed loop control system

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Following are some examples of closed loop control system in which controlled output is continuously measured and a proportional signal is feed back for comparison with the input signal and the error, if any, is used for bringing about correction in the actual output. i) Home heating system with feed back control:

Fig.4 Home heating system

In a feedback home heating system as shown in fig.4 there is a thermostat which adjusts the burner in accordance to the room temperature. The oil input to the a furnace depends on a comparison of the actual room temperature with the desired temperature. This comparison produces an error signal. The controller opens the oil value if the error signal indicates that the room temperature is lower than the desired valve in this example, different components of the closed loop system are as follows: (a) Process: Heating of home at a desired value of temperature. (b) Measuring devices: thermostat, furnace with oil (c) Error detector: oil input to the furnace
(d) Controller: oil valve

(e) Control elements(actuator) thermostat
ii) Gasoline engine :

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The actual speed is compared with the desired speed.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 For feedback a tachometer is attached observing the speed as shown in fig. and a controller sends a demand signal to the actuator (usually a pneumatic device) which adjusts fuel flow to the engine. iv) Machine tool positioning : Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 6 . The tachometer reading is sent to an error detector which compares the actual speed to the desired speed and a controller adjusts the throttle to maintain the desired speed.5 iii) Cruise control of automobiles : This is a familiar form of closed loop system. Fig. Any change in speed is detected by the tachometer and the signal is feedback for comparison with the reference input for throttle operation. The throttle is automatically adjusted to maintain the desired speed. an electronic error detector compares the actual speed to the desired speed. Thus the throttle is automatically adjusted to maintain the desired speed. A speed sensor on the speed meter cable generates a signal proportional to the actual speed.5.

Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 7 . these devices are used for sensing pressure. II. Basically. corrections are made automatically. such as an automatic room heating system. position commands may be coded on a magnetic tap. Feedback is used to check to see if the machine actually reaches each position commanded. Error detector: The error detector receives the measured signal and compares it with the required signal value or set point. they can be used in hazards or remote areas. temperature flow and speed or whatever variable is to be controlled. such as chemical plants. III. Process: Process represents what we are going to control by the feedback loop. This principle of comparing commanded positions with actual positions is the vital point that forms the basis of automatic control. Moreover. Advantages and disadvantages of closed loop control system: The major advantages of closed loop control systems are as follows: 1. and places at very high or very low temperatures. The difference between these two provides the error signal. Components of closed-loop control system I. fertilizer plants. that consists of a series of controlled actions or movements systematically directed towards a particular result or end. Controller: It is responsible for what is to be done with the error signal and accordingly sending out signals to an actuator. Control elements (Actuator): An actuator or control elements finally accomplishes the job according to the signal obtained from the controller. Measuring devices (sensors): In a closed loop systems these devices are used to measure the controlled variable and send a signal to the error detector. In a more descriptive way a process is a voluntary progressively continuing operation. In this way a complete loop with feedback is produced. areas with high nuclear radiations. IV. V.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 In particular machine tools. If not. Closed-loop systems can perform a job faster than human beings.

Closed-loop control systems are more expansive than simple man operated system. Closed-loop control system can be adjusted to optimum control performance. Their behavior is not a changed variable whereas. 4. Some of the chemical process cannot be controlled manually because temperature or pressures changes rapidly.2. 4. Moreover it can be done only by persons who have training in this related fields. Decision making and initiative action is very fast. 5. any physical system which does not automatically correct for variation in its output. may be in milliseconds. 3.2 Open-loop control system As stated already.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 2. They are more reliable than a human operator. 3. whereas a human being is not capable of handling several operations simultaneously. A number of variables can be handled simultaneously by closed loop control system. 1. Such a system may be represented by Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 8 . Disadvantages of closed-loop control system: 1. Installation and adjustment is intricate. In such a case fault location becomes difficult and time consuming. different operators in a control room are prone to changed behavior and quite obviously often may get tired of making system corrections. If there is any fault in the instrument itself which leads to a faulty error signal then no type of control is possible. 2. is called an open-loop system. Maintenance is difficult as it involves complicated electronics. as compared to a human operator requiring several seconds to take a control decision. It may occur due to open circuit or short circuit in the inner circuitry.

Fig. there is no guarantee that the output obtained will be the desired output. 6 General block diagram of open-loop system It is important to note that the fundamental difference between an open and closedloop control system is that of feedback action. for example. After a particular set time. It is obvious that such an arrangement takes no account of varying rates of traffic flowing to the road crossing from the two directions. In this system the output remains constant for a constant input signal provided the external conditions remain constant.6. Consider. As no part of the machine is able to provide feedback to the machine operating time. satisfactory only if such fluctuations can be tolerated or system components are designed and constructed so as to limit parameter variations and environmental conditions are well controlled. Examples of open-loop control system: Following are the examples of the open loop control systems 1. The output may be changed to any desired value by appropriately changing the input signal but variations in external conditions on internal parameters of the system may cause the output to vary from the desired value in an uncontrolled fashion. the cleanliness of the clothes.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 the block diagram of fig. a traffic control system for regulating the flow of traffic at the crossing of two roads. i. the machine stops automatically with the result that we may not get the desired amount of cleanliness of washed clothes as the machine cannot measure the output. and Re-adjust the machine operating time automatically. Automatic washing machine: In this machine the operating time is set by the operator based upon his experience of the time required for washing different types of cloths. If on the other hand a scheme is introduced in which the rates of traffic flow along both directions are measured( some distance ahead of the crossing) and are compared and the difference is used to control the timings of red and green lights. Thus the concept of feedback can be usefully employed to traffic control. a closed loop system (feedback control) results.e. Further any part of the clothes. The open loop control is therefore. like collars Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 9 . The system will be termed open loop if red and green lights are put on by a timer mechanism set for predetermined fixed intervals of time.

red. The control adjustment of open loop control systems depends on human judgment and estimate which is likely to give inaccurate result due to variations in atmospheric and such other conditions. Disadvantages of open-loop control system: 1. 5. These systems do not adapt to variations in environmental conditions or external disturbances. 2. The time and sequence of operation of these signal lamps are fixed when they are installed. Open-loop control systems represent the simplest and most economical type of control systems. lamps of three different colours . Open loop control systems are slow because they are manually controlled. Advantages and disadvantages of open-loop control system: Advantages of open-loop control system: 1. 4. yellow and green are installed at road crossings. They are usually inaccurate and unreliable. 2. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 10 . Optimization in control is not possible in these types of operation. 2. still may remain dirty and the system is not able to detect such inaccuracies of the output for extra washing. Maintenance of the equipments is not difficult because complicated electronic circuitry is not involved. 3. Automatic traffic light system: For automatic control of traffic. 3. Open-loop control systems are not expansive. Proper calibration is not a problem as the operation of the system is fully controlled by a human operator. 6.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 and the cuffs. 4. Only a few variables can be introduced in these systems. A human being is not sufficient enough to control several parameters simultaneously and taking decisions and initiative action in a short interval of time.

1. From the point of view of stability. stability is a major problem in the closed loop control system. A typical servo system is represented by a block diagram as shown in fig. Moreover the output power rating partially determines the cost. The number of components used in a closed loop control system is more than that for a corresponding open loop control system.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 1. which may end to overcorrect errors and thereby can cause oscillations of constant or changing amplitude. To decrease the required power of a system.2.3 Closed-loop versus open-loop control systems An advantage of the closed loop control system is the fact that the use of feedback makes the system response relatively insensitive to external disturbances and internal variations in system parameters. 7 Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 11 . and size of a control system. Closed loop control systems have advantages only when unpredictable disturbances and/or unpredictable variations in system components are present. whereas doing so is impossible in the open loop case. A proper combination of open loop and closed loop control is usually less expansive and will give satisfactory overall system performance. On the other hand.2.4 Servo mechanism Basic elements of a servo mechanism: A servo mechanism or servo mainly represents a particular group of feedback control systems choose controlled output are mechanically positions. It is thus possible to use relatively in accurate and inexpensive components to obtain the accurate control of a given plant. open loop control may be used where applicable. weight. the open loop control system is easier to build because system stability is not a major problem. Thus the closed loop control system is generally higher in cost and power. It should be emphasized that for system in which the inputs are known ahead of time and in which there are no disturbances it is advisable to use open loop control.

The manner in which the automatic controller produces the control signal is called the control action.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Fig. 7 Block diagram showing the basic components of a servo system The feedback path consists of transducers and compensating networks. 1.3 Basic control action 1.1 Automatic controller: An automatic controller compares the actual value of the plant output with the reference input (Desired value) determine the deviation and produces a control signal that will reduce the deviation to zero on to a small value. Fig(a) is a block diagram of Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 12 . The error detector compares the reference input with the actual output for some function of the output signal and sends out an error signal proportional to the difference to improve the performance of the system.3.

On-Off Temperature Control 2010 an industrial control system. Consequently. a hydraulic motor. What kind of controllers to use must be decided based on the nature of the plant and the operating conditions. hydraulic controllers. Proportional plus derivative controllers 6. Proportional plus integral plus derivative controllers Most industrial controllers use electricity or pressurized fluid such as oil or air as power sources. This element is in the feedback path of the closed-loop system. (The actuator is a power device that produces the input to the plant according to the control signal so that the output signal will approach the reference input signal. which is usually at a very low power level. Integral controllers 4. an actuator. accuracy. The o/p of an automatic controller is fed to an actuator. Fig.) The sensor or measuring element in a device that converts the output variable into another suitable variable. and amplifies it to a sufficiently high level. such as an electric motor. including such considerations as safety. Proportional plus integral controllers 5. Proportional controllers 3. The controller detects the actuating error signal. availability. weight and size. that can be used to compare the output to the reference input signal.3. reliability. such as pneumatic controllers. or a pneumatic motor or valve.2 Two position or on-off control action: Page 13 Department of Instrumentation Technology . which consists of an automatic controller. The set point of the controller must be converted to a reference input with the some units as the feed back signal from the sensor or measuring element. or electronic controllers.9(a) Block diagram of an industrial control system Classification of industrial controller: Industrial Controller may be classified according to their control actions as. 1. cost. 1. Two position or on-off controllers 2. a plant and a sensor (measuring element). controllers may also be classified according to the kind of power employed in the operation.

On-Off Temperature Control 2010 In a two position control system. the signal u(t) remain at either a maximum and minimum value. With this two position control. in very widely used in both industrial and domestic control system. one corresponding to the filling curve and the other to the emptying curve. however. depending on whether the actuating error signal is positive or negative. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 14 .12 the output signal continuously moves between the two limits required to cause the actuating element to move from one fixed position to the other. As shown in fig. Such a differential gap causes the controller output U(t) to maintain its present value until the actuating error signal has moved slightly beyond the zero value. quite often it is intentionally provided in order its prevent too frequent operation of the on-off mechanism. The minimum value U2 is usually either zero or – U1. Fig. the actuating element has only two fixed positions. In two position control.10(a) and (b) shows the block diagrams for two position or on-off controllers. Notice that the output curve follows one of two exponential curves. A differential gap is indicated in fig(b). simply on and off. Pneumatic proportional controllers with very high act two position controllers and are sometimes called pneumatic two position controllers. The range through which the actuating error signal must move before the switching occurs is called the differential gap. The two position controllers are generally electrical devices and on electric solenoid operated valve is widely used in such controllers. which are in many cases. In some cases the differential gap is a result of unintentional friction and lost motion. the output signal from the controller be u(t) and the actuating error signal be e(t).11. the water inflow rate is either a position constant or zero. Let. Such output oscillation between two limits is a typical response characteristic of a system under two position control. This valve is either open or closed. so that u(t) = U1 for e (t) > 0 = U2 for e (t) < 0 Where U1 and U2 are constant. Consider the liquid level control system shown in the fig.

12 level h(t) versus t curve for the system 1.3 Proportional control action For a controller with proportional control action. the relationship between the output of the controller u(t) and the actuating error signal e(t) is U(t) = KP e(t) Or. in Laplace transformed quantities Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 15 .11 Liquid system level control Fig.3.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Fig.

the proportional controller is essentially an amplifier with an adjustable gain.5 Proportional-plus-integral control action. The transfer function of the integral controller is – 1.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Where.3. The control action of a proportional plan derivative controller is defined by – And the transfer function is Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 16 . 1. Where Ki is an adjustable constant.3. 1. the value of the controller o/p u(t) is changed at a rate proportional to the actuating error signal e(t).3. that is. Kp is termed the proportional gain whatever the actual mechanism may be and whatever the form of the operating power. The control action of a proportional-plus-integral controller is defined by Or the transfer function of the controller is Where Ti called the integral time.6 Proportional-plus-derivative control action.4 Integral Control Action: In a controller with integral control action.

The equation of a controller with this combined action is given by – Or the transfer function is – Where Kp is the proportional gain.1 Aim of the project We are familiar with the sensation which is called warmth.7 Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative control action.3. Ti is the integral time. The measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 17 . Fig. to some extent and we express this by saying a body is either hot or cold. Our sense enables us to distinguish between different degrees of warmth. 1.12. and Td is the derivative time. This combined action has the advantages of each of the three individual control action.12 Block diagram of a Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative control action 2. The combination of proportional control action integral control action and derivative control action is termed proportional-plus-integral plus derivative control action. Project overview 2. The block of a proportional plan integral plan derivative controller is shown in fig.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Where Td is called the derivative time.

and on output to a control element.2 Working principle of the system On-off temperature control action takes if any deviation occurs from a set point. 2.3 Necessity and it’s application Many electrical and electronic devices produce heat when they are in the working state.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 body is known as its temperature. room or space may keep constant. The action responds quickly but it is sensitive to input noise which causes chattering (on-off switching at short intervals). If we do not cool the device then the device will damage. Circuit description 3. or set point. In our day to day life and also in the industry the temperature of certain body. computer emergency cooling. It compares the actual temperature to the desired control output. By using on-off temperature control system we can do heatsink cooling. 2. and the whole system should be analyzed in selecting the proper controller. metal cooling when drilling etc. a temperature control system release upon a controller.1 Circuit diagram Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 18 . which accepts a temperature sensor diode or input. The aim of our project “on-off temperature control” is to keep the temperature at a desired value by using the on-off control action. 3. The controller is one part of entire control system. To accurate control process temperature without extensive operator involvement. For this purpose we must apply the temperature control system.

2 Circuit analysis Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 19 .On-Off Temperature Control 2010 3.

in series. a forward biased sensor diode. reverse biased zener diode is connected parallel with a potentiometer and the both are in series with resister R1. The collector of the transistor is connected 12V.8 of the OP-Amp is the supply voltage and the pin no. In the second branches B2. The LED will indicate that the fan (motor) is passing current through its armature and it is in the condition of movement. The output of the OP-Amp (pin no. The pin no. In the first branch B1. DC.4 is grounded. The potentiometer is connected with the non inverting terminal of the OP-Amp.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 The on-off temperature control circuit is supplied with 12v. 3. It constitutes of three branches B1.3 Simplified circuit arrangement Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 20 . DC supply. A LED connected in series with resistor R 5 is connected across the fan.1) is connected with the base of the transistor T1. D2 is used with a resistor R3.200mA max). Through resistor R4.B2 and B3. The anode of the sensing diode is connected with the inverting input of OP-Amp. The emitter of the transistor is connected with the form S1 (12V.

The zener diode supplies constant voltage across the potentiometer & with the help of potential meter desired value of reference voltage can be supplied to the non. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 21 . The inverting terminal of the OP-Amp is connected with the sensor diode which can sense temperature and transducer to respective voltage.inverting input of the OP Amp (as a comparator).On-Off Temperature Control 2010 3.5 Working principle of the circuit These circuit moves a motor (fan) based on a temperature compared with a set point. So when the temperature rises above the set point the forward voltage drops under the reference voltage and the comparator output is Vcc turning on the transistor and so the fan starts rotating and will try to decrease the temperature to a value which is approximately equal to the set point. The set point is taken with reference voltage which is found by the combination of a zener diode and a potentiometer.

200mA max 1 Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 22 . usually a fan 12V.2 kilo ohm_5%) 1 1 1 1 1 Variable resistor R2 (50 kilo ohm_50%) Motor.0 kilo ohm_5%) R4 (820 ohm_5%) R5 (2.5 List of the components used in the circuit Specification 0 to 12 V 1N4007GP Component Adapter Temperature Sensor Diode Number 1 1 Zener Diode Operational Amplifier as comparator Transistor LED Resistors 2.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 3.6 V LM358 1 1 2N3904 1 1 R1 (10 kilo ohm_5%) R3 (1.

Overload protection is important to protect the electronic equipment hooked up to the power supply and to also prevent overheating. The least expensive AC units consist solely of a small transformer.“ domestic mains adapter or just “power adapter” . They are even more divers than their names. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 23 .mode power supplies can cut off leaky electrolyte-capacitors. often with either the same kind of DC plug offering different voltage or polarity. for example. which would otherwise need a battery. Expensive switched. the transformer has magnetic field continuously present and normally cannot be completely turned off unless unplugged. “plug-in adapter”. the original power supply. often in a casing that improves its electrical characteristic. while DC adapters include a few additional diodes. which could potentially lead to an electrical fire. A linear or switched-mode power supply (or in some cases just a transformer ) that is built into the top of a plug is known as a “plug pack”. A fuse is a piece of wire. Slang terms include “wall wart” and “power brick”. a clock . Overload protection Power supplies should have some type of overload protection. the wire overheats and melts. Replacement power supplies must match the voltage of. This interrupts the power supply. “Universal” adapters attempt to replace missing or damaged ones. and supply at least as much current as. using multiple plugs and selectors for different voltages and polarities.6 Description of the components 1. Because they consume standby power.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 3. Fuses and circuit breakers are two of the more frequent mechanisms used for overload protection. If too much current flows. they are sometimes known as “electricity vampires” and may be plugged into a power strip to allow turning them off. AC Adapter An AC Adapter disassembled to reveal a simple unregulated DC supply circuit. Whether or not a load is connected to the power adapter. or a different plug offering the same voltage. “adapter block”. use powerless MOSFETs. and the equipment stops working until the problem that caused the overload is identified and the fuse is replaced. and reduce their working frequency to get a gulp of energy once in a while to power.

On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Fuses There are various types of fuses used in power supplies. some are signal use only. the latter is common on supplies of less than 3 watts output. • • • Fast blow fuses cut the power as quick as they can Slow blow fuses tolerate more short term overload Circuit breaker One benefit of using a circuit breaker as opposed to a fuse is that it can simply be reset instead of having to replace the blown fuse. bends triggers a spring which shuts the circuit down. Wire link fuses are just an open piece of wire. Thermal cutouts Some PSUs use a thermal cutout buried in the transformer rather than a fuse. The advantages is it allows greater current to be drawn for limited time than the unit can supply continuously. Once the element cools. and have poorer overload characteristics than glass and ceramic fuses. The 2 types of current limiting used are electronic limiting and impedance limiting The former is common on lab bench PSUs. and the problem is identified the breaker can be reset and the power restored. Some power supplies use a very thin wire link soldered in place as a fuse. Power conversion The term “power supply” is sometimes restricted to those devices that convert some other form of energy into electricity (such as solar power and fuel cells and generators). Current limiting Some supplies use current limiting instead of cutting off power if overloaded. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 24 . A circuit breaker contains an element that heats. The common conversion is from AC to DC. Some such cutouts are self resetting.A more accurate term for devices that convert one form of electric power into another form(such as transformers and linear regulators) is power converter.

Fig. 1 In each type of transistor. namely.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 2. one taken from each type of semiconductor. Therefore. a transistor may be regarded as a combination of two diodes connected back to back. (i) n-p-n transistor (ii) p-n-p transistor An n-p-n transistor is composed of two n-type semiconductors separated by a thin section of p-type as shown in Fig. Transistor A transistor consists of two pn junctions formed by sandwiching either p-type or n-type semiconductor between a pair of opposite types. The section on one side is the emitter and the section on the opposite side is the collector. This is the most important factor in the function of a transistor. a p-n-p transistor is formed by two p-sections separated by a thin section of n-type as shown in Fig. Accordingly there are two types of transistors. (ii) There are three terminals. (iii) The middle section is a very thin layer. Naming the Transistor Terminals A transistor (pnp or npn) has three sections of doped semiconductors. The middle section is called the base and forms two junctions between the emitter and collector. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 25 . However. 1(i).1 (ii). the following points may be noted: (i) These are two pn junctions.

we ignore the presence of emitter-base junction.r. the emitter (n-type) of npn transistor has a forward bias and supplies free electrons to its junction with the base. then collector current is nearly zero . We shall now discuss this transistor action for npn and pnp transistors. in Fig. if the emitter-base junction is also present. The base-collector junction is reverse biased and provides high resistance in the collector circuit. The base-emitter junction is forward biased.2 Transistor Action The emitter-base junction of a transistor is forward biased whereas collector-base junction is reverse biased. then forward bias on it causes the emitter current to flow. Similarly. Its function is to remove charges from its junction with the base. Similarly.2 (i). (ii) Collector: The section on the other side that collects the charges is called the collector.t. if the emitter current is 1mA. However. the collector (p-type) of pnp transistor has a reverse bias and receives hole charges that flow in the output circuit. The emitter is always forward biased w. Fig. the emitter (p-type) of pnp transistor is forward biased and supplies hole charges to its junction with the base. In Fig. then practically no current would flow in the collector circuit because of the reverse bias. in Fig. This is precisely what happens in a transistor. (i) Working of npn transistor: Fig. Therefore. If for a moment. the collector (ntype) of npn transistor has reverse bias and receives electrons. This constitutes the emitter current Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 26 . It is seen that this emitter current almost entirely flows in the collector circuit. If the emitter current is zero. The collector is always reverse biased.2 (ii).2 (ii).On-Off Temperature Control 2010 (i) Emitter: The section on one side that supplies charge carriers (electrons or holes) is called the emitter. In Fig. the current in the collector circuit depends upon the emitter current. allowing low resistance for the emitter circuit. 3 shows the npn transistor with forward bias to emitterbase junction and reverse bias to collector-base junction. (iii) Base: The middle section which forms two pn-junctions between the emitter and collector is called the base. then collector current is also about 1mA. The forward bias causes the electrons in the n-type emitter to flow towards the base.However.2 (i). base so that it can supply a large number of *majority carriers.

4 electrons. therefore. almost the entire emitter current flows in the collector circuit. In this way. The remainder (more than 95%) cross over into the collector region to constitute collector current IC. they tend to combine with holes. It may be noted that current conduction within pnp transistor is by holes.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 IE. As these electrons flow through the p-type base. only a few holes (less than 5%) combine with the Fig. Fig. In this way. As these holes cross into n-type base. However. only a few electrons (less than 5%) combine with holes to constitute base current IB. The forward bias causes the holes in the p-type emitter to flow towards the base. the current is still by electrons. almost the entire emitter current flows in the collector circuit. As the base is lightly doped and very thin.3 (ii) Working of pnp transistor: Fig. they tend to combine with the electrons. The remainder (more than 95%) cross into the collector region to constitute collector current IC. This constitutes the emitter current IE. It is clear that emitter current is the sum of collector and base currents i. in the external connecting wires. 4 shows the basic connection of a pnp transistor. As the base is lightly doped and very thin. therefore. IE = IB + IC Fig .e.4 Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 27 .

Accordingly. Each circuit connection has specific advantages and disadvantages. when a transistor is to be connected in a circuit. 5. However. 5. a transistor can be connected in a circuit in the following three ways: (i) Common base connection. 5 Fig. However.. the emitter is always biased in the forward direction. for pnp connection. The input is fed between this common terminal and one of the other two terminals. (iii) Common collector connection. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 28 . it is clear that conventional current flows out of the emitter as indicated by the outgoing arrow in Fig. we require four terminals. two for the input and two for the output. It may be noted here that regardless of circuit connection. the conventional current flows into the emitter as indicated by inward arrow in Fig. For npn connection. (ii) Common emitter connection.5 Note that emitter is shown by an arrow which indicates the direction of conventional current flow with forward bias. Similarly. In this project we have used the common emitter connection. Transistor Connections There are three leads in a transistor viz. base and collector terminals. while the collector always has a reverse bias. The output is obtained between the common terminal and the remaining terminal.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Transistor Symbols In the earlier diagrams. This difficulty is overcome by making one terminal of the transistor common to both input and output terminals. the transistors have been shown in diagrammatic form. emitter. for the sake of convenience. The symbols used for npn and pnp transistors are shown in Fig. the transistors are represented by schematic diagrams.

8 1. The following points may be noted from the characteristics: (i) The characteristic resembles that of a forward biased diode curve. 8. This is expected since the base-emitter section of transistor is a diode and it is forward biased. 6 (i) shows common emitter npn transistor circuit whereas Fig. a family of input characteristics can be drawn.6 Characteristics of Common Emitter Connection The important characteristics of this circuit arrangement are the input characteristics and output characteristics. taking IB along y-axis and VBE along x-axis. 9. Then plot the readings obtained on the graph. 6 (ii) shows common emitter pnp transistor circuit. Fig. (ii) As compared to CB arrangement. This gives the input characteristic at VCE = 10V as shown in Fig. Therefore. note the base current IB for various values of VBE. The input characteristics of a CE connection can be determined by the circuit shown in Fig. emitter of the transistor is common to both input and output circuits and hence the name common emitter connection. Here. Fig.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Common Emitter Connection In this circuit arrangement. It is the curve between base current IB and base-emitter voltage VBE at constant collector-emitter voltage VCE. input is applied between base and emitter and output is taken from the collector and emitter. Fig . Following a similar procedure. Input characteristic. Keeping VCE constant (say at 10 V). Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 29 . I B increases less rapidly with VBE.

Following similar procedure.e. The output characteristics of a CE circuit can be drawn with the help of the circuit shown in Fig. Output characteristic. 10 (iii). 10 (i). Then plot the readings on a graph. 9 current (ΔIB) at constant VCE i. This gives the output characteristic at IB = 5 µA as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. ri = at constant VCE ΔI B The value of input resistance for a CE circuit is of the order of a few hundred ohms. ΔVBE Input resistance. taking IC along y-axis and VCE along x-axis. Fig. It is the curve between collector current IC and collector-emitter voltage VCE at constant base current IB. note the collector current IC for various values of VCE. The test can be repeated for IB = 10 µA to obtain the new output characteristic as shown in Fig10 (ii). 5 µA. a family of output characteristics can be drawn as shown in Fig.10 Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 30 .On-Off Temperature Control 2010 input resistance of a CE circuit is higher than that of CB circuit.8. Keeping the base current IB fixed at some value say.9 Input resistance: It is the ratio of change in base-emitter voltage (ΔVBE) to the change in base Fig.

High-speed switching. 40 V). After this. Its value is of the order of 50 kΩ. SOT54 plastic package. is where the action of the diode takes place. called p-type semiconductor. PNP complement: 2N3906. (ii) Above knee voltage. called n-type semiconductor. (iii) For any value of VCE above knee voltage. Small load switch transistor with high gain and low saturation voltage. called a PN junction. The crystal conducts conventional Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 31 . DESCRIPTION NPN switching transistor in a TO-92. However. they have noticeable slope for the CE circuit. It may be noted that whereas the output characteristics of CB circuit are horizontal. Suitable for through-hole pcb assembly. the collector current IC is approximately equal to Output resistance: It is the ratio of change in collector-emitter voltage (ΔVCE) to the change in collector current (ΔIC) at constant IB i. FEATURES • • • • • • Low current (max.e. Therefore. 200 mA) Low voltage (max. collector current becomes almost constant and independent of VCE. The boundary within the crystal between these two regions. This value of VCE up to which collector current IC changes with VCE is called the knee voltage (Vknee).On-Off Temperature Control 2010 The following points may be noted from the characteristics: (i) The collector current IC varies with VCE for VCE between 0 and 1V only. and a region on the other side that contains positive charge carriers (holes). IC is almost constant. The transistors are always operated in the region above knee voltage. the output resistance of a CE circuit is less than that of CB circuit. APPLICATIONS 3. a small increase in IC with increasing VCE is caused by the collector depletion layer getting wider and capturing a few more majority carriers before electron-hole combinations occur in the base area. Diodes Semiconductor diodes A modern semiconductor diode is made of a crystal of semiconductor like silicon that has impurities added to it to create a region on one side that contains negative charge carriers (electrons). Well suitable for tv and home appliance equipment. The diode's terminals are attached to each of these regions. In this project we have used the transistor 2N3904.

Reverse Voltage When a reverse voltage is applied a perfect diode does not conduct. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 32 . In addition there are LEDs (which have their own page) and Zener diodes (at the bottom of this page). This can be ignored in most circuits because it will be very much smaller than the current flowing in the forward direction. Another type of semiconductor diode. Diodes are the electrical version of a valve and early diodes were actually called valves.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 current in a direction from the p-type side (called the anode) to the n-type side (called the cathode). The arrow of the circuit symbol shows the direction in which the current can flow. but all real diodes leak a very tiny current of a few µA or less. it is called the forward voltage drop and is about 0. The forward voltage drop of a diode is almost constant whatever the current passing through the diode so they have a very steep characteristic (current-voltage graph). This means that there is a small voltage across a conducting diode. However.7V for all normal diodes which are made from silicon. Ordinary diodes can be split into two types: Signal diodes which pass small currents of 100mA or less and Rectifier diodes which can pass large currents. all diodes have a maximum reverse voltage (usually 50V or more) and if this is exceeded the diode will fail and pass a large current in the reverse direction. but not in the opposite direction. the Schottky diode. rather like a person pushing through a door with a spring. Forward Voltage Drop Electricity uses up a little energy pushing its way through the diode. is formed from the contact between a metal and a semiconductor rather than by a p-n junction Circuit symbol: Function Diodes allow electricity to flow in only one direction. this is called breakdown.

. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .1 A IF RM repetitive peak forward current . . . V RRM (repetitive peak reverse voltage) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -65 +175 ° 4. . .. . . . . RoHS Compliant ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Tj = 25 °C.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 In this Project we use sensor diode (1N4007GP)which can sense temperature. . Features • Diffused Junction • High Current Capability and Low Forward Voltage Drop • Surge Overload Rating to 30A Peak • Low Reverse Leakage Current • Lead Free Finish. . . . . . . . . Notice the change of voltage scale between the forward biased (positive) direction and the reverse biased (negative) direction. . . . . . . . . . . Maximum continuous ratings. A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current not only in the forward direction like a normal diode. . . . 10 A IF SM non-repetitive peak forward current . . . Zener diode Current-voltage characteristic of a Zener diode with a breakdown voltage of 17 volt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 A Tstg storage temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1000V IF ( AV ) average forward current . . . . . . . unless otherwise specified. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -65 +175 °C Tj junction temperature . . . . . It’s brief description is as follows: 1N4007 Silicon Diode Pack of 4 (Four) 1N4007 Silicon Rectifier Diodes: The 1N4007 is a general purpose plastic encapsulated silicon rectifier. . . . . . . . . . .1000V V R (continuous reverse voltage) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

Another mechanism that produces a similar effect is the avalanche effect as in the avalanche diode.6 volts.2 V will exhibit a voltage drop of 3. Modern manufacturing techniques have produced devices with voltages lower than 5. a conventional diode is subject to high current due to avalanche breakdown. the Zener effect is the predominant effect and shows a marked negative temperature coefficient. A Zener diode exhibits almost the same properties. Breakdown voltage for commonly available Zener diodes can vary widely from 1. except the device is specially designed so as to have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage. a diode with a Zener breakdown voltage of 3. but as higher voltage devices are encountered. In the atomic scale. the most widely used tolerances are 5% and 10%. While tolerances within 0.05% are available. The two types of diode are in fact constructed the same way and both effects are present in diodes of this type. the so-called Zener voltage. The Zener diode's operation depends on the heavy doping of its p-n junction allowing electrons to tunnel from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the n-type material. For example. a reverse-biased Zener diode will exhibit a controlled breakdown and allow the current to keep the voltage across the Zener diode at the Zener voltage. who discovered this electrical property. the temperature coefficient rises dramatically. regardless of breakdown voltage.6 V with negligible temperature coefficients. A 75 V diode has 10 times the coefficient of a 12 V diode.6 V diode. Unless this current is limited by circuitry.6 V diode is the component of choice in temperaturecritical applications.g. The breakdown voltage can be controlled quite accurately in the doping process. A conventional solid-state diode will not allow significant current if it is reversebiased below its reverse breakdown voltage. By contrast with the conventional device. for an amplifier stage). When the reverse bias breakdown voltage is exceeded. Above 5. All such diodes. The Zener diode is therefore ideal for applications such as the generation of a reference voltage (e. thus the 5.6 volts.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 breakdown voltage known as "Zener knee voltage" or "Zener voltage".2 V if reverse bias voltage applied across it is more than its Zener voltage. In silicon diodes up to about 5. or as a voltage stabilizer for low-current applications. In a 5. this tunneling corresponds to the transport of valence band electrons into the empty conduction band states. In case of large forward bias (current in the direction of the arrow). the two effects occur together and their temperature coefficients neatly cancel each other out.2 volts to 200 volts. the avalanche effect becomes predominant and exhibits a positive temperature coefficient. The amount of the voltage drop depends on the semiconductor material and the doping concentrations. The device was named after Clarence Zener. are usually marketed under the umbrella term of "Zener diode" Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 34 . the diode will be permanently damaged. as a result of the reduced barrier between these bands and high electric fields that are induced due to the relatively high levels of dopings on both sides. the diode exhibits a voltage drop due to its junction built-in voltage and internal resistance.

early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light. and are increasingly used for lighting. (1962) Electronic symbol Pin configuration Anode and Cathode A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices. green and blue LEDs of the 5mm type Type Working principle Invented Passive. The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. with very high brightness. optoelectronic Electroluminescence Nick Holonyak Jr. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962. Light-emitting diode Light-emitting diode Red.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 5. When a diode is forward biased (switched on). releasing energy Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 35 . but modern versions are available across the visible. ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths.

automotive lighting (particularly indicators) and in traffic signals. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed. Current LED products for general lighting are more expensive to buy than fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. However. smaller size. and integrated optical components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology Technology Parts of an LED Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 36 . they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources. They also enjoy use in applications as diverse as replacements for traditional light sources in aviation lighting. longer lifetime. improved robustness. faster switching.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 in the form of photons. and greater durability and reliability. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption. An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2).

Typical on voltages are 2-3 Volt 6.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 The inner workings of an LED I-V diagram for a diode an LED will begin to emit light when the on-voltage is exceeded.Resistor Resistor Three resistors Type Passive Electronic symbol Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 37 .

kilohm (1x103). The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance. which may be one function of a multimeter. as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy. the value below which power dissipation limits the maximum permitted current flow. named after Georg Simon Ohm. Less well-known is critical resistance. materials and dimensions of the resistor. and have special test clips with jaws insulated from each other. calibrated current to the resistor. Commonly used multiples and submultiples in electrical and electronic usage are the milliohm (1x10−3). and inductance. Some laboratory test instruments have spring-loaded pairs of contacts. and megohm (1x106). noise. The resistance is then calculated using Ohm's Law Ohm's law The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified in Ohm's law: Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 38 . maximum working voltage and the power rating. while the other pair senses the voltage drop across the resistor. while the other senses the voltage drop. generally used with special test leads. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films. Critical resistance is determined by the design.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 (Europe) (US) A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current passing through it in accordance with Ohm's law: V = IR Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. with acceptable accuracy requires four-terminal connections. One pair of terminals applies a known. These comprise four wires in all. Measurement The value of a resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. probes on the ends of test leads connect to the resistor. such as fractional-ohm resistors. and above which the limit is applied voltage. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient. such as nickel/chrome). Usually. Better digital multimeters have four terminals on their panels. with neighboring contacts electrically isolated from each other. the tolerance. Units: The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI unit of electrical resistance. Measuring low-value resistors. One jaw provides the measuring current.

Ohm's law can be stated: This formulation of Ohm's law states that.03 amperes will flow through the resistance R. The current through resistors in series stays the same. but the voltage across each resistor can be different. Series and parallel resistors Resistors in a parallel configuration each have the same potential difference (voltage). a current of 12 / 400 = 0. Equivalently.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I) through it where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R). a current (I) will flow through the resistance. The sum of the potential differences (voltage) is equal to the total voltage. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 39 . For example. For instance. if V is 12 volts and R is 400 ohms. To find their total resistance: A resistor network that is a combination of parallel and series can be broken up into smaller parts that are either one or the other. when a voltage (V) is maintained across a resistance (R). This formulation is often used in practice. To find their total equivalent resistance (Req): The parallel property can be represented in equations by two vertical lines "||" (as in geometry) to simplify equations. For two resistors.

and other factors can reduce acceptable dissipation significantly. Rated power dissipation may be given for an ambient temperature of 25 °C in free air. For example. if we are dissipating a bit less than Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 40 . The total amount of heat energy released is the integral of the power over time: If the average power dissipated is more than the resistor can safely dissipate. There are flameproof resistors that fail (open circuit) before they overheat dangerously. Air circulation and proximity to a circuit board. Ohm’s Law derives the other two from that. which could cause a fire in adjacent components and materials. Excessive power dissipation may raise the temperature of the resistor to a point where it burns out. The first is derived from Joule's first law. ambient temperature. The practical application to resistors is that a resistance of any non-standard value can be obtained by connecting standard values in series or in parallel. the corner-to-corner resistance is 5⁄6 of any one of them. However. if all twelve resistors are equal. many resistor networks cannot be split up in this way. each edge of which has been replaced by a resistor. Power dissipation The power dissipated by a resistor (or the equivalent resistance of a resistor network) is calculated using the following: All three equations are equivalent. rated dissipation will be significantly less. determining the resistance between two opposite vertices requires additional transforms. Note that the nominal power rating of a resistor is not the same as the power that it can safely dissipate in practical use.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 However. or else matrix methods must be used for the general case. Inside an equipment case at 60 °C. such as the Y-Δ transform. Consider a cube. the resistor may depart from its nominal resistance and may become damaged by overheating.

The track is usually rotary but straight track versions. Linear (LIN) and Logarithmic (LOG) tracks Linear (LIN) track means that the resistance changes at a constant rate as you move the wiper. The resistance and type of 4K7 LIN means 4. cermet (ceramic and metal mixture) or a coil of wire (for low resistances). This is the standard arrangement and you should assume this type is required if a project does not specify the type of track. Presets always have linear tracks. but most are for mounting through a hole drilled in the case containing the circuit with stranded wire connecting their terminals to the circuit board. so halfway along the track is not half the total resistance! This arrangement is used for volume (loudness) controls because the human ear has a Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 41 track are marked on the body: . Miniature versions called presets are made for setting up circuits which Standard Variable Resistor Photograph will not require further adjustment. Variable resistors may be used as a rheostat with two connections (the wiper and just one end of the track) or as a potentiometer with all three connections in use. and courting premature failure. linear or logarithmic track.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 the maximum figure given by the manufacturer we may still be outside the safe operating area. and their physical size. 4K7 LIN means 4. They are specified by their maximum resistance. Logarithmic (LOG) track means that the resistance changes slowly at one end of the track and rapidly at the other end. Variable resistors are often called potentiometers in books and catalogues.7 k linear track. are also available. 6. usually called sliders.7 k linear track. The standard spindle diameter is 6mm. Variable Resistors Construction Variable resistors consist of a resistance track with connections at both ends and a wiper which moves along the track as you turn the spindle. Some variable resistors are designed to be mounted directly on the circuit board. The track may be made from carbon.

Potentiometer Variable resistors used as potentiometers have all three Potentiometer Symbol terminals connected. or control the volume (loudness) in an amplifier circuit. If the rheostat is mounted on a printed circuit board you may find that all three terminals are connected! However. Rheostats are often used to vary current. such as volume controls and as position sensors. It is important to connect the ends of the track the correct way round. and may control a very wide variety of equipment functions. Two terminals are used: one connected to an end of the track. However they remain in many applications. for example to set the switching point of a circuit with a sensor. This arrangement is normally used to vary voltage. Turning the spindle changes Rheostat the resistance between the two terminals from zero up to the maximum resistance. This improves the mechanical strength of the mounting but it serves no function electrically. Potentiometer applications Potentiometers are widely used as user controls. if you find that turning the spindle increases the volume rapidly followed by little further change you should swap the connections to the ends of the track. Theory of operation Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 42 . Symbol the other to the moveable wiper.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 logarithmic response to loudness so fine control (slow change) is required at low volumes and coarser control (rapid change) at high volumes. with digital controls now more common. for example to control the brightness of a lamp or the rate at which a capacitor charges. The widespread use of potentiometers in consumer electronics has declined in the 1990s. If the terminals at the ends of the track are connected across the power supply then the wiper terminal will provide a voltage which can be varied from zero up to the maximum of the supply. one of them will be linked to the wiper terminal. Rheostat This is the simplest way of using a variable resistor.

however. There is. assume . . however. Presets These are miniature versions of the standard variable resistor.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 A potentiometer with a resistive load. the load resistance is often not known and therefore simply placing a variable resistor in series with the load could have a negligible effect or an excessive effect. always a small amount of contact resistance. One of the advantages of the potential divider compared to a variable resistor in series with the source is that. They are designed to be mounted directly onto the circuit board and adjusted only when the circuit is built. the output voltage can be approximated by the simpler equation: As an example. while variable resistors have a maximum resistance where some current will always flow.623 V. showing equivalent fixed resistors for clarity. The voltage across RL can be calculated by: If RL is large compared to the other resistances (like the input to an operational amplifier). and Since the load resistance is large compared to the other resistances. the output voltage VL will be approximately: Due to the load resistance. . In addition. dividers are able to vary the output voltage from maximum (VS) to ground (zero volts) as the wiper moves from one end of the pot to the other. The potentiometer can be used as a voltage divider to obtain a manually adjustable output voltage at the slider (wiper) from a fixed input voltage applied across the two ends of the pot. it will actually be slightly lower: ≈ 6. For Preset Symbol Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 43 . depending on the load. This is the most common use of pots.

Its appearance is as shown in Figure 2. even though operated from only a single power supply voltage. these circuits can be directly supplied with the standard +5V which is used in logic systems and will easily provide the required interface electronics without requiring any additional power supply. internally frequency compensated which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. The screw must be turned many times (10+) to move the slider from one end of the track to the other. 7. For example. Application areas include transducer amplifiers. Internally frequency compensated for unity gain Page 44 Department of Instrumentation Technology . Operational Amplifier LM 358 Op-amp LM 358 is a low power dual operational amplifier. Presets are much cheaper than standard variable resistors so they are sometimes used in projects where a standard variable resistor would normally be used. high gains. dc gain blocks and all the conventional op-amp circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. giving very fine control. The low power supply drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage. Low Power Dual Operational Amplifier LM358 • • Available in 8-Bump micro SMD chip sized package.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 example to set the frequency of an alarm tone or the sensitivity of a light-sensitive circuit. Multiturn presets are used where very precise adjustments must be made. Figure 2: LM 358 This circuit consists of two independent. A small screwdriver or similar tool is required to adjust presets. In the linear mode the input common-mode voltage range includes ground and the output voltage can also swing to ground.

The unity gain cross frequency is temperature compensated. Page 45 Department of Instrumentation Technology . even though operated from only a single power supply voltage. The input bias current is also temperature compensated.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 • • • • • • • • • Large dc voltage gain: 100 dB Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature compensated) Wide power supply range: Single supply: 3V to 32V or dual supplies: ±1.5V to ±16V Very low supply current drain (500 µA)-essentially independent of supply voltage Low input offset voltage: 2 mV Input common-mode voltage range includes ground Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage Large output voltage swing Pin Connection LM358 Unique Characteristics • • • In the linear mode the input common-mode voltage range includes ground and the output voltage can also swing to ground.

12V DC Brushless Fans: The fans used for this project are of the DC Brushless type. Internally frequency compensated for unity gain Large dc voltage gain: 100 dB Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature compensated) Wide power supply range: Single supply: 3V to 32V or dual supplies: ±1.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 Advantages • • • Features • • • • • • • • Two internally compensated op amps Eliminates need for dual supplies Allows direct sensing near GND and VOUT also goes to GND . The cross-sectional diagram and the specifications are provided below – Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 46 . Large output voltage swing • • • • • 8. Compatible with all forms of logic Power drain suitable for battery operation Available in 8-Bump micro SMD chip sized package.5V to ±16V Very low supply current drain (500 μA)—essentially independent of supply voltage Low input offset voltage: 2 mV Input common-mode voltage range includes ground Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage.

160 7.Observation table: Set temperature point Pin no. Noise (dB/A) – 34. IC voltage Voltage Fan status Page 47 Department of Instrumentation Technology .0 4. RPM – 3010 5. Current – 0. as obtained from the manufacturer are as follows: 1.4 8.6 6.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 The specifications of the fan. Weight (gm) – 86 3. Voltage – 12 2.25 3. Power – 3. Pressure (inches) – 0. Air Flow (CFM) – 38.

Troubleshooting: Serial no Problem found Cause Solution Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 48 .44 v 0.03 v 0 Not connected Not connected Not connected 9.65 v 1.95 v 0.7 v Room temperature (Below set point) 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 OFF High temperature (Above set point) ON Remarks: We are not able to take the actual reading of the temperature because the temperature sensing diode is so small that we can not insert temperature measurement device to get the temperature.2 v 9. 5.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 1 2 8.66 v 2.37 v 0 Not connected Not connected Not connected 10.

It is difficult to give heat at proper place of the diode. We take a average value of voltage from several reading voltage displaced in the multimeter. Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 49 . The cause may be inability of LED to bear the voltage for long period. We change the LED.c input to the adapter or the improper function of the components of the adapter.1 Features 1. Damage of LED.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 The cause may be variation of the a. Large error in the temperature controller. Large temperature change is applied around the diode. an amplifier is used as comparator. 1 Variable output of the adapter which is used in our project to give power supply to the circuit. Conclusion 6. In this control system. 2 3 Low sensitivity of the sensing diode. It may cause due to non-correct input type being used for the temperature sensor. We apply only two temperature (i) Room temperature (ii) High temperature 4 6.

Reference: • • • Control System Engineering (I.Nagrath & M. computer emergency cooling. We think that this on-off temperature control will replace air conditioner or room heater in future. Proper research on this control in future is very necessary to fulfill our day to day life.Gopal) Modern Control Engineering (Katsuhiko Ogata) Control System (Samarajit Ghosh) Page 50 Department of Instrumentation Technology .High power transistors can be substituted for bigger fans. A temperature sensor diode is used to sense the temperature. MOSFET etc to control higher loads (and higher voltages). 6. or one substitute a relay.J. 7.2 Conclusion Temperature control can be done by three methods : on-off temperature control. proportional control and PID control . .On-Off Temperature Control 2010 2. This circuit comparators a precise voltage reference (due to the Zener diode) with the forward voltage drop of the diode forward biased with 11mA of current.But the simplest and non-expensive method of temperature control is the on-off temperature control where the motion (fan)or relay has two state only on or off. But till today it has limited application such as heatsink cooling. 5. The set point is adjusted with the help of potentiometer. 3. 4 .

K.electronices-lab.scribd.com www. Mehta & R.edupedia.google.com www.com Department of Instrumentation Technology Page 51 .wikipedia. Mehta) www.com www.com www.On-Off Temperature Control 2010 • • • • • • Principles of Electronics (V.

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