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Angular Kinematics
Angular Kinematics
Hamill & Knutzen (Ch 9)
Hay (Ch. 4), Hay & Ried (Ch. 10), Kreighbaum
& Barthels (Module Ι) or Hall (Ch. 11)

Reporting Angles Measurement of Angles

+ve = anticlockwise Ø  Degrees (arbitrary units)
-ve = clockwise

+250o Ø  Radians (fundamental ratio)
Ø  Revolutions


General Motion
Radians (a combination of both linear and angular

Ratio of arc/radius


r r

Circumference = 2πr
therefore there are 2π radians in 360o

Types of Angles Relative Angles
Ø  An absolute angle is Ø  A relative angle can be
measured from an presented as degrees of

external frame of flexion (opposite).
reference. θ

Ø  A relative angle is the
angle formed Ø  presented as the angle
between two limb formed at the articulation
segments. (opposite) θ



Axis of Rotation Which are degrees of flexion and which are angle at joint? Knee Joint Centre of Rotation Axis of Rotation longitudinal axis (axis that extends within Ø  With machines and parallel to a long bone or body segment) centre of rotation is usually fixed. Ø  This is not the case with human joints. 3 .

angular axis in the horizontal plane) velocity and angular acceleration) you do not need to collect data via an opto- electrical device. Goniometers Ø  Simple goniometers like the Leighton flexometer are really only useful for range of motion and static analysis. Ø  Electro-goniometers and other device are more portable. Description of Motion Data Acquisition Kicking the leg (leg moves anticlockwise [shown] in the sagittal plane about a frontal axis) Ø  If you really only need data for angular Turning the head (the head moves around a vertical motion about a joint (pangle. Ø  Electro-goniometers are easy to use and can follow changes in posture in dynamic situations (velocity & acceleration) 4 .

Marras) Ø  This system allows continuous monitoring of the trunk angle and subsequent analysis can quantify trunk velocities and accelerations. Gait Analysis First we need coordinate data for joint centres 5 .Lumbar Motion Monitor Ø  The LMM™ lumbar Gait and Running motion monitoring system was developed in the Analysis Biodynamics Laboratory at Ohio State University (W.

Lower Extremity Joint Angles Describing Angles Y First we need Ø  An absolute angle is (XH. Yheel) (XT.YA) angle formed tibial condyle between two limb lateral malleolus (Xheel.YK) reference.YH) coordinate data measured from an for joint centres external frame of (XK.YT) segments. θ heel head of 5th metatarsal X toe 1 θ21 2 Foot angle (absolute) = θ65 3 5 θ76 θ65 θ43 4 7 6 7 5 6 Metatarsal angle (absolute) = θ76 6 . θ Marker locations: greater trochanter Ø  A relative angle is the femoral condyle (XA.

θ43 Let’s step ! Ø  ! if θk is positive the knee is flexed though the Ø  if θk is negative the knee is extended calculation of (dislocated?) the angle θthigh 7 .θ43 -ve for extension (+ve for flexion.8 degrees (1.θ43 = θk = θ21 .27 radians) Ø  Knee angle = θk = θ21 .23) = 72.θ65 + 90o 4 θ43 (+ve for plantarflexion. Knee angle (relative) Ø  Knee angle (relative) = θ21 . -ve for dorsiflexion) Ø  Metatarsal-phalangeal angle (relative) = θ65. Hamill text. -ve for extension) Ø  Ankle angle (relative) = θ43 . Winter (1979) pages 39-44 1 θk Ø  Diagrams on the next two slides Ø  Thigh angle (absolute) = θ21 θ21 2 Ø  Shank angle (absolute) = θ43 Ø  Foot angle (absolute) = θ65 3 Ø  Metatarsal angle (absolute) = θ76 +ve for flexion.θ76 Knee Angle (relative angle) from Co-ordinate Data $ #y ' $y #y ' #1 y 3 " 43 tan && # 4 )) #1 = = tan & 1 2) % x3 x4 ( " 21 & # ) % x1 x 2 ( θleg = tan-1(3.

Tangent Function Angular Velocity = ω Angular Velocity & change in angular displacement Acceleration change in time "i = # i+1 # i$1 $ 2%t Angular Acceleration = α change in angular velocity # i+1 $ # i$1 change in time "i = 2%t ! ! 8 .

Question Hip Support Phase Swing Phase Support Phase Swing Phase Ankle Knee 9 .

θcalcaneus Medial θleg Positive angle for supination Negative angle for θcalcaneus pronation 10 . and angular acceleration (C) as a function of time for the support phase of walking No need to study this slide. Rearfoot Angle Rearfoot angle = θRF θRF = θleg . Graphic representations of the thigh's absolute angle (A). angular velocity (B).

-10 Eversion Ø  There should be a functional relationship (pronation) θRF = θleg . 0 Ø  However. angle. position. -15 0 50 100 Percent of Support Phase 0 0 Footstrike Footstrike Toe-off Toe-off Knee (degrees) Knee (degrees) 30 30 60 60 90 90 Running speed Running speed = 3.) against time.g. activities like running are cyclic -5 and often it is useful to plot the relationship between two angles during the movement. 1985 Ankle (degrees) 11 . Foot strike Toe-off 15 Angle-Angle Diagrams Inversion Rearfoot Angle (degrees) 10 (supination) Ø  Most graphical representations of human 5 Angle movement you will see. velocity.6 m/s 120 120 -50 -10 30 70 20 60 100 140 Williams.6 m/s = 3. plot some parameter (e.θcalcaneus between these angles. etc. 1985 Thigh (degrees) Williams.

6 times Body Weight at (Reilly & Matens 1972) Ø  Hamill & Knutzen text on reserve has 7 graphs of GRF’s during different types of human movement (pages 400-401) 12 . 1978 Pronation (degrees) Knee Angle (degrees) Does Nike® Air Magnitude of GRF (or any substantial cushioning under the Ø  Walking = 1 to 1. the increase the patellofemoral joint force during squats can be likelihood of injury? up to 7. 170 Footstrike van Woensel & Cavanagh 1992 Rearfoot Angle (degrees) Knee Flexion (degrees) Knee Flexion vs Sub-Talar Pronation 20 Inversion 160 (supination) 10 150 0 Varus 140 -10 6 minute Neutral mile pace Eversion -20 (pronation) Valgus 130 -50 -10 30 70 0 10 20 30 40 Bates et al.2 x Body Weight heel) reduce injury? Ø  Running = 3 to 5 x Body Weight (Hamill & Knutzen 1995) Could it possibly Ø  As an example of this force magnitude.

Ground reaction force for running. Ø  The sport of running causes a relatively high injury rate Ø  Some argue this is due to overuse problems – basically too many foot strikes Ø  While this is definitely a causative factor. Heel-toe footfall pattern runner. Center of pressure patterns for the left foot. Ground reaction force for walking. others suggest the heel strike is not a natural movement pattern and is a big contributing factor. B. Note the difference in magnitude between the Note the difference in magnitude between the vertical component and the shear components vertical component and the shear components 13 . Mid-foot foot strike pattern runner. Impact Forces While Running A.

resulting in a resurgence of interest in barefoot running.7 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time (seconds) Percent of Support Links of Interest Ø  The issue of what is a natural foot strike pattern is a relatively hot topic these 14 .posetech.2 0. Ø  http://www.html Ø 4BiomechanicsofFootStrike.4 marketing-lie-expensive-runners-will-prevent-injury/ Ø Ø  http://www.5 0.1 0. Running Styles Time course of the GRF Impulse Vertical Force (BW) 3 1500 Run Walk 2 1000 Force (N) BW 1 500 Heel Striker Mid-foot striker 0 0 0.vibramfivefingers.harvard. Vertical Ground Reaction Force GRF vs.6 0.3 0.nytimes.0 0.html? _r=2 Ø

Postures Ulna (Angular Kinematics is used a lot in Deviation Ergonomics when trying to assess if the workers are having to adopt Radial and ulna hazardous postures for too long? deviation are both problematic Neutral wrist angle Extreme wrist extension Kin 380 & Kin 481 Prolonged wrist extension is believed to be a significant risk factor for carpal tunnel syndrome (Rempel 1991). Awkward Other uses of Angular Wrist Kinematics. 15 .

Wrist Angle 16 .Ø  Standard conservative treatment for CTS is splinting plus anti-inflammatory medication. for several weeks. Ø  Usually the splint should be worn at night only. Ø  Bend the tool not the wrist.

Slight extensions to 110o have been show to be acceptable. if not preferred. 17 . Desired Poor The concept of the only ideal sitting ideal posture being upright (90o at hip and knee) is wrong.The preferred shape of the tool’s handle depends the body alignment during use.

Chair too low: Knee and hip Shoulder Postures flexion angles are too small. resulting in upper body weight being transferred to a small Angles area at the ischial tuberosities. should be below 45o 18 .

Ø  Each point travels through a different linear displacement Forward head posture (relative versus absolute angles?) Angular and Linear Additional Relationships Displacement Ø  As we saw. Ø  at = rα (LT-2 = L x T-2) θ = s/r Note that the angular units must be in radians. Angular & Linear Motions Ø  All points on the forearm travel through the same angle (angular displacement). a radian is defined as the ratio Ø  vt = rω (LT-1 = L x T-1) of the distance around the arc of the circle to the radius of the circle. s = rθ (L => L x unitless ratio) 19 .

Maximum Linear Velocity? Radial Acceleration Ø  What is radial acceleration? vt = rω Ø  If velocity is a vector then even at a constant angular velocity (and hence constant linear speed) the linear velocity is changing as its directional component is changing. and the right thumb points in the direction of the angular velocity vector. 20 . If velocity is changing then there must be acceleration. ar = vt2/r or rω2 Figure 9-27 Resultant linear acceleration vector Right Hand (aR) comprised of the centripetal Thumb Rule and tangential acceleration components Ø  The fingers of the right hand point in the direction of the rotation.