Indira Gandhi National Open University School of Social Sciences

BLII–004 Network Based Information Services

Block -1 : Library Networks
Unit 1 Unit 2 : : Introduction to Library Networks Library Networks : National and International 07 20

Block - 2 : Internet, Intranet and Extranet
Unit 3 Unit 4 : : Internet Intranet and Extranet 45 61

Block - 3 : Internet Architecture
Unit 5 Unit 6 : : Internet Connectivity and Protocols Structure of Internet 83 97

Block - 4 : Internet-Resources and Services
Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 : : : Internet Resources Internet Tools Internet-based Library Services 111 133 151

Programme Design Committee
Prof. S.B. Ghosh (Chairman) Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. Jagdish Arora Chief Librarian, IIT Delhi Mr. Ishwar Bhatt Librarian BITS, Pilani Prof. B.K. Sen Scientist (Retd.), INSDOC New Delhi Mr. Shashi Bhushan School of Computer and Infromation Sciences IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. R. K. Chadda Director, Parliament Library New Delhi Mr. V.K. Gupta NISCAIR, Head, ETTG (Retd.) New Delhi Dr. (Ms) Neela Jagannathan Librarian, IGNOU (Retd.) New Delhi Dr. Neena Talwar Kanungo Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Prof. A. Neelameghan UNESCO Expert Bangalore Dr. Pravakar Rath Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. E. Rama Reddy Librarian University of Hyderabad Prof. R. Satyanarayana Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Mr. V.V. Subramaniyam School of Computer and Information Sciences IGNOU, New Delhi Prof. Uma Kanjilal (Convenor) Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi

Programme Coordinators: Prof. Uma Kanjilal & Dr. Jaideep Sharma
Course Editor
Dr. Jagdish Arora

Course Coordinator
Prof. Uma Kanjilal

Course Preparation Team
Block-1: Library Networks Unit
1 2

Contributor
Dr. Jaideep Sharma Dr. Neena Talwar Kanungo

Block-2: Internet, Intranet and Extranet Unit Contributor
3 to 4 Mr. V.V. Subramaniyam

Block-3: Internet Architecture Unit
5 to 6

Contributor
Mr. P.V. Suresh

Block-4: Internet-Resources and Library Services Unit Contributor
7 8 to 9 Ms. Sujata Santosh Prof. Uma Kanjilal

Material Production
Mr. Jitender Sethi Mr. S.S. Venkatachalam Mr. Manjit Singh
December, 2005

Editorial Assistance
Ms. Sujata Santosh

Secreterial Assistance
Mr. Devbrat Singh Chauhan

© Indira Gandhi National Open University, 2005 ISBN-..................................... All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the Indira Gandhi National Open University. Further information on Indira Gandhi National Open University courses may be obtained from the University's office at Maidan Garhi, New Delhi-110 068. Printed and published on behalf of the Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi by Director, School of Social Sciences. Paper Used : Agrobased Environment Friendly Lasertypesetted at Graphic Printers, 204, Pankaj Tower, Mayur Vihar, Phase-I, Delhi-91. Ph.:22758444 Printet at :

COURSE INTRODUCTION
The emergence of Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) as a new media of information storage and delivery provide an unparalleled media for delivery of information with greater speed and economy. The Internet and web technology has changed the way information is stored, retrieved, communicated and broadcasted, it is likely to revolutionise the way publishers, publishing industry and scientists function in the era predominately guided by the printing technology. These technologies have triggered large scale commercial and non-commercial digitisation programmes the world over. Increasing number of commercial and society publishers are using the Internet as a global medium to offer their publications to the international community of scientists and technologists. The web-based electronic information products not only eliminate paper, physical storage and transportation costs, they also offer a host of other possibilities for incorporating multimedia and hyper-link features to electronic documents hitherto impossible on paper media. This, in turn, has led to the generation of new services that were non-existent as well as modification of existing services and their deliverables. The Internet, web technologies and digital-based electronic information products are exerting ever-increasing pressure on the traditional libraries, which, in turn, are committing larger portions of their budgetary allocation for either procuring or accessing web-based online or full-text search services, CD ROM products, online databases, multimedia products, etc. While there is a continuous demand from the users to increase the resources and services, the manpower, physical infrastructure and financial resources made available to the libraries is decreasing. These factors have contributed to the necessity of establishing library networks and resource sharing amongst libraries. With technological advancements and availability of affordable computing power, libraries and information centres around the world have computerised their library routines and have developed databases for shared use on computer networks. Besides improving services and operations for improved performance, libraries have been able to evolve effective computer networks with an aim to optimise utilisation of resources and facilities. The library and information networks have potential to improve library services in several ways. It brings down the cost of information products and services in the network environment in shared mode. It enables libraries to offer needbased services to the end users eliminating the limitation of size, distance and language barriers among them. With evolution of library networks, the emphasis has moved from the networks as physical entities to the resources available through the networks. These network accessible resources include databases of library holdings, journal articles, electronic text, images, video and audio files, scientific and technical data, etc. A network is developed when a group of libraries and/or information centres decides to exchange information using computers. The library networks use existing communication facilities to establish networks amongst libraries that agree to cooperate amongst themselves through more or less formal agreements with a view of pooling their resources and to offer better services to the users. The participating libraries generally follow identical or compatible rules and procedures.

The course comprises nine units namely: Unit 1. Unit 2. Unit 3. Unit 4. Unit 5. Unit 6. Unit 7. Unit 8. Unit 9. Introduction to Library Networks Library Networks: National and International Internet Intranet and Extranet Internet Connectivity and Protocols Structure of Internet Internet Resources Internet Tools Internet-based Library Services

Unit 1 provides a brief introduction to the library networks. It provides definition of library networks and resource sharing, and establishes relationship between the two. Need, purpose, and functions of a library network are described briefly. The unit makes a mention of important library networks at the national and international level. It briefly touches upon factors that are hampering the process of resource sharing. Lastly, the unit introduces the concept of library consortia and their need. The unit provides a brief description of INDEST Consortium and the UGC INFONET Consortium as examples. Unit 2 deals with library networks at national and international level. It provides a brief overview of library networks with reasons that led to their growth and development. The unit describes various library networks that exist in India as well as a few important networks at international level. Unit 3 provides a brief introduction to the Internet with its history and evolution. It highlights the functioning, governance and utility of the Internet for a common person. The unit briefly describes various methods of Internet connection. Tools and services offered on the Internet are dealt in details. Unit 4 deals with definition, needs, benefits, and features of Intranet and Extranet. It discusses applications of Intranet and Extranet and differentiates between the Internet, Intranet and Extranet. The unit elaborates on Intranet and Extranet security mechanism. Unit 5 introduces Internet protocols and describes functions of important Internet protocols. The unit also describes various options available for getting Internet connectivity. Unit 6 deals with organisation and structure of Internet. The unit describes various components of Internet structure including PCs, communication equipment, ISPs and ISP backbone, web servers and services for the users. It elaborates on Internet society and also various Internet standards. Unit 7 deals with Internet resources, its advantages and use. It describes various types of Internet resources, namely, primary sources, online databases, reference sources, libraries, and subject gateways. The unit also deals with evaluation of Internet resources. Unit 8 elaborates on different Internet tools such as search engines, subject directories, deep web or invisible web. Internet communication tools, conferencing tools, transmission and access tools are described briefly. Unit 9 describes Internet-based library services including library web sites, library portals, subject gateways, virtual reference service, weblogs, and RSS.

Block 1 LIBRARY NETWORKS .

realise the need of resource sharing. and familiarise yourself with the concept of library consortia.6 1.5 1.1 INTRODUCTION Libraries exist to serve their users.1 1. educational background. age. They have to satisfy their users by providing them the right information.0 OBJECTIVES get an insight into the historical perspective of resource sharing. socio-economic status.3 1.13 1.10 1. understand the functions of library networks.UNIT 1 Structure 1.0 1.8 1.9 1. comprehend the concept and objectives of library networks. and the context in which they need the information. To satisfy the diverse needs of their users. become aware of the factors hampering resource sharing. It is expressed by the term ‘library cooperation’.7 1. you will be able to: 1.12 1. The 7 . libraries depend upon each other. in the right form at the right time.14 INTRODUCTION TO LIBRARY NETWORKS Objectives Introduction Definitions: Resource Sharing and Library Networks Resource Sharing: Need Library Networks: Need Library Networks: Purpose Library Networks Functions Library Networks: National and International Factors Hampering Resource Sharing Facilitating Resource Sharing Library Consortia Summary Answers to Self Check Exercises Keywords References and Further Reading 1. know how to overcome the barriers to resource sharing.11 1.2 1. After reading this Unit.4 1. in the right quantity. The needs of users are diverse depending upon their characteristics viz.

conceptual or physical. Library network has been defined as a “group of individuals or organisations that are interconnected to form a system to accomplish some specified goal. Library networks have enabled libraries to come together to serve their users better. The library consortium is the latest form of library cooperation wherein libraries and publishers have come together to take the benefit of network technology and web-based e-resources. 1. infrastructure. The developments in storage and telecommunication technology have facilitated libraries to establish library networks and that facilitates better connection amongst libraries.” Another definition of a network describes it in terms of its characteristics. This change speaks of the level of inter-dependence of libraries. distance and money involved. Library Networks Libraries cannot stand in isolation. Intellectual or conceptual resources refer to manpower. viz. intellectual and conceptual resources. 1) 8 A network’s function is to marshal resources from its environment to accomplish results beyond the ability of any one of its members. The linkage must include a communication mechanism.e. or services whereas. Sharing implies allotting or contributing one’s resources for the benefit of others. ILL was not easy to provide owing to the time. thing or action to which one resorts to. overcoming the barriers of geographical distance and time. These efforts were made more productive with developments in computer and telecommunication technologies. expertise. The resources can be intellectual. Libraries satisfy the document requirement of their users through ‘Inter-Library Loan’ (ILL) from other libraries.Library Networks most basic form of this cooperation starts with sharing of documents amongst libraries. when needed. implying a partnership in which each is willing and able to make available resources when needed. there have been concerted efforts on the part of the libraries to cooperate.2 DEFINITIONS: RESOURCE SHARING AND LIBRARY NETWORKS Let us look into the definitions of Resource Sharing and Library Networks to understand the basic concepts behind it. i. ILL has evolved into Resource Sharing wherein libraries share resources other than documents also. Computers made possible the creation of electronic documents. Resource sharing entails reciprocity. Libraries could be connected locally as well as globally into library networks. . or physical space. These resources include physical. “Resource” and “Sharing”. and many networks exist for the explicit purpose of facilitating certain types of communication among members. Resource Sharing Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science has defined two components of the term. physical resources refer to documents. This has been a well-accepted fact for centuries and thus. Resource refers to a person. and telecommunications made it possible to transfer and transmit them electronically thus.

................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit...................... To have an idea of this amount of information.................................................... LC has 17 million books containing about 136 terabytes of information............................................. which is an objective of library networks.......2) A network has developed an organisational design and structure that allows it to establish an identifiable domain and exercise appropriate influence over its members.................................. The rate of increase in prices in 2002 was 7... ...... ............................... It has a base in communications technology.................... five exabytes of information was produced in 2002...... An effective library network requires an administrative structure and planning............ It has resulted in diminishing power of libraries to acquire literature..... this much information is equivalent to information contained in 37...... Rupees) against US Dollar or other currencies............................................................... ............................................. particularly for India and other third world countries...3 RESOURCE SHARING : NEED Why should libraries share their resources? This question comes to mind in view of the fact that libraries acquire resources to serve their users.....9%..e... 9 .................... Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.. ................................................................... Introduction to Library Networks There is a stress in these definitions on collaborative acquisitions....... This leads to scarcity of space available for housing information............................... Escalation in Cost of published literature: The increase in prices of publications is evident from the result of a sample study of periodicals published in the US.................. It is more pronounced for science and technology compared to social sciences......... ............................... 1......................... Why should they then serve users of other libraries with their resources? The answer to this question lies in the fact that: Information is being produced at a very fast pace: According to an estimate... Can we imagine a library acquiring that much of information? One of the factors responsible for the overwhelming amount of information is that half of the scientists world has ever produced are still living and working today...... Self Check Exercise 1) Define resource sharing and library networks.......... Added to it is the problem of devaluation of local currency (i........................................................ Diminishing buying power of libraries: Another factor that has added to the increasing cost of published literature.....000 new libraries of the size of Library of Congress (LC)............... is the declining library budgets... ........................

stored. Computer helps to process. For that they strive to perform well by serving their users best. Networks are essential to get access to the information when it is available at a distance. transmitted. They work to fulfill the information requirement of their users at the right time. It has resulted in increased demands being put on libraries. 1. They have an accountability towards the public. and used. film. produced today is in electronic form: Information is stored in print. This is a chain reaction and has acted as a catalyst among users’ increasing need for information. The information produced in the year 2002 was distributed in these various media as under: Media Hard disks Films Paper Optical Media Percentage of information stored 92% 7% 0. Most of the indexing and abstracting services are now available on the web and the catalogues of libraries are appearing on the net in increasing numbers. and optical storage media. Timely access to information: It is difficult for an individual to lay hands manually on the precise and specific information.Library Networks Increasing awareness and desire to know among users: Widespread education and the concept of equality and democracy in the society have aroused the hunger “to know” among people. The information may be available within their library or from some outside source. access and search the required information. magnetic. The Internet is an enabling factor for libraries to establish networks and share their resources. published. in right amount and the form in which their users require it. from the large mass of information available. All these factors force libraries to cooperate with other libraries by sharing their resources. The majority of information produced today is in electronic form. This is an incentive for the libraries to network. Accountability in libraries: Librarians depend on public money for survival. Internet: The existence of Internet is a major factor that has changed the way information is produced. The Internet and Web has also contributed substantially to increase in awareness amongst library users. But why should library networks be formed? The need for forming the library network is as follows: Increasing amount of information. required by him/her.002% Bibliographic access to information is also in electronic form: Access to information is provided through databases produced online and offline. Networking of libraries has increased the feasibility of resource sharing by overcoming the barriers of distance and time involved in accessing information. 10 .4 LIBRARY NETWORKS : NEED The developments in information technology have made it possible for libraries to establish network.01% 0.

................................ they can have access to the combined collection of all networked libraries and overcome their limitation at their own limited collection...... If libraries are interconnected to other libraries through networks........................ ....................... national and regional level to achieve the following goals: Provide democratic access to information We are living in the information age where information is a commodity needed by one and all.Self Check Exercise 2) ‘Diminishing buying power of libraries necessitates resource sharing’........ Comment............................. .................5 LIBRARY NETWORKS: PURPOSE Libraries have joined hands to cooperate and coordinate at various levels to form networks.......................... They lack resources beyond their reach...... ................... therefore........................ The information may be bibliographic or full-text................... The networks are formed at local............................ print or nonprint......... 11 ....... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.. which can be followed by others for standardisation............ They are strong in some areas and poor in the others..................... Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below........ Abridge document collection in different libraries Libraries have different document collection............. Information is required for decision making at different levels........... ........ Information can be considered as a fundamental right of every citizen... .................. 1............................................................................. ......................................................................... particularly due to paucity of funds...................................... Uniform standards are the necessity as well as the by-product of library networks...................................................................... Standards in cataloguing and classification can be achieved and followed in different libraries due to networking.................. nobody should be deprived of his/ her information requirements................................. A central agency can be entrusted the task of cataloguing and classification............................. We are highly dependent on information......................................................... It is a resource as important as energy.... Enable uniform practices in routines Networks bring in uniformity in the routines followed by libraries particularly cataloguing and classification.. old or new..................................... ................ Library networks are instrumental in satisfying the information requirements of users of the libraries in a network.......

............................................... ... web.....Library Networks 1.. ii) Check your answers with the answers given at the end of this Unit... .. It would result in better allocation of funds and widespread availability of resources.............. ................................................................................................................................................. Reference and Referral Service Library networks enable faster reference and referral services in a collaborative environment.............................. Core collections could be built up for all libraries....... ......................... Funds could be diverted for resources that are found lacking in a particular geographical area.......... fax................................. A vast and comprehensive document collection and the support of trained expert manpower need to be deployed to facilitate it............ ............................. Electronic document delivery is the answer to this........... ....................... Self Check Exercises 3) 4) Enumerate the purpose of library networks...................................... Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) Bibliographic access to the holdings of a library or groups of libraries could be provided through networks.............. Libraries can come together to identify and avoid duplication of resources amongst members of library network.............................. Instant delivery of the document is possible over networks using emails....................... User should get information when he/she requires it................................................ It would enable libraries to know about the resources of other libraries enabling sharing of resources............. .................................... It would also enable to know the exact status of a document whether it is issued or on the shelf or reserved................... etc......6 LIBRARY NETWORKS: FUNCTIONS The functions of Library Networks are as follows: Provide Electronic Document Delivery Access to accurate and timely information is very important...................................................... Acquisition Rationalisation of acquisition is one the major functions of library network............. could be acquired strategically in different locations to enable maximum use... Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.............. Comment.. 12 ...................... which are rare or costly... Documents............................ ‘Library networks have enabled democratic access to information’.................................................................

13 . networking. universities and polytechnics. Some of the important networks are listed below: National INFLIBNET (Information and Library Network).g. It has a repository of the global knowledge in its database. resource sharing. Mumbai. Kaul conducted research to study barriers to resource sharing in Indian Libraries. MYLIBNET (Mysore Library Network). all others are Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs).7 LIBRARY NETWORKS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Introduction to Library Networks There are a number of library networks operational at national and international level. and public libraries in the US. Madras. CALIBNET (Calcutta Library Network). consortia. that provides access to cataloguing and holding information on documents in different languages of the world. In his review of literature. World Cat. Control of collection policies and priorities. It has evolved and taken different forms e.C. Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC) is a global library network that provides cost-effective access to resources for users the world over. INFLIBNET is a network of academic and research libraries of India. There are more such networks in other countries about which you will learn in detail in Unit 2 of this Block. Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) is another example of a network of research. and Pune. initially Delhi Libraries Network is now Developing Libraries Network with a number of libraries in other countries also becoming its members. BONET (Bombay Library Network). Joint Academic Network (JANET) is a network in the UK. academic. There are a number of factors that hamper the process of resource sharing.8 FACTORS HAMPERING RESOURCE SHARING Library cooperation has been in existence since 200 B. It covers academic libraries including colleges. etc. PUNENET (Pune Library Network). there is a changing trend with developments in telecommunication technology. These are based on different criteria. DELNET. Changing priorities for collection development. MANs are widening the scope. Except for. 1. geographical area. Calcutta. MALIBNET (Madras Library Network). he has identified the following barriers to resource sharing: • • • A desire for possessing everything in one’s own library. Similarly. (For details of the National Networks please refer to Unit 2 of this Block). International On the international front also there are a number of networks. etc. It provides access to different kinds of literature at international level. etc. Ahmedabad. subject. The names suggest that they are based at Delhi. ADINET (Ahmedabad Library Network). It is also connected to other such networks in the country and abroad. e. clientele. However. Mysore. libraries have formed networks based on subject. K.. INFLIBNET.g. H.1. DELNET (Developing Library Network).

and Reluctance to yield autonomy. Restriction. Economic. and we should contribute to resource sharing by exchanging information as it is a global phenomena Personal. in the conclusion to his study has given laws of resource sharing. These are: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) • • • • • • Library Resources are for sharing Documents in Standard Database form are the Dynamic Resources for Global Sharing Every Resource its user Every user his or her share of the Resource Minimise the Non-Use Period of Documents in Demand Automated Delivery Mechanisms of Resources will Progressively Grow Resource Sharing is a Global Phenomenon factors hampering resource sharing need to be eliminated. and Technological. documents requested by users should be made available to them. Organisational. The category of such librarians has reduced to a great extent due 14 . Due to limited resources libraries may not participate in resource sharing. They have to be counselled and educated regarding its importance and benefits. Lack of awareness among users about cooperation. To follow the above laws. mainly local. in lending the material. the documents in heavy demand should be identified and made easily available to users. he suggests that: Thus the problems in resource sharing could be categorized as: • • • • • • Personal problems relate to the attitude of librarians who are averse to sharing of resources. Lack of required administrative structure and support. Lack of needed support services. document delivery should be electronic. This is one of the most important barriers in the process of resource sharing. Social. Document delivery time. Non-conducive political environment. 1.Library Networks • • • • • • • • • Staff and faculty attitudes. Political. documents should be made available in machine form.9 FACILITATING RESOURCE SHARING Kaul.

............... Affinity could be based on subject....... viz............................................ Marc J Maclabee reports that there are 30........................................................................................................... They have come together to the rescue of each other......... The policies are with regard to access to electronic versions of their journals (e-journals) and databases... and number of users accessing the sources................. Periodicals in law experienced a price rise of 75% during 1991-2000.....000 academic journals in the world today................................................... 1........................ To quote American Library Association’s 2001 report on prices of periodicals................... geographical area.................... Once the librarian has developed the right attitude and is willing to be part of a network for resource sharing.....................................to the increasing pressure of variety of document requests made by users and increasing percentage of such requests needed to be met from other libraries.................. The agreements have been made keeping in view the: • • number of libraries....... Self Check Exercise 5) List the barriers to resource sharing in libraries................................. These include service providers like database vendors and online service providers................. Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............ ................ Out of which 8. Similarly...... Consortia has been formed wherein libraries have formed cooperative acquisition programmes........................................ ...................... For the same period........ ........................... . etc... ............S........... 15 ......... They have chalked out policies in collaboration with publishers and database producers and vendors... One of the main reasons for formation of consortia is the spiraling costs of publications particularly the journals...... Libraries and publishers have come together to form library consortia................ the Consumer Price Index in the U.. The dwindling library budgets against increasing number and cost of periodicals have affected both libraries and publishers.................... the price rise for the same period for medical periodicals was 165%... ..... publisher was left out in this collaborative venture........................ ........... rose only by 26%.................... clientele......................000 are peer-reviewed.... he/she can solve the other problems that relate to his/her organisation and the infrastructure....10 LIBRARY CONSORTIA Resource sharing as a concept involved sharing among libraries having some affinity..... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit............................................................... Publishers and other agencies involved in distribution of knowledge and information have also been included in the collaborative efforts today............................. One of the important partners in knowledge transmission channel.......

and it will gradually be extended to colleges as well. India has launched a consortium of e-journals for its member Universities to provide electronic access to scholarly literature over the Internet. Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Centre. IIMs. The consortium offers a price advantage on subscription to e-resources that exceeds 80%. and the shortage of available resources. IIITs. Indian Institute of Science. All universities which come under UGC’s purview will be members of the programme. University Grants Commission (UGC). and Technology (INDEST). The agreement initially is for a period of four years. The membership is open to all other educational institutions under its selfsupported category. The total membership of the consortium is 146.Library Networks Indian National Digital Library of Engineering. It facilitates linkage between UGC. Pure Sciences. The programme will help in mitigating the severe shortage of periodicals faced by university libraries due to the ever widening gap between the growing demand for literature. It will be responsible for the administration. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has also formed a Consortium for which National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) has been identified as the nodal agency. 16 . It will provide access to journals through its recently launched nationwide communication network. The access to the resources is being provided directly from the publishers’ websites. It has its headquarters at IIT Delhi. Sciences.. UGC-INFONET E-Journals Consortium aims to promote the use of electronic databases and full text access to journals by the research and academic community in the country. To start with. UGC-INFONET will be a boon to the higher education system in the country. INFLIBNET Centre is an autonomous Inter-University Centre of the University Grants Commission. The consortium is also a member of International Coalition of Library Consortia (ICOLC). It allows the scientists to access and download from these e-journals. is a consortium set up and funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) in India. monitoring and maintenance of the consortium. IITs. UGCINFONET is overlaid on Education and Research Network (ERNET) infrastructure to provide assured quality of service and optimal utilisation of Bandwidth resources. The consortium aims at providing access to international e-journals to the CSIR scientists. On behalf of the UGC. UGC will bear the entire expenses for UGC funded universities for providing e-journals access on behalf of participating universities. Social Sciences and Humanities including Management and Languages. the INFLIBNET is executing the UGC-INFONET project in collaboration with the ERNET. NITs and a few other centrally funded Government institutions. an agreement has been made with Elsevier Science publishers in which access to its 1700 journals is being provided to the CSIR scientists. Consortium covers all the disciplines.500 e-journals and 8 bibliographic databases. viz. It will place orders for e-journals on behalf of universities and coordinate the programme. UGC-INFONET. Each University will have the option of hosting their website and the journals subscribed through University Consortia. Its members are 38 core institutions viz. is the nodal agency for coordination of the UGC-INFONET. ERNET and universities. The consortium subscribes to 14 full-text resources that covers more than 6.

.... 1.. or physical space.............................. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit... Intellectual or conceptual resources refer to manpower............................ infrastructure....... 2002...................... ................... Resource sharing entails reciprocity... .................. Sharing implies allotting or contributing one’s resources for the benefit of others..................................................... expertise....................................................12 ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES 1) Resource refers to a person............................ conceptual or physical..... Library network has been defined as a “group of individuals or organisations that are interconnected to form a system to accomplish some specified goal....................... Library Consortia resorts to acquiring e-journals in a cooperative way............................................................................................. The importance of library networks was discussed under their functions......... physical resources refers to documents............... Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.... E-journals have provided a cost-benefit solution to the problem of journals acquisition in view of easing prices and reducing library budgets.............UGC-INFONET was formally inaugurated by the Hon’ble Prime Minister on 28th December............ Budgets of libraries are going down.. or services whereas........ We also studied the impediments towards library networks... 2) Diminishing buying power of libraries necessitates resources sharing............ The linkage must include a communication mechanism... Briefly describe the INDEST consortium..... their need and purpose...... Self Check Exercise 6) Define Library Consortia............................................................................ and many networks exist for the purpose of facilitating certain types of communication among members”............................. .................................................... The resources can be intellectual................ implying a partnership in which each is willing and able to make available resources when needed..................... It is the most recent happening in library networks and resource sharing.............................. 1........ ....11 SUMMARY In this Unit you have been introduced to the concept of resource sharing and library networks....... The concept of resource sharing has received a fillip by the introduction of electronic publishing........ It was followed by a discussion of the means to overcome these barriers by facilitating resource sharing..................... ............................ thing or action to which one resorts to. when needed............... ..... .......................... This results in their decreasing power 17 .............

. The strength of its members at present is 146. IITs. Indian Institute of Science. INDEST provides access to 6. Non-conducive political environment. NITs and some other centrally funded Government institutions. It provides funds for the resources to be made use of by the participating libraries. Lack of required administrative structure and support. Core collections could be built up for all libraries. could be acquired strategically in different locations to enable maximum use. Restriction. Added to it is the widening gap in currency conversion against Indian currency making it all the more difficult for libraries to fulfill the needs of users. 3) Libraries have joined hands to cooperate and coordinate at various levels to form networks.Library Networks to buy documents.500 journals directly from the publishers’ website. Document delivery time. Documents. Hence they should share resources. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has set up INDEST. These are formed at local. 18 . The barriers to resource sharing are: • • • • • • • • • • • • 6) A desire for everything here and now. Control of collection policies and priorities. and Reluctance to yield autonomy. Libraries can come together to identify duplication of resources that lead to wastage. is a recent example of a consortium in India. publishers and vendors for cooperative acquisition of electronic documents. which are found lacking in a particular geographical area. It would result in better allocation of funds and widespread availability of resources. 5) Library consortia have been defined as the coming together of libraries. 4) Rationalisation of acquisition is one the major functions of library network. Lack of awareness among users about cooperation. IIMs. Indian National Digital Library of Engineering Sciences and Technology (INDEST). Lack of needed support services. IIITs. iii) Enable uniform practices in routines. These networks exist to: i) ii) Provide democratic access to information. Changing priorities for collection development. Funds could be diverted for resources. which are rare or costly. national and regional level. Abridge document collection in different libraries. There are 38 core institutions viz. in lending the material. The membership is open to other such institutions also. Staff and faculty attitudes. Due to limited resources libraries may not participate in resource sharing. mainly local.

From Printed Bibliographies to Online Databases: Role of Library Networks.ac..informationaccess. Ray (ed. Resource Sharing in Libraries. In: Sardana.org/ala/alonline/selectedarticles/usperiodicals2002. 19 . to overcome the barrier of distance and time between the user and document. : The concept refers to two or more libraries sharing their resources. San Diago: Academic Press. Kaul.in/indest/ http://www. K. Vol 25. pp 362-74. which includes intellectual. etc.org/best. H. J. Allan F. and Pryterch. and Karisiddappa C R (2002). Networking of Libraries in India: A Critical Review. H. It is a measure of size of storage. J.(ed). Julie (1992). ( 2002). Ahmedabad: INFLIBNET. Vol 2.ala. In Sardana. e-mail file. http://www. Mc Dougall. In Gordan. L. Anil Kumar (ed). Introduction to Library Networks Library Cooperation Library Networks Library Resource Sharing 1. H. Libraries in Retrospect and Prospect: Essays in Honour of Prof D.pp 411-22. S. Kalia. Handbook of Library Cooperation. fax. Document Delivery: A Primary Service for the Nineties. : The mutual agreement between libraries to share their documents in order to satisfy the needs of their users. Delhi: Concept.htm http://www. Library Resource Sharing and Networks. (2002). and physical resources. R.1. Kaul. : Two or more libraries connected together through telecommunication links for sharing resources and mutual benefit. Vol 16. Wessling. Iren P (ed).(ed). Advances in Librarianship. Allen (ed) (1978). R. Exabyte : An Exabyte is a unit of measurement in computers of one million million million bytes.) (1991). Internet Engineering for Libraries and Information Centres.pdf Kaul H. L.13 KEYWORDS Electronic Document Delivery : It refers to document delivered in electronic form viz. Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science. Kalia. K. In : CALIBER 2002. (1999). New York: Marcell Dekker. K. U K: Gower. Delhi: Concept. pp 423-37. New Delhi: Virgo Publications. Library Consortia for Academic Libraries in the e-Publishing Era.paniitd. conceptual. V2.14 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Cholin V. In : Kent. Its abbreviation is EB. Libraries in Retrospect and Prospect: Essays in Honour of Prof D.

8 2.3.4 2. services and current status.1 2.7 2.3.3.4.3 2.5 2.4.0 OBJECTIVES understand the meaning and importance of library networks.3 Objectives Introduction Library Networks: An Overview 2.1 2.2 2.6 2.1 Objectives of Library Networks Library Networks: The Indian Scenario 2.3.3 2.3.4.2.9 History and Growth of Library Networks in India Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Developing Library Network (DELNET) Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET) Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET) Pune Library Network (PUNENET) Madras Library Network (MALIBNET) Bombay Library Network (BONET) 2.3.3.4 Library Networks: International Scenario 2.2 2.4.UNIT 2 LIBRARY NETWORKS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Structure 2.3.1 2. and have an insight into the well-known library networks at the international level.3.6 2. After reading this Unit.4. know the important library networks in India with regard to their objectives.8 Summary Keywords Answers to Self Check Exercises References and Further Reading 2. you will be able to: 20 .5 2.0 2.4.4 2.2 2.7 2.5 2.6 Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC) Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) Joint Academy Network (JANET) Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL) China Academic and Library Information System (CALIS) Australia’s Research and Education Network (AARNET) 2.

Earlier. Computers and telecommunications may be among the tools used for facilitating communication among them”. and services provided by a variety of libraries and other organisations are available to all potential users. factors like inadequate library budget. for some functional purpose. The term “library network” is being used increasingly for library cooperation and resource sharing. As we all know. The main advantage of the library network is that data and other information resources can be shared between a number of users. As Franklin David Jebaraj and Fredrick Robin Devadoss define. of the library networks. Before we talk about various national and international library networks. data and resources in order to provide better services to its clientele. present day libraries are unable to meet the information needs of the users. resource sharing methods like Inter-Library Loan (ILL) were used to meet the demands of users. let us first understand the meaning of library networks with the help of some definitions. The first Unit of this course “Introduction to Library Networks” deals with the objectives. 2.“ A library network is broadly described as a group of libraries coming together with some agreement of understanding to help each other with a view to satisfying the information needs of their clientele”.2 LIBRARY NETWORKS: AN OVERVIEW Due to information explosion and accelerating prices of information services and products. In this Unit we will acquaint you with some of the functional library networks in India and abroad. Library network ensures that data and other resources can be shared quickly.2. In simple words. With the advent of information technology. purposes. A network usually consists of a formal arrangement whereby materials. which basically covers the technological aspect of the networks. libraries work in a networked environment where data and information resources are accessible in electronic format and are shared electronically.1 INTRODUCTION Library Networks : National and International You have already studied the Unit on “Network Concepts” in the first course of this Programme. need. services. make it difficult for any library to acquire sufficient number of documents to fulfill the needs of its readers. 21 . library network means a group of libraries situated at different locations are connected to each other using computers and communication networks. The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) gave definition of a library network in National Programme Document in the year 1975 as: “Two or more libraries and/or other organisations engaged in a common pattern of information exchange. information. etc. Libraries may be in different jurisdictions but agree to serve one another on the same basis as each serves its own constituents. reliably and accurately. accelerating prices of documents and availability of huge amount of information resources. The basic purpose of library networking is sharing of information. through communications.

cooperative acquisition. 2.1 History and Growth of Library Networks in India History of library networks in India can be traced back to the year 1958 when on the instance of Pt. The primary objectives are: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) promoting sharing of resources amongst the libraries. sharing equipments etc. For example.. Some of the reports submitted by these committees 22 .1 Objectives of Library Networks From the above definitions it is apparent that the library networks have been conceived as mechanism for optimum utilisation of resources which is necessitated by the shrinking of library budget. providing bibliographic information services from indigenously created databases.3 LIBRARY NETWORKS: THE INDIAN SCENARIO In this section you will be studying some of the functional national library networks.2. optimising utilisation of resources through shared cataloguing. though individual networks may have one or more specific objectives depending upon their requirements. establishing mechanism for access to international databases. augmenting weaker resources in the network by increasing cooperation among the member libraries. such specificity is slowly blurred due to the development of ICT. coordination with other networks – regional. 2. promoting computerisation of libraries and information centres through international standards which will facilitate exchange of information. Jawahar Lal Nehru. However. several committees and commissions were setup who came up with various recommendations. improving information handling capabilities through networking of libraries and information centres. increased cost of materials and varieties of demands of the users. avoiding unnecessary duplication of materials through development of adequate collection development policy for member libraries. networks of metropolitan area thrive to support the information resources of the users of the community based on the resources available within the area. developing databases of projects.3. The general objectives of such networks can be spelt out as follows. specialists and institutions. sharing expertise. accessing document collection of member libraries through online union catalogues. national and international.Library Networks 2. organising document delivery service. Scientific Policy Resolution was adopted emphasising the development of scientific temper among people. As a result.

It was expected from these networks to promote resource sharing. Delhi Library Network (DELNET) in 1988. and computer/audio/video conferencing. Bombay Library Network (BONET) in 1994. Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET) in 1995. (now Developing Library Network). The INFLIBNET has made provision for document delivery service by establishing resource centres around libraries having rich collection of documents. file transfer. to avoid duplication of resources and also to minimise the cost of acquiring resources. INFLIBNET(http://www. book. magnetic tape/floppy. It became an independent inter-university centre in the year 1996. namely. Chattopadhyay as a Chairman of a Committee to evolve a national policy on library information systems. serials and non-book materials. Ranganathan Report to UGC (1965). etc. Pune Library Network (PUNENET) in 1992. located at Gujarat University Campus. The NISSAT has ceased operation since 2004. Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET) in 1993.in/) is an autonomous inter-university center of UGC. serials and non-book materials. INFLIBNET offers the following services to fulfill its objectives: Catalogue based services Shared cataloguing of monographs. Seshagiri to study the aspects of modernisation of library services and inter-linking of library systems. V. 23 .ac. took initiatives for the setting up of Metropolitan Library Networks in India. P. N. Library Networks : National and International 2. were established and funded by the NISSAT.A.and commissions included: Sinha Committee Report (1959). Further the Government appointed Prof. Catalogue production in card. optical (CDROM).2 INFLIBNET: Information and Library Network a) INFLIBNET is an acronym used for Information and Library Network.inflibnet. regional and national level. During the 7th Five Year Plan (1985-90) the Planning Commission of Government of India appointed a working group under the Chairmanship of Dr. This committee submitted the report and stressed the need for resource sharing and linking of education and research organisations. Kamath Report (1972). Union catalogue of books. prepare union catalogue of books and periodicals and create centralised databases. Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) in 1986. bulletin board. All these reports recommended cooperation among libraries at local. Online catalogue access for shared cataloguing and location identification. Keeping in mind the above mentioned objectives the Metropolitan City Library Networks. The main purpose of setting library networks was to strengthen the resource sharing. National Information System for Science and Technology (NISSAT) established in the year 1977 as a project in the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR). It is a major national programme of University Grants Commission (UGC) started in the year 1991. Government of India. Ahmedabad. Peter Larzer Committee Report (1972). D. INFLIBNET is also working very seriously for effective communication among academicians and researchers in India through electronic mail.3.

... Periodicals.. INFLIBNET has started many information services: Access to Union Databases of Books.............. 24 ..................... INFLIBNET which acts as a liaison between UGC........ . etc.. SDI...... institutions and 13150 affiliated colleges................. free of cost....... ......................... Some of the library networks are running consortia for its member libraries and offer information sources and services at a very low cost and bridge the gap between libraries with regard to information have and information have-nots. Indian universities constitute one of largest education system in the world................................. Information services In order to ensure free flow of information to the end users and strengthen interaction between academics.. through the INFLIBNET website................. ERNET (Education and Research Network) and universities provides training to library professionals for using the network and resources made available on it.......... It covers more than 88.... Self Check Exercise 1) What are the information services offered by INFLIBNET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.... Experts.......... For further details on UGC-INFONET please refer to Unit 1 of this course..... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.......... CD-ROM based services Members can access CD-ROM databases in the area of social sciences and humanities...21 lakh students and 4................................... current awareness services..Library Networks Database services Bibliographic database services.................................................... Retrospective searches........................ functions on consortia approach.............. UGC INFONET Programme 1) Due to rising prices of information resources libraries cannot buy and acquire all possible information sources... UGC-INFONET has been set up by UGC and ERNET India.... Scientific Society and the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology. .... Internet based services The network provides academic community with various resources and services. with 294 universities.........27 lakh teachers..... There is a great need for effective communication and coordination among UGC and each university for modernising university campus with campus wide networks and also setting up nation-wide network.....UGC-INFONET programme with this objective.............

..... creates new systems in the field... i) DELSIS – a powerful library networking software... Newspapers......... Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below..... .... Self Check Exercise 2) Mention the products of DELNET......................... DELNET offers links to related databases and websites on the web in different disciplines....... 25 . and Internet Connectivity Service... Union Catalogue of Periodicals...........3 DELNET: Developing Library Network DELNET (Developing Library Network) earlier known as Delhi Library Network till 2001 started in the year 1988 and registered as a society in 1991.............................................. Union List of Video Recordings...................... etc............................... Initially............ The following database services are also provided to its member libraries: Online Databases of Union Catalogue of Books....... ................................ ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit........................... Library Networks : National and International 2................................. Apart from these services.. applies the results of research and publishes them..... DELNET’s effort.... Department of Information Technology....... Creation and Maintenance of Bibliographic Databases............. Ministry of Communications and Information Technology........ and iv) DELMARC – a LAN based library management software for larger libraries with large collection and clientele................................... is definitely a significant step towards provision of automated library services............................................................. Government of India and India International Centre (IIC)........ it was sponsored by NISSAT.......... Union List of Current Periodicals.................................... In addition to fulfilling the objectives of library network........... Document Delivery Services.......... ...... Sound Recordings..... in resource sharing and providing a number of services and products................................... DELNET provides some useful software products namely.................................... Delnet (http://www..............nic............................delnet..........3........ Bibliographic Database of CD-ROMs................. .......... especially in India................. .......... Indian Specialists Database................................................in) provides ILL Online............... New Delhi..... ii) DEL-DOS – for creating MARC (Machine Readable Catalogue) Records of books.......................... ............. DELNET also undertakes scientific research in the area of information science and technology... iii) DEL PLUS – a stand-alone library management software for database creation and maintenance and for OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue).. Training Programmes... Databases of Periodical Articles.............. Retrospective conversion........ E-mail Service.... Referral Services... DSIR and currently is being promoted jointly by National Informatics Centre (NIC)...................

.......................... DSIR and managed by the Calcutta Society was established in the year 1986 under the West Bengal Government’s Societies Registration Act....... CALIBNET offers the following services to fulfill its objectives: Centralised Database (CDB) Service...............................4 CALIBNET: Calcutta Library Network CALIBNET (Calcutta Library Network) project funded by NISSAT.. ........ 2.calibnet.....org) provides access to bibliographic information resources available through its centralised databases.............................................................. CalibOrder Service offers the requisite backup service by providing full text........ RetroFile Service provides trend of research on any given specific topic............... Ahmedabad Library Network........... which contains bibliographic records of participating libraries..... ........................... etc... Developing Library Network.. 1961..... The CALIBNET website also provides the following active links for the benefit of member libraries: Indian Library and Network Resources Overseas Library Resources on India Worldwide Library Catalogues National Libraries of the World Newspapers and Journals Electronic Reference Tools Factual Information Sources 26 Document Supply Services ..... Mysore Library Network.............calibnet......Library Networks ................ Bombay Library Network.......org) activities are centered around providing access to materials available in the eastern region and creation of databases particularly with respect to intellectual assets of West Bengal............................... in the first phase... ConFile Service provides contents of journals of users choice................................................ The CALIBNET (http://www. CalibLink gives e-mail connectivity to member libraries. undertook the task of linking 38 computerised libraries in the field of science and technology located within the Calcutta metropolitan area and would then proceed to connect to other Metropolitan Area Networks namely....................................3............................ The CALIBNET website (http://www....... ............................... CALIBNET............................ Madras Library Network... ConAlert Service gives user the customised service by providing current and tailored bibliographic information......

................ library professionals and students. Biblio File....... LC MARC (Library of Congress Machine Readable Catalogue).... Its membership is open to all institution libraries.................................................. ..................................... and Research and Development in IT Applications.................... In the year 1993 it was registered as a society................................................alibnet............................................................. ............................ The other Software “PARAPAR” which is a conversion software package has also been developed to support interchange of bibliographic data....... CALIBNET also provides Current Awareness Service (CAS).............. .............................................The website also provides details of varied CALIBNET programmes for: On-Demand Information Services Consultative Service for Library Automation Manpower Development Opportunities.......... .............................. ............................. Self Check Exercise 3) Name the software package developed by CALIBNET... and E-Mail Service........org)......... It is a network of libraries located in and around Ahmedabad.......................... 2................................................. .................... Library Networks : National and International Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below........ The services from ADINET includes the following: Database of current periodicals received by over 100 libraries of Ahmedabad Inter-Library Loan Content Pages of LIS Journals 27 ............ ..............5 ADINET: Ahmedabad Library Network ADINET is the abbreviation used for Ahmedabad Library Network (http://www. Selective Dissemination Information (SDI) Service...........................................3.................. access to databases..................................................... information centers..................................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit...................................... Union Catalogue.... ADINET sponsored by the NISSAT........................ CD-ROM databases........................................................ CALIBNET has developed inhouse “SANJUKTA” – a multi user storage and retrieval software to support its centralised database and to provide online access from remote areas..

.............................................. .................................................................................................................. 28 ......... ...................................................................... ........................................ DSIR in the year 1995 and is located in the Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTR) Campus.............6 MYLIBNET: Mysore Library Network MYLIBNET (Mysore Library Network) was set up by NISSAT......................................................................... The MYLIBNET (http://www............ 2.............................................. .... ADINET is now offering the following services by special expert team at a reasonable charge: Computerisation of libraries Cataloguing and classification of documents Labelling and shelving of books Stock verification of documents Manpower development programmes Planning for library development Completion of any backlog work in the library Some selected cyber café to give 20% discount to ADINET members......................... ..........mylibnet......Library Networks Supply of photocopies from journals received by libraries in and around Ahmedabad Internet surfing facility Database of databases available in LIS Centres in and around Ahmedabad JOLI (Job Opportunities for Librarians) Database Special Internet training to fresh qualified librarians Computer training programmes to library professionals In order to meet the objective of cooperative mode of working among the libraries................................. Mysore.................. Giving facility to LIS professionals to put their resume on the ADINET website for searching of jobs..................................................................... .......................................................................3...................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit..................... .................................. Self Check Exercise 4) What are the databases provided by ADINET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below..............................................org) organises various training programme for LIS professionals.....................................

8 MALIBNET : Madras Library Network The MALIBNET started in the year 1991 in order to provide effective information services to the users in and around Madras.3. etc. Services PuneNet Database Services PuneNet hosts many databases namely. MALIBNET was registered as a society in 1993. Photocopy service. The membership of MALIBNET (http://www. PuneNet is planning to include Indian language databases. online search facility. Pune. which is issued for short period of time. PuneNet (http://www. which contain old and rare valuable manuscripts.7 PUNENET: Pune Library Network PuneNet is a joint endeavour of University of Pune. For the sharing and exchange of bibliographic data from the participating libraries PuneNet follows the international standard for information exchange – 1SO 2709. Through its website. (now NISCAIR) was the executing agency for the MALIBNET project.Some of the services provided by MYLIBNET are as follows: Providing technical assistance in the area of LIS. Web access to the Union Catalogue of Periodicals subscribed by member libraries for updating their records in the union catalogue database online. For periodicals database PuneNet may add Ulrich’s database so that more information regarding periodicals may be given to its users. Other Services Apart from the database services some of the other services includes E-mail and Internet Connectivity. CD-ROM database services. colleges.punenet.3. MALIBNET offers the following services to its members: E-mail service. It subscribes to e-mail service of ERNET. These databases are updated yearly. 2. for the benefit of the users.angelfire. This network acts like a gateway to Internet.com) is housed in Bio Informatrics Centre. Union Catalogue of Periodicals. There is also a proposal for online updating of records and databases. Current Awareness Service (CAS). PuneNet Libraries Database. At present there are more than 20 participating libraries who deposit their data on regular basis. funded by NISSAT was started in the year 1992. Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) and National Chemical Laboratory (NCL).com/in/malibnet) is open to universities. Databases of Booksellers and LIS Professionals. INSDOC. photocopy services. Library Networks : National and International 2. This project. industries and individuals. R& D institutions. 29 . the users can access PuneNet databases on the Internet. The participating libraries are provided with login and password.

It gives access to databases CD-ROM. the name of OCLC. It is the first computer based library network. The development of MARC during 1960s is a step towards such cooperation. After this. OCLC emerged as an international network from a regional computer system for 50 Ohio Colleges. USA is considered to be the birth place of library networks. Specialised databases which gives abstracts of articles.4 LIBRARY NETWORKS: INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO Library Networks are the extension of the concept of library co-operation. shared cataloguing and resource sharing. the publication of union catalogue of different types by different countries started appearing in increased numbers. Contents Database of Journals in Madras (Gives contents information of important journals which is also available online). began as the first successful library network. 2. 2. training programmes for professional development. and also conducts seminars. In the year 1981. Databases from INSDOC (now NISCAIR) and other participating institutions are also available on MALIBNET host. 30 . was changed to Online Computer Library Centre. Due to this standard the exchange of bibliographic information among computerised library system became a reality. The history of library cooperation can be traced back to 200 BC when Alexandria library shared its resources with Pergamen library. 2. Directory Database of Current Serials in Madras (Gives journal holdings of member libraries and it is available online). It has enrolled more than 25 libraries as its members. In the year 1963. the growth of library networks started long back. In the developed countries. Current serials acquired from the libraries.3. where academic libraries of Ohio State shared their resources so that the resource costs could be reduced. interlibrary loan.9 BONET: Bombay Library Network BONET supported by NISSAT.Library Networks Document delivery service. In the beginning of 20th century Library of Congress compiled National Union Catalogue. which led to the development of many library networks in different parts of the world subsequently.1 OCLC: Online Computer Library Centre In the year 1967 OCLC (Ohio College Library Centre) was founded to develop a computerised system. OCLC (Online Computer Library Centre) earlier Ohio College Library Centre.4. NISCAIR services are also available to MALIBNET users. DSIR started in the year 1994. MALIBNET permits its members to offer information services on the network. etc.

cataloguing and reference. It is a database in higher education designed for research and development. record supply and collection sets.The main objective of the OCLC is to have more access to information and reduce costs by offering services to libraries and users. it is one of the largest and most comprehensive bibliographic database. For OCLC’s digital collection service WorldCat acts as a portal. It provides libraries with rich source of cataloguing records. OCLC member libraries make up the world’s largest consortium. Reference service gives access to full text documents. Library Networks : National and International 31 . WorldCat and virtual reference service. Collection Management service helps in achieving the collection goals of the member libraries. For OCLC cataloguing services WorldCat is the authoritative source which helps in resource sharing service of OCLC. Members can make their collections available to the world through resource sharing. PromptCat are some of the cataloguing tools of WorldCat. With millions of online records. They can share the world’s largest union catalogue (WorldCat). abstracts. E-content service enhances the e-collection and other online databases through the net library – electronic collections online services. Resource sharing service helps in sending ILL requests on the web. It consists of many OCLC services. Member libraries can take full advantages of OCLC products and services. Connexion. It lists resources from stone tablets to e-resources and MP3s. It holds location listings contributed by member libraries. For reference and electronic content service WorldCat works as a map showing the users what resources are available and the way to get it. copy cataloguing. DVD and websites. The following are some of the OCLC services. FirstSearch is the powerful reference service for locating references and full text articles. Digital collection and preservation service is designed to protect and share the digital collection. Membership: OCLC membership comprises more than 50. WorldCat is the building block for the services provided by OCLC. and users with economic access to knowledge through innovation and collaboration. etc. Member libraries worked together for more than 30 years to build and maintain WorldCat. Many OCLC services are based on WorldCat. WorldCat: It is a world wide union catalogue developed and created collectively by more than 9000 member institutions. which are used by the member libraries to share information by reducing the cost. The vision of the OCLC is to be a leading global library cooperative. helping libraries.000 libraries (all types) in the US and 84 countries of the world. Cataloguing and Metadata Service provides online cataloguing. and receive discounts on OCLC products and services.

............ ................. The members of RLG use RLIN system for cataloguing............................ cultural resources... developed by the Research Libraries Group (RLG).......... maintaining.................................. 2............... With the RLIN 21 there are some structural changes in all RLG databases............................................................ and contributing records in RLG union catalogue...............................................Library Networks Self Check Exercise 5) What is WorldCat? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.................................... Products RLG gives free access (instructional) to a variety of RLG databases to Accredited Schools of Library and Information Science (SLIS)...... With the collections of research and learning of member institutions.... These members are working towards the mission of creating solutions for challenges of information access and management in the digital era.................. ......... RLG is an international non-profit membership organisation of more than 160 universities. ....................................................... Further.. RLG provides researchers the access to research resources and many innovative information services.. creating...........................2 RLIN: Research Libraries Information Network RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network) is a bibliographic information system.. problem solving and development of new standard products and services................................... authority work and archives and manuscript processing................ The RLIN legacy computer program is now being replaced with RLIN21: a new web-based interface to RLG databases.................................. RLG provides a framework for cooperation.......... A new RLIN21 interface is used to retrieve..... a new RLIN21 client is now used for creating and updating bibliographic and authority records.............. RLG was founded in 1974 with its headquarters in California...................................... display and export MARC records..... libraries...... SCIPIO (Art and Rare Book Sales 32 ........... ....... archives...................... historical societies and other related institutions........................... In order to meet the cooperative action RLG is working towards full online access to research resources...... Hand Pressbook Database...4........... .. English short title catalogue..................... ........................................................ Under this programme the SLIS can access the Art Museum Image Consortium (AMICO) Library from RLG........... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.... new modes for effective global resource sharing...... and to provide continuous access to resources through digital preservation.............................. ....... RLG archival............................. RLIN also refers to a computer interface program that is used to work with RLG’s bibliographic records for finding.......................................

...............................Catalogue)............................................... These databases contain information and resources....... .............. Self Check Exercise 6) Enumerate the services offered by RLG? Library Networks : National and International Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below...................... Resource Sharing Service SHARES – It is an Inter Lending and Document Supply Programme of RLG for resource sharing among the members of RLG............................................... RLIN 21 can also be used as a searching interface......................................................................................... artifacts............................. .............................. Services Online Database Service RLG also provides online access to databases........... This network is operated and developed by UKERNA (United Kingdom Education and Research Network) under the Service Level Agreement from the Joint Information System Committee (JISC) of UK Higher and Further Education Funding Councils........ The objective of JANET is to advance and support UK’s education and research network......... digital collections......... All the higher education organisations and research councils are connected to this network................. Technical Services RLG’s RLIN 21 software......... which is windows based..... ....... With the help of RLIN web interface................. users can take advantage of the cataloguing already done by RLG members and can have a copy for their local systems....... helps the members to create records in RLG’s Union Catalogue and SCIPIO database and Authority File......................4.. ... . RLG Union Catalogue....................................................................................................................................... fast automated cataloguing........ 33 ......................... Authority files...................... ....................... 2.....................3 JANET: Joint Academy Network JANET (Joint Academy Network) is an education and research network funded by UK Government................. traditional library resources...................................... RLG’s ILL Manager software programme is for Inter Library Loan.......... ........................... With SCIPIO RLG Union Catalogue and the Authority files........................ ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit............. archival collection........................... RLG and Backstage Library Works developed Marcardio service to provide inexpensive.

. Universities and Poly-techniques.... equipment and services to be securely located on the Super JANET backbone.. Mail Services....... This team advises on security of computers and networks and also provides training programmes for this.. of research and higher education interests. Advisory Services and Web Services which includes web mail service............ Super JANET: Super JANET is the core of JANET network and is the backbone of the JANET..... .. JANET NetSight service is basically a networks monitoring service.... Super JANET is being implemented in phases. JANET interconnects local computer network in UK Research Councils. It was proposed in 1989 with the aim to develop a high performance wide area network based on optical fibers...... and effective communication among the members of JANET and the network to meet the changing needs of the community..... JANET gives multipoint video conferencing service and UKRENA supports the training on equipment and technique side........ initially with 50 members by late 1980s there were 200 sites.......... 34 ................. There are many other services provided by JANET including Usenet News Service......... UKERNA organises workshops. JANET Services UKERNA offers the following user services over JANET: JANET-CERT is a Computer Emergency Response Team provided by UKERNA as a service on the JANET network... Super JANET 4 was launched to increase the network capacity and strengthen the user base of JANET with further inclusion of education community and the use of Super JANET 4 backbone to inter connect school networks....... Super JANET II started in 1995 to increase the spread of Super JANET and create MANs (Metropolitan Area Network)....... Self Check Exercise 7) What is Super JANET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.... JANET is connected with the academic networks of other countries and also forms the part of the global Internet.. Super JANET 4 will be over by December 2005... web filtering and web hosting. JANET members are thus able to get access to the local computer networks free of charge.Library Networks The Joint Academic Network was established in the year 1984. conferences and training programmes for the use of JANET Network and services.... JANET Co-location service helps the customer.... It ensures fast... Super JANET III was aimed at consolidating the pioneering work of Super JANET I and II in 2001.. which is developed by UKERNA to view and understand the performance of the JANET...... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.

.......................................... locate...................................................... These records are stored in UKMARC and can be accessed through telnet or Z39.. National Library of Scotland and Wales.............................................. ....................................................... digitisation and retention................................. Services: CURL has created a database for bibliographic records................... preservation... Currently the database contains 38 million records which are mostly from the member libraries and also from LC (Library of Congress) and BNB (British National Bibliography)........................................... ........................... British Library............ ........................ discipline and format from the desktop.. For non-members there is a flat rate for searching........................................................... ...................................... The purpose of this database is to provide a unified source of cataloguing records for use by library staff................................................. ......... and access the resources irrespective of place...4 CURL: Consortium of University Research Libraries CURL (Consortium of University Research Libraries) was established in the year 1987 with the mission to “increase the ability of research libraries to share resources for the benefit of the local..................................................................... Its access for members is free. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit........... national and international research community”................... Library Networks : National and International 2. The future plans of CURL include development of e-resources tools............................................................................................... request....... strategy for digitisation and digital preservation and also developing and implementing communication strategy for consortia.......... .................. It contains about 30 million records............................................................................. ................ 35 ..50 client....... Objective of CURL is to help the researchers to search. The members of CURL get free access to the union catalogue COPAC (National Online PublicAccess Catalogue)............................................................. Future Plans of CURL CURL-COFOR project is initiated for the sharing of responsibilities in acquisition......... .4.................................... Its membership is 25 which include 22 university libraries....... which represents merged holdings of 26 CURL member institutions and a small portion of nonCURL libraries.............................................................................. networking and cooperation........ Self Check Exercise 8) What are the future plans of CURL? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............

. union catalogues..... e-content loading/presentation. Goals of CALIS By the year 2010. develop more e-resources databases and provide e-access to databases developed in China and abroad... AARNet............. regional and national) of libraries is to get connected with other international network and information system.. organise training programmes for staff... Australia ViceChancellor’s Committee (AVCC) developed AARNet 2.... CALIS is a part of the Higher Education Public System.... ILL................ Its primary functions include cataloguing services............... which was a further improvement of the Internet in Australia with high bandwidth................ 36 ................................................... funded by the Ministry of Education....... document delivery service............... CALIS is a resource-sharing network based on CERNET (China Education and Research Network)............... CALIS endeavours to transform the role of traditional libraries with the adoption of new technologies.....).......... CALIS future plan includes: development of a set of databases based on the available resources of individual libraries in China and abroad....... CALIS envisages itself to become an advanced academic and library resource supporting and serving system.................. public libraries and information service organisations... e-content licensing. Ltd.................................. Current Chinese Periodicals.....4..... coordinated purchasing and data searching.. AARNet apart from helping in teaching................. 2.. The three level network (local............ Its members include academic libraries.... storage facilities...... shared online catalogues.. which is one of the projects supported by State Commission of Education.......................... training.................. union lists....... AARNet is also cooperating with local regional networks organisation to increase the capacity of metropolitan regional networks.......... 2.... Key discipline databases...Library Networks ........ ............................... ATM links and Internet services................. CALIS has created databases like Union Cataloguing Project..... During 1997.............. was responsible for the origin of Internet in Australia. ..............6 AARNET: Australia’s Research and Education Network Australia’s Research and Education Network (AARNet) is managed by a nonprofit APL (AARNet Pvt.... which was initiated as a project in 1989........ .. Dissertation Abstracts and Conference Proceedings...........4...5 CALIS: China Academic and Library Information System CALIS (China Academic and Library Information System) is a nationwide academic library consortium.. learning and research activities in universities also acted as Internet Service Provider (ISP).............. resource sharing..

........ AARNet 3 is the third generation of AARNet network.............. participate in alternative and flexible modes of course delivery.. ..................................................... ............. Its main objective is to provide AARNet with a network serving the academic community in Australia at a world-class level......... AARNet Services: This network plays an important role in giving the services to its clientele base of more than 80........ ..... This networks provides primary IP services as: National On-Net National Off-Net International On-Net International Off-Net – provides IP Connectivity between members – provides IP Connectivity to the Australian domestic Internet – provides access to global Research and Education network – provides access to international commodity Internet Library Networks : National and International This network also provides access to GrangeNet.......................................... This network enables its client-base to: collaborate effectively....................The main objectives of this network are to: collaborate in the area of teaching... access information for teaching and learning.....000 staff and students of universities and research organisation....... Europe and Asia. provide high capacity cost effective Internet services to education and research committees............. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit. learning and research by connecting people to the Internet resources........ Voice Over IP.. Video over IP........ Self Check Exercise 9) What are the value added services provided by AARNET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below....................................... It was placed to put in active use during 2004.. research and administration............................................... Carrier services for members and advanced Internet workshops........................... ......... Some of the Value added Services provided by AARNET are AARNet Large Object Mirror........................... 37 ................................ help in the development of advanced network infrastructure and applications with access to the global Research and Education Network in North and South America.................................................................. which is a high capacity research network............

The primary purpose of the library network is to modernise and help the libraries. we conclude that library networks play a major role in bridging the gap between academic libraries and information centres and ensure resource sharing. JANET (UK). UGC has established INFLIBNET in 1991. ADINET (1993). CAS (Current Awareness Service) CD-ROM Database Centralised Database Consortia Digital Collection Document Delivery Service 38 .8) for more details. that cannot be achieved by the individuals alone. : It refers to centralised storage and usage of unified reference information. : A group of libraries or other organisations that form a partnership to achieve a goal. in Ahmedabad and BONET (1994) in Mumbai (earlier Bombay). The networking of libraries is expected to bring in changes for library and information services in the country. Note: Students are advised to visit the relevant websites (see section 2. MALIBNET (1991) in Madras. MYLIBNET (1995) in Mysore. We have also studied some of the important library networks at the international level for example OCLC (America). conferences and symposium. AARNET (Australia). They can also support research and development. conference papers journal articles etc. to the users on demand irrespective of the location and form of the original.Library Networks 2. : A service whereby the Library provides full-text copies of the documents research papers. for example CALIBNET (1986) in Calcutta.5 SUMMARY After reading this Unit. NISSAT has been instrumental in setting up of library networks in India. which is considered to be a national network. DELNET (1988) in Delhi. 2.6 KEYWORDS : A service designed to aid research workers in keeping themselves abreast of the current developments taking place in their subjects of interest. national and international cooperation and contribute to the growth and development of trained manpower through seminars. such as resource sharing. : An organised collection of information available on a CD-ROM. : A digital collection is a body of materials in digital format treated as a group or considered as a whole. CALIS (China). RLIN (US). PUNENET (1992) in Pune. CURL (UK).

: The vast collection of interconnected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60’s and early 70’s. but is only for internal use and is not connected directly to the global Internet. : A database located in a remote computer and accessed through the Internet. : Machine Readable Cataloguing. The MARC formats are standards for the representation and communication of bibliographic and related information in machine readable form. : A network point that acts as an entrance to another network. : A cooperative arrangement among libraries by which one library may borrow materials it does not own from another library. : A network of computers spread over a metropolitan/city-wide area such as buildings located throughout a town or city. such as the server through which people on a company’s local area network access the internet. : Online Public Access Catalogue. Library Networks : National and International Inter Library Loan Internet Intranet MARC Metropolitan Area Network Online Database Online Union Catalogues OPAC Resource Sharing Retro conversion Service 39 .E-Resources Gateway : Electronic information resources accessed via the internet. : Union catalogues of the libraries available online. : Collaborative arrangements made between libraries for mutual assistance. It is an online catalogue of a library collection that is available to the public. : A private network inside a company or organisation that uses the same kinds of software as the Internet. which can be advantageous and efficient. by the sharing of resources or division of costs. : Retrospective Conversion Service is a service that involves conversion of a library’s paper catalogue records into machine-readable form.

such as. Shared Cataloguing Union Catalogues Virtual Reference Service 2. and Technical Services. etc. : A form of cataloguing undertaken by the Library of Congress and other agencies responsible for material bibliography. videoconferencing etc. Database of Databases in LIS Centres in and around Ahmedabad. without being physically present. 2) Some of the products provided by DELNET are as follows: DELSIS. Future Plans of CURL: CURL will contribute to the development of strategies to coordinate 6) 7) 8) 40 . SANJUKTA and PARAPAR. WorldCat is a world wide union catalogue of millions of online records. DELDOS. Members can also access CD-ROM databases in the area of Social Sciences and Humanities and it also provides number of Internet based services. Super JANET Project was proposed in 1989 with the aim to develop a high performance wide area network based on optical fibers. 3) 4) 5) CALIBNET has developed in house softwares. Online Database Service. DELPLUS and DELMARC. Database of Current Periodicals. : Union catalogues reveal information about the collections of more than one library. Communication channels used frequently in virtual reference include chat. : Virtual reference is reference service initiated electronically where patrons employ computers or other Internet technology to communicate with reference staff. both for cataloguing and inter-library loan purposes. through INFLIBNET website. periodicals. They are a way for groups of libraries to share information about their collections in a consistent way. JOLI (Job Opportunities for Librarians) Database.Library Networks SDI : SDI is a current awareness system which alerts the user to the latest publications in his/her specified field(s) of interest. experts. Resource Sharing Service. It is developed and created collectively by more than 9000 member institutions of OCLC.7 1) ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES The INFLIBNET is offering the following information services: Access to union catalogue of books.

Library and Information Networks in India.calis. Library Resource Sharing and Networks. Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET). (2003).D. It will also develop and implement communication strategy for consortia. Partha (2001). networking and cooperation.in) JANET. digitisation and retention. It will also develop and implement a strategy for digitisation and digital preservation.ja. (http://www. preservation.in) Information Library Network ( INFLIBNET). 6(2).cn) Library and Information System. and Devadoss. Carrier services for members and Advanced Internet workshop.net) Jebaraj. and Basy. H.aarnet. 20(3). (eds).uk) Developing Library Network (DELNET). 134-164. F. (http://www. K. H. New Delhi: Virgo Publications. Bhattacharya.an) Ahmedabad Library Network.alibnet. (1992).8 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Academic and Research Network. 13-14.nic.D. Chicago: ALA. pp. New Delhi: IGNOU. (CALIBNET). (http://www. Overview of Library and Information Networks. Cholin.R.org) ALA World Encyclopedia of Library and Information Services (1986).mylibnet. V. (ADINET). 63-101. Calcutta Library Network. Kaul. H. CALIS: China Academic (http://www. 2nd Ed. 24-93. K. Library Networks : National and International 2.provisions of research information and generating solution to the information needs. (2004). Kaul. p. Unit 7. 3-7. AARNet: Australia’s (http://www.edu.calibnet. 1-54.edu. M.org) 41 . Video over 1P. New Delhi: DELNET. CURL-COFOR project initiated the sharing of responsibilities in acquisition.472.org) CALIBNET: An Overview (1999). 9) Value added services provided by AARNET are as follows: Voice over 1P. Library and Information Networking: NACLIN 2002.ac. (2003). MLI-004. CURL will adopt the strategy for the development of e-resources discovery tools.ac.inflibnet. Kaul. (1999).S. pp.curl. (http://www. Information Today and Tomorrow. New Delhi: Virgo Publications. Library Philosphy and Practice. (http://delnet. CURL (http://www. 18(4). (http://www. K. Library Networks: A Indian Experience. F. NISSAT Networks: Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET). Information Today and Tommorrow. PGDLAN.

Matsumoto (2003).org) Sahoo.org/worldcat) Pune Library Network.ernet.A Library Network for Madras. 16-18. Some Examples of American and European Library Networks. 21(1). New Delhi: ESS ESS Publications. OCLC and WorldCat. Information Today and Tommorrow 19(3). N. (PUNENET). Resource Sharing and Networking of University Libraries. DRTC Bangalore. MALIBNET. Subhada (2000). (Also available: http:// drtc. 1-7.rlg. 41(1). 2002. (http://www. Bibhuti Bhusan (2002).33(4). and Raghavan. Pune-Net :Current Status.Library Networks Nagarkar. G.A.ac. (http://punenet. pp. S. 1-31.in) Rao. Jayasri (1994). 13-14 and 30. ABD. (http://www. Viswanathan. Need for a National Resource Sharing Network in India: Proposed Model. Mysore Library Network: MYLIBNET (Network with a difference). Information Today and Tomorrow. (1999). Annals of Library Science and Documentation.oclc. Research Libraries Group. Sujatha. Krishna (2002).A.) Shusaku. Paper B. T.isibang. 42 . Workshop on Information Resource Management 13th-15th March.in/retrieve/26 paper B.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful