Indira Gandhi National Open University School of Social Sciences

BLII–004 Network Based Information Services

Block -1 : Library Networks
Unit 1 Unit 2 : : Introduction to Library Networks Library Networks : National and International 07 20

Block - 2 : Internet, Intranet and Extranet
Unit 3 Unit 4 : : Internet Intranet and Extranet 45 61

Block - 3 : Internet Architecture
Unit 5 Unit 6 : : Internet Connectivity and Protocols Structure of Internet 83 97

Block - 4 : Internet-Resources and Services
Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 : : : Internet Resources Internet Tools Internet-based Library Services 111 133 151

Programme Design Committee
Prof. S.B. Ghosh (Chairman) Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. Jagdish Arora Chief Librarian, IIT Delhi Mr. Ishwar Bhatt Librarian BITS, Pilani Prof. B.K. Sen Scientist (Retd.), INSDOC New Delhi Mr. Shashi Bhushan School of Computer and Infromation Sciences IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. R. K. Chadda Director, Parliament Library New Delhi Mr. V.K. Gupta NISCAIR, Head, ETTG (Retd.) New Delhi Dr. (Ms) Neela Jagannathan Librarian, IGNOU (Retd.) New Delhi Dr. Neena Talwar Kanungo Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Prof. A. Neelameghan UNESCO Expert Bangalore Dr. Pravakar Rath Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. E. Rama Reddy Librarian University of Hyderabad Prof. R. Satyanarayana Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Mr. V.V. Subramaniyam School of Computer and Information Sciences IGNOU, New Delhi Prof. Uma Kanjilal (Convenor) Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi

Programme Coordinators: Prof. Uma Kanjilal & Dr. Jaideep Sharma
Course Editor
Dr. Jagdish Arora

Course Coordinator
Prof. Uma Kanjilal

Course Preparation Team
Block-1: Library Networks Unit
1 2

Contributor
Dr. Jaideep Sharma Dr. Neena Talwar Kanungo

Block-2: Internet, Intranet and Extranet Unit Contributor
3 to 4 Mr. V.V. Subramaniyam

Block-3: Internet Architecture Unit
5 to 6

Contributor
Mr. P.V. Suresh

Block-4: Internet-Resources and Library Services Unit Contributor
7 8 to 9 Ms. Sujata Santosh Prof. Uma Kanjilal

Material Production
Mr. Jitender Sethi Mr. S.S. Venkatachalam Mr. Manjit Singh
December, 2005

Editorial Assistance
Ms. Sujata Santosh

Secreterial Assistance
Mr. Devbrat Singh Chauhan

© Indira Gandhi National Open University, 2005 ISBN-..................................... All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the Indira Gandhi National Open University. Further information on Indira Gandhi National Open University courses may be obtained from the University's office at Maidan Garhi, New Delhi-110 068. Printed and published on behalf of the Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi by Director, School of Social Sciences. Paper Used : Agrobased Environment Friendly Lasertypesetted at Graphic Printers, 204, Pankaj Tower, Mayur Vihar, Phase-I, Delhi-91. Ph.:22758444 Printet at :

COURSE INTRODUCTION
The emergence of Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) as a new media of information storage and delivery provide an unparalleled media for delivery of information with greater speed and economy. The Internet and web technology has changed the way information is stored, retrieved, communicated and broadcasted, it is likely to revolutionise the way publishers, publishing industry and scientists function in the era predominately guided by the printing technology. These technologies have triggered large scale commercial and non-commercial digitisation programmes the world over. Increasing number of commercial and society publishers are using the Internet as a global medium to offer their publications to the international community of scientists and technologists. The web-based electronic information products not only eliminate paper, physical storage and transportation costs, they also offer a host of other possibilities for incorporating multimedia and hyper-link features to electronic documents hitherto impossible on paper media. This, in turn, has led to the generation of new services that were non-existent as well as modification of existing services and their deliverables. The Internet, web technologies and digital-based electronic information products are exerting ever-increasing pressure on the traditional libraries, which, in turn, are committing larger portions of their budgetary allocation for either procuring or accessing web-based online or full-text search services, CD ROM products, online databases, multimedia products, etc. While there is a continuous demand from the users to increase the resources and services, the manpower, physical infrastructure and financial resources made available to the libraries is decreasing. These factors have contributed to the necessity of establishing library networks and resource sharing amongst libraries. With technological advancements and availability of affordable computing power, libraries and information centres around the world have computerised their library routines and have developed databases for shared use on computer networks. Besides improving services and operations for improved performance, libraries have been able to evolve effective computer networks with an aim to optimise utilisation of resources and facilities. The library and information networks have potential to improve library services in several ways. It brings down the cost of information products and services in the network environment in shared mode. It enables libraries to offer needbased services to the end users eliminating the limitation of size, distance and language barriers among them. With evolution of library networks, the emphasis has moved from the networks as physical entities to the resources available through the networks. These network accessible resources include databases of library holdings, journal articles, electronic text, images, video and audio files, scientific and technical data, etc. A network is developed when a group of libraries and/or information centres decides to exchange information using computers. The library networks use existing communication facilities to establish networks amongst libraries that agree to cooperate amongst themselves through more or less formal agreements with a view of pooling their resources and to offer better services to the users. The participating libraries generally follow identical or compatible rules and procedures.

The course comprises nine units namely: Unit 1. Unit 2. Unit 3. Unit 4. Unit 5. Unit 6. Unit 7. Unit 8. Unit 9. Introduction to Library Networks Library Networks: National and International Internet Intranet and Extranet Internet Connectivity and Protocols Structure of Internet Internet Resources Internet Tools Internet-based Library Services

Unit 1 provides a brief introduction to the library networks. It provides definition of library networks and resource sharing, and establishes relationship between the two. Need, purpose, and functions of a library network are described briefly. The unit makes a mention of important library networks at the national and international level. It briefly touches upon factors that are hampering the process of resource sharing. Lastly, the unit introduces the concept of library consortia and their need. The unit provides a brief description of INDEST Consortium and the UGC INFONET Consortium as examples. Unit 2 deals with library networks at national and international level. It provides a brief overview of library networks with reasons that led to their growth and development. The unit describes various library networks that exist in India as well as a few important networks at international level. Unit 3 provides a brief introduction to the Internet with its history and evolution. It highlights the functioning, governance and utility of the Internet for a common person. The unit briefly describes various methods of Internet connection. Tools and services offered on the Internet are dealt in details. Unit 4 deals with definition, needs, benefits, and features of Intranet and Extranet. It discusses applications of Intranet and Extranet and differentiates between the Internet, Intranet and Extranet. The unit elaborates on Intranet and Extranet security mechanism. Unit 5 introduces Internet protocols and describes functions of important Internet protocols. The unit also describes various options available for getting Internet connectivity. Unit 6 deals with organisation and structure of Internet. The unit describes various components of Internet structure including PCs, communication equipment, ISPs and ISP backbone, web servers and services for the users. It elaborates on Internet society and also various Internet standards. Unit 7 deals with Internet resources, its advantages and use. It describes various types of Internet resources, namely, primary sources, online databases, reference sources, libraries, and subject gateways. The unit also deals with evaluation of Internet resources. Unit 8 elaborates on different Internet tools such as search engines, subject directories, deep web or invisible web. Internet communication tools, conferencing tools, transmission and access tools are described briefly. Unit 9 describes Internet-based library services including library web sites, library portals, subject gateways, virtual reference service, weblogs, and RSS.

Block 1 LIBRARY NETWORKS .

To satisfy the diverse needs of their users.12 1. They have to satisfy their users by providing them the right information.7 1.6 1.5 1. you will be able to: 1.10 1. realise the need of resource sharing.13 1. The 7 . in the right quantity. socio-economic status. age.3 1.0 1.9 1. After reading this Unit. and familiarise yourself with the concept of library consortia. comprehend the concept and objectives of library networks. become aware of the factors hampering resource sharing.14 INTRODUCTION TO LIBRARY NETWORKS Objectives Introduction Definitions: Resource Sharing and Library Networks Resource Sharing: Need Library Networks: Need Library Networks: Purpose Library Networks Functions Library Networks: National and International Factors Hampering Resource Sharing Facilitating Resource Sharing Library Consortia Summary Answers to Self Check Exercises Keywords References and Further Reading 1.1 1. The needs of users are diverse depending upon their characteristics viz.4 1. educational background. in the right form at the right time. It is expressed by the term ‘library cooperation’.11 1. know how to overcome the barriers to resource sharing. libraries depend upon each other. understand the functions of library networks.1 INTRODUCTION Libraries exist to serve their users.2 1.8 1. and the context in which they need the information.0 OBJECTIVES get an insight into the historical perspective of resource sharing.UNIT 1 Structure 1.

viz. 1.Library Networks most basic form of this cooperation starts with sharing of documents amongst libraries. or physical space. The library consortium is the latest form of library cooperation wherein libraries and publishers have come together to take the benefit of network technology and web-based e-resources. These efforts were made more productive with developments in computer and telecommunication technologies. The resources can be intellectual. Resource refers to a person. implying a partnership in which each is willing and able to make available resources when needed. Resource sharing entails reciprocity. overcoming the barriers of geographical distance and time. This has been a well-accepted fact for centuries and thus. This change speaks of the level of inter-dependence of libraries. and telecommunications made it possible to transfer and transmit them electronically thus.e. Resource Sharing Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science has defined two components of the term. “Resource” and “Sharing”. or services whereas. Library Networks Libraries cannot stand in isolation. distance and money involved. 1) 8 A network’s function is to marshal resources from its environment to accomplish results beyond the ability of any one of its members. conceptual or physical. Sharing implies allotting or contributing one’s resources for the benefit of others. Library network has been defined as a “group of individuals or organisations that are interconnected to form a system to accomplish some specified goal. . there have been concerted efforts on the part of the libraries to cooperate. thing or action to which one resorts to. The developments in storage and telecommunication technology have facilitated libraries to establish library networks and that facilitates better connection amongst libraries. These resources include physical. expertise. when needed. Intellectual or conceptual resources refer to manpower. Libraries satisfy the document requirement of their users through ‘Inter-Library Loan’ (ILL) from other libraries. Library networks have enabled libraries to come together to serve their users better. and many networks exist for the explicit purpose of facilitating certain types of communication among members. The linkage must include a communication mechanism. ILL was not easy to provide owing to the time. intellectual and conceptual resources. Libraries could be connected locally as well as globally into library networks.” Another definition of a network describes it in terms of its characteristics. physical resources refer to documents. Computers made possible the creation of electronic documents.2 DEFINITIONS: RESOURCE SHARING AND LIBRARY NETWORKS Let us look into the definitions of Resource Sharing and Library Networks to understand the basic concepts behind it. infrastructure. ILL has evolved into Resource Sharing wherein libraries share resources other than documents also. i.

..... ....... Why should they then serve users of other libraries with their resources? The answer to this question lies in the fact that: Information is being produced at a very fast pace: According to an estimate................................... Added to it is the problem of devaluation of local currency (i......... ............................................................... Can we imagine a library acquiring that much of information? One of the factors responsible for the overwhelming amount of information is that half of the scientists world has ever produced are still living and working today.................. which is an objective of library networks.................................................. ..................... Rupees) against US Dollar or other currencies................................................................................ five exabytes of information was produced in 2002......................... LC has 17 million books containing about 136 terabytes of information................... This leads to scarcity of space available for housing information... It has resulted in diminishing power of libraries to acquire literature......................................... It is more pronounced for science and technology compared to social sciences............................................ Self Check Exercise 1) Define resource sharing and library networks.......................3 RESOURCE SHARING : NEED Why should libraries share their resources? This question comes to mind in view of the fact that libraries acquire resources to serve their users............ 9 .........000 new libraries of the size of Library of Congress (LC).e.... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit... Diminishing buying power of libraries: Another factor that has added to the increasing cost of published literature....................... ............. this much information is equivalent to information contained in 37....................... particularly for India and other third world countries....... Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............................. An effective library network requires an administrative structure and planning..... It has a base in communications technology...... Introduction to Library Networks There is a stress in these definitions on collaborative acquisitions.................. .. To have an idea of this amount of information...................... 1.................... Escalation in Cost of published literature: The increase in prices of publications is evident from the result of a sample study of periodicals published in the US................ is the declining library budgets....9%.............................................. ....2) A network has developed an organisational design and structure that allows it to establish an identifiable domain and exercise appropriate influence over its members.... The rate of increase in prices in 2002 was 7.......

published. Timely access to information: It is difficult for an individual to lay hands manually on the precise and specific information. All these factors force libraries to cooperate with other libraries by sharing their resources. They work to fulfill the information requirement of their users at the right time. produced today is in electronic form: Information is stored in print. The information produced in the year 2002 was distributed in these various media as under: Media Hard disks Films Paper Optical Media Percentage of information stored 92% 7% 0. This is a chain reaction and has acted as a catalyst among users’ increasing need for information. The Internet is an enabling factor for libraries to establish networks and share their resources. For that they strive to perform well by serving their users best.002% Bibliographic access to information is also in electronic form: Access to information is provided through databases produced online and offline. from the large mass of information available. 10 . Most of the indexing and abstracting services are now available on the web and the catalogues of libraries are appearing on the net in increasing numbers. and used. film.4 LIBRARY NETWORKS : NEED The developments in information technology have made it possible for libraries to establish network. The majority of information produced today is in electronic form. This is an incentive for the libraries to network. in right amount and the form in which their users require it. Networks are essential to get access to the information when it is available at a distance. It has resulted in increased demands being put on libraries. magnetic. They have an accountability towards the public. 1. Accountability in libraries: Librarians depend on public money for survival. transmitted. But why should library networks be formed? The need for forming the library network is as follows: Increasing amount of information. Internet: The existence of Internet is a major factor that has changed the way information is produced. The Internet and Web has also contributed substantially to increase in awareness amongst library users. required by him/her. The information may be available within their library or from some outside source.Library Networks Increasing awareness and desire to know among users: Widespread education and the concept of equality and democracy in the society have aroused the hunger “to know” among people. access and search the required information.01% 0. and optical storage media. Computer helps to process. stored. Networking of libraries has increased the feasibility of resource sharing by overcoming the barriers of distance and time involved in accessing information.

.......................................... .................. print or nonprint...... .............. Uniform standards are the necessity as well as the by-product of library networks.................. Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.......... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit........................................................... We are highly dependent on information........ The information may be bibliographic or full-text.......................... old or new. therefore....................................... A central agency can be entrusted the task of cataloguing and classification. Information can be considered as a fundamental right of every citizen........................ ................................. Enable uniform practices in routines Networks bring in uniformity in the routines followed by libraries particularly cataloguing and classification.................................... they can have access to the combined collection of all networked libraries and overcome their limitation at their own limited collection.......... .... They are strong in some areas and poor in the others........ Library networks are instrumental in satisfying the information requirements of users of the libraries in a network........ They lack resources beyond their reach................... 1.......... If libraries are interconnected to other libraries through networks.......................... .................. Comment................................................................................... Abridge document collection in different libraries Libraries have different document collection............................. nobody should be deprived of his/ her information requirements.............. ........................... .................................. The networks are formed at local....................................................... Information is required for decision making at different levels.. national and regional level to achieve the following goals: Provide democratic access to information We are living in the information age where information is a commodity needed by one and all.............................Self Check Exercise 2) ‘Diminishing buying power of libraries necessitates resource sharing’......... particularly due to paucity of funds....... which can be followed by others for standardisation.....5 LIBRARY NETWORKS: PURPOSE Libraries have joined hands to cooperate and coordinate at various levels to form networks................. 11 .................................. Standards in cataloguing and classification can be achieved and followed in different libraries due to networking................................................... It is a resource as important as energy.

............. ii) Check your answers with the answers given at the end of this Unit.... It would also enable to know the exact status of a document whether it is issued or on the shelf or reserved........................... Reference and Referral Service Library networks enable faster reference and referral services in a collaborative environment................... could be acquired strategically in different locations to enable maximum use................. Electronic document delivery is the answer to this.............................Library Networks 1. etc........................ Documents.......................... ....................... ........... ..................................... Comment.................................................. .... Acquisition Rationalisation of acquisition is one the major functions of library network........ .. web............. fax. Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.... Libraries can come together to identify and avoid duplication of resources amongst members of library network............................................ User should get information when he/she requires it.................................6 LIBRARY NETWORKS: FUNCTIONS The functions of Library Networks are as follows: Provide Electronic Document Delivery Access to accurate and timely information is very important................................................................................. 12 . Funds could be diverted for resources that are found lacking in a particular geographical area............................................................................. Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) Bibliographic access to the holdings of a library or groups of libraries could be provided through networks............................................. which are rare or costly........ Self Check Exercises 3) 4) Enumerate the purpose of library networks........................................ A vast and comprehensive document collection and the support of trained expert manpower need to be deployed to facilitate it............... ‘Library networks have enabled democratic access to information’....................................................... It would result in better allocation of funds and widespread availability of resources............................ Instant delivery of the document is possible over networks using emails................... ...................... Core collections could be built up for all libraries......... ........ It would enable libraries to know about the resources of other libraries enabling sharing of resources..................................

MANs are widening the scope. Kaul conducted research to study barriers to resource sharing in Indian Libraries. It is also connected to other such networks in the country and abroad. (For details of the National Networks please refer to Unit 2 of this Block). initially Delhi Libraries Network is now Developing Libraries Network with a number of libraries in other countries also becoming its members. Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) is another example of a network of research. 13 . Changing priorities for collection development.7 LIBRARY NETWORKS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Introduction to Library Networks There are a number of library networks operational at national and international level. etc. there is a changing trend with developments in telecommunication technology. CALIBNET (Calcutta Library Network).C. PUNENET (Pune Library Network). However. Joint Academic Network (JANET) is a network in the UK. Mysore. and Pune. It has evolved and taken different forms e. MALIBNET (Madras Library Network). e. Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC) is a global library network that provides cost-effective access to resources for users the world over. World Cat. libraries have formed networks based on subject. consortia. and public libraries in the US. In his review of literature. academic. clientele. Ahmedabad. K. It provides access to different kinds of literature at international level. Calcutta. BONET (Bombay Library Network). etc. Control of collection policies and priorities. Similarly.g. Mumbai. etc. networking.8 FACTORS HAMPERING RESOURCE SHARING Library cooperation has been in existence since 200 B.1. he has identified the following barriers to resource sharing: • • • A desire for possessing everything in one’s own library. There are more such networks in other countries about which you will learn in detail in Unit 2 of this Block. all others are Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). H. INFLIBNET is a network of academic and research libraries of India. The names suggest that they are based at Delhi. Madras. DELNET (Developing Library Network). ADINET (Ahmedabad Library Network). INFLIBNET. 1. resource sharing. International On the international front also there are a number of networks. These are based on different criteria. MYLIBNET (Mysore Library Network). It has a repository of the global knowledge in its database.. subject. geographical area. Except for. DELNET.g. that provides access to cataloguing and holding information on documents in different languages of the world. Some of the important networks are listed below: National INFLIBNET (Information and Library Network). It covers academic libraries including colleges. There are a number of factors that hamper the process of resource sharing. universities and polytechnics.

Lack of required administrative structure and support. document delivery should be electronic. and Technological. documents requested by users should be made available to them. 1. Political. Non-conducive political environment. They have to be counselled and educated regarding its importance and benefits.Library Networks • • • • • • • • • Staff and faculty attitudes. Economic. The category of such librarians has reduced to a great extent due 14 . Lack of needed support services. To follow the above laws.9 FACILITATING RESOURCE SHARING Kaul. mainly local. Organisational. Restriction. he suggests that: Thus the problems in resource sharing could be categorized as: • • • • • • Personal problems relate to the attitude of librarians who are averse to sharing of resources. documents should be made available in machine form. Social. in the conclusion to his study has given laws of resource sharing. Lack of awareness among users about cooperation. the documents in heavy demand should be identified and made easily available to users. Document delivery time. in lending the material. and we should contribute to resource sharing by exchanging information as it is a global phenomena Personal. This is one of the most important barriers in the process of resource sharing. These are: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) • • • • • • Library Resources are for sharing Documents in Standard Database form are the Dynamic Resources for Global Sharing Every Resource its user Every user his or her share of the Resource Minimise the Non-Use Period of Documents in Demand Automated Delivery Mechanisms of Resources will Progressively Grow Resource Sharing is a Global Phenomenon factors hampering resource sharing need to be eliminated. and Reluctance to yield autonomy. Due to limited resources libraries may not participate in resource sharing.

................................ Publishers and other agencies involved in distribution of knowledge and information have also been included in the collaborative efforts today.................... ...... They have come together to the rescue of each other............. One of the main reasons for formation of consortia is the spiraling costs of publications particularly the journals......................... These include service providers like database vendors and online service providers.......... 15 ...........000 are peer-reviewed......................................... Once the librarian has developed the right attitude and is willing to be part of a network for resource sharing.............. viz........................... Consortia has been formed wherein libraries have formed cooperative acquisition programmes..................... The agreements have been made keeping in view the: • • number of libraries......... Marc J Maclabee reports that there are 30....... Periodicals in law experienced a price rise of 75% during 1991-2000.. rose only by 26%............................. ..... .............. One of the important partners in knowledge transmission channel.........................................................................000 academic journals in the world today.................................10 LIBRARY CONSORTIA Resource sharing as a concept involved sharing among libraries having some affinity......to the increasing pressure of variety of document requests made by users and increasing percentage of such requests needed to be met from other libraries.............................. the price rise for the same period for medical periodicals was 165%.S. the Consumer Price Index in the U........ etc.................. They have chalked out policies in collaboration with publishers and database producers and vendors.......................... ............ Similarly.. Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below. Self Check Exercise 5) List the barriers to resource sharing in libraries...................................... publisher was left out in this collaborative venture.................... ........... To quote American Library Association’s 2001 report on prices of periodicals..................... geographical area............ ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit...................................... and number of users accessing the sources............................................................. Libraries and publishers have come together to form library consortia.... 1... he/she can solve the other problems that relate to his/her organisation and the infrastructure......... Affinity could be based on subject................. clientele.. For the same period................ The dwindling library budgets against increasing number and cost of periodicals have affected both libraries and publishers.... ........................ ..................... The policies are with regard to access to electronic versions of their journals (e-journals) and databases......... Out of which 8......................................

monitoring and maintenance of the consortium. The consortium aims at providing access to international e-journals to the CSIR scientists. Pure Sciences. Social Sciences and Humanities including Management and Languages. UGC-INFONET will be a boon to the higher education system in the country. On behalf of the UGC. University Grants Commission (UGC). UGC will bear the entire expenses for UGC funded universities for providing e-journals access on behalf of participating universities. The consortium subscribes to 14 full-text resources that covers more than 6. is a consortium set up and funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) in India. It facilitates linkage between UGC.. The programme will help in mitigating the severe shortage of periodicals faced by university libraries due to the ever widening gap between the growing demand for literature. IIITs. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has also formed a Consortium for which National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) has been identified as the nodal agency. It will provide access to journals through its recently launched nationwide communication network. viz. UGC-INFONET E-Journals Consortium aims to promote the use of electronic databases and full text access to journals by the research and academic community in the country. The total membership of the consortium is 146.500 e-journals and 8 bibliographic databases. and the shortage of available resources. Its members are 38 core institutions viz. is the nodal agency for coordination of the UGC-INFONET. UGCINFONET is overlaid on Education and Research Network (ERNET) infrastructure to provide assured quality of service and optimal utilisation of Bandwidth resources. The agreement initially is for a period of four years. It has its headquarters at IIT Delhi. India has launched a consortium of e-journals for its member Universities to provide electronic access to scholarly literature over the Internet. Consortium covers all the disciplines. the INFLIBNET is executing the UGC-INFONET project in collaboration with the ERNET. The membership is open to all other educational institutions under its selfsupported category. It will place orders for e-journals on behalf of universities and coordinate the programme. Sciences. and Technology (INDEST). NITs and a few other centrally funded Government institutions. It allows the scientists to access and download from these e-journals. IITs. INFLIBNET Centre is an autonomous Inter-University Centre of the University Grants Commission. Indian Institute of Science. The access to the resources is being provided directly from the publishers’ websites. The consortium is also a member of International Coalition of Library Consortia (ICOLC). ERNET and universities. UGC-INFONET. All universities which come under UGC’s purview will be members of the programme. IIMs. and it will gradually be extended to colleges as well. 16 .Library Networks Indian National Digital Library of Engineering. Each University will have the option of hosting their website and the journals subscribed through University Consortia. The consortium offers a price advantage on subscription to e-resources that exceeds 80%. It will be responsible for the administration. an agreement has been made with Elsevier Science publishers in which access to its 1700 journals is being provided to the CSIR scientists. Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Centre. To start with.

...... ......................................................UGC-INFONET was formally inaugurated by the Hon’ble Prime Minister on 28th December. Self Check Exercise 6) Define Library Consortia............................... It is the most recent happening in library networks and resource sharing........... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit...... .... ......... conceptual or physical........ It was followed by a discussion of the means to overcome these barriers by facilitating resource sharing... This results in their decreasing power 17 .. Budgets of libraries are going down...................... 2002... We also studied the impediments towards library networks......... or physical space....................... .................................................. implying a partnership in which each is willing and able to make available resources when needed.. when needed................... expertise........ The concept of resource sharing has received a fillip by the introduction of electronic publishing........................................................ The importance of library networks was discussed under their functions......................................................... Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below..... Resource sharing entails reciprocity............................... ................................................................................. infrastructure.................11 SUMMARY In this Unit you have been introduced to the concept of resource sharing and library networks................ thing or action to which one resorts to................. The linkage must include a communication mechanism................. ........................................................................... physical resources refers to documents...................... Sharing implies allotting or contributing one’s resources for the benefit of others................ 1................. 2) Diminishing buying power of libraries necessitates resources sharing...... E-journals have provided a cost-benefit solution to the problem of journals acquisition in view of easing prices and reducing library budgets..............12 ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES 1) Resource refers to a person. ......... Library Consortia resorts to acquiring e-journals in a cooperative way........ or services whereas.......... The resources can be intellectual............................... Library network has been defined as a “group of individuals or organisations that are interconnected to form a system to accomplish some specified goal... Briefly describe the INDEST consortium...... their need and purpose.................... 1......................... Intellectual or conceptual resources refer to manpower..... and many networks exist for the purpose of facilitating certain types of communication among members”......

national and regional level. is a recent example of a consortium in India.Library Networks to buy documents. Indian National Digital Library of Engineering Sciences and Technology (INDEST). These networks exist to: i) ii) Provide democratic access to information. Hence they should share resources. Abridge document collection in different libraries. 18 . These are formed at local. INDEST provides access to 6.500 journals directly from the publishers’ website. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has set up INDEST. It would result in better allocation of funds and widespread availability of resources. The barriers to resource sharing are: • • • • • • • • • • • • 6) A desire for everything here and now. IIITs. Non-conducive political environment. which are found lacking in a particular geographical area. mainly local. and Reluctance to yield autonomy. which are rare or costly. Due to limited resources libraries may not participate in resource sharing. Lack of needed support services. Restriction. Documents. The membership is open to other such institutions also. Indian Institute of Science. The strength of its members at present is 146. Funds could be diverted for resources. 5) Library consortia have been defined as the coming together of libraries. Libraries can come together to identify duplication of resources that lead to wastage. Lack of awareness among users about cooperation. Added to it is the widening gap in currency conversion against Indian currency making it all the more difficult for libraries to fulfill the needs of users. could be acquired strategically in different locations to enable maximum use. NITs and some other centrally funded Government institutions. Lack of required administrative structure and support. Changing priorities for collection development. Core collections could be built up for all libraries. 4) Rationalisation of acquisition is one the major functions of library network. Staff and faculty attitudes. Control of collection policies and priorities. There are 38 core institutions viz. publishers and vendors for cooperative acquisition of electronic documents. in lending the material. IIMs. IITs. iii) Enable uniform practices in routines. It provides funds for the resources to be made use of by the participating libraries.. Document delivery time. 3) Libraries have joined hands to cooperate and coordinate at various levels to form networks.

New York: Marcell Dekker. Ray (ed. U K: Gower. Internet Engineering for Libraries and Information Centres. V2. Libraries in Retrospect and Prospect: Essays in Honour of Prof D. K. Resource Sharing in Libraries. Allen (ed) (1978).(ed). Ahmedabad: INFLIBNET. : The concept refers to two or more libraries sharing their resources. Vol 16. Its abbreviation is EB. Vol 25. (1999). (2002). In Gordan. Kalia.pdf Kaul H. L. R. Delhi: Concept. Kaul. Iren P (ed). From Printed Bibliographies to Online Databases: Role of Library Networks.ac.in/indest/ http://www. Introduction to Library Networks Library Cooperation Library Networks Library Resource Sharing 1.org/ala/alonline/selectedarticles/usperiodicals2002.1. e-mail file. pp 362-74.pp 411-22. H. Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science. Libraries in Retrospect and Prospect: Essays in Honour of Prof D. Exabyte : An Exabyte is a unit of measurement in computers of one million million million bytes. J. In: Sardana. conceptual. K.. J. Delhi: Concept. Mc Dougall. Wessling. H. New Delhi: Virgo Publications. ( 2002). K. Advances in Librarianship. S. : The mutual agreement between libraries to share their documents in order to satisfy the needs of their users. fax. pp 423-37. 19 . In : Kent.ala. which includes intellectual. Julie (1992).14 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Cholin V. R. Allan F. etc. Kalia.htm http://www. and Pryterch. Library Consortia for Academic Libraries in the e-Publishing Era. to overcome the barrier of distance and time between the user and document. Kaul.paniitd. and physical resources. H. San Diago: Academic Press. L. Networking of Libraries in India: A Critical Review.13 KEYWORDS Electronic Document Delivery : It refers to document delivered in electronic form viz.org/best. : Two or more libraries connected together through telecommunication links for sharing resources and mutual benefit. It is a measure of size of storage.) (1991). Vol 2. http://www.(ed).informationaccess. and Karisiddappa C R (2002). In Sardana. Anil Kumar (ed). Library Resource Sharing and Networks. In : CALIBER 2002. Handbook of Library Cooperation. Document Delivery: A Primary Service for the Nineties.

5 2.3.0 OBJECTIVES understand the meaning and importance of library networks.UNIT 2 LIBRARY NETWORKS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Structure 2.3.2 2.5 2.1 2.5 2.3 Objectives Introduction Library Networks: An Overview 2. you will be able to: 20 .9 History and Growth of Library Networks in India Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Developing Library Network (DELNET) Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET) Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET) Pune Library Network (PUNENET) Madras Library Network (MALIBNET) Bombay Library Network (BONET) 2. After reading this Unit.4.4.6 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2. services and current status.4 2.3 2. know the important library networks in India with regard to their objectives.4.3.1 Objectives of Library Networks Library Networks: The Indian Scenario 2.3.7 2.4.8 2.4 2.4 Library Networks: International Scenario 2.4.3.0 2. and have an insight into the well-known library networks at the international level.3.8 Summary Keywords Answers to Self Check Exercises References and Further Reading 2.4.3.3.6 2.1 2.7 2.3 2.6 Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC) Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) Joint Academy Network (JANET) Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL) China Academic and Library Information System (CALIS) Australia’s Research and Education Network (AARNET) 2.3.

let us first understand the meaning of library networks with the help of some definitions.“ A library network is broadly described as a group of libraries coming together with some agreement of understanding to help each other with a view to satisfying the information needs of their clientele”. 21 . which basically covers the technological aspect of the networks. Before we talk about various national and international library networks. present day libraries are unable to meet the information needs of the users.2. In simple words. of the library networks. etc. In this Unit we will acquaint you with some of the functional library networks in India and abroad. purposes. make it difficult for any library to acquire sufficient number of documents to fulfill the needs of its readers.1 INTRODUCTION Library Networks : National and International You have already studied the Unit on “Network Concepts” in the first course of this Programme. library network means a group of libraries situated at different locations are connected to each other using computers and communication networks. and services provided by a variety of libraries and other organisations are available to all potential users. The term “library network” is being used increasingly for library cooperation and resource sharing. through communications. 2. libraries work in a networked environment where data and information resources are accessible in electronic format and are shared electronically.2 LIBRARY NETWORKS: AN OVERVIEW Due to information explosion and accelerating prices of information services and products. A network usually consists of a formal arrangement whereby materials. As Franklin David Jebaraj and Fredrick Robin Devadoss define. factors like inadequate library budget. Library network ensures that data and other resources can be shared quickly. accelerating prices of documents and availability of huge amount of information resources. Earlier. data and resources in order to provide better services to its clientele. resource sharing methods like Inter-Library Loan (ILL) were used to meet the demands of users. As we all know. With the advent of information technology. services. The main advantage of the library network is that data and other information resources can be shared between a number of users. Libraries may be in different jurisdictions but agree to serve one another on the same basis as each serves its own constituents. Computers and telecommunications may be among the tools used for facilitating communication among them”. The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) gave definition of a library network in National Programme Document in the year 1975 as: “Two or more libraries and/or other organisations engaged in a common pattern of information exchange. need. reliably and accurately. for some functional purpose. information. The first Unit of this course “Introduction to Library Networks” deals with the objectives. The basic purpose of library networking is sharing of information.

3. such specificity is slowly blurred due to the development of ICT. sharing equipments etc. accessing document collection of member libraries through online union catalogues. avoiding unnecessary duplication of materials through development of adequate collection development policy for member libraries. specialists and institutions. 2. However.2. increased cost of materials and varieties of demands of the users. promoting computerisation of libraries and information centres through international standards which will facilitate exchange of information.3 LIBRARY NETWORKS: THE INDIAN SCENARIO In this section you will be studying some of the functional national library networks. optimising utilisation of resources through shared cataloguing. Scientific Policy Resolution was adopted emphasising the development of scientific temper among people. several committees and commissions were setup who came up with various recommendations.. sharing expertise.Library Networks 2. augmenting weaker resources in the network by increasing cooperation among the member libraries. The primary objectives are: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) promoting sharing of resources amongst the libraries. providing bibliographic information services from indigenously created databases. organising document delivery service.1 Objectives of Library Networks From the above definitions it is apparent that the library networks have been conceived as mechanism for optimum utilisation of resources which is necessitated by the shrinking of library budget. though individual networks may have one or more specific objectives depending upon their requirements. Jawahar Lal Nehru. cooperative acquisition. improving information handling capabilities through networking of libraries and information centres. As a result. Some of the reports submitted by these committees 22 .1 History and Growth of Library Networks in India History of library networks in India can be traced back to the year 1958 when on the instance of Pt. establishing mechanism for access to international databases. developing databases of projects. 2. coordination with other networks – regional. The general objectives of such networks can be spelt out as follows. national and international. networks of metropolitan area thrive to support the information resources of the users of the community based on the resources available within the area. For example.

were established and funded by the NISSAT. Bombay Library Network (BONET) in 1994. All these reports recommended cooperation among libraries at local. located at Gujarat University Campus. N.A. Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) in 1986. Pune Library Network (PUNENET) in 1992. Kamath Report (1972). Seshagiri to study the aspects of modernisation of library services and inter-linking of library systems. V. The INFLIBNET has made provision for document delivery service by establishing resource centres around libraries having rich collection of documents.2 INFLIBNET: Information and Library Network a) INFLIBNET is an acronym used for Information and Library Network. It was expected from these networks to promote resource sharing. Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET) in 1993. Catalogue production in card. magnetic tape/floppy. to avoid duplication of resources and also to minimise the cost of acquiring resources. The main purpose of setting library networks was to strengthen the resource sharing. 23 . Chattopadhyay as a Chairman of a Committee to evolve a national policy on library information systems. P. National Information System for Science and Technology (NISSAT) established in the year 1977 as a project in the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR). During the 7th Five Year Plan (1985-90) the Planning Commission of Government of India appointed a working group under the Chairmanship of Dr. serials and non-book materials. Library Networks : National and International 2. book. Government of India.and commissions included: Sinha Committee Report (1959). Online catalogue access for shared cataloguing and location identification. INFLIBNET(http://www. D. Union catalogue of books.inflibnet. INFLIBNET offers the following services to fulfill its objectives: Catalogue based services Shared cataloguing of monographs. Delhi Library Network (DELNET) in 1988. (now Developing Library Network). Keeping in mind the above mentioned objectives the Metropolitan City Library Networks. Ahmedabad. regional and national level. INFLIBNET is also working very seriously for effective communication among academicians and researchers in India through electronic mail. Further the Government appointed Prof.in/) is an autonomous inter-university center of UGC. Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET) in 1995. It became an independent inter-university centre in the year 1996. It is a major national programme of University Grants Commission (UGC) started in the year 1991. etc.3. optical (CDROM). The NISSAT has ceased operation since 2004. Ranganathan Report to UGC (1965). namely. and computer/audio/video conferencing. This committee submitted the report and stressed the need for resource sharing and linking of education and research organisations. took initiatives for the setting up of Metropolitan Library Networks in India. serials and non-book materials. Peter Larzer Committee Report (1972). prepare union catalogue of books and periodicals and create centralised databases. bulletin board. file transfer.ac.

.............21 lakh students and 4.......... Scientific Society and the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology........... current awareness services........ . Information services In order to ensure free flow of information to the end users and strengthen interaction between academics.... with 294 universities.... UGC-INFONET has been set up by UGC and ERNET India.......... CD-ROM based services Members can access CD-ROM databases in the area of social sciences and humanities......................... Indian universities constitute one of largest education system in the world... There is a great need for effective communication and coordination among UGC and each university for modernising university campus with campus wide networks and also setting up nation-wide network........... Periodicals.. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.......Library Networks Database services Bibliographic database services. SDI........ Experts...... institutions and 13150 affiliated colleges......... Some of the library networks are running consortia for its member libraries and offer information sources and services at a very low cost and bridge the gap between libraries with regard to information have and information have-nots......... etc............... free of cost.27 lakh teachers.............. It covers more than 88....... For further details on UGC-INFONET please refer to Unit 1 of this course............... UGC INFONET Programme 1) Due to rising prices of information resources libraries cannot buy and acquire all possible information sources.... INFLIBNET has started many information services: Access to Union Databases of Books.. Retrospective searches................. Self Check Exercise 1) What are the information services offered by INFLIBNET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.. through the INFLIBNET website............................. . INFLIBNET which acts as a liaison between UGC..... Internet based services The network provides academic community with various resources and services................................................... 24 ..UGC-INFONET programme with this objective.................................... ..................... ERNET (Education and Research Network) and universities provides training to library professionals for using the network and resources made available on it......... functions on consortia approach....

................. Bibliographic Database of CD-ROMs............. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.......... .............................. etc........ creates new systems in the field...........in) provides ILL Online......................... .......... applies the results of research and publishes them.......... it was sponsored by NISSAT.......... Referral Services................ Government of India and India International Centre (IIC).. is definitely a significant step towards provision of automated library services............ Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below........................ E-mail Service............ and iv) DELMARC – a LAN based library management software for larger libraries with large collection and clientele...............................delnet.............. Union List of Current Periodicals.... Training Programmes................. Indian Specialists Database........................................................... 25 ................... Self Check Exercise 2) Mention the products of DELNET......... Document Delivery Services.... .... Department of Information Technology. Retrospective conversion................3..... Initially........................... DELNET offers links to related databases and websites on the web in different disciplines....................... Apart from these services............... In addition to fulfilling the objectives of library network......... in resource sharing and providing a number of services and products................................... Creation and Maintenance of Bibliographic Databases..... especially in India................................................... Library Networks : National and International 2..... DSIR and currently is being promoted jointly by National Informatics Centre (NIC). Newspapers............ New Delhi.......................... and Internet Connectivity Service.......... Ministry of Communications and Information Technology....3 DELNET: Developing Library Network DELNET (Developing Library Network) earlier known as Delhi Library Network till 2001 started in the year 1988 and registered as a society in 1991. i) DELSIS – a powerful library networking software......... Databases of Periodical Articles. ii) DEL-DOS – for creating MARC (Machine Readable Catalogue) Records of books................ ....................... The following database services are also provided to its member libraries: Online Databases of Union Catalogue of Books....... iii) DEL PLUS – a stand-alone library management software for database creation and maintenance and for OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue)......... Union Catalogue of Periodicals....................... Delnet (http://www.......................................................... DELNET also undertakes scientific research in the area of information science and technology................. ...................... ........... Union List of Video Recordings............... Sound Recordings..........nic..... DELNET provides some useful software products namely...... DELNET’s effort......

............................................. ConFile Service provides contents of journals of users choice.............. ..............................................Library Networks ........ Bombay Library Network....................... CALIBNET...... Ahmedabad Library Network.... etc.......................... ........................................ The CALIBNET website also provides the following active links for the benefit of member libraries: Indian Library and Network Resources Overseas Library Resources on India Worldwide Library Catalogues National Libraries of the World Newspapers and Journals Electronic Reference Tools Factual Information Sources 26 Document Supply Services ..................... 2. .................................. Mysore Library Network........ Developing Library Network..................calibnet.... which contains bibliographic records of participating libraries. Madras Library Network...................................... 1961....... undertook the task of linking 38 computerised libraries in the field of science and technology located within the Calcutta metropolitan area and would then proceed to connect to other Metropolitan Area Networks namely... RetroFile Service provides trend of research on any given specific topic.................. CalibLink gives e-mail connectivity to member libraries.. CalibOrder Service offers the requisite backup service by providing full text.....calibnet.org) activities are centered around providing access to materials available in the eastern region and creation of databases particularly with respect to intellectual assets of West Bengal. The CALIBNET website (http://www..4 CALIBNET: Calcutta Library Network CALIBNET (Calcutta Library Network) project funded by NISSAT............ in the first phase....................................... DSIR and managed by the Calcutta Society was established in the year 1986 under the West Bengal Government’s Societies Registration Act.......................org) provides access to bibliographic information resources available through its centralised databases............. ConAlert Service gives user the customised service by providing current and tailored bibliographic information..... CALIBNET offers the following services to fulfill its objectives: Centralised Database (CDB) Service... The CALIBNET (http://www......3...........

........ ........... Selective Dissemination Information (SDI) Service................. CALIBNET has developed inhouse “SANJUKTA” – a multi user storage and retrieval software to support its centralised database and to provide online access from remote areas.............................................................. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit... and Research and Development in IT Applications................................ ............. Biblio File........ In the year 1993 it was registered as a society.................................... ....... Its membership is open to all institution libraries........ and E-Mail Service. LC MARC (Library of Congress Machine Readable Catalogue)... 2................................................................................ The services from ADINET includes the following: Database of current periodicals received by over 100 libraries of Ahmedabad Inter-Library Loan Content Pages of LIS Journals 27 .The website also provides details of varied CALIBNET programmes for: On-Demand Information Services Consultative Service for Library Automation Manpower Development Opportunities................ library professionals and students....................... The other Software “PARAPAR” which is a conversion software package has also been developed to support interchange of bibliographic data.................. ................................................... .............................. It is a network of libraries located in and around Ahmedabad........3.......................................................................... access to databases....................... Union Catalogue.......................................................................org)....... ADINET sponsored by the NISSAT................................................ ..................... information centers...... CALIBNET also provides Current Awareness Service (CAS).................................... Library Networks : National and International Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.........................5 ADINET: Ahmedabad Library Network ADINET is the abbreviation used for Ahmedabad Library Network (http://www.........alibnet................... ............... CD-ROM databases................ Self Check Exercise 3) Name the software package developed by CALIBNET..........................

................ ...............................................................................6 MYLIBNET: Mysore Library Network MYLIBNET (Mysore Library Network) was set up by NISSAT........ Giving facility to LIS professionals to put their resume on the ADINET website for searching of jobs.................... ................ Mysore....... Self Check Exercise 4) What are the databases provided by ADINET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.......................................................................................... The MYLIBNET (http://www... ...... ..........................................3................................................org) organises various training programme for LIS professionals................................................................... DSIR in the year 1995 and is located in the Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTR) Campus......................................... ADINET is now offering the following services by special expert team at a reasonable charge: Computerisation of libraries Cataloguing and classification of documents Labelling and shelving of books Stock verification of documents Manpower development programmes Planning for library development Completion of any backlog work in the library Some selected cyber café to give 20% discount to ADINET members. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.......................................Library Networks Supply of photocopies from journals received by libraries in and around Ahmedabad Internet surfing facility Database of databases available in LIS Centres in and around Ahmedabad JOLI (Job Opportunities for Librarians) Database Special Internet training to fresh qualified librarians Computer training programmes to library professionals In order to meet the objective of cooperative mode of working among the libraries.................................... ............................ .......................................................................................... 28 ............................................ ...................................................................................mylibnet........................... 2............................

Pune. Union Catalogue of Periodicals. Current Awareness Service (CAS). industries and individuals. The membership of MALIBNET (http://www. Services PuneNet Database Services PuneNet hosts many databases namely. It subscribes to e-mail service of ERNET. PuneNet is planning to include Indian language databases. Photocopy service. This project. For the sharing and exchange of bibliographic data from the participating libraries PuneNet follows the international standard for information exchange – 1SO 2709. Through its website. For periodicals database PuneNet may add Ulrich’s database so that more information regarding periodicals may be given to its users. Library Networks : National and International 2.punenet. There is also a proposal for online updating of records and databases. Other Services Apart from the database services some of the other services includes E-mail and Internet Connectivity. etc. Databases of Booksellers and LIS Professionals. This network acts like a gateway to Internet. PuneNet (http://www. funded by NISSAT was started in the year 1992. These databases are updated yearly. PuneNet Libraries Database.com) is housed in Bio Informatrics Centre. Web access to the Union Catalogue of Periodicals subscribed by member libraries for updating their records in the union catalogue database online.7 PUNENET: Pune Library Network PuneNet is a joint endeavour of University of Pune. INSDOC.com/in/malibnet) is open to universities. CD-ROM database services.3.8 MALIBNET : Madras Library Network The MALIBNET started in the year 1991 in order to provide effective information services to the users in and around Madras.Some of the services provided by MYLIBNET are as follows: Providing technical assistance in the area of LIS. colleges. for the benefit of the users. 2. photocopy services. which is issued for short period of time.3. MALIBNET was registered as a society in 1993. MALIBNET offers the following services to its members: E-mail service. The participating libraries are provided with login and password.angelfire. R& D institutions. online search facility. which contain old and rare valuable manuscripts. Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) and National Chemical Laboratory (NCL). At present there are more than 20 participating libraries who deposit their data on regular basis. the users can access PuneNet databases on the Internet. 29 . (now NISCAIR) was the executing agency for the MALIBNET project.

It is the first computer based library network. In the year 1981. and also conducts seminars. which led to the development of many library networks in different parts of the world subsequently.Library Networks Document delivery service. In the beginning of 20th century Library of Congress compiled National Union Catalogue. 2. In the year 1963. After this. MALIBNET permits its members to offer information services on the network. DSIR started in the year 1994. training programmes for professional development.4. NISCAIR services are also available to MALIBNET users. It gives access to databases CD-ROM. 30 . In the developed countries. interlibrary loan. OCLC (Online Computer Library Centre) earlier Ohio College Library Centre.3.9 BONET: Bombay Library Network BONET supported by NISSAT.1 OCLC: Online Computer Library Centre In the year 1967 OCLC (Ohio College Library Centre) was founded to develop a computerised system. Databases from INSDOC (now NISCAIR) and other participating institutions are also available on MALIBNET host. where academic libraries of Ohio State shared their resources so that the resource costs could be reduced. began as the first successful library network. OCLC emerged as an international network from a regional computer system for 50 Ohio Colleges. the name of OCLC. the publication of union catalogue of different types by different countries started appearing in increased numbers. The development of MARC during 1960s is a step towards such cooperation. etc.4 LIBRARY NETWORKS: INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO Library Networks are the extension of the concept of library co-operation. The history of library cooperation can be traced back to 200 BC when Alexandria library shared its resources with Pergamen library. Current serials acquired from the libraries. 2. USA is considered to be the birth place of library networks. Due to this standard the exchange of bibliographic information among computerised library system became a reality. 2. Directory Database of Current Serials in Madras (Gives journal holdings of member libraries and it is available online). was changed to Online Computer Library Centre. Specialised databases which gives abstracts of articles. shared cataloguing and resource sharing. Contents Database of Journals in Madras (Gives contents information of important journals which is also available online). It has enrolled more than 25 libraries as its members. the growth of library networks started long back.

For OCLC cataloguing services WorldCat is the authoritative source which helps in resource sharing service of OCLC. It lists resources from stone tablets to e-resources and MP3s. cataloguing and reference. abstracts. record supply and collection sets. With millions of online records. Connexion. Many OCLC services are based on WorldCat. etc. Library Networks : National and International 31 . OCLC member libraries make up the world’s largest consortium. FirstSearch is the powerful reference service for locating references and full text articles. It holds location listings contributed by member libraries. Reference service gives access to full text documents. Member libraries worked together for more than 30 years to build and maintain WorldCat. WorldCat is the building block for the services provided by OCLC. it is one of the largest and most comprehensive bibliographic database. DVD and websites. E-content service enhances the e-collection and other online databases through the net library – electronic collections online services. WorldCat: It is a world wide union catalogue developed and created collectively by more than 9000 member institutions. WorldCat and virtual reference service.000 libraries (all types) in the US and 84 countries of the world. It provides libraries with rich source of cataloguing records. For reference and electronic content service WorldCat works as a map showing the users what resources are available and the way to get it. The vision of the OCLC is to be a leading global library cooperative. PromptCat are some of the cataloguing tools of WorldCat. copy cataloguing. It is a database in higher education designed for research and development. Collection Management service helps in achieving the collection goals of the member libraries. and receive discounts on OCLC products and services. Member libraries can take full advantages of OCLC products and services. which are used by the member libraries to share information by reducing the cost. Digital collection and preservation service is designed to protect and share the digital collection. Members can make their collections available to the world through resource sharing. They can share the world’s largest union catalogue (WorldCat). For OCLC’s digital collection service WorldCat acts as a portal. Cataloguing and Metadata Service provides online cataloguing.The main objective of the OCLC is to have more access to information and reduce costs by offering services to libraries and users. and users with economic access to knowledge through innovation and collaboration. Membership: OCLC membership comprises more than 50. It consists of many OCLC services. helping libraries. Resource sharing service helps in sending ILL requests on the web. The following are some of the OCLC services.

............................. The RLIN legacy computer program is now being replaced with RLIN21: a new web-based interface to RLG databases..................................... RLG is an international non-profit membership organisation of more than 160 universities... The members of RLG use RLIN system for cataloguing............. new modes for effective global resource sharing................................ .......................... problem solving and development of new standard products and services...... RLG archival................. archives.... Under this programme the SLIS can access the Art Museum Image Consortium (AMICO) Library from RLG........................................................................................ Products RLG gives free access (instructional) to a variety of RLG databases to Accredited Schools of Library and Information Science (SLIS)..... In order to meet the cooperative action RLG is working towards full online access to research resources.... RLG was founded in 1974 with its headquarters in California...............................4........................................................ cultural resources. Further...... Hand Pressbook Database.......... maintaining... With the collections of research and learning of member institutions..... and contributing records in RLG union catalogue....................................... ................ and to provide continuous access to resources through digital preservation..... authority work and archives and manuscript processing........................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit............. RLG provides researchers the access to research resources and many innovative information services.......... SCIPIO (Art and Rare Book Sales 32 ................................................. A new RLIN21 interface is used to retrieve... With the RLIN 21 there are some structural changes in all RLG databases......... English short title catalogue............... .............................................................................. ............ ..... historical societies and other related institutions........... libraries.. These members are working towards the mission of creating solutions for challenges of information access and management in the digital era.......................... RLIN also refers to a computer interface program that is used to work with RLG’s bibliographic records for finding..............................................Library Networks Self Check Exercise 5) What is WorldCat? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.........2 RLIN: Research Libraries Information Network RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network) is a bibliographic information system.... . RLG provides a framework for cooperation..................................................... 2... a new RLIN21 client is now used for creating and updating bibliographic and authority records....... creating........ display and export MARC records.............. developed by the Research Libraries Group (RLG)..

.................. These databases contain information and resources........... With the help of RLIN web interface.. helps the members to create records in RLG’s Union Catalogue and SCIPIO database and Authority File............. which is windows based................................................................ artifacts................... Resource Sharing Service SHARES – It is an Inter Lending and Document Supply Programme of RLG for resource sharing among the members of RLG.......... archival collection........................ RLG and Backstage Library Works developed Marcardio service to provide inexpensive............................ ........ This network is operated and developed by UKERNA (United Kingdom Education and Research Network) under the Service Level Agreement from the Joint Information System Committee (JISC) of UK Higher and Further Education Funding Councils.......................... .................. Self Check Exercise 6) Enumerate the services offered by RLG? Library Networks : National and International Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below. ....................................... users can take advantage of the cataloguing already done by RLG members and can have a copy for their local systems....3 JANET: Joint Academy Network JANET (Joint Academy Network) is an education and research network funded by UK Government........................................................... fast automated cataloguing................................ The objective of JANET is to advance and support UK’s education and research network..........................................Catalogue)..................... ...................................................... All the higher education organisations and research councils are connected to this network......... Services Online Database Service RLG also provides online access to databases..................... ......................................... digital collections................................... RLIN 21 can also be used as a searching interface........ 2.....4................... traditional library resources...... RLG’s ILL Manager software programme is for Inter Library Loan.................... ........ With SCIPIO RLG Union Catalogue and the Authority files............................ 33 ............ ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit...................... ....................................... Authority files................................................ RLG Union Catalogue.. Technical Services RLG’s RLIN 21 software..................

.. ....... JANET NetSight service is basically a networks monitoring service........... There are many other services provided by JANET including Usenet News Service....... and effective communication among the members of JANET and the network to meet the changing needs of the community... 34 .... Super JANET 4 was launched to increase the network capacity and strengthen the user base of JANET with further inclusion of education community and the use of Super JANET 4 backbone to inter connect school networks. JANET members are thus able to get access to the local computer networks free of charge....... It was proposed in 1989 with the aim to develop a high performance wide area network based on optical fibers.. This team advises on security of computers and networks and also provides training programmes for this. Super JANET III was aimed at consolidating the pioneering work of Super JANET I and II in 2001. Super JANET II started in 1995 to increase the spread of Super JANET and create MANs (Metropolitan Area Network)......... initially with 50 members by late 1980s there were 200 sites. of research and higher education interests.......... JANET interconnects local computer network in UK Research Councils. JANET gives multipoint video conferencing service and UKRENA supports the training on equipment and technique side................ Super JANET: Super JANET is the core of JANET network and is the backbone of the JANET.. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit...... It ensures fast.. which is developed by UKERNA to view and understand the performance of the JANET.... web filtering and web hosting.. UKERNA organises workshops..... JANET Services UKERNA offers the following user services over JANET: JANET-CERT is a Computer Emergency Response Team provided by UKERNA as a service on the JANET network..Library Networks The Joint Academic Network was established in the year 1984. Self Check Exercise 7) What is Super JANET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.......... JANET Co-location service helps the customer. Advisory Services and Web Services which includes web mail service........... Super JANET 4 will be over by December 2005... JANET is connected with the academic networks of other countries and also forms the part of the global Internet.. conferences and training programmes for the use of JANET Network and services... equipment and services to be securely located on the Super JANET backbone.. Universities and Poly-techniques... Super JANET is being implemented in phases. Mail Services....

.................................... Library Networks : National and International 2...................................... and access the resources irrespective of place............... .............................. ................................................. The purpose of this database is to provide a unified source of cataloguing records for use by library staff..4 CURL: Consortium of University Research Libraries CURL (Consortium of University Research Libraries) was established in the year 1987 with the mission to “increase the ability of research libraries to share resources for the benefit of the local............................................ The future plans of CURL include development of e-resources tools................. digitisation and retention................................................................ which represents merged holdings of 26 CURL member institutions and a small portion of nonCURL libraries........... locate............ preservation....................................... Objective of CURL is to help the researchers to search................................ Its access for members is free... networking and cooperation.....................4............. The members of CURL get free access to the union catalogue COPAC (National Online PublicAccess Catalogue)........................................................ strategy for digitisation and digital preservation and also developing and implementing communication strategy for consortia...................... .................... British Library........................................................ National Library of Scotland and Wales....... .50 client............... ................................ Currently the database contains 38 million records which are mostly from the member libraries and also from LC (Library of Congress) and BNB (British National Bibliography).......................... national and international research community”. These records are stored in UKMARC and can be accessed through telnet or Z39............................................... 35 ............................. Self Check Exercise 8) What are the future plans of CURL? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.......... For non-members there is a flat rate for searching.... request............................. Future Plans of CURL CURL-COFOR project is initiated for the sharing of responsibilities in acquisition............................................................. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.............................................................................. ........... Its membership is 25 which include 22 university libraries................ . It contains about 30 million records.. Services: CURL has created a database for bibliographic records..................................................................... ............................... discipline and format from the desktop................

... ATM links and Internet services................ CALIS is a resource-sharing network based on CERNET (China Education and Research Network).5 CALIS: China Academic and Library Information System CALIS (China Academic and Library Information System) is a nationwide academic library consortium...... Ltd.. Australia ViceChancellor’s Committee (AVCC) developed AARNet 2................................. which was initiated as a project in 1989..... public libraries and information service organisations............ which is one of the projects supported by State Commission of Education........... AARNet apart from helping in teaching.................................. ........................... .... organise training programmes for staff........................ The three level network (local.. storage facilities................... ..Library Networks ......... union catalogues.......... document delivery service........... resource sharing.. develop more e-resources databases and provide e-access to databases developed in China and abroad........ 2......4.......6 AARNET: Australia’s Research and Education Network Australia’s Research and Education Network (AARNet) is managed by a nonprofit APL (AARNet Pvt......................... Dissertation Abstracts and Conference Proceedings..... Key discipline databases......... which was a further improvement of the Internet in Australia with high bandwidth.................... 36 . CALIS endeavours to transform the role of traditional libraries with the adoption of new technologies. AARNet is also cooperating with local regional networks organisation to increase the capacity of metropolitan regional networks.. ILL..)..... AARNet........... Its members include academic libraries... union lists................... Current Chinese Periodicals..... Its primary functions include cataloguing services....... 2... e-content licensing................ funded by the Ministry of Education.. was responsible for the origin of Internet in Australia... e-content loading/presentation......... CALIS is a part of the Higher Education Public System... Goals of CALIS By the year 2010..... CALIS has created databases like Union Cataloguing Project....................... CALIS envisages itself to become an advanced academic and library resource supporting and serving system..........4. CALIS future plan includes: development of a set of databases based on the available resources of individual libraries in China and abroad.......... training............ coordinated purchasing and data searching.. learning and research activities in universities also acted as Internet Service Provider (ISP)............... regional and national) of libraries is to get connected with other international network and information system. shared online catalogues.............. During 1997...........

...................................................... research and administration..... AARNet 3 is the third generation of AARNet network............... Carrier services for members and advanced Internet workshops................. ..................................... ... This networks provides primary IP services as: National On-Net National Off-Net International On-Net International Off-Net – provides IP Connectivity between members – provides IP Connectivity to the Australian domestic Internet – provides access to global Research and Education network – provides access to international commodity Internet Library Networks : National and International This network also provides access to GrangeNet................................. It was placed to put in active use during 2004..... access information for teaching and learning... .. AARNet Services: This network plays an important role in giving the services to its clientele base of more than 80......................... provide high capacity cost effective Internet services to education and research committees............. participate in alternative and flexible modes of course delivery................. Europe and Asia..... Its main objective is to provide AARNet with a network serving the academic community in Australia at a world-class level....000 staff and students of universities and research organisation. help in the development of advanced network infrastructure and applications with access to the global Research and Education Network in North and South America.................................................... 37 ....................................... Some of the Value added Services provided by AARNET are AARNet Large Object Mirror..The main objectives of this network are to: collaborate in the area of teaching............. Voice Over IP............. This network enables its client-base to: collaborate effectively........................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit................. learning and research by connecting people to the Internet resources. Self Check Exercise 9) What are the value added services provided by AARNET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below..................... Video over IP............................................... which is a high capacity research network. ...........

The networking of libraries is expected to bring in changes for library and information services in the country. Note: Students are advised to visit the relevant websites (see section 2. The primary purpose of the library network is to modernise and help the libraries. : An organised collection of information available on a CD-ROM. 2. CALIS (China). PUNENET (1992) in Pune. : A digital collection is a body of materials in digital format treated as a group or considered as a whole. conferences and symposium. that cannot be achieved by the individuals alone. to the users on demand irrespective of the location and form of the original. AARNET (Australia). MYLIBNET (1995) in Mysore. RLIN (US). such as resource sharing. UGC has established INFLIBNET in 1991. which is considered to be a national network. DELNET (1988) in Delhi. conference papers journal articles etc. They can also support research and development. : A group of libraries or other organisations that form a partnership to achieve a goal. MALIBNET (1991) in Madras. CURL (UK).6 KEYWORDS : A service designed to aid research workers in keeping themselves abreast of the current developments taking place in their subjects of interest. We have also studied some of the important library networks at the international level for example OCLC (America). national and international cooperation and contribute to the growth and development of trained manpower through seminars. : It refers to centralised storage and usage of unified reference information. for example CALIBNET (1986) in Calcutta. ADINET (1993).5 SUMMARY After reading this Unit.Library Networks 2. we conclude that library networks play a major role in bridging the gap between academic libraries and information centres and ensure resource sharing.8) for more details. in Ahmedabad and BONET (1994) in Mumbai (earlier Bombay). JANET (UK). : A service whereby the Library provides full-text copies of the documents research papers. CAS (Current Awareness Service) CD-ROM Database Centralised Database Consortia Digital Collection Document Delivery Service 38 . NISSAT has been instrumental in setting up of library networks in India.

: A network point that acts as an entrance to another network. : A private network inside a company or organisation that uses the same kinds of software as the Internet. by the sharing of resources or division of costs. but is only for internal use and is not connected directly to the global Internet. : Retrospective Conversion Service is a service that involves conversion of a library’s paper catalogue records into machine-readable form. : Machine Readable Cataloguing. It is an online catalogue of a library collection that is available to the public.E-Resources Gateway : Electronic information resources accessed via the internet. : Collaborative arrangements made between libraries for mutual assistance. which can be advantageous and efficient. : A cooperative arrangement among libraries by which one library may borrow materials it does not own from another library. such as the server through which people on a company’s local area network access the internet. : Online Public Access Catalogue. : A network of computers spread over a metropolitan/city-wide area such as buildings located throughout a town or city. : Union catalogues of the libraries available online. : The vast collection of interconnected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60’s and early 70’s. : A database located in a remote computer and accessed through the Internet. Library Networks : National and International Inter Library Loan Internet Intranet MARC Metropolitan Area Network Online Database Online Union Catalogues OPAC Resource Sharing Retro conversion Service 39 . The MARC formats are standards for the representation and communication of bibliographic and related information in machine readable form.

7 1) ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES The INFLIBNET is offering the following information services: Access to union catalogue of books. : A form of cataloguing undertaken by the Library of Congress and other agencies responsible for material bibliography. WorldCat is a world wide union catalogue of millions of online records. Database of Current Periodicals. experts. videoconferencing etc. Shared Cataloguing Union Catalogues Virtual Reference Service 2. Online Database Service. 3) 4) 5) CALIBNET has developed in house softwares. SANJUKTA and PARAPAR. Resource Sharing Service. both for cataloguing and inter-library loan purposes. through INFLIBNET website. DELDOS. periodicals. Database of Databases in LIS Centres in and around Ahmedabad. They are a way for groups of libraries to share information about their collections in a consistent way. Members can also access CD-ROM databases in the area of Social Sciences and Humanities and it also provides number of Internet based services. and Technical Services. It is developed and created collectively by more than 9000 member institutions of OCLC. Super JANET Project was proposed in 1989 with the aim to develop a high performance wide area network based on optical fibers. 2) Some of the products provided by DELNET are as follows: DELSIS.Library Networks SDI : SDI is a current awareness system which alerts the user to the latest publications in his/her specified field(s) of interest. JOLI (Job Opportunities for Librarians) Database. Communication channels used frequently in virtual reference include chat. : Union catalogues reveal information about the collections of more than one library. : Virtual reference is reference service initiated electronically where patrons employ computers or other Internet technology to communicate with reference staff. DELPLUS and DELMARC. Future Plans of CURL: CURL will contribute to the development of strategies to coordinate 6) 7) 8) 40 . without being physically present. such as. etc.

org) CALIBNET: An Overview (1999). 2nd Ed.calis. F.aarnet.uk) Developing Library Network (DELNET).R. Information Today and Tommorrow. 24-93.org) ALA World Encyclopedia of Library and Information Services (1986). (http://www. H.edu.calibnet. Library Networks : National and International 2. digitisation and retention.inflibnet. CURL will adopt the strategy for the development of e-resources discovery tools.net) Jebaraj.in) Information Library Network ( INFLIBNET). New Delhi: DELNET. (2004). Bhattacharya.D. 6(2). K. (1992). (eds). MLI-004. (http://www. New Delhi: Virgo Publications. 9) Value added services provided by AARNET are as follows: Voice over 1P. Carrier services for members and Advanced Internet workshop.S.an) Ahmedabad Library Network. (2003). New Delhi: IGNOU. It will also develop and implement a strategy for digitisation and digital preservation.8 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Academic and Research Network.org) 41 .472. H. Information Today and Tomorrow. Unit 7. V.curl. (2003). H. preservation. CALIS: China Academic (http://www. Video over 1P. (http://www.D. 20(3). (ADINET). (CALIBNET). Library Networks: A Indian Experience. NISSAT Networks: Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET). 1-54.ac.ja. 13-14. (1999). 134-164. Cholin. pp. CURL (http://www.in) JANET. Library Philosphy and Practice. networking and cooperation. Chicago: ALA.edu. 3-7. (http://delnet. New Delhi: Virgo Publications. K.provisions of research information and generating solution to the information needs. Library and Information Networks in India.cn) Library and Information System. p. F. CURL-COFOR project initiated the sharing of responsibilities in acquisition.mylibnet. K. pp. Library and Information Networking: NACLIN 2002.ac. AARNet: Australia’s (http://www. Library Resource Sharing and Networks. Calcutta Library Network. 18(4). Overview of Library and Information Networks. and Basy. and Devadoss.alibnet. Partha (2001).nic. Kaul. Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET). Kaul. M. (http://www. It will also develop and implement communication strategy for consortia. PGDLAN. Kaul. (http://www. 63-101.

T.org/worldcat) Pune Library Network. Some Examples of American and European Library Networks. Viswanathan. New Delhi: ESS ESS Publications.) Shusaku. Subhada (2000). 2002. Paper B. Information Today and Tommorrow 19(3). 1-7. and Raghavan.A. N.in) Rao. ABD.oclc. MALIBNET.33(4). 1-31. (http://www. Sujatha. Matsumoto (2003). Bibhuti Bhusan (2002). Need for a National Resource Sharing Network in India: Proposed Model. DRTC Bangalore. Annals of Library Science and Documentation. (http://www.in/retrieve/26 paper B. (Also available: http:// drtc. G. OCLC and WorldCat.org) Sahoo. (http://punenet. 21(1). Workshop on Information Resource Management 13th-15th March.Library Networks Nagarkar. pp. S. 42 . (PUNENET).ernet. Information Today and Tomorrow. Jayasri (1994). 16-18. 41(1). Krishna (2002).isibang. Mysore Library Network: MYLIBNET (Network with a difference). Research Libraries Group.A Library Network for Madras.rlg. Pune-Net :Current Status. Resource Sharing and Networking of University Libraries. (1999).ac.A. 13-14 and 30.

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