Indira Gandhi National Open University School of Social Sciences

BLII–004 Network Based Information Services

Block -1 : Library Networks
Unit 1 Unit 2 : : Introduction to Library Networks Library Networks : National and International 07 20

Block - 2 : Internet, Intranet and Extranet
Unit 3 Unit 4 : : Internet Intranet and Extranet 45 61

Block - 3 : Internet Architecture
Unit 5 Unit 6 : : Internet Connectivity and Protocols Structure of Internet 83 97

Block - 4 : Internet-Resources and Services
Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 : : : Internet Resources Internet Tools Internet-based Library Services 111 133 151

Programme Design Committee
Prof. S.B. Ghosh (Chairman) Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. Jagdish Arora Chief Librarian, IIT Delhi Mr. Ishwar Bhatt Librarian BITS, Pilani Prof. B.K. Sen Scientist (Retd.), INSDOC New Delhi Mr. Shashi Bhushan School of Computer and Infromation Sciences IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. R. K. Chadda Director, Parliament Library New Delhi Mr. V.K. Gupta NISCAIR, Head, ETTG (Retd.) New Delhi Dr. (Ms) Neela Jagannathan Librarian, IGNOU (Retd.) New Delhi Dr. Neena Talwar Kanungo Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Prof. A. Neelameghan UNESCO Expert Bangalore Dr. Pravakar Rath Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. E. Rama Reddy Librarian University of Hyderabad Prof. R. Satyanarayana Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Mr. V.V. Subramaniyam School of Computer and Information Sciences IGNOU, New Delhi Prof. Uma Kanjilal (Convenor) Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi

Programme Coordinators: Prof. Uma Kanjilal & Dr. Jaideep Sharma
Course Editor
Dr. Jagdish Arora

Course Coordinator
Prof. Uma Kanjilal

Course Preparation Team
Block-1: Library Networks Unit
1 2

Contributor
Dr. Jaideep Sharma Dr. Neena Talwar Kanungo

Block-2: Internet, Intranet and Extranet Unit Contributor
3 to 4 Mr. V.V. Subramaniyam

Block-3: Internet Architecture Unit
5 to 6

Contributor
Mr. P.V. Suresh

Block-4: Internet-Resources and Library Services Unit Contributor
7 8 to 9 Ms. Sujata Santosh Prof. Uma Kanjilal

Material Production
Mr. Jitender Sethi Mr. S.S. Venkatachalam Mr. Manjit Singh
December, 2005

Editorial Assistance
Ms. Sujata Santosh

Secreterial Assistance
Mr. Devbrat Singh Chauhan

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COURSE INTRODUCTION
The emergence of Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) as a new media of information storage and delivery provide an unparalleled media for delivery of information with greater speed and economy. The Internet and web technology has changed the way information is stored, retrieved, communicated and broadcasted, it is likely to revolutionise the way publishers, publishing industry and scientists function in the era predominately guided by the printing technology. These technologies have triggered large scale commercial and non-commercial digitisation programmes the world over. Increasing number of commercial and society publishers are using the Internet as a global medium to offer their publications to the international community of scientists and technologists. The web-based electronic information products not only eliminate paper, physical storage and transportation costs, they also offer a host of other possibilities for incorporating multimedia and hyper-link features to electronic documents hitherto impossible on paper media. This, in turn, has led to the generation of new services that were non-existent as well as modification of existing services and their deliverables. The Internet, web technologies and digital-based electronic information products are exerting ever-increasing pressure on the traditional libraries, which, in turn, are committing larger portions of their budgetary allocation for either procuring or accessing web-based online or full-text search services, CD ROM products, online databases, multimedia products, etc. While there is a continuous demand from the users to increase the resources and services, the manpower, physical infrastructure and financial resources made available to the libraries is decreasing. These factors have contributed to the necessity of establishing library networks and resource sharing amongst libraries. With technological advancements and availability of affordable computing power, libraries and information centres around the world have computerised their library routines and have developed databases for shared use on computer networks. Besides improving services and operations for improved performance, libraries have been able to evolve effective computer networks with an aim to optimise utilisation of resources and facilities. The library and information networks have potential to improve library services in several ways. It brings down the cost of information products and services in the network environment in shared mode. It enables libraries to offer needbased services to the end users eliminating the limitation of size, distance and language barriers among them. With evolution of library networks, the emphasis has moved from the networks as physical entities to the resources available through the networks. These network accessible resources include databases of library holdings, journal articles, electronic text, images, video and audio files, scientific and technical data, etc. A network is developed when a group of libraries and/or information centres decides to exchange information using computers. The library networks use existing communication facilities to establish networks amongst libraries that agree to cooperate amongst themselves through more or less formal agreements with a view of pooling their resources and to offer better services to the users. The participating libraries generally follow identical or compatible rules and procedures.

The course comprises nine units namely: Unit 1. Unit 2. Unit 3. Unit 4. Unit 5. Unit 6. Unit 7. Unit 8. Unit 9. Introduction to Library Networks Library Networks: National and International Internet Intranet and Extranet Internet Connectivity and Protocols Structure of Internet Internet Resources Internet Tools Internet-based Library Services

Unit 1 provides a brief introduction to the library networks. It provides definition of library networks and resource sharing, and establishes relationship between the two. Need, purpose, and functions of a library network are described briefly. The unit makes a mention of important library networks at the national and international level. It briefly touches upon factors that are hampering the process of resource sharing. Lastly, the unit introduces the concept of library consortia and their need. The unit provides a brief description of INDEST Consortium and the UGC INFONET Consortium as examples. Unit 2 deals with library networks at national and international level. It provides a brief overview of library networks with reasons that led to their growth and development. The unit describes various library networks that exist in India as well as a few important networks at international level. Unit 3 provides a brief introduction to the Internet with its history and evolution. It highlights the functioning, governance and utility of the Internet for a common person. The unit briefly describes various methods of Internet connection. Tools and services offered on the Internet are dealt in details. Unit 4 deals with definition, needs, benefits, and features of Intranet and Extranet. It discusses applications of Intranet and Extranet and differentiates between the Internet, Intranet and Extranet. The unit elaborates on Intranet and Extranet security mechanism. Unit 5 introduces Internet protocols and describes functions of important Internet protocols. The unit also describes various options available for getting Internet connectivity. Unit 6 deals with organisation and structure of Internet. The unit describes various components of Internet structure including PCs, communication equipment, ISPs and ISP backbone, web servers and services for the users. It elaborates on Internet society and also various Internet standards. Unit 7 deals with Internet resources, its advantages and use. It describes various types of Internet resources, namely, primary sources, online databases, reference sources, libraries, and subject gateways. The unit also deals with evaluation of Internet resources. Unit 8 elaborates on different Internet tools such as search engines, subject directories, deep web or invisible web. Internet communication tools, conferencing tools, transmission and access tools are described briefly. Unit 9 describes Internet-based library services including library web sites, library portals, subject gateways, virtual reference service, weblogs, and RSS.

Block 1 LIBRARY NETWORKS .

4 1.6 1.8 1.1 INTRODUCTION Libraries exist to serve their users.UNIT 1 Structure 1. and familiarise yourself with the concept of library consortia. After reading this Unit.5 1. you will be able to: 1. educational background.1 1. become aware of the factors hampering resource sharing. It is expressed by the term ‘library cooperation’. The 7 .0 1. understand the functions of library networks. and the context in which they need the information.14 INTRODUCTION TO LIBRARY NETWORKS Objectives Introduction Definitions: Resource Sharing and Library Networks Resource Sharing: Need Library Networks: Need Library Networks: Purpose Library Networks Functions Library Networks: National and International Factors Hampering Resource Sharing Facilitating Resource Sharing Library Consortia Summary Answers to Self Check Exercises Keywords References and Further Reading 1. in the right form at the right time. They have to satisfy their users by providing them the right information.7 1.10 1. age. comprehend the concept and objectives of library networks.0 OBJECTIVES get an insight into the historical perspective of resource sharing.2 1. realise the need of resource sharing. in the right quantity. libraries depend upon each other. The needs of users are diverse depending upon their characteristics viz. socio-economic status. know how to overcome the barriers to resource sharing.11 1.12 1.13 1. To satisfy the diverse needs of their users.3 1.9 1.

This change speaks of the level of inter-dependence of libraries. Resource Sharing Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science has defined two components of the term. The developments in storage and telecommunication technology have facilitated libraries to establish library networks and that facilitates better connection amongst libraries. .” Another definition of a network describes it in terms of its characteristics. Intellectual or conceptual resources refer to manpower. thing or action to which one resorts to. Resource sharing entails reciprocity. Libraries satisfy the document requirement of their users through ‘Inter-Library Loan’ (ILL) from other libraries. This has been a well-accepted fact for centuries and thus. i. Libraries could be connected locally as well as globally into library networks. or physical space. These resources include physical. conceptual or physical. ILL was not easy to provide owing to the time.e. distance and money involved. and telecommunications made it possible to transfer and transmit them electronically thus. Library networks have enabled libraries to come together to serve their users better. Library network has been defined as a “group of individuals or organisations that are interconnected to form a system to accomplish some specified goal. 1. there have been concerted efforts on the part of the libraries to cooperate. The linkage must include a communication mechanism. The library consortium is the latest form of library cooperation wherein libraries and publishers have come together to take the benefit of network technology and web-based e-resources. Computers made possible the creation of electronic documents. when needed. intellectual and conceptual resources.Library Networks most basic form of this cooperation starts with sharing of documents amongst libraries. Sharing implies allotting or contributing one’s resources for the benefit of others.2 DEFINITIONS: RESOURCE SHARING AND LIBRARY NETWORKS Let us look into the definitions of Resource Sharing and Library Networks to understand the basic concepts behind it. ILL has evolved into Resource Sharing wherein libraries share resources other than documents also. Resource refers to a person. infrastructure. “Resource” and “Sharing”. implying a partnership in which each is willing and able to make available resources when needed. overcoming the barriers of geographical distance and time. The resources can be intellectual. viz. and many networks exist for the explicit purpose of facilitating certain types of communication among members. Library Networks Libraries cannot stand in isolation. These efforts were made more productive with developments in computer and telecommunication technologies. 1) 8 A network’s function is to marshal resources from its environment to accomplish results beyond the ability of any one of its members. expertise. or services whereas. physical resources refer to documents.

. ........................................... It has resulted in diminishing power of libraries to acquire literature.................................................. Added to it is the problem of devaluation of local currency (i............. Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.................. It has a base in communications technology................................................ ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.............. ...3 RESOURCE SHARING : NEED Why should libraries share their resources? This question comes to mind in view of the fact that libraries acquire resources to serve their users... this much information is equivalent to information contained in 37.... It is more pronounced for science and technology compared to social sciences..... Why should they then serve users of other libraries with their resources? The answer to this question lies in the fact that: Information is being produced at a very fast pace: According to an estimate.... Diminishing buying power of libraries: Another factor that has added to the increasing cost of published literature...................................... particularly for India and other third world countries.................................. LC has 17 million books containing about 136 terabytes of information.... 9 ..... ......000 new libraries of the size of Library of Congress (LC).................... .................................................................... is the declining library budgets......... To have an idea of this amount of information.... An effective library network requires an administrative structure and planning.......................................... ........ Can we imagine a library acquiring that much of information? One of the factors responsible for the overwhelming amount of information is that half of the scientists world has ever produced are still living and working today............................................................................................................................. The rate of increase in prices in 2002 was 7.......... Introduction to Library Networks There is a stress in these definitions on collaborative acquisitions. .. which is an objective of library networks...................... This leads to scarcity of space available for housing information.... Self Check Exercise 1) Define resource sharing and library networks................... Rupees) against US Dollar or other currencies......e.............9%...... 1.............. five exabytes of information was produced in 2002.......2) A network has developed an organisational design and structure that allows it to establish an identifiable domain and exercise appropriate influence over its members............. Escalation in Cost of published literature: The increase in prices of publications is evident from the result of a sample study of periodicals published in the US...................................

The information may be available within their library or from some outside source. The Internet and Web has also contributed substantially to increase in awareness amongst library users.Library Networks Increasing awareness and desire to know among users: Widespread education and the concept of equality and democracy in the society have aroused the hunger “to know” among people. For that they strive to perform well by serving their users best. transmitted. from the large mass of information available. in right amount and the form in which their users require it. magnetic. All these factors force libraries to cooperate with other libraries by sharing their resources. required by him/her. and used. published. The information produced in the year 2002 was distributed in these various media as under: Media Hard disks Films Paper Optical Media Percentage of information stored 92% 7% 0. The Internet is an enabling factor for libraries to establish networks and share their resources. produced today is in electronic form: Information is stored in print.002% Bibliographic access to information is also in electronic form: Access to information is provided through databases produced online and offline. stored. Accountability in libraries: Librarians depend on public money for survival. access and search the required information. 1. and optical storage media.4 LIBRARY NETWORKS : NEED The developments in information technology have made it possible for libraries to establish network. 10 . Internet: The existence of Internet is a major factor that has changed the way information is produced. It has resulted in increased demands being put on libraries. Computer helps to process. Timely access to information: It is difficult for an individual to lay hands manually on the precise and specific information. Networks are essential to get access to the information when it is available at a distance. Most of the indexing and abstracting services are now available on the web and the catalogues of libraries are appearing on the net in increasing numbers. But why should library networks be formed? The need for forming the library network is as follows: Increasing amount of information. They have an accountability towards the public. The majority of information produced today is in electronic form.01% 0. This is a chain reaction and has acted as a catalyst among users’ increasing need for information. They work to fulfill the information requirement of their users at the right time. This is an incentive for the libraries to network. film. Networking of libraries has increased the feasibility of resource sharing by overcoming the barriers of distance and time involved in accessing information.

............................................. Uniform standards are the necessity as well as the by-product of library networks.......... .................................................................... The networks are formed at local............ The information may be bibliographic or full-text........................................5 LIBRARY NETWORKS: PURPOSE Libraries have joined hands to cooperate and coordinate at various levels to form networks.......Self Check Exercise 2) ‘Diminishing buying power of libraries necessitates resource sharing’................ old or new............. particularly due to paucity of funds. .. They are strong in some areas and poor in the others.......... It is a resource as important as energy............................... ............. Information is required for decision making at different levels.............................. therefore.. national and regional level to achieve the following goals: Provide democratic access to information We are living in the information age where information is a commodity needed by one and all............................................................ Abridge document collection in different libraries Libraries have different document collection..... ............................. We are highly dependent on information............. Standards in cataloguing and classification can be achieved and followed in different libraries due to networking....................................... 1...... If libraries are interconnected to other libraries through networks. They lack resources beyond their reach.. Library networks are instrumental in satisfying the information requirements of users of the libraries in a network.......................................... Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............. 11 . ....................................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit..................................... ........................................................................................... which can be followed by others for standardisation.. print or nonprint.. ........................... Enable uniform practices in routines Networks bring in uniformity in the routines followed by libraries particularly cataloguing and classification............................................................................. Information can be considered as a fundamental right of every citizen............ Comment....... A central agency can be entrusted the task of cataloguing and classification............ they can have access to the combined collection of all networked libraries and overcome their limitation at their own limited collection....... nobody should be deprived of his/ her information requirements...........

. .......................... A vast and comprehensive document collection and the support of trained expert manpower need to be deployed to facilitate it....................................... Funds could be diverted for resources that are found lacking in a particular geographical area................. Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............ which are rare or costly........... ii) Check your answers with the answers given at the end of this Unit.. It would also enable to know the exact status of a document whether it is issued or on the shelf or reserved................... .................................................................................. Core collections could be built up for all libraries... Documents............................................. ................................. It would enable libraries to know about the resources of other libraries enabling sharing of resources..........................6 LIBRARY NETWORKS: FUNCTIONS The functions of Library Networks are as follows: Provide Electronic Document Delivery Access to accurate and timely information is very important.............. etc.. Self Check Exercises 3) 4) Enumerate the purpose of library networks............ 12 ............... It would result in better allocation of funds and widespread availability of resources........................... Electronic document delivery is the answer to this...... ...... Acquisition Rationalisation of acquisition is one the major functions of library network..................................... Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) Bibliographic access to the holdings of a library or groups of libraries could be provided through networks... web......................... could be acquired strategically in different locations to enable maximum use........................................................................ .............. Instant delivery of the document is possible over networks using emails.... Comment..............................Library Networks 1........ User should get information when he/she requires it................................................ ........................................................... Reference and Referral Service Library networks enable faster reference and referral services in a collaborative environment.......................................... Libraries can come together to identify and avoid duplication of resources amongst members of library network...................................... ‘Library networks have enabled democratic access to information’......................... fax..... ........................

networking. MYLIBNET (Mysore Library Network). Mysore. Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) is another example of a network of research. Control of collection policies and priorities. Some of the important networks are listed below: National INFLIBNET (Information and Library Network). Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC) is a global library network that provides cost-effective access to resources for users the world over. The names suggest that they are based at Delhi. There are a number of factors that hamper the process of resource sharing.1. geographical area. There are more such networks in other countries about which you will learn in detail in Unit 2 of this Block. H. World Cat. Ahmedabad. It has evolved and taken different forms e. 13 . universities and polytechnics. and Pune. BONET (Bombay Library Network). International On the international front also there are a number of networks. Joint Academic Network (JANET) is a network in the UK. all others are Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). resource sharing. It has a repository of the global knowledge in its database.7 LIBRARY NETWORKS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Introduction to Library Networks There are a number of library networks operational at national and international level. It is also connected to other such networks in the country and abroad. subject. MANs are widening the scope. (For details of the National Networks please refer to Unit 2 of this Block). there is a changing trend with developments in telecommunication technology. K. etc. Mumbai.g.. Except for. Calcutta. etc. However. 1.g. Changing priorities for collection development. INFLIBNET. These are based on different criteria. DELNET (Developing Library Network). clientele. PUNENET (Pune Library Network). In his review of literature. that provides access to cataloguing and holding information on documents in different languages of the world. ADINET (Ahmedabad Library Network). It provides access to different kinds of literature at international level. and public libraries in the US. It covers academic libraries including colleges. libraries have formed networks based on subject. INFLIBNET is a network of academic and research libraries of India.8 FACTORS HAMPERING RESOURCE SHARING Library cooperation has been in existence since 200 B. DELNET. e. initially Delhi Libraries Network is now Developing Libraries Network with a number of libraries in other countries also becoming its members. Similarly. CALIBNET (Calcutta Library Network). Madras. consortia. academic. he has identified the following barriers to resource sharing: • • • A desire for possessing everything in one’s own library. MALIBNET (Madras Library Network). etc.C. Kaul conducted research to study barriers to resource sharing in Indian Libraries.

9 FACILITATING RESOURCE SHARING Kaul. Document delivery time. The category of such librarians has reduced to a great extent due 14 . in lending the material. Lack of needed support services.Library Networks • • • • • • • • • Staff and faculty attitudes. he suggests that: Thus the problems in resource sharing could be categorized as: • • • • • • Personal problems relate to the attitude of librarians who are averse to sharing of resources. and Technological. Economic. Lack of required administrative structure and support. Organisational. documents requested by users should be made available to them. the documents in heavy demand should be identified and made easily available to users. Due to limited resources libraries may not participate in resource sharing. documents should be made available in machine form. and we should contribute to resource sharing by exchanging information as it is a global phenomena Personal. and Reluctance to yield autonomy. 1. in the conclusion to his study has given laws of resource sharing. document delivery should be electronic. Non-conducive political environment. This is one of the most important barriers in the process of resource sharing. mainly local. Political. To follow the above laws. These are: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) • • • • • • Library Resources are for sharing Documents in Standard Database form are the Dynamic Resources for Global Sharing Every Resource its user Every user his or her share of the Resource Minimise the Non-Use Period of Documents in Demand Automated Delivery Mechanisms of Resources will Progressively Grow Resource Sharing is a Global Phenomenon factors hampering resource sharing need to be eliminated. Restriction. Lack of awareness among users about cooperation. Social. They have to be counselled and educated regarding its importance and benefits.

....... One of the main reasons for formation of consortia is the spiraling costs of publications particularly the journals.................... viz........................... Periodicals in law experienced a price rise of 75% during 1991-2000......................... publisher was left out in this collaborative venture............................................................ ............................................................................................... The policies are with regard to access to electronic versions of their journals (e-journals) and databases. One of the important partners in knowledge transmission channel.......................... clientele.... he/she can solve the other problems that relate to his/her organisation and the infrastructure.................. Publishers and other agencies involved in distribution of knowledge and information have also been included in the collaborative efforts today............................ They have come together to the rescue of each other............ Affinity could be based on subject.................... and number of users accessing the sources... The agreements have been made keeping in view the: • • number of libraries. the price rise for the same period for medical periodicals was 165%.............. Similarly...... To quote American Library Association’s 2001 report on prices of periodicals........ They have chalked out policies in collaboration with publishers and database producers and vendors...... the Consumer Price Index in the U........................ These include service providers like database vendors and online service providers.. 15 ... Once the librarian has developed the right attitude and is willing to be part of a network for resource sharing....................... Consortia has been formed wherein libraries have formed cooperative acquisition programmes..................................... .........S.. etc..........10 LIBRARY CONSORTIA Resource sharing as a concept involved sharing among libraries having some affinity............... geographical area........................................... ............................................... Marc J Maclabee reports that there are 30. ..................000 are peer-reviewed........... The dwindling library budgets against increasing number and cost of periodicals have affected both libraries and publishers.............000 academic journals in the world today.................................. rose only by 26%................. ................... Out of which 8................. Self Check Exercise 5) List the barriers to resource sharing in libraries............................... 1............. ............................... Libraries and publishers have come together to form library consortia........... ...... Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit....to the increasing pressure of variety of document requests made by users and increasing percentage of such requests needed to be met from other libraries.. For the same period....................

All universities which come under UGC’s purview will be members of the programme. Indian Institute of Science.500 e-journals and 8 bibliographic databases. The access to the resources is being provided directly from the publishers’ websites. The consortium offers a price advantage on subscription to e-resources that exceeds 80%. UGCINFONET is overlaid on Education and Research Network (ERNET) infrastructure to provide assured quality of service and optimal utilisation of Bandwidth resources. Social Sciences and Humanities including Management and Languages. UGC-INFONET. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has also formed a Consortium for which National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) has been identified as the nodal agency. UGC-INFONET E-Journals Consortium aims to promote the use of electronic databases and full text access to journals by the research and academic community in the country. the INFLIBNET is executing the UGC-INFONET project in collaboration with the ERNET. It will place orders for e-journals on behalf of universities and coordinate the programme. IIITs. is the nodal agency for coordination of the UGC-INFONET. It will be responsible for the administration. University Grants Commission (UGC). viz. INFLIBNET Centre is an autonomous Inter-University Centre of the University Grants Commission. It facilitates linkage between UGC. IIMs. UGC will bear the entire expenses for UGC funded universities for providing e-journals access on behalf of participating universities.. The consortium aims at providing access to international e-journals to the CSIR scientists. India has launched a consortium of e-journals for its member Universities to provide electronic access to scholarly literature over the Internet. 16 . It will provide access to journals through its recently launched nationwide communication network.Library Networks Indian National Digital Library of Engineering. NITs and a few other centrally funded Government institutions. monitoring and maintenance of the consortium. The consortium is also a member of International Coalition of Library Consortia (ICOLC). ERNET and universities. The agreement initially is for a period of four years. and it will gradually be extended to colleges as well. and the shortage of available resources. The total membership of the consortium is 146. is a consortium set up and funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) in India. IITs. Consortium covers all the disciplines. On behalf of the UGC. Each University will have the option of hosting their website and the journals subscribed through University Consortia. Pure Sciences. Sciences. It allows the scientists to access and download from these e-journals. Its members are 38 core institutions viz. It has its headquarters at IIT Delhi. To start with. The consortium subscribes to 14 full-text resources that covers more than 6. an agreement has been made with Elsevier Science publishers in which access to its 1700 journals is being provided to the CSIR scientists. The membership is open to all other educational institutions under its selfsupported category. The programme will help in mitigating the severe shortage of periodicals faced by university libraries due to the ever widening gap between the growing demand for literature. Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Centre. UGC-INFONET will be a boon to the higher education system in the country. and Technology (INDEST).

........ physical resources refers to documents.. Self Check Exercise 6) Define Library Consortia........ Resource sharing entails reciprocity..... and many networks exist for the purpose of facilitating certain types of communication among members”..... their need and purpose.................. The resources can be intellectual........ The importance of library networks was discussed under their functions................................ Budgets of libraries are going down................. 2) Diminishing buying power of libraries necessitates resources sharing.. 2002..............................UGC-INFONET was formally inaugurated by the Hon’ble Prime Minister on 28th December..................... or services whereas..... infrastructure..................... Library network has been defined as a “group of individuals or organisations that are interconnected to form a system to accomplish some specified goal................ when needed... It is the most recent happening in library networks and resource sharing............................. 1.. .............. Library Consortia resorts to acquiring e-journals in a cooperative way. or physical space...................................... conceptual or physical................................................ implying a partnership in which each is willing and able to make available resources when needed........................... thing or action to which one resorts to........12 ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES 1) Resource refers to a person.... This results in their decreasing power 17 ................................................................ E-journals have provided a cost-benefit solution to the problem of journals acquisition in view of easing prices and reducing library budgets... The concept of resource sharing has received a fillip by the introduction of electronic publishing........................... ............................. We also studied the impediments towards library networks......... Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.................................................... .................................................................... It was followed by a discussion of the means to overcome these barriers by facilitating resource sharing............................ 1.................... Briefly describe the INDEST consortium.... expertise...... ..... The linkage must include a communication mechanism......11 SUMMARY In this Unit you have been introduced to the concept of resource sharing and library networks.................. ................ ....... Intellectual or conceptual resources refer to manpower.................. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit......................................... Sharing implies allotting or contributing one’s resources for the benefit of others................... ..............................

Libraries can come together to identify duplication of resources that lead to wastage. Due to limited resources libraries may not participate in resource sharing. iii) Enable uniform practices in routines. These networks exist to: i) ii) Provide democratic access to information. 18 .500 journals directly from the publishers’ website. It provides funds for the resources to be made use of by the participating libraries. The membership is open to other such institutions also. Core collections could be built up for all libraries. The strength of its members at present is 146. The barriers to resource sharing are: • • • • • • • • • • • • 6) A desire for everything here and now. Added to it is the widening gap in currency conversion against Indian currency making it all the more difficult for libraries to fulfill the needs of users. Non-conducive political environment. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has set up INDEST. 5) Library consortia have been defined as the coming together of libraries. Restriction. There are 38 core institutions viz. NITs and some other centrally funded Government institutions. Lack of needed support services. Staff and faculty attitudes. Lack of required administrative structure and support. Lack of awareness among users about cooperation. Documents. IIITs. Hence they should share resources. IIMs. national and regional level. 3) Libraries have joined hands to cooperate and coordinate at various levels to form networks. 4) Rationalisation of acquisition is one the major functions of library network. Changing priorities for collection development. These are formed at local. Control of collection policies and priorities. and Reluctance to yield autonomy. mainly local. INDEST provides access to 6. Indian Institute of Science. which are rare or costly. publishers and vendors for cooperative acquisition of electronic documents. Indian National Digital Library of Engineering Sciences and Technology (INDEST).Library Networks to buy documents.. which are found lacking in a particular geographical area. It would result in better allocation of funds and widespread availability of resources. could be acquired strategically in different locations to enable maximum use. Document delivery time. is a recent example of a consortium in India. in lending the material. IITs. Abridge document collection in different libraries. Funds could be diverted for resources.

org/ala/alonline/selectedarticles/usperiodicals2002. fax.) (1991). Allan F. pp 362-74. R. and Pryterch. New York: Marcell Dekker. K. Kalia. Delhi: Concept. and Karisiddappa C R (2002). etc.(ed). U K: Gower. http://www.in/indest/ http://www. ( 2002). H. Kalia. Ray (ed. Its abbreviation is EB. New Delhi: Virgo Publications.pdf Kaul H. Ahmedabad: INFLIBNET. Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science. It is a measure of size of storage. which includes intellectual. In: Sardana. J. : The concept refers to two or more libraries sharing their resources. L.ala. In : CALIBER 2002. J. Delhi: Concept. pp 423-37.pp 411-22. L. Anil Kumar (ed). : Two or more libraries connected together through telecommunication links for sharing resources and mutual benefit. H. R. : The mutual agreement between libraries to share their documents in order to satisfy the needs of their users. Allen (ed) (1978). Library Consortia for Academic Libraries in the e-Publishing Era.1.14 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Cholin V. H. (1999). e-mail file.(ed). Networking of Libraries in India: A Critical Review. Libraries in Retrospect and Prospect: Essays in Honour of Prof D. In Gordan.paniitd.. Kaul. Vol 25. V2. Document Delivery: A Primary Service for the Nineties. Kaul. K.informationaccess. Julie (1992). to overcome the barrier of distance and time between the user and document. K. In : Kent.org/best. San Diago: Academic Press. Mc Dougall. Iren P (ed). Advances in Librarianship. (2002).htm http://www. S. Exabyte : An Exabyte is a unit of measurement in computers of one million million million bytes. Vol 2. Libraries in Retrospect and Prospect: Essays in Honour of Prof D. and physical resources. conceptual. Resource Sharing in Libraries. Library Resource Sharing and Networks. 19 . Handbook of Library Cooperation.ac. Vol 16. From Printed Bibliographies to Online Databases: Role of Library Networks. In Sardana. Introduction to Library Networks Library Cooperation Library Networks Library Resource Sharing 1.13 KEYWORDS Electronic Document Delivery : It refers to document delivered in electronic form viz. Internet Engineering for Libraries and Information Centres. Wessling.

3.4 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.6 2.0 OBJECTIVES understand the meaning and importance of library networks.9 History and Growth of Library Networks in India Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Developing Library Network (DELNET) Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET) Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET) Pune Library Network (PUNENET) Madras Library Network (MALIBNET) Bombay Library Network (BONET) 2.1 Objectives of Library Networks Library Networks: The Indian Scenario 2.8 2.4.7 2.3.3 2.4.4 Library Networks: International Scenario 2.2 2.2.6 2.5 2.6 Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC) Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) Joint Academy Network (JANET) Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL) China Academic and Library Information System (CALIS) Australia’s Research and Education Network (AARNET) 2.3. and have an insight into the well-known library networks at the international level.8 Summary Keywords Answers to Self Check Exercises References and Further Reading 2.7 2.4.4. you will be able to: 20 .5 2.3 2.3.4.4 2. know the important library networks in India with regard to their objectives.5 2.3 Objectives Introduction Library Networks: An Overview 2.UNIT 2 LIBRARY NETWORKS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Structure 2.3.2 2.3.4.1 2.3. After reading this Unit.3.1 2. services and current status.3.

let us first understand the meaning of library networks with the help of some definitions. Library network ensures that data and other resources can be shared quickly. of the library networks. libraries work in a networked environment where data and information resources are accessible in electronic format and are shared electronically. Libraries may be in different jurisdictions but agree to serve one another on the same basis as each serves its own constituents. The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) gave definition of a library network in National Programme Document in the year 1975 as: “Two or more libraries and/or other organisations engaged in a common pattern of information exchange. The basic purpose of library networking is sharing of information. need. In this Unit we will acquaint you with some of the functional library networks in India and abroad. The first Unit of this course “Introduction to Library Networks” deals with the objectives. accelerating prices of documents and availability of huge amount of information resources.1 INTRODUCTION Library Networks : National and International You have already studied the Unit on “Network Concepts” in the first course of this Programme.2. The term “library network” is being used increasingly for library cooperation and resource sharing. As Franklin David Jebaraj and Fredrick Robin Devadoss define. for some functional purpose. In simple words. Computers and telecommunications may be among the tools used for facilitating communication among them”. As we all know. which basically covers the technological aspect of the networks. factors like inadequate library budget. resource sharing methods like Inter-Library Loan (ILL) were used to meet the demands of users. 21 . through communications. and services provided by a variety of libraries and other organisations are available to all potential users. 2.“ A library network is broadly described as a group of libraries coming together with some agreement of understanding to help each other with a view to satisfying the information needs of their clientele”.2 LIBRARY NETWORKS: AN OVERVIEW Due to information explosion and accelerating prices of information services and products. library network means a group of libraries situated at different locations are connected to each other using computers and communication networks. data and resources in order to provide better services to its clientele. etc. Before we talk about various national and international library networks. A network usually consists of a formal arrangement whereby materials. make it difficult for any library to acquire sufficient number of documents to fulfill the needs of its readers. reliably and accurately. purposes. services. The main advantage of the library network is that data and other information resources can be shared between a number of users. Earlier. With the advent of information technology. present day libraries are unable to meet the information needs of the users. information.

providing bibliographic information services from indigenously created databases. 2. coordination with other networks – regional. organising document delivery service. improving information handling capabilities through networking of libraries and information centres. promoting computerisation of libraries and information centres through international standards which will facilitate exchange of information.1 History and Growth of Library Networks in India History of library networks in India can be traced back to the year 1958 when on the instance of Pt.2. As a result. networks of metropolitan area thrive to support the information resources of the users of the community based on the resources available within the area. optimising utilisation of resources through shared cataloguing.Library Networks 2. cooperative acquisition.. developing databases of projects.3 LIBRARY NETWORKS: THE INDIAN SCENARIO In this section you will be studying some of the functional national library networks. establishing mechanism for access to international databases. Jawahar Lal Nehru. accessing document collection of member libraries through online union catalogues. The general objectives of such networks can be spelt out as follows. For example. The primary objectives are: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) promoting sharing of resources amongst the libraries. increased cost of materials and varieties of demands of the users. However. Scientific Policy Resolution was adopted emphasising the development of scientific temper among people. several committees and commissions were setup who came up with various recommendations. such specificity is slowly blurred due to the development of ICT. specialists and institutions.3. avoiding unnecessary duplication of materials through development of adequate collection development policy for member libraries. 2. national and international. though individual networks may have one or more specific objectives depending upon their requirements. Some of the reports submitted by these committees 22 . sharing equipments etc.1 Objectives of Library Networks From the above definitions it is apparent that the library networks have been conceived as mechanism for optimum utilisation of resources which is necessitated by the shrinking of library budget. sharing expertise. augmenting weaker resources in the network by increasing cooperation among the member libraries.

23 . Kamath Report (1972). N. All these reports recommended cooperation among libraries at local. serials and non-book materials. Further the Government appointed Prof. P. Ranganathan Report to UGC (1965). located at Gujarat University Campus. INFLIBNET(http://www. magnetic tape/floppy. were established and funded by the NISSAT. Government of India. Chattopadhyay as a Chairman of a Committee to evolve a national policy on library information systems. to avoid duplication of resources and also to minimise the cost of acquiring resources.2 INFLIBNET: Information and Library Network a) INFLIBNET is an acronym used for Information and Library Network. bulletin board. took initiatives for the setting up of Metropolitan Library Networks in India. (now Developing Library Network). Online catalogue access for shared cataloguing and location identification.inflibnet. serials and non-book materials.and commissions included: Sinha Committee Report (1959). Delhi Library Network (DELNET) in 1988. etc. It became an independent inter-university centre in the year 1996. Catalogue production in card. Pune Library Network (PUNENET) in 1992. Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) in 1986. Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET) in 1993. The INFLIBNET has made provision for document delivery service by establishing resource centres around libraries having rich collection of documents. regional and national level. Bombay Library Network (BONET) in 1994. It is a major national programme of University Grants Commission (UGC) started in the year 1991. INFLIBNET offers the following services to fulfill its objectives: Catalogue based services Shared cataloguing of monographs. namely. National Information System for Science and Technology (NISSAT) established in the year 1977 as a project in the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR). It was expected from these networks to promote resource sharing. The NISSAT has ceased operation since 2004. This committee submitted the report and stressed the need for resource sharing and linking of education and research organisations. file transfer.3. Union catalogue of books.A. prepare union catalogue of books and periodicals and create centralised databases. V.in/) is an autonomous inter-university center of UGC. INFLIBNET is also working very seriously for effective communication among academicians and researchers in India through electronic mail. D. Keeping in mind the above mentioned objectives the Metropolitan City Library Networks. Ahmedabad. optical (CDROM). The main purpose of setting library networks was to strengthen the resource sharing.ac. and computer/audio/video conferencing. Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET) in 1995. Seshagiri to study the aspects of modernisation of library services and inter-linking of library systems. Library Networks : National and International 2. Peter Larzer Committee Report (1972). book. During the 7th Five Year Plan (1985-90) the Planning Commission of Government of India appointed a working group under the Chairmanship of Dr.

.... Periodicals..... Indian universities constitute one of largest education system in the world.................................... institutions and 13150 affiliated colleges.................... Some of the library networks are running consortia for its member libraries and offer information sources and services at a very low cost and bridge the gap between libraries with regard to information have and information have-nots....21 lakh students and 4........ 24 ..................................... with 294 universities.. etc. It covers more than 88.................... current awareness services............ Experts...... Scientific Society and the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology............ CD-ROM based services Members can access CD-ROM databases in the area of social sciences and humanities..........................UGC-INFONET programme with this objective........... SDI................. ...... Retrospective searches. UGC INFONET Programme 1) Due to rising prices of information resources libraries cannot buy and acquire all possible information sources.... Information services In order to ensure free flow of information to the end users and strengthen interaction between academics... . For further details on UGC-INFONET please refer to Unit 1 of this course......... INFLIBNET which acts as a liaison between UGC........... ...Library Networks Database services Bibliographic database services. ERNET (Education and Research Network) and universities provides training to library professionals for using the network and resources made available on it.......... Internet based services The network provides academic community with various resources and services............. free of cost....... UGC-INFONET has been set up by UGC and ERNET India............ There is a great need for effective communication and coordination among UGC and each university for modernising university campus with campus wide networks and also setting up nation-wide network............ functions on consortia approach.... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit............................ through the INFLIBNET website............ INFLIBNET has started many information services: Access to Union Databases of Books....... Self Check Exercise 1) What are the information services offered by INFLIBNET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below......27 lakh teachers......

......... iii) DEL PLUS – a stand-alone library management software for database creation and maintenance and for OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue)......................... Databases of Periodical Articles.................................. Sound Recordings................. Delnet (http://www................................... Government of India and India International Centre (IIC)........3....... Bibliographic Database of CD-ROMs.. . Retrospective conversion................... Union List of Current Periodicals........................................... Initially.... ii) DEL-DOS – for creating MARC (Machine Readable Catalogue) Records of books.......... Library Networks : National and International 2..... Document Delivery Services............ Creation and Maintenance of Bibliographic Databases..... and Internet Connectivity Service. it was sponsored by NISSAT....... In addition to fulfilling the objectives of library network...................................... Union List of Video Recordings. is definitely a significant step towards provision of automated library services...... .... New Delhi....... DSIR and currently is being promoted jointly by National Informatics Centre (NIC)................................. DELNET’s effort.... ... DELNET provides some useful software products namely..................................... Department of Information Technology....................................... Indian Specialists Database.. 25 .... and iv) DELMARC – a LAN based library management software for larger libraries with large collection and clientele....................... applies the results of research and publishes them.. creates new systems in the field........ DELNET offers links to related databases and websites on the web in different disciplines... Self Check Exercise 2) Mention the products of DELNET............................................................ ............................................................. Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............nic......................... Ministry of Communications and Information Technology................. .delnet................. Union Catalogue of Periodicals... i) DELSIS – a powerful library networking software............. The following database services are also provided to its member libraries: Online Databases of Union Catalogue of Books...3 DELNET: Developing Library Network DELNET (Developing Library Network) earlier known as Delhi Library Network till 2001 started in the year 1988 and registered as a society in 1991...........in) provides ILL Online.............. E-mail Service....... Apart from these services........... Newspapers.......................... etc........... Referral Services. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit....... especially in India............................ Training Programmes........ DELNET also undertakes scientific research in the area of information science and technology................. in resource sharing and providing a number of services and products................... .........................

......................calibnet..................4 CALIBNET: Calcutta Library Network CALIBNET (Calcutta Library Network) project funded by NISSAT...... undertook the task of linking 38 computerised libraries in the field of science and technology located within the Calcutta metropolitan area and would then proceed to connect to other Metropolitan Area Networks namely.. 2...................... Bombay Library Network.. ConAlert Service gives user the customised service by providing current and tailored bibliographic information.................................. Developing Library Network.............org) activities are centered around providing access to materials available in the eastern region and creation of databases particularly with respect to intellectual assets of West Bengal...... CALIBNET offers the following services to fulfill its objectives: Centralised Database (CDB) Service..............................................calibnet................. ........... The CALIBNET (http://www.................... ................... CalibLink gives e-mail connectivity to member libraries. etc............. CALIBNET...................... The CALIBNET website (http://www.......... RetroFile Service provides trend of research on any given specific topic.......3................... CalibOrder Service offers the requisite backup service by providing full text.......... The CALIBNET website also provides the following active links for the benefit of member libraries: Indian Library and Network Resources Overseas Library Resources on India Worldwide Library Catalogues National Libraries of the World Newspapers and Journals Electronic Reference Tools Factual Information Sources 26 Document Supply Services ........ DSIR and managed by the Calcutta Society was established in the year 1986 under the West Bengal Government’s Societies Registration Act.............. Madras Library Network... ConFile Service provides contents of journals of users choice................. in the first phase........................................... Mysore Library Network...... which contains bibliographic records of participating libraries............. ...... Ahmedabad Library Network........................................ 1961.....org) provides access to bibliographic information resources available through its centralised databases..Library Networks ...........

..... The other Software “PARAPAR” which is a conversion software package has also been developed to support interchange of bibliographic data.............................................. ................................................. CD-ROM databases. Selective Dissemination Information (SDI) Service............. ADINET sponsored by the NISSAT..................................... LC MARC (Library of Congress Machine Readable Catalogue).... Self Check Exercise 3) Name the software package developed by CALIBNET.............................................................................. .............. and Research and Development in IT Applications............... .................3............................... In the year 1993 it was registered as a society..................................... Library Networks : National and International Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below..................................................................................................... .. and E-Mail Service....... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit. It is a network of libraries located in and around Ahmedabad.......... The services from ADINET includes the following: Database of current periodicals received by over 100 libraries of Ahmedabad Inter-Library Loan Content Pages of LIS Journals 27 ......... information centers............ ........................................................... 2............................ .... ..5 ADINET: Ahmedabad Library Network ADINET is the abbreviation used for Ahmedabad Library Network (http://www..... library professionals and students............................................................................ Biblio File...................................................................................... CALIBNET also provides Current Awareness Service (CAS)........................ Union Catalogue......................... access to databases...........org).alibnet.......... CALIBNET has developed inhouse “SANJUKTA” – a multi user storage and retrieval software to support its centralised database and to provide online access from remote areas.. Its membership is open to all institution libraries..The website also provides details of varied CALIBNET programmes for: On-Demand Information Services Consultative Service for Library Automation Manpower Development Opportunities........

........................................................................ ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit........................................................................................ ADINET is now offering the following services by special expert team at a reasonable charge: Computerisation of libraries Cataloguing and classification of documents Labelling and shelving of books Stock verification of documents Manpower development programmes Planning for library development Completion of any backlog work in the library Some selected cyber café to give 20% discount to ADINET members.......... .................................................. .. ......... .....................................................mylibnet........................................................org) organises various training programme for LIS professionals...................................3..6 MYLIBNET: Mysore Library Network MYLIBNET (Mysore Library Network) was set up by NISSAT............. Self Check Exercise 4) What are the databases provided by ADINET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below......................................................................... ................................................ The MYLIBNET (http://www.................................................................................................................................................................. DSIR in the year 1995 and is located in the Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTR) Campus.........................Library Networks Supply of photocopies from journals received by libraries in and around Ahmedabad Internet surfing facility Database of databases available in LIS Centres in and around Ahmedabad JOLI (Job Opportunities for Librarians) Database Special Internet training to fresh qualified librarians Computer training programmes to library professionals In order to meet the objective of cooperative mode of working among the libraries.................... .............................................. Giving facility to LIS professionals to put their resume on the ADINET website for searching of jobs..... ........... 28 ........... 2.............. Mysore..............

funded by NISSAT was started in the year 1992. for the benefit of the users. At present there are more than 20 participating libraries who deposit their data on regular basis. PuneNet Libraries Database. PuneNet is planning to include Indian language databases. which is issued for short period of time. There is also a proposal for online updating of records and databases. PuneNet (http://www. Pune. 2.com) is housed in Bio Informatrics Centre. which contain old and rare valuable manuscripts. INSDOC. Current Awareness Service (CAS).com/in/malibnet) is open to universities. The participating libraries are provided with login and password. industries and individuals. These databases are updated yearly. Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) and National Chemical Laboratory (NCL). MALIBNET offers the following services to its members: E-mail service.8 MALIBNET : Madras Library Network The MALIBNET started in the year 1991 in order to provide effective information services to the users in and around Madras. etc. colleges.angelfire. This project. Through its website. 29 . For periodicals database PuneNet may add Ulrich’s database so that more information regarding periodicals may be given to its users. (now NISCAIR) was the executing agency for the MALIBNET project.Some of the services provided by MYLIBNET are as follows: Providing technical assistance in the area of LIS. Other Services Apart from the database services some of the other services includes E-mail and Internet Connectivity. R& D institutions.3. This network acts like a gateway to Internet. online search facility. Photocopy service.3. MALIBNET was registered as a society in 1993.7 PUNENET: Pune Library Network PuneNet is a joint endeavour of University of Pune. For the sharing and exchange of bibliographic data from the participating libraries PuneNet follows the international standard for information exchange – 1SO 2709. Library Networks : National and International 2. The membership of MALIBNET (http://www. photocopy services. the users can access PuneNet databases on the Internet. Web access to the Union Catalogue of Periodicals subscribed by member libraries for updating their records in the union catalogue database online. Union Catalogue of Periodicals. Services PuneNet Database Services PuneNet hosts many databases namely. CD-ROM database services. Databases of Booksellers and LIS Professionals. It subscribes to e-mail service of ERNET.punenet.

Databases from INSDOC (now NISCAIR) and other participating institutions are also available on MALIBNET host. the publication of union catalogue of different types by different countries started appearing in increased numbers. OCLC (Online Computer Library Centre) earlier Ohio College Library Centre.4 LIBRARY NETWORKS: INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO Library Networks are the extension of the concept of library co-operation.3. It is the first computer based library network.1 OCLC: Online Computer Library Centre In the year 1967 OCLC (Ohio College Library Centre) was founded to develop a computerised system. 2. In the beginning of 20th century Library of Congress compiled National Union Catalogue. etc.4. DSIR started in the year 1994. began as the first successful library network.9 BONET: Bombay Library Network BONET supported by NISSAT. Specialised databases which gives abstracts of articles. 30 . Contents Database of Journals in Madras (Gives contents information of important journals which is also available online). Directory Database of Current Serials in Madras (Gives journal holdings of member libraries and it is available online). OCLC emerged as an international network from a regional computer system for 50 Ohio Colleges. was changed to Online Computer Library Centre. 2. In the developed countries. Current serials acquired from the libraries. It gives access to databases CD-ROM. where academic libraries of Ohio State shared their resources so that the resource costs could be reduced. interlibrary loan. MALIBNET permits its members to offer information services on the network. In the year 1963. Due to this standard the exchange of bibliographic information among computerised library system became a reality. the growth of library networks started long back. the name of OCLC. It has enrolled more than 25 libraries as its members. 2. which led to the development of many library networks in different parts of the world subsequently.Library Networks Document delivery service. The history of library cooperation can be traced back to 200 BC when Alexandria library shared its resources with Pergamen library. The development of MARC during 1960s is a step towards such cooperation. training programmes for professional development. In the year 1981. NISCAIR services are also available to MALIBNET users. USA is considered to be the birth place of library networks. After this. and also conducts seminars. shared cataloguing and resource sharing.

Library Networks : National and International 31 . abstracts. Members can make their collections available to the world through resource sharing. WorldCat and virtual reference service. It lists resources from stone tablets to e-resources and MP3s. which are used by the member libraries to share information by reducing the cost. cataloguing and reference. OCLC member libraries make up the world’s largest consortium.The main objective of the OCLC is to have more access to information and reduce costs by offering services to libraries and users. Member libraries can take full advantages of OCLC products and services. It consists of many OCLC services. PromptCat are some of the cataloguing tools of WorldCat. It holds location listings contributed by member libraries. Many OCLC services are based on WorldCat. it is one of the largest and most comprehensive bibliographic database. FirstSearch is the powerful reference service for locating references and full text articles. It provides libraries with rich source of cataloguing records. With millions of online records. Digital collection and preservation service is designed to protect and share the digital collection. The vision of the OCLC is to be a leading global library cooperative. Connexion. record supply and collection sets.000 libraries (all types) in the US and 84 countries of the world. Membership: OCLC membership comprises more than 50. Collection Management service helps in achieving the collection goals of the member libraries. Cataloguing and Metadata Service provides online cataloguing. WorldCat is the building block for the services provided by OCLC. helping libraries. DVD and websites. For OCLC’s digital collection service WorldCat acts as a portal. WorldCat: It is a world wide union catalogue developed and created collectively by more than 9000 member institutions. etc. They can share the world’s largest union catalogue (WorldCat). E-content service enhances the e-collection and other online databases through the net library – electronic collections online services. and users with economic access to knowledge through innovation and collaboration. Reference service gives access to full text documents. The following are some of the OCLC services. copy cataloguing. and receive discounts on OCLC products and services. It is a database in higher education designed for research and development. For reference and electronic content service WorldCat works as a map showing the users what resources are available and the way to get it. Member libraries worked together for more than 30 years to build and maintain WorldCat. Resource sharing service helps in sending ILL requests on the web. For OCLC cataloguing services WorldCat is the authoritative source which helps in resource sharing service of OCLC.

Under this programme the SLIS can access the Art Museum Image Consortium (AMICO) Library from RLG...... maintaining...... ............ RLG is an international non-profit membership organisation of more than 160 universities...... SCIPIO (Art and Rare Book Sales 32 .... RLG was founded in 1974 with its headquarters in California............................ The members of RLG use RLIN system for cataloguing..................................... historical societies and other related institutions.............. In order to meet the cooperative action RLG is working towards full online access to research resources............................................................................................................................ cultural resources.................................. RLG archival................................. Further........ With the collections of research and learning of member institutions........................2 RLIN: Research Libraries Information Network RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network) is a bibliographic information system. .. A new RLIN21 interface is used to retrieve.......................... .......... libraries........... RLIN also refers to a computer interface program that is used to work with RLG’s bibliographic records for finding... With the RLIN 21 there are some structural changes in all RLG databases...... .................... ........................................................... These members are working towards the mission of creating solutions for challenges of information access and management in the digital era..................................................................4............. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit......... Products RLG gives free access (instructional) to a variety of RLG databases to Accredited Schools of Library and Information Science (SLIS)............. Hand Pressbook Database..................................................... authority work and archives and manuscript processing............... .. 2................ RLG provides a framework for cooperation..... creating......... developed by the Research Libraries Group (RLG).................................. English short title catalogue............... The RLIN legacy computer program is now being replaced with RLIN21: a new web-based interface to RLG databases....... RLG provides researchers the access to research resources and many innovative information services....................................... and contributing records in RLG union catalogue.......... a new RLIN21 client is now used for creating and updating bibliographic and authority records. and to provide continuous access to resources through digital preservation.Library Networks Self Check Exercise 5) What is WorldCat? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below........................... archives........... display and export MARC records. ....... problem solving and development of new standard products and services............ new modes for effective global resource sharing...

..................... .... helps the members to create records in RLG’s Union Catalogue and SCIPIO database and Authority File............................................................ .. which is windows based........................ archival collection.................................................. .. digital collections..... artifacts..... The objective of JANET is to advance and support UK’s education and research network.............................................................................3 JANET: Joint Academy Network JANET (Joint Academy Network) is an education and research network funded by UK Government...... Services Online Database Service RLG also provides online access to databases......................... traditional library resources.............. .. users can take advantage of the cataloguing already done by RLG members and can have a copy for their local systems............................... ................. All the higher education organisations and research councils are connected to this network.................... 33 .................................... ............. With the help of RLIN web interface.............................................................. This network is operated and developed by UKERNA (United Kingdom Education and Research Network) under the Service Level Agreement from the Joint Information System Committee (JISC) of UK Higher and Further Education Funding Councils.................................................. With SCIPIO RLG Union Catalogue and the Authority files............4................ RLG’s ILL Manager software programme is for Inter Library Loan................... ... RLIN 21 can also be used as a searching interface.... RLG and Backstage Library Works developed Marcardio service to provide inexpensive......... fast automated cataloguing...................Catalogue)............... Technical Services RLG’s RLIN 21 software.................................................. RLG Union Catalogue............................................ Authority files............................. 2........................ These databases contain information and resources......................................... Self Check Exercise 6) Enumerate the services offered by RLG? Library Networks : National and International Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.... Resource Sharing Service SHARES – It is an Inter Lending and Document Supply Programme of RLG for resource sharing among the members of RLG.. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.................

... JANET Services UKERNA offers the following user services over JANET: JANET-CERT is a Computer Emergency Response Team provided by UKERNA as a service on the JANET network....... JANET is connected with the academic networks of other countries and also forms the part of the global Internet. There are many other services provided by JANET including Usenet News Service........ Super JANET III was aimed at consolidating the pioneering work of Super JANET I and II in 2001. This team advises on security of computers and networks and also provides training programmes for this. Super JANET 4 was launched to increase the network capacity and strengthen the user base of JANET with further inclusion of education community and the use of Super JANET 4 backbone to inter connect school networks........ Super JANET II started in 1995 to increase the spread of Super JANET and create MANs (Metropolitan Area Network). JANET Co-location service helps the customer... Advisory Services and Web Services which includes web mail service.. JANET gives multipoint video conferencing service and UKRENA supports the training on equipment and technique side... equipment and services to be securely located on the Super JANET backbone......... Universities and Poly-techniques.... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit... It was proposed in 1989 with the aim to develop a high performance wide area network based on optical fibers. JANET interconnects local computer network in UK Research Councils. and effective communication among the members of JANET and the network to meet the changing needs of the community.. Super JANET 4 will be over by December 2005......... web filtering and web hosting............. JANET members are thus able to get access to the local computer networks free of charge....... initially with 50 members by late 1980s there were 200 sites.... 34 ..................Library Networks The Joint Academic Network was established in the year 1984......... of research and higher education interests.. which is developed by UKERNA to view and understand the performance of the JANET. Mail Services. .. JANET NetSight service is basically a networks monitoring service. Super JANET is being implemented in phases. UKERNA organises workshops........... Self Check Exercise 7) What is Super JANET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below. Super JANET: Super JANET is the core of JANET network and is the backbone of the JANET. conferences and training programmes for the use of JANET Network and services.. It ensures fast......

.. Its membership is 25 which include 22 university libraries........................................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit............................................................. locate.... ..................... The members of CURL get free access to the union catalogue COPAC (National Online PublicAccess Catalogue). It contains about 30 million records.. discipline and format from the desktop..................... ........ Services: CURL has created a database for bibliographic records.. The future plans of CURL include development of e-resources tools.... networking and cooperation........ ... ...... Objective of CURL is to help the researchers to search...................................................................................4.............. digitisation and retention..................................................................... 35 ..............................................4 CURL: Consortium of University Research Libraries CURL (Consortium of University Research Libraries) was established in the year 1987 with the mission to “increase the ability of research libraries to share resources for the benefit of the local....... Future Plans of CURL CURL-COFOR project is initiated for the sharing of responsibilities in acquisition......... Currently the database contains 38 million records which are mostly from the member libraries and also from LC (Library of Congress) and BNB (British National Bibliography)........................................... National Library of Scotland and Wales..........50 client....................................... request............. For non-members there is a flat rate for searching..................... preservation........ ....................... ............................. ................................................................................................................ which represents merged holdings of 26 CURL member institutions and a small portion of nonCURL libraries.................................................... Its access for members is free................ The purpose of this database is to provide a unified source of cataloguing records for use by library staff..................... These records are stored in UKMARC and can be accessed through telnet or Z39...... and access the resources irrespective of place.. national and international research community”............................................................ Self Check Exercise 8) What are the future plans of CURL? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below......................................................... strategy for digitisation and digital preservation and also developing and implementing communication strategy for consortia.................................................... British Library...................... Library Networks : National and International 2................................................... ...............

..... union lists...... Its members include academic libraries... .. CALIS envisages itself to become an advanced academic and library resource supporting and serving system. Ltd..... ............................ ATM links and Internet services.......4........................ AARNet is also cooperating with local regional networks organisation to increase the capacity of metropolitan regional networks..... learning and research activities in universities also acted as Internet Service Provider (ISP). organise training programmes for staff..... The three level network (local.. Current Chinese Periodicals.... During 1997.............. AARNet............... 2.. CALIS has created databases like Union Cataloguing Project.................................... CALIS is a resource-sharing network based on CERNET (China Education and Research Network)........... CALIS endeavours to transform the role of traditional libraries with the adoption of new technologies. e-content licensing...........6 AARNET: Australia’s Research and Education Network Australia’s Research and Education Network (AARNet) is managed by a nonprofit APL (AARNet Pvt...... shared online catalogues. 36 .............. was responsible for the origin of Internet in Australia.. storage facilities........... ILL.................... e-content loading/presentation...).. develop more e-resources databases and provide e-access to databases developed in China and abroad... Its primary functions include cataloguing services......... regional and national) of libraries is to get connected with other international network and information system........ coordinated purchasing and data searching...4....... Goals of CALIS By the year 2010.........5 CALIS: China Academic and Library Information System CALIS (China Academic and Library Information System) is a nationwide academic library consortium...... 2..................... which was a further improvement of the Internet in Australia with high bandwidth.. CALIS future plan includes: development of a set of databases based on the available resources of individual libraries in China and abroad. AARNet apart from helping in teaching............ union catalogues.......... document delivery service........................... which is one of the projects supported by State Commission of Education......... ..... funded by the Ministry of Education......... which was initiated as a project in 1989..........Library Networks ........ public libraries and information service organisations........ Key discipline databases........ training............... Dissertation Abstracts and Conference Proceedings................................ resource sharing.. CALIS is a part of the Higher Education Public System................... Australia ViceChancellor’s Committee (AVCC) developed AARNet 2...................

.................. ..The main objectives of this network are to: collaborate in the area of teaching.................................... participate in alternative and flexible modes of course delivery........................... Europe and Asia........................... learning and research by connecting people to the Internet resources.................. AARNet 3 is the third generation of AARNet network...... Carrier services for members and advanced Internet workshops........................................... This networks provides primary IP services as: National On-Net National Off-Net International On-Net International Off-Net – provides IP Connectivity between members – provides IP Connectivity to the Australian domestic Internet – provides access to global Research and Education network – provides access to international commodity Internet Library Networks : National and International This network also provides access to GrangeNet..................................... provide high capacity cost effective Internet services to education and research committees.......... Voice Over IP......... ...... Video over IP........ research and administration. help in the development of advanced network infrastructure and applications with access to the global Research and Education Network in North and South America.............. Some of the Value added Services provided by AARNET are AARNet Large Object Mirror......... This network enables its client-base to: collaborate effectively. which is a high capacity research network.............. It was placed to put in active use during 2004............................ Its main objective is to provide AARNet with a network serving the academic community in Australia at a world-class level....................................000 staff and students of universities and research organisation.......... 37 .................................................................... ..... access information for teaching and learning................ Self Check Exercise 9) What are the value added services provided by AARNET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.... AARNet Services: This network plays an important role in giving the services to its clientele base of more than 80.......... ............ ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit........

: A digital collection is a body of materials in digital format treated as a group or considered as a whole. that cannot be achieved by the individuals alone. CAS (Current Awareness Service) CD-ROM Database Centralised Database Consortia Digital Collection Document Delivery Service 38 .6 KEYWORDS : A service designed to aid research workers in keeping themselves abreast of the current developments taking place in their subjects of interest. JANET (UK). CURL (UK).Library Networks 2. MYLIBNET (1995) in Mysore. : It refers to centralised storage and usage of unified reference information. ADINET (1993). we conclude that library networks play a major role in bridging the gap between academic libraries and information centres and ensure resource sharing. : A service whereby the Library provides full-text copies of the documents research papers. MALIBNET (1991) in Madras. conference papers journal articles etc. national and international cooperation and contribute to the growth and development of trained manpower through seminars. : An organised collection of information available on a CD-ROM. We have also studied some of the important library networks at the international level for example OCLC (America). in Ahmedabad and BONET (1994) in Mumbai (earlier Bombay). Note: Students are advised to visit the relevant websites (see section 2. CALIS (China). PUNENET (1992) in Pune. NISSAT has been instrumental in setting up of library networks in India. AARNET (Australia). The networking of libraries is expected to bring in changes for library and information services in the country. conferences and symposium. which is considered to be a national network.5 SUMMARY After reading this Unit.8) for more details. to the users on demand irrespective of the location and form of the original. such as resource sharing. UGC has established INFLIBNET in 1991. RLIN (US). for example CALIBNET (1986) in Calcutta. 2. : A group of libraries or other organisations that form a partnership to achieve a goal. The primary purpose of the library network is to modernise and help the libraries. DELNET (1988) in Delhi. They can also support research and development.

which can be advantageous and efficient. but is only for internal use and is not connected directly to the global Internet. : Union catalogues of the libraries available online. : A network of computers spread over a metropolitan/city-wide area such as buildings located throughout a town or city.E-Resources Gateway : Electronic information resources accessed via the internet. : A database located in a remote computer and accessed through the Internet. : A network point that acts as an entrance to another network. : Retrospective Conversion Service is a service that involves conversion of a library’s paper catalogue records into machine-readable form. such as the server through which people on a company’s local area network access the internet. : A cooperative arrangement among libraries by which one library may borrow materials it does not own from another library. : Machine Readable Cataloguing. The MARC formats are standards for the representation and communication of bibliographic and related information in machine readable form. : Online Public Access Catalogue. : Collaborative arrangements made between libraries for mutual assistance. : A private network inside a company or organisation that uses the same kinds of software as the Internet. by the sharing of resources or division of costs. It is an online catalogue of a library collection that is available to the public. Library Networks : National and International Inter Library Loan Internet Intranet MARC Metropolitan Area Network Online Database Online Union Catalogues OPAC Resource Sharing Retro conversion Service 39 . : The vast collection of interconnected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60’s and early 70’s.

Online Database Service. through INFLIBNET website. without being physically present.7 1) ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES The INFLIBNET is offering the following information services: Access to union catalogue of books. Communication channels used frequently in virtual reference include chat. Shared Cataloguing Union Catalogues Virtual Reference Service 2. JOLI (Job Opportunities for Librarians) Database. and Technical Services. : Union catalogues reveal information about the collections of more than one library. etc. 3) 4) 5) CALIBNET has developed in house softwares.Library Networks SDI : SDI is a current awareness system which alerts the user to the latest publications in his/her specified field(s) of interest. : Virtual reference is reference service initiated electronically where patrons employ computers or other Internet technology to communicate with reference staff. Super JANET Project was proposed in 1989 with the aim to develop a high performance wide area network based on optical fibers. It is developed and created collectively by more than 9000 member institutions of OCLC. such as. They are a way for groups of libraries to share information about their collections in a consistent way. periodicals. WorldCat is a world wide union catalogue of millions of online records. 2) Some of the products provided by DELNET are as follows: DELSIS. Resource Sharing Service. SANJUKTA and PARAPAR. DELDOS. experts. videoconferencing etc. Database of Current Periodicals. : A form of cataloguing undertaken by the Library of Congress and other agencies responsible for material bibliography. Database of Databases in LIS Centres in and around Ahmedabad. both for cataloguing and inter-library loan purposes. Members can also access CD-ROM databases in the area of Social Sciences and Humanities and it also provides number of Internet based services. Future Plans of CURL: CURL will contribute to the development of strategies to coordinate 6) 7) 8) 40 . DELPLUS and DELMARC.

and Basy. Library and Information Networking: NACLIN 2002.D. New Delhi: IGNOU. Bhattacharya.S. 20(3). NISSAT Networks: Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET). Overview of Library and Information Networks.in) JANET. (http://delnet.cn) Library and Information System.org) ALA World Encyclopedia of Library and Information Services (1986).D.provisions of research information and generating solution to the information needs.org) CALIBNET: An Overview (1999).mylibnet. Information Today and Tommorrow. It will also develop and implement a strategy for digitisation and digital preservation. 2nd Ed. H. New Delhi: Virgo Publications. PGDLAN. (http://www. and Devadoss.R. 134-164. 1-54. MLI-004.calibnet.an) Ahmedabad Library Network. Information Today and Tomorrow. pp. Library Resource Sharing and Networks. Video over 1P.net) Jebaraj. networking and cooperation. Library and Information Networks in India.8 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Academic and Research Network. F. H. 63-101. H. K. Library Networks: A Indian Experience.edu.curl. Kaul. Chicago: ALA. Calcutta Library Network.ac.in) Information Library Network ( INFLIBNET). (1999).org) 41 . 18(4). pp. (ADINET). (http://www. (eds).alibnet. Cholin. CURL will adopt the strategy for the development of e-resources discovery tools.ja. F. 9) Value added services provided by AARNET are as follows: Voice over 1P. CALIS: China Academic (http://www. Library Philosphy and Practice.edu.472.calis. (1992). (http://www. Kaul.inflibnet. digitisation and retention. CURL (http://www. Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET). (http://www. (2004).uk) Developing Library Network (DELNET). (CALIBNET). M. Kaul. New Delhi: DELNET. It will also develop and implement communication strategy for consortia. CURL-COFOR project initiated the sharing of responsibilities in acquisition. K. 3-7. V. New Delhi: Virgo Publications.ac. (2003). Library Networks : National and International 2. (2003). preservation. Partha (2001). Carrier services for members and Advanced Internet workshop. (http://www.nic.aarnet. 13-14. Unit 7. 24-93. p. AARNet: Australia’s (http://www. K. 6(2).

A Library Network for Madras.in/retrieve/26 paper B. Research Libraries Group. 42 . (http://www. (1999).ac.org/worldcat) Pune Library Network. 2002. 1-31. N. Jayasri (1994). Paper B. T.org) Sahoo. Resource Sharing and Networking of University Libraries. New Delhi: ESS ESS Publications.in) Rao. Mysore Library Network: MYLIBNET (Network with a difference). Information Today and Tommorrow 19(3). Need for a National Resource Sharing Network in India: Proposed Model. Annals of Library Science and Documentation.33(4). (http://www. pp. OCLC and WorldCat. Some Examples of American and European Library Networks. Subhada (2000). (http://punenet.Library Networks Nagarkar.A. Viswanathan. S. 1-7. Matsumoto (2003). Sujatha. and Raghavan. Bibhuti Bhusan (2002). (Also available: http:// drtc.A. G. Workshop on Information Resource Management 13th-15th March.rlg. Information Today and Tomorrow.oclc. (PUNENET). 21(1). DRTC Bangalore.) Shusaku.isibang. Pune-Net :Current Status. 16-18. 13-14 and 30. ABD. Krishna (2002).ernet. 41(1). MALIBNET.