Indira Gandhi National Open University School of Social Sciences

BLII–004 Network Based Information Services

Block -1 : Library Networks
Unit 1 Unit 2 : : Introduction to Library Networks Library Networks : National and International 07 20

Block - 2 : Internet, Intranet and Extranet
Unit 3 Unit 4 : : Internet Intranet and Extranet 45 61

Block - 3 : Internet Architecture
Unit 5 Unit 6 : : Internet Connectivity and Protocols Structure of Internet 83 97

Block - 4 : Internet-Resources and Services
Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 : : : Internet Resources Internet Tools Internet-based Library Services 111 133 151

Programme Design Committee
Prof. S.B. Ghosh (Chairman) Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. Jagdish Arora Chief Librarian, IIT Delhi Mr. Ishwar Bhatt Librarian BITS, Pilani Prof. B.K. Sen Scientist (Retd.), INSDOC New Delhi Mr. Shashi Bhushan School of Computer and Infromation Sciences IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. R. K. Chadda Director, Parliament Library New Delhi Mr. V.K. Gupta NISCAIR, Head, ETTG (Retd.) New Delhi Dr. (Ms) Neela Jagannathan Librarian, IGNOU (Retd.) New Delhi Dr. Neena Talwar Kanungo Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Prof. A. Neelameghan UNESCO Expert Bangalore Dr. Pravakar Rath Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. E. Rama Reddy Librarian University of Hyderabad Prof. R. Satyanarayana Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Mr. V.V. Subramaniyam School of Computer and Information Sciences IGNOU, New Delhi Prof. Uma Kanjilal (Convenor) Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi

Programme Coordinators: Prof. Uma Kanjilal & Dr. Jaideep Sharma
Course Editor
Dr. Jagdish Arora

Course Coordinator
Prof. Uma Kanjilal

Course Preparation Team
Block-1: Library Networks Unit
1 2

Contributor
Dr. Jaideep Sharma Dr. Neena Talwar Kanungo

Block-2: Internet, Intranet and Extranet Unit Contributor
3 to 4 Mr. V.V. Subramaniyam

Block-3: Internet Architecture Unit
5 to 6

Contributor
Mr. P.V. Suresh

Block-4: Internet-Resources and Library Services Unit Contributor
7 8 to 9 Ms. Sujata Santosh Prof. Uma Kanjilal

Material Production
Mr. Jitender Sethi Mr. S.S. Venkatachalam Mr. Manjit Singh
December, 2005

Editorial Assistance
Ms. Sujata Santosh

Secreterial Assistance
Mr. Devbrat Singh Chauhan

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COURSE INTRODUCTION
The emergence of Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) as a new media of information storage and delivery provide an unparalleled media for delivery of information with greater speed and economy. The Internet and web technology has changed the way information is stored, retrieved, communicated and broadcasted, it is likely to revolutionise the way publishers, publishing industry and scientists function in the era predominately guided by the printing technology. These technologies have triggered large scale commercial and non-commercial digitisation programmes the world over. Increasing number of commercial and society publishers are using the Internet as a global medium to offer their publications to the international community of scientists and technologists. The web-based electronic information products not only eliminate paper, physical storage and transportation costs, they also offer a host of other possibilities for incorporating multimedia and hyper-link features to electronic documents hitherto impossible on paper media. This, in turn, has led to the generation of new services that were non-existent as well as modification of existing services and their deliverables. The Internet, web technologies and digital-based electronic information products are exerting ever-increasing pressure on the traditional libraries, which, in turn, are committing larger portions of their budgetary allocation for either procuring or accessing web-based online or full-text search services, CD ROM products, online databases, multimedia products, etc. While there is a continuous demand from the users to increase the resources and services, the manpower, physical infrastructure and financial resources made available to the libraries is decreasing. These factors have contributed to the necessity of establishing library networks and resource sharing amongst libraries. With technological advancements and availability of affordable computing power, libraries and information centres around the world have computerised their library routines and have developed databases for shared use on computer networks. Besides improving services and operations for improved performance, libraries have been able to evolve effective computer networks with an aim to optimise utilisation of resources and facilities. The library and information networks have potential to improve library services in several ways. It brings down the cost of information products and services in the network environment in shared mode. It enables libraries to offer needbased services to the end users eliminating the limitation of size, distance and language barriers among them. With evolution of library networks, the emphasis has moved from the networks as physical entities to the resources available through the networks. These network accessible resources include databases of library holdings, journal articles, electronic text, images, video and audio files, scientific and technical data, etc. A network is developed when a group of libraries and/or information centres decides to exchange information using computers. The library networks use existing communication facilities to establish networks amongst libraries that agree to cooperate amongst themselves through more or less formal agreements with a view of pooling their resources and to offer better services to the users. The participating libraries generally follow identical or compatible rules and procedures.

The course comprises nine units namely: Unit 1. Unit 2. Unit 3. Unit 4. Unit 5. Unit 6. Unit 7. Unit 8. Unit 9. Introduction to Library Networks Library Networks: National and International Internet Intranet and Extranet Internet Connectivity and Protocols Structure of Internet Internet Resources Internet Tools Internet-based Library Services

Unit 1 provides a brief introduction to the library networks. It provides definition of library networks and resource sharing, and establishes relationship between the two. Need, purpose, and functions of a library network are described briefly. The unit makes a mention of important library networks at the national and international level. It briefly touches upon factors that are hampering the process of resource sharing. Lastly, the unit introduces the concept of library consortia and their need. The unit provides a brief description of INDEST Consortium and the UGC INFONET Consortium as examples. Unit 2 deals with library networks at national and international level. It provides a brief overview of library networks with reasons that led to their growth and development. The unit describes various library networks that exist in India as well as a few important networks at international level. Unit 3 provides a brief introduction to the Internet with its history and evolution. It highlights the functioning, governance and utility of the Internet for a common person. The unit briefly describes various methods of Internet connection. Tools and services offered on the Internet are dealt in details. Unit 4 deals with definition, needs, benefits, and features of Intranet and Extranet. It discusses applications of Intranet and Extranet and differentiates between the Internet, Intranet and Extranet. The unit elaborates on Intranet and Extranet security mechanism. Unit 5 introduces Internet protocols and describes functions of important Internet protocols. The unit also describes various options available for getting Internet connectivity. Unit 6 deals with organisation and structure of Internet. The unit describes various components of Internet structure including PCs, communication equipment, ISPs and ISP backbone, web servers and services for the users. It elaborates on Internet society and also various Internet standards. Unit 7 deals with Internet resources, its advantages and use. It describes various types of Internet resources, namely, primary sources, online databases, reference sources, libraries, and subject gateways. The unit also deals with evaluation of Internet resources. Unit 8 elaborates on different Internet tools such as search engines, subject directories, deep web or invisible web. Internet communication tools, conferencing tools, transmission and access tools are described briefly. Unit 9 describes Internet-based library services including library web sites, library portals, subject gateways, virtual reference service, weblogs, and RSS.

Block 1 LIBRARY NETWORKS .

0 OBJECTIVES get an insight into the historical perspective of resource sharing.12 1. educational background. and the context in which they need the information. comprehend the concept and objectives of library networks.9 1. socio-economic status. understand the functions of library networks. age. realise the need of resource sharing. They have to satisfy their users by providing them the right information.1 1.13 1.1 INTRODUCTION Libraries exist to serve their users.4 1. and familiarise yourself with the concept of library consortia. you will be able to: 1.3 1.11 1.7 1.6 1.5 1. It is expressed by the term ‘library cooperation’.14 INTRODUCTION TO LIBRARY NETWORKS Objectives Introduction Definitions: Resource Sharing and Library Networks Resource Sharing: Need Library Networks: Need Library Networks: Purpose Library Networks Functions Library Networks: National and International Factors Hampering Resource Sharing Facilitating Resource Sharing Library Consortia Summary Answers to Self Check Exercises Keywords References and Further Reading 1.8 1. The 7 .10 1.0 1.2 1.UNIT 1 Structure 1. in the right form at the right time. The needs of users are diverse depending upon their characteristics viz. To satisfy the diverse needs of their users. become aware of the factors hampering resource sharing. libraries depend upon each other. After reading this Unit. know how to overcome the barriers to resource sharing. in the right quantity.

Resource sharing entails reciprocity. Library networks have enabled libraries to come together to serve their users better.Library Networks most basic form of this cooperation starts with sharing of documents amongst libraries. This change speaks of the level of inter-dependence of libraries. Libraries satisfy the document requirement of their users through ‘Inter-Library Loan’ (ILL) from other libraries. The developments in storage and telecommunication technology have facilitated libraries to establish library networks and that facilitates better connection amongst libraries. These resources include physical. when needed. and many networks exist for the explicit purpose of facilitating certain types of communication among members. distance and money involved. or services whereas. 1) 8 A network’s function is to marshal resources from its environment to accomplish results beyond the ability of any one of its members. implying a partnership in which each is willing and able to make available resources when needed. Libraries could be connected locally as well as globally into library networks. thing or action to which one resorts to. ILL was not easy to provide owing to the time. intellectual and conceptual resources.” Another definition of a network describes it in terms of its characteristics. This has been a well-accepted fact for centuries and thus. 1. expertise. . These efforts were made more productive with developments in computer and telecommunication technologies.e. Resource Sharing Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science has defined two components of the term. ILL has evolved into Resource Sharing wherein libraries share resources other than documents also. conceptual or physical. viz. or physical space. physical resources refer to documents. there have been concerted efforts on the part of the libraries to cooperate. Library Networks Libraries cannot stand in isolation. overcoming the barriers of geographical distance and time. and telecommunications made it possible to transfer and transmit them electronically thus. The resources can be intellectual. “Resource” and “Sharing”. infrastructure. Sharing implies allotting or contributing one’s resources for the benefit of others. Resource refers to a person. The linkage must include a communication mechanism. Library network has been defined as a “group of individuals or organisations that are interconnected to form a system to accomplish some specified goal. Intellectual or conceptual resources refer to manpower. The library consortium is the latest form of library cooperation wherein libraries and publishers have come together to take the benefit of network technology and web-based e-resources. i. Computers made possible the creation of electronic documents.2 DEFINITIONS: RESOURCE SHARING AND LIBRARY NETWORKS Let us look into the definitions of Resource Sharing and Library Networks to understand the basic concepts behind it.

.................... ..................... LC has 17 million books containing about 136 terabytes of information...... Self Check Exercise 1) Define resource sharing and library networks............................................................... It has resulted in diminishing power of libraries to acquire literature... ....... 9 ........9%.................................................... which is an objective of library networks....................................................e............. 1.................... Rupees) against US Dollar or other currencies...................... Why should they then serve users of other libraries with their resources? The answer to this question lies in the fact that: Information is being produced at a very fast pace: According to an estimate.......... An effective library network requires an administrative structure and planning..................2) A network has developed an organisational design and structure that allows it to establish an identifiable domain and exercise appropriate influence over its members........................ It is more pronounced for science and technology compared to social sciences............. Escalation in Cost of published literature: The increase in prices of publications is evident from the result of a sample study of periodicals published in the US...................3 RESOURCE SHARING : NEED Why should libraries share their resources? This question comes to mind in view of the fact that libraries acquire resources to serve their users............. It has a base in communications technology....................... The rate of increase in prices in 2002 was 7. is the declining library budgets.. ..000 new libraries of the size of Library of Congress (LC)............... Can we imagine a library acquiring that much of information? One of the factors responsible for the overwhelming amount of information is that half of the scientists world has ever produced are still living and working today................................... particularly for India and other third world countries. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit................. Added to it is the problem of devaluation of local currency (i................................................................. five exabytes of information was produced in 2002...................................... This leads to scarcity of space available for housing information... Introduction to Library Networks There is a stress in these definitions on collaborative acquisitions. .................................................. Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.. Diminishing buying power of libraries: Another factor that has added to the increasing cost of published literature................................ this much information is equivalent to information contained in 37.. ............................. To have an idea of this amount of information............... ....

The information produced in the year 2002 was distributed in these various media as under: Media Hard disks Films Paper Optical Media Percentage of information stored 92% 7% 0. access and search the required information. Timely access to information: It is difficult for an individual to lay hands manually on the precise and specific information. stored. in right amount and the form in which their users require it. Internet: The existence of Internet is a major factor that has changed the way information is produced. This is an incentive for the libraries to network. They have an accountability towards the public.Library Networks Increasing awareness and desire to know among users: Widespread education and the concept of equality and democracy in the society have aroused the hunger “to know” among people. magnetic. But why should library networks be formed? The need for forming the library network is as follows: Increasing amount of information. film. required by him/her. and used. 10 . They work to fulfill the information requirement of their users at the right time. and optical storage media.002% Bibliographic access to information is also in electronic form: Access to information is provided through databases produced online and offline. For that they strive to perform well by serving their users best. Networking of libraries has increased the feasibility of resource sharing by overcoming the barriers of distance and time involved in accessing information.01% 0. It has resulted in increased demands being put on libraries. 1. The information may be available within their library or from some outside source. The majority of information produced today is in electronic form. Most of the indexing and abstracting services are now available on the web and the catalogues of libraries are appearing on the net in increasing numbers. from the large mass of information available. The Internet is an enabling factor for libraries to establish networks and share their resources. Accountability in libraries: Librarians depend on public money for survival. Networks are essential to get access to the information when it is available at a distance. transmitted. All these factors force libraries to cooperate with other libraries by sharing their resources. The Internet and Web has also contributed substantially to increase in awareness amongst library users. This is a chain reaction and has acted as a catalyst among users’ increasing need for information. produced today is in electronic form: Information is stored in print.4 LIBRARY NETWORKS : NEED The developments in information technology have made it possible for libraries to establish network. published. Computer helps to process.

. .................... nobody should be deprived of his/ her information requirements............................. 11 .......... ......................................................................... national and regional level to achieve the following goals: Provide democratic access to information We are living in the information age where information is a commodity needed by one and all.......... The information may be bibliographic or full-text............................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit............................................... they can have access to the combined collection of all networked libraries and overcome their limitation at their own limited collection........................................................................................................................................ therefore........ They are strong in some areas and poor in the others........ .......... old or new...... Library networks are instrumental in satisfying the information requirements of users of the libraries in a network..5 LIBRARY NETWORKS: PURPOSE Libraries have joined hands to cooperate and coordinate at various levels to form networks.................. .............. Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.............. They lack resources beyond their reach............ Abridge document collection in different libraries Libraries have different document collection.......... which can be followed by others for standardisation. It is a resource as important as energy..................................................... We are highly dependent on information.......... 1..... Uniform standards are the necessity as well as the by-product of library networks............................................................ Information can be considered as a fundamental right of every citizen................................. ....... print or nonprint.................... Standards in cataloguing and classification can be achieved and followed in different libraries due to networking................................... .......Self Check Exercise 2) ‘Diminishing buying power of libraries necessitates resource sharing’.............. The networks are formed at local.................. Enable uniform practices in routines Networks bring in uniformity in the routines followed by libraries particularly cataloguing and classification............ A central agency can be entrusted the task of cataloguing and classification...... particularly due to paucity of funds..... ....................... Comment........................................................... If libraries are interconnected to other libraries through networks....... Information is required for decision making at different levels.

................................... User should get information when he/she requires it....... .................... Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.................. Comment..... .............................. Self Check Exercises 3) 4) Enumerate the purpose of library networks..... It would also enable to know the exact status of a document whether it is issued or on the shelf or reserved.......................................................................... ‘Library networks have enabled democratic access to information’............Library Networks 1........6 LIBRARY NETWORKS: FUNCTIONS The functions of Library Networks are as follows: Provide Electronic Document Delivery Access to accurate and timely information is very important......... web.. A vast and comprehensive document collection and the support of trained expert manpower need to be deployed to facilitate it............. etc.................................................... Reference and Referral Service Library networks enable faster reference and referral services in a collaborative environment. Documents...... It would result in better allocation of funds and widespread availability of resources............ fax.... Acquisition Rationalisation of acquisition is one the major functions of library network............................... ........... Instant delivery of the document is possible over networks using emails................................. which are rare or costly................................... ii) Check your answers with the answers given at the end of this Unit.................................................................................................................... .................... could be acquired strategically in different locations to enable maximum use.... It would enable libraries to know about the resources of other libraries enabling sharing of resources................. Electronic document delivery is the answer to this..................................................................................... Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) Bibliographic access to the holdings of a library or groups of libraries could be provided through networks................................................................... 12 ... ........................... Funds could be diverted for resources that are found lacking in a particular geographical area..... .................. ............... Core collections could be built up for all libraries..................... Libraries can come together to identify and avoid duplication of resources amongst members of library network...........

Calcutta. These are based on different criteria. he has identified the following barriers to resource sharing: • • • A desire for possessing everything in one’s own library. However. e. etc. networking. Except for. Madras. Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC) is a global library network that provides cost-effective access to resources for users the world over. clientele. MYLIBNET (Mysore Library Network). geographical area. DELNET. resource sharing. and Pune. all others are Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). Similarly. MALIBNET (Madras Library Network). Some of the important networks are listed below: National INFLIBNET (Information and Library Network). Kaul conducted research to study barriers to resource sharing in Indian Libraries. initially Delhi Libraries Network is now Developing Libraries Network with a number of libraries in other countries also becoming its members. subject. Joint Academic Network (JANET) is a network in the UK. 1.g. It covers academic libraries including colleges. CALIBNET (Calcutta Library Network). There are more such networks in other countries about which you will learn in detail in Unit 2 of this Block..7 LIBRARY NETWORKS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Introduction to Library Networks There are a number of library networks operational at national and international level. MANs are widening the scope. Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) is another example of a network of research. that provides access to cataloguing and holding information on documents in different languages of the world.C. Control of collection policies and priorities. Ahmedabad. libraries have formed networks based on subject. The names suggest that they are based at Delhi. 13 . DELNET (Developing Library Network). ADINET (Ahmedabad Library Network). It has a repository of the global knowledge in its database. It is also connected to other such networks in the country and abroad. etc. etc. consortia. universities and polytechnics. PUNENET (Pune Library Network). H. BONET (Bombay Library Network).1. It has evolved and taken different forms e. there is a changing trend with developments in telecommunication technology. Mysore. Changing priorities for collection development. World Cat. K. INFLIBNET is a network of academic and research libraries of India. and public libraries in the US.8 FACTORS HAMPERING RESOURCE SHARING Library cooperation has been in existence since 200 B. Mumbai. In his review of literature. academic. International On the international front also there are a number of networks. (For details of the National Networks please refer to Unit 2 of this Block). It provides access to different kinds of literature at international level. INFLIBNET.g. There are a number of factors that hamper the process of resource sharing.

Document delivery time. Lack of needed support services. the documents in heavy demand should be identified and made easily available to users. documents requested by users should be made available to them. The category of such librarians has reduced to a great extent due 14 . 1. and Technological. in lending the material. Restriction. This is one of the most important barriers in the process of resource sharing.Library Networks • • • • • • • • • Staff and faculty attitudes. Due to limited resources libraries may not participate in resource sharing. document delivery should be electronic. Lack of required administrative structure and support. Lack of awareness among users about cooperation. he suggests that: Thus the problems in resource sharing could be categorized as: • • • • • • Personal problems relate to the attitude of librarians who are averse to sharing of resources. documents should be made available in machine form. Economic. Social. mainly local. Non-conducive political environment. They have to be counselled and educated regarding its importance and benefits. and we should contribute to resource sharing by exchanging information as it is a global phenomena Personal. Organisational.9 FACILITATING RESOURCE SHARING Kaul. and Reluctance to yield autonomy. To follow the above laws. These are: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) • • • • • • Library Resources are for sharing Documents in Standard Database form are the Dynamic Resources for Global Sharing Every Resource its user Every user his or her share of the Resource Minimise the Non-Use Period of Documents in Demand Automated Delivery Mechanisms of Resources will Progressively Grow Resource Sharing is a Global Phenomenon factors hampering resource sharing need to be eliminated. Political. in the conclusion to his study has given laws of resource sharing.

... The policies are with regard to access to electronic versions of their journals (e-journals) and databases............... and number of users accessing the sources... Marc J Maclabee reports that there are 30......................... Affinity could be based on subject........................ Consortia has been formed wherein libraries have formed cooperative acquisition programmes.............. They have come together to the rescue of each other.......... ..... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit......... Out of which 8............... To quote American Library Association’s 2001 report on prices of periodicals........ ..........................................000 academic journals in the world today.......10 LIBRARY CONSORTIA Resource sharing as a concept involved sharing among libraries having some affinity...................................... the Consumer Price Index in the U.......... etc............ ............. Periodicals in law experienced a price rise of 75% during 1991-2000..................................................................... he/she can solve the other problems that relate to his/her organisation and the infrastructure......................... publisher was left out in this collaborative venture... These include service providers like database vendors and online service providers....... rose only by 26%...... For the same period........................................... 1........... One of the important partners in knowledge transmission channel............. Publishers and other agencies involved in distribution of knowledge and information have also been included in the collaborative efforts today.......................to the increasing pressure of variety of document requests made by users and increasing percentage of such requests needed to be met from other libraries...000 are peer-reviewed....... 15 ....... the price rise for the same period for medical periodicals was 165%..... Once the librarian has developed the right attitude and is willing to be part of a network for resource sharing......................... clientele................................................... One of the main reasons for formation of consortia is the spiraling costs of publications particularly the journals....................................... They have chalked out policies in collaboration with publishers and database producers and vendors................... .. The dwindling library budgets against increasing number and cost of periodicals have affected both libraries and publishers..................................... The agreements have been made keeping in view the: • • number of libraries... Libraries and publishers have come together to form library consortia................................... viz.................................... ............................... .................. Similarly...... geographical area.......... Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............................... Self Check Exercise 5) List the barriers to resource sharing in libraries...............S....... .....

All universities which come under UGC’s purview will be members of the programme. Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Centre. IITs. To start with. It will provide access to journals through its recently launched nationwide communication network. 16 . Consortium covers all the disciplines. NITs and a few other centrally funded Government institutions. UGC-INFONET will be a boon to the higher education system in the country. and Technology (INDEST). and the shortage of available resources.. UGC-INFONET. IIMs. India has launched a consortium of e-journals for its member Universities to provide electronic access to scholarly literature over the Internet. University Grants Commission (UGC). The consortium is also a member of International Coalition of Library Consortia (ICOLC). The consortium offers a price advantage on subscription to e-resources that exceeds 80%. UGC will bear the entire expenses for UGC funded universities for providing e-journals access on behalf of participating universities. an agreement has been made with Elsevier Science publishers in which access to its 1700 journals is being provided to the CSIR scientists. The total membership of the consortium is 146. Pure Sciences. It will be responsible for the administration. The consortium aims at providing access to international e-journals to the CSIR scientists. It will place orders for e-journals on behalf of universities and coordinate the programme. It allows the scientists to access and download from these e-journals. monitoring and maintenance of the consortium. It has its headquarters at IIT Delhi.500 e-journals and 8 bibliographic databases. viz. The membership is open to all other educational institutions under its selfsupported category. IIITs. The access to the resources is being provided directly from the publishers’ websites. On behalf of the UGC.Library Networks Indian National Digital Library of Engineering. UGCINFONET is overlaid on Education and Research Network (ERNET) infrastructure to provide assured quality of service and optimal utilisation of Bandwidth resources. is the nodal agency for coordination of the UGC-INFONET. Sciences. The agreement initially is for a period of four years. Each University will have the option of hosting their website and the journals subscribed through University Consortia. the INFLIBNET is executing the UGC-INFONET project in collaboration with the ERNET. ERNET and universities. Social Sciences and Humanities including Management and Languages. Its members are 38 core institutions viz. INFLIBNET Centre is an autonomous Inter-University Centre of the University Grants Commission. The consortium subscribes to 14 full-text resources that covers more than 6. Indian Institute of Science. is a consortium set up and funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) in India. The programme will help in mitigating the severe shortage of periodicals faced by university libraries due to the ever widening gap between the growing demand for literature. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has also formed a Consortium for which National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) has been identified as the nodal agency. It facilitates linkage between UGC. and it will gradually be extended to colleges as well. UGC-INFONET E-Journals Consortium aims to promote the use of electronic databases and full text access to journals by the research and academic community in the country.

........................ ...... This results in their decreasing power 17 . their need and purpose........................................ ................ It is the most recent happening in library networks and resource sharing............ 2) Diminishing buying power of libraries necessitates resources sharing...... We also studied the impediments towards library networks................................. or services whereas............................... E-journals have provided a cost-benefit solution to the problem of journals acquisition in view of easing prices and reducing library budgets........ when needed......... Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.. infrastructure............... The resources can be intellectual.... . It was followed by a discussion of the means to overcome these barriers by facilitating resource sharing.... 1............... thing or action to which one resorts to................................................................................................................. expertise.. conceptual or physical.......................................11 SUMMARY In this Unit you have been introduced to the concept of resource sharing and library networks............ The concept of resource sharing has received a fillip by the introduction of electronic publishing..... Sharing implies allotting or contributing one’s resources for the benefit of others...................... ........ Resource sharing entails reciprocity.................... or physical space............. The importance of library networks was discussed under their functions............................................ ........... Library Consortia resorts to acquiring e-journals in a cooperative way........... 2002.........................12 ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES 1) Resource refers to a person......... ............. The linkage must include a communication mechanism............................ Intellectual or conceptual resources refer to manpower....... Budgets of libraries are going down............... implying a partnership in which each is willing and able to make available resources when needed.... 1................ ...... Briefly describe the INDEST consortium..................... and many networks exist for the purpose of facilitating certain types of communication among members”... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit....... Library network has been defined as a “group of individuals or organisations that are interconnected to form a system to accomplish some specified goal.............................................. Self Check Exercise 6) Define Library Consortia............................................................ physical resources refers to documents......................................UGC-INFONET was formally inaugurated by the Hon’ble Prime Minister on 28th December.................

IITs. 5) Library consortia have been defined as the coming together of libraries. The strength of its members at present is 146. Libraries can come together to identify duplication of resources that lead to wastage. IIITs. The barriers to resource sharing are: • • • • • • • • • • • • 6) A desire for everything here and now. Indian National Digital Library of Engineering Sciences and Technology (INDEST). in lending the material. 18 . Funds could be diverted for resources. Staff and faculty attitudes. It would result in better allocation of funds and widespread availability of resources.Library Networks to buy documents. Control of collection policies and priorities. Abridge document collection in different libraries. Lack of needed support services. There are 38 core institutions viz. is a recent example of a consortium in India.500 journals directly from the publishers’ website. Core collections could be built up for all libraries. Hence they should share resources. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has set up INDEST. IIMs. which are rare or costly. Changing priorities for collection development. INDEST provides access to 6. Documents. 4) Rationalisation of acquisition is one the major functions of library network. These are formed at local. Document delivery time. 3) Libraries have joined hands to cooperate and coordinate at various levels to form networks. Non-conducive political environment. These networks exist to: i) ii) Provide democratic access to information. Restriction. national and regional level. which are found lacking in a particular geographical area. could be acquired strategically in different locations to enable maximum use. The membership is open to other such institutions also. Due to limited resources libraries may not participate in resource sharing. Indian Institute of Science. It provides funds for the resources to be made use of by the participating libraries. Lack of awareness among users about cooperation. Lack of required administrative structure and support. NITs and some other centrally funded Government institutions. Added to it is the widening gap in currency conversion against Indian currency making it all the more difficult for libraries to fulfill the needs of users. publishers and vendors for cooperative acquisition of electronic documents.. iii) Enable uniform practices in routines. and Reluctance to yield autonomy. mainly local.

New York: Marcell Dekker. H. San Diago: Academic Press. Vol 2. pp 362-74. Delhi: Concept. U K: Gower. Vol 25. 19 . In: Sardana. Exabyte : An Exabyte is a unit of measurement in computers of one million million million bytes. e-mail file. Iren P (ed).pdf Kaul H.) (1991).(ed). Libraries in Retrospect and Prospect: Essays in Honour of Prof D. fax. J. conceptual. and physical resources. : The mutual agreement between libraries to share their documents in order to satisfy the needs of their users. to overcome the barrier of distance and time between the user and document. From Printed Bibliographies to Online Databases: Role of Library Networks. Vol 16. Handbook of Library Cooperation. etc. In : CALIBER 2002.in/indest/ http://www. V2.org/best. Mc Dougall. Kalia. Networking of Libraries in India: A Critical Review. Its abbreviation is EB. Allen (ed) (1978). Introduction to Library Networks Library Cooperation Library Networks Library Resource Sharing 1. : The concept refers to two or more libraries sharing their resources. H. Anil Kumar (ed).. Document Delivery: A Primary Service for the Nineties. Delhi: Concept. Internet Engineering for Libraries and Information Centres. R. which includes intellectual. R. and Karisiddappa C R (2002). L. Kaul. and Pryterch. Advances in Librarianship. Allan F.paniitd. J. Library Consortia for Academic Libraries in the e-Publishing Era. In Sardana.13 KEYWORDS Electronic Document Delivery : It refers to document delivered in electronic form viz. Kalia. Ahmedabad: INFLIBNET. Julie (1992). K. (2002).(ed). L. In : Kent. K. pp 423-37. K.org/ala/alonline/selectedarticles/usperiodicals2002.ala. ( 2002). S. In Gordan. (1999). New Delhi: Virgo Publications. Wessling. Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science. Ray (ed. http://www.ac. Resource Sharing in Libraries. : Two or more libraries connected together through telecommunication links for sharing resources and mutual benefit.1.informationaccess. H. Libraries in Retrospect and Prospect: Essays in Honour of Prof D. Library Resource Sharing and Networks.14 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Cholin V. It is a measure of size of storage. Kaul.htm http://www.pp 411-22.

4.7 2.3 2.4 2.3.2 2.3.4. services and current status.0 2.UNIT 2 LIBRARY NETWORKS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Structure 2.4 Library Networks: International Scenario 2.3.2.9 History and Growth of Library Networks in India Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Developing Library Network (DELNET) Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET) Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET) Pune Library Network (PUNENET) Madras Library Network (MALIBNET) Bombay Library Network (BONET) 2.4.8 Summary Keywords Answers to Self Check Exercises References and Further Reading 2.3.1 2.3 Objectives Introduction Library Networks: An Overview 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.8 2.3.4.2 2.1 2.6 Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC) Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) Joint Academy Network (JANET) Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL) China Academic and Library Information System (CALIS) Australia’s Research and Education Network (AARNET) 2.3.3.6 2.6 2.3.1 2. After reading this Unit. you will be able to: 20 .3 2.5 2. know the important library networks in India with regard to their objectives.0 OBJECTIVES understand the meaning and importance of library networks.3.4.2 2.1 Objectives of Library Networks Library Networks: The Indian Scenario 2.7 2.4. and have an insight into the well-known library networks at the international level.

reliably and accurately. libraries work in a networked environment where data and information resources are accessible in electronic format and are shared electronically. The term “library network” is being used increasingly for library cooperation and resource sharing. Libraries may be in different jurisdictions but agree to serve one another on the same basis as each serves its own constituents. of the library networks. In this Unit we will acquaint you with some of the functional library networks in India and abroad. etc. Library network ensures that data and other resources can be shared quickly. present day libraries are unable to meet the information needs of the users.“ A library network is broadly described as a group of libraries coming together with some agreement of understanding to help each other with a view to satisfying the information needs of their clientele”. The main advantage of the library network is that data and other information resources can be shared between a number of users. make it difficult for any library to acquire sufficient number of documents to fulfill the needs of its readers. need. let us first understand the meaning of library networks with the help of some definitions. library network means a group of libraries situated at different locations are connected to each other using computers and communication networks. As Franklin David Jebaraj and Fredrick Robin Devadoss define. through communications. factors like inadequate library budget. As we all know.2 LIBRARY NETWORKS: AN OVERVIEW Due to information explosion and accelerating prices of information services and products. The basic purpose of library networking is sharing of information.1 INTRODUCTION Library Networks : National and International You have already studied the Unit on “Network Concepts” in the first course of this Programme. 21 . accelerating prices of documents and availability of huge amount of information resources. With the advent of information technology. Computers and telecommunications may be among the tools used for facilitating communication among them”. The first Unit of this course “Introduction to Library Networks” deals with the objectives. Before we talk about various national and international library networks.2. information. The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) gave definition of a library network in National Programme Document in the year 1975 as: “Two or more libraries and/or other organisations engaged in a common pattern of information exchange. which basically covers the technological aspect of the networks. purposes. for some functional purpose. A network usually consists of a formal arrangement whereby materials. Earlier. In simple words. data and resources in order to provide better services to its clientele. services. resource sharing methods like Inter-Library Loan (ILL) were used to meet the demands of users. 2. and services provided by a variety of libraries and other organisations are available to all potential users.

promoting computerisation of libraries and information centres through international standards which will facilitate exchange of information. several committees and commissions were setup who came up with various recommendations. increased cost of materials and varieties of demands of the users. improving information handling capabilities through networking of libraries and information centres. sharing equipments etc.2. The general objectives of such networks can be spelt out as follows. avoiding unnecessary duplication of materials through development of adequate collection development policy for member libraries. augmenting weaker resources in the network by increasing cooperation among the member libraries. cooperative acquisition. Some of the reports submitted by these committees 22 .1 Objectives of Library Networks From the above definitions it is apparent that the library networks have been conceived as mechanism for optimum utilisation of resources which is necessitated by the shrinking of library budget.. developing databases of projects. accessing document collection of member libraries through online union catalogues.Library Networks 2. For example. organising document delivery service. As a result. establishing mechanism for access to international databases. coordination with other networks – regional. Jawahar Lal Nehru. The primary objectives are: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) promoting sharing of resources amongst the libraries. such specificity is slowly blurred due to the development of ICT. providing bibliographic information services from indigenously created databases. sharing expertise. though individual networks may have one or more specific objectives depending upon their requirements. 2. networks of metropolitan area thrive to support the information resources of the users of the community based on the resources available within the area. However. 2. specialists and institutions.3.1 History and Growth of Library Networks in India History of library networks in India can be traced back to the year 1958 when on the instance of Pt. Scientific Policy Resolution was adopted emphasising the development of scientific temper among people.3 LIBRARY NETWORKS: THE INDIAN SCENARIO In this section you will be studying some of the functional national library networks. optimising utilisation of resources through shared cataloguing. national and international.

V. INFLIBNET(http://www. It became an independent inter-university centre in the year 1996. etc. and computer/audio/video conferencing. book. magnetic tape/floppy. Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) in 1986. Chattopadhyay as a Chairman of a Committee to evolve a national policy on library information systems.inflibnet. During the 7th Five Year Plan (1985-90) the Planning Commission of Government of India appointed a working group under the Chairmanship of Dr. Catalogue production in card. Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET) in 1993. took initiatives for the setting up of Metropolitan Library Networks in India. Government of India. The main purpose of setting library networks was to strengthen the resource sharing.A. Delhi Library Network (DELNET) in 1988. Further the Government appointed Prof.3. Keeping in mind the above mentioned objectives the Metropolitan City Library Networks. It was expected from these networks to promote resource sharing. National Information System for Science and Technology (NISSAT) established in the year 1977 as a project in the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR). prepare union catalogue of books and periodicals and create centralised databases. Online catalogue access for shared cataloguing and location identification. optical (CDROM). All these reports recommended cooperation among libraries at local.and commissions included: Sinha Committee Report (1959). D. Ahmedabad. INFLIBNET is also working very seriously for effective communication among academicians and researchers in India through electronic mail. Union catalogue of books.in/) is an autonomous inter-university center of UGC. Seshagiri to study the aspects of modernisation of library services and inter-linking of library systems. Ranganathan Report to UGC (1965). located at Gujarat University Campus. The NISSAT has ceased operation since 2004. Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET) in 1995. 23 . Kamath Report (1972). to avoid duplication of resources and also to minimise the cost of acquiring resources. Peter Larzer Committee Report (1972). serials and non-book materials. It is a major national programme of University Grants Commission (UGC) started in the year 1991. namely. INFLIBNET offers the following services to fulfill its objectives: Catalogue based services Shared cataloguing of monographs.2 INFLIBNET: Information and Library Network a) INFLIBNET is an acronym used for Information and Library Network. Bombay Library Network (BONET) in 1994. file transfer. bulletin board. Library Networks : National and International 2. were established and funded by the NISSAT. regional and national level.ac. Pune Library Network (PUNENET) in 1992. P. (now Developing Library Network). This committee submitted the report and stressed the need for resource sharing and linking of education and research organisations. serials and non-book materials. The INFLIBNET has made provision for document delivery service by establishing resource centres around libraries having rich collection of documents. N.

. institutions and 13150 affiliated colleges. INFLIBNET has started many information services: Access to Union Databases of Books............................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.... ERNET (Education and Research Network) and universities provides training to library professionals for using the network and resources made available on it........... .......UGC-INFONET programme with this objective....... functions on consortia approach. Internet based services The network provides academic community with various resources and services............. Experts............ Self Check Exercise 1) What are the information services offered by INFLIBNET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below................. free of cost.................. Information services In order to ensure free flow of information to the end users and strengthen interaction between academics....... For further details on UGC-INFONET please refer to Unit 1 of this course.............21 lakh students and 4............. Scientific Society and the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology.................. through the INFLIBNET website....... ....... UGC-INFONET has been set up by UGC and ERNET India............... Retrospective searches.................... UGC INFONET Programme 1) Due to rising prices of information resources libraries cannot buy and acquire all possible information sources..................... There is a great need for effective communication and coordination among UGC and each university for modernising university campus with campus wide networks and also setting up nation-wide network......27 lakh teachers...... SDI..... Some of the library networks are running consortia for its member libraries and offer information sources and services at a very low cost and bridge the gap between libraries with regard to information have and information have-nots............................ ....... etc............ INFLIBNET which acts as a liaison between UGC. CD-ROM based services Members can access CD-ROM databases in the area of social sciences and humanities..............Library Networks Database services Bibliographic database services.. current awareness services..... It covers more than 88......... Periodicals.. 24 ....... Indian universities constitute one of largest education system in the world........ with 294 universities.....................

...... it was sponsored by NISSAT..........................3 DELNET: Developing Library Network DELNET (Developing Library Network) earlier known as Delhi Library Network till 2001 started in the year 1988 and registered as a society in 1991... in resource sharing and providing a number of services and products.......... E-mail Service..... ii) DEL-DOS – for creating MARC (Machine Readable Catalogue) Records of books.................................... DELNET’s effort.......................................... .......3......nic............. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit...................in) provides ILL Online.... DELNET provides some useful software products namely............ creates new systems in the field........................ Union List of Video Recordings........... Delnet (http://www..... Union List of Current Periodicals........................................................... Government of India and India International Centre (IIC)...... Department of Information Technology................... ..................... Apart from these services... Self Check Exercise 2) Mention the products of DELNET..................... and iv) DELMARC – a LAN based library management software for larger libraries with large collection and clientele. Library Networks : National and International 2...... ............ iii) DEL PLUS – a stand-alone library management software for database creation and maintenance and for OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue).............. especially in India............. etc....... In addition to fulfilling the objectives of library network............ 25 ...... Indian Specialists Database................. Training Programmes........ Bibliographic Database of CD-ROMs...... i) DELSIS – a powerful library networking software........................ ........ Referral Services............ DELNET offers links to related databases and websites on the web in different disciplines... Newspapers..... DELNET also undertakes scientific research in the area of information science and technology.... Sound Recordings................ New Delhi.............. Initially............ Ministry of Communications and Information Technology...delnet........ ................................. Document Delivery Services......................... and Internet Connectivity Service.................................................................................................... applies the results of research and publishes them................ is definitely a significant step towards provision of automated library services....... Creation and Maintenance of Bibliographic Databases.. The following database services are also provided to its member libraries: Online Databases of Union Catalogue of Books........................................... Databases of Periodical Articles........... Retrospective conversion................. DSIR and currently is being promoted jointly by National Informatics Centre (NIC)......... Union Catalogue of Periodicals.. Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.....................

.. undertook the task of linking 38 computerised libraries in the field of science and technology located within the Calcutta metropolitan area and would then proceed to connect to other Metropolitan Area Networks namely.......................................................... DSIR and managed by the Calcutta Society was established in the year 1986 under the West Bengal Government’s Societies Registration Act..........calibnet............................................ Ahmedabad Library Network... The CALIBNET (http://www.. Mysore Library Network....org) activities are centered around providing access to materials available in the eastern region and creation of databases particularly with respect to intellectual assets of West Bengal..... Developing Library Network........................ which contains bibliographic records of participating libraries. The CALIBNET website also provides the following active links for the benefit of member libraries: Indian Library and Network Resources Overseas Library Resources on India Worldwide Library Catalogues National Libraries of the World Newspapers and Journals Electronic Reference Tools Factual Information Sources 26 Document Supply Services .org) provides access to bibliographic information resources available through its centralised databases.......... ConAlert Service gives user the customised service by providing current and tailored bibliographic information... CALIBNET..............Library Networks ...... RetroFile Service provides trend of research on any given specific topic...3............... Madras Library Network.................... in the first phase......................... ...........calibnet.............................. CalibLink gives e-mail connectivity to member libraries...............................................4 CALIBNET: Calcutta Library Network CALIBNET (Calcutta Library Network) project funded by NISSAT................................. CALIBNET offers the following services to fulfill its objectives: Centralised Database (CDB) Service.......... The CALIBNET website (http://www... .... 2..................... 1961........... .................... ConFile Service provides contents of journals of users choice.................... CalibOrder Service offers the requisite backup service by providing full text............... Bombay Library Network.......... etc...

ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.............................3................................................. In the year 1993 it was registered as a society............................................................................................... It is a network of libraries located in and around Ahmedabad................ The services from ADINET includes the following: Database of current periodicals received by over 100 libraries of Ahmedabad Inter-Library Loan Content Pages of LIS Journals 27 .........................5 ADINET: Ahmedabad Library Network ADINET is the abbreviation used for Ahmedabad Library Network (http://www......... ............................. .. and Research and Development in IT Applications...................alibnet................................ library professionals and students.............The website also provides details of varied CALIBNET programmes for: On-Demand Information Services Consultative Service for Library Automation Manpower Development Opportunities.... .......... information centers. Selective Dissemination Information (SDI) Service................................................ ............ access to databases............... and E-Mail Service... Self Check Exercise 3) Name the software package developed by CALIBNET.... LC MARC (Library of Congress Machine Readable Catalogue)........................................................ 2............................................................................................................................. Union Catalogue........... Biblio File.............................. ...org)....................................... . CALIBNET also provides Current Awareness Service (CAS).......................... ........ Library Networks : National and International Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below................................ ADINET sponsored by the NISSAT............ CALIBNET has developed inhouse “SANJUKTA” – a multi user storage and retrieval software to support its centralised database and to provide online access from remote areas.. CD-ROM databases........................................... Its membership is open to all institution libraries............. The other Software “PARAPAR” which is a conversion software package has also been developed to support interchange of bibliographic data................

.....................Library Networks Supply of photocopies from journals received by libraries in and around Ahmedabad Internet surfing facility Database of databases available in LIS Centres in and around Ahmedabad JOLI (Job Opportunities for Librarians) Database Special Internet training to fresh qualified librarians Computer training programmes to library professionals In order to meet the objective of cooperative mode of working among the libraries...... ............. Giving facility to LIS professionals to put their resume on the ADINET website for searching of jobs....................... ADINET is now offering the following services by special expert team at a reasonable charge: Computerisation of libraries Cataloguing and classification of documents Labelling and shelving of books Stock verification of documents Manpower development programmes Planning for library development Completion of any backlog work in the library Some selected cyber café to give 20% discount to ADINET members............ ..........................................mylibnet.6 MYLIBNET: Mysore Library Network MYLIBNET (Mysore Library Network) was set up by NISSAT........................................................ 2........................................... The MYLIBNET (http://www... Mysore.......................... 28 ................ ............................................... Self Check Exercise 4) What are the databases provided by ADINET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit................3......................org) organises various training programme for LIS professionals.. .................................................................. .................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................. DSIR in the year 1995 and is located in the Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTR) Campus..........................................................................

com) is housed in Bio Informatrics Centre.Some of the services provided by MYLIBNET are as follows: Providing technical assistance in the area of LIS. The membership of MALIBNET (http://www. There is also a proposal for online updating of records and databases.com/in/malibnet) is open to universities. At present there are more than 20 participating libraries who deposit their data on regular basis. PuneNet (http://www. Web access to the Union Catalogue of Periodicals subscribed by member libraries for updating their records in the union catalogue database online. etc. For the sharing and exchange of bibliographic data from the participating libraries PuneNet follows the international standard for information exchange – 1SO 2709. Through its website. INSDOC.8 MALIBNET : Madras Library Network The MALIBNET started in the year 1991 in order to provide effective information services to the users in and around Madras. For periodicals database PuneNet may add Ulrich’s database so that more information regarding periodicals may be given to its users. These databases are updated yearly. CD-ROM database services. Photocopy service.angelfire. Services PuneNet Database Services PuneNet hosts many databases namely. PuneNet Libraries Database. This network acts like a gateway to Internet. which is issued for short period of time.3. Library Networks : National and International 2. It subscribes to e-mail service of ERNET. The participating libraries are provided with login and password. the users can access PuneNet databases on the Internet. Pune. online search facility. MALIBNET offers the following services to its members: E-mail service. Other Services Apart from the database services some of the other services includes E-mail and Internet Connectivity. Databases of Booksellers and LIS Professionals. for the benefit of the users.3. photocopy services.punenet. (now NISCAIR) was the executing agency for the MALIBNET project. colleges. MALIBNET was registered as a society in 1993.7 PUNENET: Pune Library Network PuneNet is a joint endeavour of University of Pune. industries and individuals. Union Catalogue of Periodicals. R& D institutions. PuneNet is planning to include Indian language databases. Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) and National Chemical Laboratory (NCL). 29 . This project. Current Awareness Service (CAS). funded by NISSAT was started in the year 1992. which contain old and rare valuable manuscripts. 2.

OCLC (Online Computer Library Centre) earlier Ohio College Library Centre. 2. Contents Database of Journals in Madras (Gives contents information of important journals which is also available online). After this. shared cataloguing and resource sharing.Library Networks Document delivery service. Current serials acquired from the libraries. It is the first computer based library network. the growth of library networks started long back.4 LIBRARY NETWORKS: INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO Library Networks are the extension of the concept of library co-operation. interlibrary loan. NISCAIR services are also available to MALIBNET users.1 OCLC: Online Computer Library Centre In the year 1967 OCLC (Ohio College Library Centre) was founded to develop a computerised system.9 BONET: Bombay Library Network BONET supported by NISSAT. The development of MARC during 1960s is a step towards such cooperation. It gives access to databases CD-ROM. and also conducts seminars. It has enrolled more than 25 libraries as its members. Specialised databases which gives abstracts of articles. training programmes for professional development. DSIR started in the year 1994. In the year 1981. the publication of union catalogue of different types by different countries started appearing in increased numbers. Databases from INSDOC (now NISCAIR) and other participating institutions are also available on MALIBNET host. In the developed countries. 2. the name of OCLC. was changed to Online Computer Library Centre. Directory Database of Current Serials in Madras (Gives journal holdings of member libraries and it is available online). etc.3. began as the first successful library network. The history of library cooperation can be traced back to 200 BC when Alexandria library shared its resources with Pergamen library. which led to the development of many library networks in different parts of the world subsequently. In the year 1963. 30 . 2. MALIBNET permits its members to offer information services on the network. In the beginning of 20th century Library of Congress compiled National Union Catalogue. USA is considered to be the birth place of library networks.4. OCLC emerged as an international network from a regional computer system for 50 Ohio Colleges. where academic libraries of Ohio State shared their resources so that the resource costs could be reduced. Due to this standard the exchange of bibliographic information among computerised library system became a reality.

Resource sharing service helps in sending ILL requests on the web. It holds location listings contributed by member libraries. Membership: OCLC membership comprises more than 50. E-content service enhances the e-collection and other online databases through the net library – electronic collections online services. Digital collection and preservation service is designed to protect and share the digital collection. cataloguing and reference. PromptCat are some of the cataloguing tools of WorldCat. Many OCLC services are based on WorldCat. and receive discounts on OCLC products and services. The vision of the OCLC is to be a leading global library cooperative. etc. WorldCat is the building block for the services provided by OCLC. Reference service gives access to full text documents. For reference and electronic content service WorldCat works as a map showing the users what resources are available and the way to get it. FirstSearch is the powerful reference service for locating references and full text articles. The following are some of the OCLC services. abstracts. record supply and collection sets. Member libraries can take full advantages of OCLC products and services. and users with economic access to knowledge through innovation and collaboration. It consists of many OCLC services. which are used by the member libraries to share information by reducing the cost.000 libraries (all types) in the US and 84 countries of the world. helping libraries. Connexion. WorldCat and virtual reference service. DVD and websites. Collection Management service helps in achieving the collection goals of the member libraries. copy cataloguing. With millions of online records. It lists resources from stone tablets to e-resources and MP3s. For OCLC’s digital collection service WorldCat acts as a portal. They can share the world’s largest union catalogue (WorldCat).The main objective of the OCLC is to have more access to information and reduce costs by offering services to libraries and users. it is one of the largest and most comprehensive bibliographic database. Members can make their collections available to the world through resource sharing. It is a database in higher education designed for research and development. For OCLC cataloguing services WorldCat is the authoritative source which helps in resource sharing service of OCLC. OCLC member libraries make up the world’s largest consortium. Member libraries worked together for more than 30 years to build and maintain WorldCat. Cataloguing and Metadata Service provides online cataloguing. WorldCat: It is a world wide union catalogue developed and created collectively by more than 9000 member institutions. Library Networks : National and International 31 . It provides libraries with rich source of cataloguing records.

libraries.. developed by the Research Libraries Group (RLG)..................... authority work and archives and manuscript processing..................... Hand Pressbook Database......... archives........ RLG archival...... These members are working towards the mission of creating solutions for challenges of information access and management in the digital era....................... A new RLIN21 interface is used to retrieve...4.................. ...... problem solving and development of new standard products and services.......... creating.......................................... new modes for effective global resource sharing....................... Products RLG gives free access (instructional) to a variety of RLG databases to Accredited Schools of Library and Information Science (SLIS).... ............. In order to meet the cooperative action RLG is working towards full online access to research resources.. With the collections of research and learning of member institutions... SCIPIO (Art and Rare Book Sales 32 ..... cultural resources....................................... historical societies and other related institutions.. The RLIN legacy computer program is now being replaced with RLIN21: a new web-based interface to RLG databases... The members of RLG use RLIN system for cataloguing........................................................ English short title catalogue.......................... Under this programme the SLIS can access the Art Museum Image Consortium (AMICO) Library from RLG. .... RLG is an international non-profit membership organisation of more than 160 universities......................................... and contributing records in RLG union catalogue.... ........... RLG was founded in 1974 with its headquarters in California....................................................... 2..................................................................................... RLIN also refers to a computer interface program that is used to work with RLG’s bibliographic records for finding............................................. RLG provides a framework for cooperation.. Further................................ a new RLIN21 client is now used for creating and updating bibliographic and authority records..Library Networks Self Check Exercise 5) What is WorldCat? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below....2 RLIN: Research Libraries Information Network RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network) is a bibliographic information system.............................................. and to provide continuous access to resources through digital preservation.................. ..................................................... .. display and export MARC records... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit....... maintaining...... RLG provides researchers the access to research resources and many innovative information services........................................... ......................... With the RLIN 21 there are some structural changes in all RLG databases.........

RLG and Backstage Library Works developed Marcardio service to provide inexpensive..........................Catalogue). 2...................................... ........... .................... RLIN 21 can also be used as a searching interface........... The objective of JANET is to advance and support UK’s education and research network..... Self Check Exercise 6) Enumerate the services offered by RLG? Library Networks : National and International Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.. .............. artifacts......................................................... ......... archival collection..... This network is operated and developed by UKERNA (United Kingdom Education and Research Network) under the Service Level Agreement from the Joint Information System Committee (JISC) of UK Higher and Further Education Funding Councils...............4............................................................................. RLG Union Catalogue.......................................................................... ................................................. All the higher education organisations and research councils are connected to this network............................................... 33 ............................. traditional library resources. ................................................. These databases contain information and resources.. fast automated cataloguing.. Authority files.......... digital collections.............. users can take advantage of the cataloguing already done by RLG members and can have a copy for their local systems......................3 JANET: Joint Academy Network JANET (Joint Academy Network) is an education and research network funded by UK Government...................... With SCIPIO RLG Union Catalogue and the Authority files. Technical Services RLG’s RLIN 21 software................... RLG’s ILL Manager software programme is for Inter Library Loan....... .................................. Resource Sharing Service SHARES – It is an Inter Lending and Document Supply Programme of RLG for resource sharing among the members of RLG............. Services Online Database Service RLG also provides online access to databases....................... helps the members to create records in RLG’s Union Catalogue and SCIPIO database and Authority File.............................................................. With the help of RLIN web interface..... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.................................. which is windows based........................

. Super JANET: Super JANET is the core of JANET network and is the backbone of the JANET........ Advisory Services and Web Services which includes web mail service. JANET members are thus able to get access to the local computer networks free of charge.... Self Check Exercise 7) What is Super JANET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit. initially with 50 members by late 1980s there were 200 sites. UKERNA organises workshops.... Super JANET 4 was launched to increase the network capacity and strengthen the user base of JANET with further inclusion of education community and the use of Super JANET 4 backbone to inter connect school networks.................. It ensures fast............ JANET interconnects local computer network in UK Research Councils....Library Networks The Joint Academic Network was established in the year 1984. It was proposed in 1989 with the aim to develop a high performance wide area network based on optical fibers. This team advises on security of computers and networks and also provides training programmes for this..... of research and higher education interests.... Universities and Poly-techniques............ JANET is connected with the academic networks of other countries and also forms the part of the global Internet.. equipment and services to be securely located on the Super JANET backbone......... web filtering and web hosting.... .... Super JANET III was aimed at consolidating the pioneering work of Super JANET I and II in 2001... 34 ... Mail Services........... Super JANET is being implemented in phases.. There are many other services provided by JANET including Usenet News Service... JANET NetSight service is basically a networks monitoring service. JANET Services UKERNA offers the following user services over JANET: JANET-CERT is a Computer Emergency Response Team provided by UKERNA as a service on the JANET network... Super JANET II started in 1995 to increase the spread of Super JANET and create MANs (Metropolitan Area Network).... JANET Co-location service helps the customer. conferences and training programmes for the use of JANET Network and services.... JANET gives multipoint video conferencing service and UKRENA supports the training on equipment and technique side...... which is developed by UKERNA to view and understand the performance of the JANET. and effective communication among the members of JANET and the network to meet the changing needs of the community....... Super JANET 4 will be over by December 2005.

......................... ........4................................................. discipline and format from the desktop. strategy for digitisation and digital preservation and also developing and implementing communication strategy for consortia....... 35 ..... Library Networks : National and International 2............................. which represents merged holdings of 26 CURL member institutions and a small portion of nonCURL libraries........ Currently the database contains 38 million records which are mostly from the member libraries and also from LC (Library of Congress) and BNB (British National Bibliography)........................................................ National Library of Scotland and Wales......... preservation..... Services: CURL has created a database for bibliographic records.............................................................. The purpose of this database is to provide a unified source of cataloguing records for use by library staff.................................... Self Check Exercise 8) What are the future plans of CURL? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............... British Library... ........ ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit..................... locate.......................................... Its access for members is free................................................... It contains about 30 million records................................................................. request.................................... For non-members there is a flat rate for searching... These records are stored in UKMARC and can be accessed through telnet or Z39..................... and access the resources irrespective of place..................................................................... The future plans of CURL include development of e-resources tools............. The members of CURL get free access to the union catalogue COPAC (National Online PublicAccess Catalogue).... ........ .... Its membership is 25 which include 22 university libraries........ ....50 client............................................................................ ............................................ Objective of CURL is to help the researchers to search......................................................4 CURL: Consortium of University Research Libraries CURL (Consortium of University Research Libraries) was established in the year 1987 with the mission to “increase the ability of research libraries to share resources for the benefit of the local................ ........................................... Future Plans of CURL CURL-COFOR project is initiated for the sharing of responsibilities in acquisition.................... .................. digitisation and retention................................................................. networking and cooperation........................... national and international research community”............................

..... 2.. ATM links and Internet services............ document delivery service........... CALIS endeavours to transform the role of traditional libraries with the adoption of new technologies... 2.................... training... public libraries and information service organisations........ Current Chinese Periodicals...... CALIS future plan includes: development of a set of databases based on the available resources of individual libraries in China and abroad.. .. During 1997................ develop more e-resources databases and provide e-access to databases developed in China and abroad. union catalogues.................. regional and national) of libraries is to get connected with other international network and information system....................... organise training programmes for staff........ which was initiated as a project in 1989..... e-content loading/presentation....... which was a further improvement of the Internet in Australia with high bandwidth.. e-content licensing.......... CALIS is a part of the Higher Education Public System...... AARNet is also cooperating with local regional networks organisation to increase the capacity of metropolitan regional networks........... Its primary functions include cataloguing services.. Dissertation Abstracts and Conference Proceedings.........4..... ILL..... CALIS is a resource-sharing network based on CERNET (China Education and Research Network)......................... ....... CALIS has created databases like Union Cataloguing Project......... AARNet apart from helping in teaching.......... resource sharing....................... AARNet............ . which is one of the projects supported by State Commission of Education.............. Australia ViceChancellor’s Committee (AVCC) developed AARNet 2............... funded by the Ministry of Education...5 CALIS: China Academic and Library Information System CALIS (China Academic and Library Information System) is a nationwide academic library consortium.Library Networks .. storage facilities......4............ was responsible for the origin of Internet in Australia. union lists.... 36 ............................................ learning and research activities in universities also acted as Internet Service Provider (ISP)...)........ Goals of CALIS By the year 2010...6 AARNET: Australia’s Research and Education Network Australia’s Research and Education Network (AARNet) is managed by a nonprofit APL (AARNet Pvt............ The three level network (local.................. Its members include academic libraries....... coordinated purchasing and data searching............... Key discipline databases........... CALIS envisages itself to become an advanced academic and library resource supporting and serving system........................... shared online catalogues.... Ltd..........

............................................000 staff and students of universities and research organisation................................... Video over IP.............. provide high capacity cost effective Internet services to education and research committees............... . access information for teaching and learning............ Some of the Value added Services provided by AARNET are AARNet Large Object Mirror............. Its main objective is to provide AARNet with a network serving the academic community in Australia at a world-class level........ This networks provides primary IP services as: National On-Net National Off-Net International On-Net International Off-Net – provides IP Connectivity between members – provides IP Connectivity to the Australian domestic Internet – provides access to global Research and Education network – provides access to international commodity Internet Library Networks : National and International This network also provides access to GrangeNet.............................. learning and research by connecting people to the Internet resources.......... Carrier services for members and advanced Internet workshops...... participate in alternative and flexible modes of course delivery.. Self Check Exercise 9) What are the value added services provided by AARNET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............ .... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit............................................ .......... ................The main objectives of this network are to: collaborate in the area of teaching......................... research and administration.... which is a high capacity research network. It was placed to put in active use during 2004....................... AARNet 3 is the third generation of AARNet network........ Europe and Asia..................................................................... Voice Over IP............. This network enables its client-base to: collaborate effectively............. AARNet Services: This network plays an important role in giving the services to its clientele base of more than 80......... 37 ......................................... help in the development of advanced network infrastructure and applications with access to the global Research and Education Network in North and South America.

: A digital collection is a body of materials in digital format treated as a group or considered as a whole. PUNENET (1992) in Pune. such as resource sharing. MYLIBNET (1995) in Mysore. Note: Students are advised to visit the relevant websites (see section 2. which is considered to be a national network.5 SUMMARY After reading this Unit. They can also support research and development. conference papers journal articles etc. NISSAT has been instrumental in setting up of library networks in India. ADINET (1993). : An organised collection of information available on a CD-ROM. AARNET (Australia). JANET (UK).8) for more details. The primary purpose of the library network is to modernise and help the libraries. national and international cooperation and contribute to the growth and development of trained manpower through seminars. CURL (UK). We have also studied some of the important library networks at the international level for example OCLC (America).Library Networks 2. RLIN (US). for example CALIBNET (1986) in Calcutta.6 KEYWORDS : A service designed to aid research workers in keeping themselves abreast of the current developments taking place in their subjects of interest. conferences and symposium. DELNET (1988) in Delhi. : A service whereby the Library provides full-text copies of the documents research papers. 2. CALIS (China). in Ahmedabad and BONET (1994) in Mumbai (earlier Bombay). UGC has established INFLIBNET in 1991. : A group of libraries or other organisations that form a partnership to achieve a goal. : It refers to centralised storage and usage of unified reference information. CAS (Current Awareness Service) CD-ROM Database Centralised Database Consortia Digital Collection Document Delivery Service 38 . we conclude that library networks play a major role in bridging the gap between academic libraries and information centres and ensure resource sharing. The networking of libraries is expected to bring in changes for library and information services in the country. MALIBNET (1991) in Madras. to the users on demand irrespective of the location and form of the original. that cannot be achieved by the individuals alone.

: A network of computers spread over a metropolitan/city-wide area such as buildings located throughout a town or city. by the sharing of resources or division of costs. : Union catalogues of the libraries available online. : A private network inside a company or organisation that uses the same kinds of software as the Internet. which can be advantageous and efficient. : The vast collection of interconnected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60’s and early 70’s. : Retrospective Conversion Service is a service that involves conversion of a library’s paper catalogue records into machine-readable form. : Online Public Access Catalogue. : Collaborative arrangements made between libraries for mutual assistance. It is an online catalogue of a library collection that is available to the public. : A database located in a remote computer and accessed through the Internet.E-Resources Gateway : Electronic information resources accessed via the internet. such as the server through which people on a company’s local area network access the internet. : A cooperative arrangement among libraries by which one library may borrow materials it does not own from another library. The MARC formats are standards for the representation and communication of bibliographic and related information in machine readable form. but is only for internal use and is not connected directly to the global Internet. : Machine Readable Cataloguing. Library Networks : National and International Inter Library Loan Internet Intranet MARC Metropolitan Area Network Online Database Online Union Catalogues OPAC Resource Sharing Retro conversion Service 39 . : A network point that acts as an entrance to another network.

Super JANET Project was proposed in 1989 with the aim to develop a high performance wide area network based on optical fibers. Resource Sharing Service. JOLI (Job Opportunities for Librarians) Database. DELDOS. Database of Current Periodicals. through INFLIBNET website. 3) 4) 5) CALIBNET has developed in house softwares. Future Plans of CURL: CURL will contribute to the development of strategies to coordinate 6) 7) 8) 40 . and Technical Services. : Virtual reference is reference service initiated electronically where patrons employ computers or other Internet technology to communicate with reference staff. videoconferencing etc. DELPLUS and DELMARC. periodicals. experts.Library Networks SDI : SDI is a current awareness system which alerts the user to the latest publications in his/her specified field(s) of interest. It is developed and created collectively by more than 9000 member institutions of OCLC. Online Database Service. Shared Cataloguing Union Catalogues Virtual Reference Service 2. : Union catalogues reveal information about the collections of more than one library. both for cataloguing and inter-library loan purposes.7 1) ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES The INFLIBNET is offering the following information services: Access to union catalogue of books. etc. Database of Databases in LIS Centres in and around Ahmedabad. They are a way for groups of libraries to share information about their collections in a consistent way. without being physically present. : A form of cataloguing undertaken by the Library of Congress and other agencies responsible for material bibliography. WorldCat is a world wide union catalogue of millions of online records. 2) Some of the products provided by DELNET are as follows: DELSIS. Communication channels used frequently in virtual reference include chat. SANJUKTA and PARAPAR. Members can also access CD-ROM databases in the area of Social Sciences and Humanities and it also provides number of Internet based services. such as.

Kaul. F. p.calis. (eds). CURL will adopt the strategy for the development of e-resources discovery tools. Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET). (2003). New Delhi: DELNET. New Delhi: Virgo Publications. and Basy. Video over 1P. AARNet: Australia’s (http://www. Cholin. (2003). (1999).S. (CALIBNET).D.alibnet.aarnet. M. 1-54. networking and cooperation. Library Networks : National and International 2. Information Today and Tomorrow. MLI-004. and Devadoss. preservation. CALIS: China Academic (http://www. CURL (http://www. pp. (http://www. Overview of Library and Information Networks. (http://delnet. Library and Information Networks in India. (1992). 2nd Ed. H. F.edu. Unit 7. Information Today and Tommorrow. (ADINET).ja. Library Networks: A Indian Experience. It will also develop and implement a strategy for digitisation and digital preservation. Partha (2001). PGDLAN. New Delhi: Virgo Publications.inflibnet.uk) Developing Library Network (DELNET).net) Jebaraj.cn) Library and Information System. Carrier services for members and Advanced Internet workshop. K. 24-93.calibnet. 18(4).edu. (http://www. Kaul. digitisation and retention.org) CALIBNET: An Overview (1999).org) ALA World Encyclopedia of Library and Information Services (1986). pp.in) JANET.ac. 3-7. (http://www. K. 9) Value added services provided by AARNET are as follows: Voice over 1P. It will also develop and implement communication strategy for consortia.in) Information Library Network ( INFLIBNET).472.R. Chicago: ALA. 63-101. V. NISSAT Networks: Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET). (2004). Calcutta Library Network. Library and Information Networking: NACLIN 2002. H.an) Ahmedabad Library Network.D.nic.ac. Bhattacharya.mylibnet. CURL-COFOR project initiated the sharing of responsibilities in acquisition. 134-164.org) 41 . 20(3).provisions of research information and generating solution to the information needs. Library Philosphy and Practice. H. 13-14. Library Resource Sharing and Networks. 6(2).curl.8 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Academic and Research Network. Kaul. K. New Delhi: IGNOU. (http://www. (http://www.

N. (Also available: http:// drtc.ac. Matsumoto (2003). G. Annals of Library Science and Documentation.rlg. Paper B.) Shusaku. Information Today and Tomorrow.org) Sahoo.A. 16-18. S.isibang. (1999). T. and Raghavan. (http://punenet. 41(1).in/retrieve/26 paper B.Library Networks Nagarkar. Pune-Net :Current Status.ernet.org/worldcat) Pune Library Network. Sujatha.A Library Network for Madras. Viswanathan. MALIBNET. Research Libraries Group. 13-14 and 30. Resource Sharing and Networking of University Libraries. 2002. 1-31.33(4).oclc. ABD. Subhada (2000). Bibhuti Bhusan (2002). Krishna (2002). 42 . (PUNENET). pp. 1-7. Need for a National Resource Sharing Network in India: Proposed Model. Jayasri (1994). Information Today and Tommorrow 19(3). Workshop on Information Resource Management 13th-15th March. 21(1). Mysore Library Network: MYLIBNET (Network with a difference). DRTC Bangalore. (http://www. OCLC and WorldCat.A. (http://www. New Delhi: ESS ESS Publications. Some Examples of American and European Library Networks.in) Rao.