Indira Gandhi National Open University School of Social Sciences

BLII–004 Network Based Information Services

Block -1 : Library Networks
Unit 1 Unit 2 : : Introduction to Library Networks Library Networks : National and International 07 20

Block - 2 : Internet, Intranet and Extranet
Unit 3 Unit 4 : : Internet Intranet and Extranet 45 61

Block - 3 : Internet Architecture
Unit 5 Unit 6 : : Internet Connectivity and Protocols Structure of Internet 83 97

Block - 4 : Internet-Resources and Services
Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 : : : Internet Resources Internet Tools Internet-based Library Services 111 133 151

Programme Design Committee
Prof. S.B. Ghosh (Chairman) Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. Jagdish Arora Chief Librarian, IIT Delhi Mr. Ishwar Bhatt Librarian BITS, Pilani Prof. B.K. Sen Scientist (Retd.), INSDOC New Delhi Mr. Shashi Bhushan School of Computer and Infromation Sciences IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. R. K. Chadda Director, Parliament Library New Delhi Mr. V.K. Gupta NISCAIR, Head, ETTG (Retd.) New Delhi Dr. (Ms) Neela Jagannathan Librarian, IGNOU (Retd.) New Delhi Dr. Neena Talwar Kanungo Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Prof. A. Neelameghan UNESCO Expert Bangalore Dr. Pravakar Rath Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. E. Rama Reddy Librarian University of Hyderabad Prof. R. Satyanarayana Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Mr. V.V. Subramaniyam School of Computer and Information Sciences IGNOU, New Delhi Prof. Uma Kanjilal (Convenor) Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi

Programme Coordinators: Prof. Uma Kanjilal & Dr. Jaideep Sharma
Course Editor
Dr. Jagdish Arora

Course Coordinator
Prof. Uma Kanjilal

Course Preparation Team
Block-1: Library Networks Unit
1 2

Contributor
Dr. Jaideep Sharma Dr. Neena Talwar Kanungo

Block-2: Internet, Intranet and Extranet Unit Contributor
3 to 4 Mr. V.V. Subramaniyam

Block-3: Internet Architecture Unit
5 to 6

Contributor
Mr. P.V. Suresh

Block-4: Internet-Resources and Library Services Unit Contributor
7 8 to 9 Ms. Sujata Santosh Prof. Uma Kanjilal

Material Production
Mr. Jitender Sethi Mr. S.S. Venkatachalam Mr. Manjit Singh
December, 2005

Editorial Assistance
Ms. Sujata Santosh

Secreterial Assistance
Mr. Devbrat Singh Chauhan

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COURSE INTRODUCTION
The emergence of Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) as a new media of information storage and delivery provide an unparalleled media for delivery of information with greater speed and economy. The Internet and web technology has changed the way information is stored, retrieved, communicated and broadcasted, it is likely to revolutionise the way publishers, publishing industry and scientists function in the era predominately guided by the printing technology. These technologies have triggered large scale commercial and non-commercial digitisation programmes the world over. Increasing number of commercial and society publishers are using the Internet as a global medium to offer their publications to the international community of scientists and technologists. The web-based electronic information products not only eliminate paper, physical storage and transportation costs, they also offer a host of other possibilities for incorporating multimedia and hyper-link features to electronic documents hitherto impossible on paper media. This, in turn, has led to the generation of new services that were non-existent as well as modification of existing services and their deliverables. The Internet, web technologies and digital-based electronic information products are exerting ever-increasing pressure on the traditional libraries, which, in turn, are committing larger portions of their budgetary allocation for either procuring or accessing web-based online or full-text search services, CD ROM products, online databases, multimedia products, etc. While there is a continuous demand from the users to increase the resources and services, the manpower, physical infrastructure and financial resources made available to the libraries is decreasing. These factors have contributed to the necessity of establishing library networks and resource sharing amongst libraries. With technological advancements and availability of affordable computing power, libraries and information centres around the world have computerised their library routines and have developed databases for shared use on computer networks. Besides improving services and operations for improved performance, libraries have been able to evolve effective computer networks with an aim to optimise utilisation of resources and facilities. The library and information networks have potential to improve library services in several ways. It brings down the cost of information products and services in the network environment in shared mode. It enables libraries to offer needbased services to the end users eliminating the limitation of size, distance and language barriers among them. With evolution of library networks, the emphasis has moved from the networks as physical entities to the resources available through the networks. These network accessible resources include databases of library holdings, journal articles, electronic text, images, video and audio files, scientific and technical data, etc. A network is developed when a group of libraries and/or information centres decides to exchange information using computers. The library networks use existing communication facilities to establish networks amongst libraries that agree to cooperate amongst themselves through more or less formal agreements with a view of pooling their resources and to offer better services to the users. The participating libraries generally follow identical or compatible rules and procedures.

The course comprises nine units namely: Unit 1. Unit 2. Unit 3. Unit 4. Unit 5. Unit 6. Unit 7. Unit 8. Unit 9. Introduction to Library Networks Library Networks: National and International Internet Intranet and Extranet Internet Connectivity and Protocols Structure of Internet Internet Resources Internet Tools Internet-based Library Services

Unit 1 provides a brief introduction to the library networks. It provides definition of library networks and resource sharing, and establishes relationship between the two. Need, purpose, and functions of a library network are described briefly. The unit makes a mention of important library networks at the national and international level. It briefly touches upon factors that are hampering the process of resource sharing. Lastly, the unit introduces the concept of library consortia and their need. The unit provides a brief description of INDEST Consortium and the UGC INFONET Consortium as examples. Unit 2 deals with library networks at national and international level. It provides a brief overview of library networks with reasons that led to their growth and development. The unit describes various library networks that exist in India as well as a few important networks at international level. Unit 3 provides a brief introduction to the Internet with its history and evolution. It highlights the functioning, governance and utility of the Internet for a common person. The unit briefly describes various methods of Internet connection. Tools and services offered on the Internet are dealt in details. Unit 4 deals with definition, needs, benefits, and features of Intranet and Extranet. It discusses applications of Intranet and Extranet and differentiates between the Internet, Intranet and Extranet. The unit elaborates on Intranet and Extranet security mechanism. Unit 5 introduces Internet protocols and describes functions of important Internet protocols. The unit also describes various options available for getting Internet connectivity. Unit 6 deals with organisation and structure of Internet. The unit describes various components of Internet structure including PCs, communication equipment, ISPs and ISP backbone, web servers and services for the users. It elaborates on Internet society and also various Internet standards. Unit 7 deals with Internet resources, its advantages and use. It describes various types of Internet resources, namely, primary sources, online databases, reference sources, libraries, and subject gateways. The unit also deals with evaluation of Internet resources. Unit 8 elaborates on different Internet tools such as search engines, subject directories, deep web or invisible web. Internet communication tools, conferencing tools, transmission and access tools are described briefly. Unit 9 describes Internet-based library services including library web sites, library portals, subject gateways, virtual reference service, weblogs, and RSS.

Block 1 LIBRARY NETWORKS .

understand the functions of library networks. you will be able to: 1. To satisfy the diverse needs of their users.7 1.0 OBJECTIVES get an insight into the historical perspective of resource sharing. comprehend the concept and objectives of library networks. The 7 .14 INTRODUCTION TO LIBRARY NETWORKS Objectives Introduction Definitions: Resource Sharing and Library Networks Resource Sharing: Need Library Networks: Need Library Networks: Purpose Library Networks Functions Library Networks: National and International Factors Hampering Resource Sharing Facilitating Resource Sharing Library Consortia Summary Answers to Self Check Exercises Keywords References and Further Reading 1. become aware of the factors hampering resource sharing. socio-economic status.4 1. They have to satisfy their users by providing them the right information. educational background. The needs of users are diverse depending upon their characteristics viz.13 1.12 1. realise the need of resource sharing.1 1. and the context in which they need the information.0 1. After reading this Unit.6 1.5 1. know how to overcome the barriers to resource sharing.2 1.8 1. It is expressed by the term ‘library cooperation’.UNIT 1 Structure 1. and familiarise yourself with the concept of library consortia.1 INTRODUCTION Libraries exist to serve their users. age. libraries depend upon each other.11 1. in the right quantity.10 1.3 1.9 1. in the right form at the right time.

Resource Sharing Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science has defined two components of the term. Library networks have enabled libraries to come together to serve their users better.2 DEFINITIONS: RESOURCE SHARING AND LIBRARY NETWORKS Let us look into the definitions of Resource Sharing and Library Networks to understand the basic concepts behind it. . This change speaks of the level of inter-dependence of libraries. “Resource” and “Sharing”. when needed. and telecommunications made it possible to transfer and transmit them electronically thus. This has been a well-accepted fact for centuries and thus. ILL has evolved into Resource Sharing wherein libraries share resources other than documents also. The developments in storage and telecommunication technology have facilitated libraries to establish library networks and that facilitates better connection amongst libraries. i. 1) 8 A network’s function is to marshal resources from its environment to accomplish results beyond the ability of any one of its members.” Another definition of a network describes it in terms of its characteristics. implying a partnership in which each is willing and able to make available resources when needed. conceptual or physical. Computers made possible the creation of electronic documents. Sharing implies allotting or contributing one’s resources for the benefit of others. ILL was not easy to provide owing to the time. expertise.e.Library Networks most basic form of this cooperation starts with sharing of documents amongst libraries. and many networks exist for the explicit purpose of facilitating certain types of communication among members. there have been concerted efforts on the part of the libraries to cooperate. physical resources refer to documents. overcoming the barriers of geographical distance and time. The linkage must include a communication mechanism. 1. Library Networks Libraries cannot stand in isolation. or services whereas. Library network has been defined as a “group of individuals or organisations that are interconnected to form a system to accomplish some specified goal. Resource sharing entails reciprocity. distance and money involved. Libraries satisfy the document requirement of their users through ‘Inter-Library Loan’ (ILL) from other libraries. These efforts were made more productive with developments in computer and telecommunication technologies. or physical space. These resources include physical. viz. The library consortium is the latest form of library cooperation wherein libraries and publishers have come together to take the benefit of network technology and web-based e-resources. infrastructure. thing or action to which one resorts to. Intellectual or conceptual resources refer to manpower. Resource refers to a person. intellectual and conceptual resources. Libraries could be connected locally as well as globally into library networks. The resources can be intellectual.

. which is an objective of library networks...... Escalation in Cost of published literature: The increase in prices of publications is evident from the result of a sample study of periodicals published in the US........ ........ LC has 17 million books containing about 136 terabytes of information............................................................. particularly for India and other third world countries..................2) A network has developed an organisational design and structure that allows it to establish an identifiable domain and exercise appropriate influence over its members.e. Introduction to Library Networks There is a stress in these definitions on collaborative acquisitions.......................... The rate of increase in prices in 2002 was 7.. To have an idea of this amount of information. ................................................................ Why should they then serve users of other libraries with their resources? The answer to this question lies in the fact that: Information is being produced at a very fast pace: According to an estimate.................................................................................... It has resulted in diminishing power of libraries to acquire literature............ Can we imagine a library acquiring that much of information? One of the factors responsible for the overwhelming amount of information is that half of the scientists world has ever produced are still living and working today.................................................... is the declining library budgets........3 RESOURCE SHARING : NEED Why should libraries share their resources? This question comes to mind in view of the fact that libraries acquire resources to serve their users............. five exabytes of information was produced in 2002.. This leads to scarcity of space available for housing information.........................................000 new libraries of the size of Library of Congress (LC)............ Diminishing buying power of libraries: Another factor that has added to the increasing cost of published literature................................ this much information is equivalent to information contained in 37.... Rupees) against US Dollar or other currencies............ ...................... 9 ....... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit..... ........................... An effective library network requires an administrative structure and planning....................................... It has a base in communications technology................................................9%................ Self Check Exercise 1) Define resource sharing and library networks........ Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.... ................................ Added to it is the problem of devaluation of local currency (i......... It is more pronounced for science and technology compared to social sciences.... ........................... 1....

Networks are essential to get access to the information when it is available at a distance. But why should library networks be formed? The need for forming the library network is as follows: Increasing amount of information. required by him/her. All these factors force libraries to cooperate with other libraries by sharing their resources. The majority of information produced today is in electronic form. Networking of libraries has increased the feasibility of resource sharing by overcoming the barriers of distance and time involved in accessing information. Accountability in libraries: Librarians depend on public money for survival. film. transmitted. The Internet and Web has also contributed substantially to increase in awareness amongst library users. and used.4 LIBRARY NETWORKS : NEED The developments in information technology have made it possible for libraries to establish network. 1.002% Bibliographic access to information is also in electronic form: Access to information is provided through databases produced online and offline. stored. The information may be available within their library or from some outside source. Internet: The existence of Internet is a major factor that has changed the way information is produced. in right amount and the form in which their users require it. published.01% 0. produced today is in electronic form: Information is stored in print. They work to fulfill the information requirement of their users at the right time. magnetic. Most of the indexing and abstracting services are now available on the web and the catalogues of libraries are appearing on the net in increasing numbers. from the large mass of information available. This is an incentive for the libraries to network. Computer helps to process. The information produced in the year 2002 was distributed in these various media as under: Media Hard disks Films Paper Optical Media Percentage of information stored 92% 7% 0. They have an accountability towards the public. access and search the required information.Library Networks Increasing awareness and desire to know among users: Widespread education and the concept of equality and democracy in the society have aroused the hunger “to know” among people. This is a chain reaction and has acted as a catalyst among users’ increasing need for information. The Internet is an enabling factor for libraries to establish networks and share their resources. For that they strive to perform well by serving their users best. 10 . Timely access to information: It is difficult for an individual to lay hands manually on the precise and specific information. and optical storage media. It has resulted in increased demands being put on libraries.

..................... national and regional level to achieve the following goals: Provide democratic access to information We are living in the information age where information is a commodity needed by one and all....... Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............................ Enable uniform practices in routines Networks bring in uniformity in the routines followed by libraries particularly cataloguing and classification.... therefore....... Uniform standards are the necessity as well as the by-product of library networks.................. Standards in cataloguing and classification can be achieved and followed in different libraries due to networking................................. nobody should be deprived of his/ her information requirements.......................................................... They lack resources beyond their reach........................... old or new.......... Information is required for decision making at different levels... ...................... ............................................. ....... A central agency can be entrusted the task of cataloguing and classification..................................... 11 .......... Abridge document collection in different libraries Libraries have different document collection......... ........ .......... print or nonprint.................. 1...................................... If libraries are interconnected to other libraries through networks.......... they can have access to the combined collection of all networked libraries and overcome their limitation at their own limited collection........... Library networks are instrumental in satisfying the information requirements of users of the libraries in a network.................................. which can be followed by others for standardisation................................................................ We are highly dependent on information.. Information can be considered as a fundamental right of every citizen.........Self Check Exercise 2) ‘Diminishing buying power of libraries necessitates resource sharing’......................................... It is a resource as important as energy.....5 LIBRARY NETWORKS: PURPOSE Libraries have joined hands to cooperate and coordinate at various levels to form networks..... The networks are formed at local.................................................................................. The information may be bibliographic or full-text. particularly due to paucity of funds............... They are strong in some areas and poor in the others.............................. Comment............................................................... ................... ..... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit...................

............................. User should get information when he/she requires it............. ...... Comment.................................................................... .................... ............Library Networks 1............................................................. could be acquired strategically in different locations to enable maximum use. 12 .............. Self Check Exercises 3) 4) Enumerate the purpose of library networks.................................... etc.... web............... fax............. .......... ....................... Reference and Referral Service Library networks enable faster reference and referral services in a collaborative environment....................... ................................................................. Instant delivery of the document is possible over networks using emails........ It would enable libraries to know about the resources of other libraries enabling sharing of resources................6 LIBRARY NETWORKS: FUNCTIONS The functions of Library Networks are as follows: Provide Electronic Document Delivery Access to accurate and timely information is very important.............................. It would result in better allocation of funds and widespread availability of resources............. Documents..... which are rare or costly.................... ii) Check your answers with the answers given at the end of this Unit................................................ Core collections could be built up for all libraries................. Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) Bibliographic access to the holdings of a library or groups of libraries could be provided through networks.. Acquisition Rationalisation of acquisition is one the major functions of library network....................... Funds could be diverted for resources that are found lacking in a particular geographical area...... A vast and comprehensive document collection and the support of trained expert manpower need to be deployed to facilitate it................................. Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............................ It would also enable to know the exact status of a document whether it is issued or on the shelf or reserved....... Libraries can come together to identify and avoid duplication of resources amongst members of library network................. ‘Library networks have enabled democratic access to information’................................................................... Electronic document delivery is the answer to this............................................................. ..................

(For details of the National Networks please refer to Unit 2 of this Block). However. and public libraries in the US. BONET (Bombay Library Network).7 LIBRARY NETWORKS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Introduction to Library Networks There are a number of library networks operational at national and international level. Kaul conducted research to study barriers to resource sharing in Indian Libraries. MYLIBNET (Mysore Library Network). etc.g. These are based on different criteria.g. DELNET (Developing Library Network).. INFLIBNET. initially Delhi Libraries Network is now Developing Libraries Network with a number of libraries in other countries also becoming its members. networking. It provides access to different kinds of literature at international level. K. all others are Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). CALIBNET (Calcutta Library Network). 13 . that provides access to cataloguing and holding information on documents in different languages of the world. Calcutta. libraries have formed networks based on subject. universities and polytechnics. It is also connected to other such networks in the country and abroad. e. subject. and Pune. In his review of literature. There are a number of factors that hamper the process of resource sharing. Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC) is a global library network that provides cost-effective access to resources for users the world over.C. academic. Some of the important networks are listed below: National INFLIBNET (Information and Library Network).1. ADINET (Ahmedabad Library Network). Mysore. Mumbai. there is a changing trend with developments in telecommunication technology. Changing priorities for collection development.8 FACTORS HAMPERING RESOURCE SHARING Library cooperation has been in existence since 200 B. Control of collection policies and priorities. The names suggest that they are based at Delhi. consortia. It has a repository of the global knowledge in its database. Joint Academic Network (JANET) is a network in the UK. PUNENET (Pune Library Network). Except for. There are more such networks in other countries about which you will learn in detail in Unit 2 of this Block. resource sharing. International On the international front also there are a number of networks. MALIBNET (Madras Library Network). Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) is another example of a network of research. clientele. etc. etc. geographical area. DELNET. Madras. World Cat. H. INFLIBNET is a network of academic and research libraries of India. 1. It has evolved and taken different forms e. Ahmedabad. he has identified the following barriers to resource sharing: • • • A desire for possessing everything in one’s own library. It covers academic libraries including colleges. Similarly. MANs are widening the scope.

1. Political. the documents in heavy demand should be identified and made easily available to users. and Reluctance to yield autonomy. and Technological.9 FACILITATING RESOURCE SHARING Kaul.Library Networks • • • • • • • • • Staff and faculty attitudes. Lack of required administrative structure and support. They have to be counselled and educated regarding its importance and benefits. in lending the material. These are: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) • • • • • • Library Resources are for sharing Documents in Standard Database form are the Dynamic Resources for Global Sharing Every Resource its user Every user his or her share of the Resource Minimise the Non-Use Period of Documents in Demand Automated Delivery Mechanisms of Resources will Progressively Grow Resource Sharing is a Global Phenomenon factors hampering resource sharing need to be eliminated. Document delivery time. document delivery should be electronic. To follow the above laws. Restriction. he suggests that: Thus the problems in resource sharing could be categorized as: • • • • • • Personal problems relate to the attitude of librarians who are averse to sharing of resources. documents requested by users should be made available to them. documents should be made available in machine form. Social. mainly local. in the conclusion to his study has given laws of resource sharing. Organisational. Due to limited resources libraries may not participate in resource sharing. This is one of the most important barriers in the process of resource sharing. Economic. Lack of needed support services. The category of such librarians has reduced to a great extent due 14 . and we should contribute to resource sharing by exchanging information as it is a global phenomena Personal. Lack of awareness among users about cooperation. Non-conducive political environment.

.......... publisher was left out in this collaborative venture.... and number of users accessing the sources........ Once the librarian has developed the right attitude and is willing to be part of a network for resource sharing........... Affinity could be based on subject..................................... Self Check Exercise 5) List the barriers to resource sharing in libraries........................ Out of which 8......................... he/she can solve the other problems that relate to his/her organisation and the infrastructure......... The dwindling library budgets against increasing number and cost of periodicals have affected both libraries and publishers........................ Periodicals in law experienced a price rise of 75% during 1991-2000......... ..................................................... ..........S.......to the increasing pressure of variety of document requests made by users and increasing percentage of such requests needed to be met from other libraries............ the price rise for the same period for medical periodicals was 165%...10 LIBRARY CONSORTIA Resource sharing as a concept involved sharing among libraries having some affinity............. To quote American Library Association’s 2001 report on prices of periodicals........................................... 1... They have come together to the rescue of each other.......................... Consortia has been formed wherein libraries have formed cooperative acquisition programmes.............. The agreements have been made keeping in view the: • • number of libraries.................................... The policies are with regard to access to electronic versions of their journals (e-journals) and databases........................................................................................... .. Publishers and other agencies involved in distribution of knowledge and information have also been included in the collaborative efforts today...................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.. 15 .. etc.................................................. rose only by 26%................................ the Consumer Price Index in the U.... Similarly.......................................... For the same period.... Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.......000 are peer-reviewed..... One of the important partners in knowledge transmission channel.000 academic journals in the world today............ ..................... .................. geographical area...... .............. Marc J Maclabee reports that there are 30................ Libraries and publishers have come together to form library consortia............. viz........................ These include service providers like database vendors and online service providers...... clientele.... .... They have chalked out policies in collaboration with publishers and database producers and vendors.................... One of the main reasons for formation of consortia is the spiraling costs of publications particularly the journals..........................................

Indian Institute of Science. monitoring and maintenance of the consortium. and it will gradually be extended to colleges as well. the INFLIBNET is executing the UGC-INFONET project in collaboration with the ERNET. and Technology (INDEST).Library Networks Indian National Digital Library of Engineering. The membership is open to all other educational institutions under its selfsupported category. Each University will have the option of hosting their website and the journals subscribed through University Consortia. On behalf of the UGC. is the nodal agency for coordination of the UGC-INFONET. IIMs. It facilitates linkage between UGC. IIITs. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has also formed a Consortium for which National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) has been identified as the nodal agency. UGC-INFONET will be a boon to the higher education system in the country. Its members are 38 core institutions viz. The total membership of the consortium is 146. Sciences. IITs. Pure Sciences. NITs and a few other centrally funded Government institutions. The access to the resources is being provided directly from the publishers’ websites. UGC-INFONET. is a consortium set up and funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) in India. All universities which come under UGC’s purview will be members of the programme. India has launched a consortium of e-journals for its member Universities to provide electronic access to scholarly literature over the Internet. To start with. INFLIBNET Centre is an autonomous Inter-University Centre of the University Grants Commission. UGC will bear the entire expenses for UGC funded universities for providing e-journals access on behalf of participating universities.500 e-journals and 8 bibliographic databases. 16 . Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Centre. Social Sciences and Humanities including Management and Languages. and the shortage of available resources. UGCINFONET is overlaid on Education and Research Network (ERNET) infrastructure to provide assured quality of service and optimal utilisation of Bandwidth resources. ERNET and universities. UGC-INFONET E-Journals Consortium aims to promote the use of electronic databases and full text access to journals by the research and academic community in the country. It has its headquarters at IIT Delhi. The agreement initially is for a period of four years. It will place orders for e-journals on behalf of universities and coordinate the programme. The consortium offers a price advantage on subscription to e-resources that exceeds 80%.. University Grants Commission (UGC). It will be responsible for the administration. The consortium is also a member of International Coalition of Library Consortia (ICOLC). an agreement has been made with Elsevier Science publishers in which access to its 1700 journals is being provided to the CSIR scientists. It allows the scientists to access and download from these e-journals. The consortium aims at providing access to international e-journals to the CSIR scientists. Consortium covers all the disciplines. It will provide access to journals through its recently launched nationwide communication network. viz. The programme will help in mitigating the severe shortage of periodicals faced by university libraries due to the ever widening gap between the growing demand for literature. The consortium subscribes to 14 full-text resources that covers more than 6.

....................... Self Check Exercise 6) Define Library Consortia.................... We also studied the impediments towards library networks................... or services whereas............................ implying a partnership in which each is willing and able to make available resources when needed................... The concept of resource sharing has received a fillip by the introduction of electronic publishing.. and many networks exist for the purpose of facilitating certain types of communication among members”.... ...............................................................UGC-INFONET was formally inaugurated by the Hon’ble Prime Minister on 28th December.................................................................................. Budgets of libraries are going down........................11 SUMMARY In this Unit you have been introduced to the concept of resource sharing and library networks............................................................. expertise..........12 ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES 1) Resource refers to a person.......... The linkage must include a communication mechanism......... Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............... ......... The importance of library networks was discussed under their functions........... Sharing implies allotting or contributing one’s resources for the benefit of others................ physical resources refers to documents................... ............... 1... thing or action to which one resorts to.......... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.. ...................................... Briefly describe the INDEST consortium......................... ......... ........... The resources can be intellectual............. their need and purpose...................... when needed............. Library Consortia resorts to acquiring e-journals in a cooperative way................ 2002.......... 1.. Library network has been defined as a “group of individuals or organisations that are interconnected to form a system to accomplish some specified goal........ infrastructure.................................. Resource sharing entails reciprocity.. E-journals have provided a cost-benefit solution to the problem of journals acquisition in view of easing prices and reducing library budgets.......... It was followed by a discussion of the means to overcome these barriers by facilitating resource sharing....................... or physical space............... Intellectual or conceptual resources refer to manpower................... .................................................. It is the most recent happening in library networks and resource sharing......... 2) Diminishing buying power of libraries necessitates resources sharing......... conceptual or physical............... This results in their decreasing power 17 ...............

The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has set up INDEST. Due to limited resources libraries may not participate in resource sharing. which are rare or costly. could be acquired strategically in different locations to enable maximum use. Documents. is a recent example of a consortium in India. 4) Rationalisation of acquisition is one the major functions of library network. NITs and some other centrally funded Government institutions. national and regional level. There are 38 core institutions viz. Non-conducive political environment.Library Networks to buy documents. Staff and faculty attitudes. 18 . INDEST provides access to 6. IIITs. These are formed at local. which are found lacking in a particular geographical area. Core collections could be built up for all libraries. publishers and vendors for cooperative acquisition of electronic documents. These networks exist to: i) ii) Provide democratic access to information. Libraries can come together to identify duplication of resources that lead to wastage. Abridge document collection in different libraries. Indian National Digital Library of Engineering Sciences and Technology (INDEST). Lack of awareness among users about cooperation. Funds could be diverted for resources. 5) Library consortia have been defined as the coming together of libraries.500 journals directly from the publishers’ website. 3) Libraries have joined hands to cooperate and coordinate at various levels to form networks. Lack of required administrative structure and support. Lack of needed support services. IITs. Restriction. It provides funds for the resources to be made use of by the participating libraries. iii) Enable uniform practices in routines. The barriers to resource sharing are: • • • • • • • • • • • • 6) A desire for everything here and now. Hence they should share resources. IIMs.. Added to it is the widening gap in currency conversion against Indian currency making it all the more difficult for libraries to fulfill the needs of users. and Reluctance to yield autonomy. Document delivery time. The membership is open to other such institutions also. Indian Institute of Science. in lending the material. mainly local. The strength of its members at present is 146. Control of collection policies and priorities. It would result in better allocation of funds and widespread availability of resources. Changing priorities for collection development.

Ray (ed. Delhi: Concept. In Gordan. U K: Gower. fax. In: Sardana. Ahmedabad: INFLIBNET. Allan F. From Printed Bibliographies to Online Databases: Role of Library Networks. K.org/ala/alonline/selectedarticles/usperiodicals2002. and physical resources.) (1991).14 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Cholin V. Kalia. Handbook of Library Cooperation.ac. ( 2002). Vol 2. Kalia. (2002). V2.in/indest/ http://www. K. Library Resource Sharing and Networks. 19 . Wessling. J. Vol 25.13 KEYWORDS Electronic Document Delivery : It refers to document delivered in electronic form viz. L. Introduction to Library Networks Library Cooperation Library Networks Library Resource Sharing 1. R. Its abbreviation is EB. K. Iren P (ed).paniitd. In : CALIBER 2002. Kaul. J. In Sardana.informationaccess.(ed). pp 362-74. to overcome the barrier of distance and time between the user and document.htm http://www. Resource Sharing in Libraries. Document Delivery: A Primary Service for the Nineties. (1999).org/best. conceptual. Delhi: Concept. It is a measure of size of storage.1. : Two or more libraries connected together through telecommunication links for sharing resources and mutual benefit. H. : The mutual agreement between libraries to share their documents in order to satisfy the needs of their users. Julie (1992). Advances in Librarianship. which includes intellectual.ala. Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science. H. : The concept refers to two or more libraries sharing their resources. Allen (ed) (1978). H.pp 411-22. Library Consortia for Academic Libraries in the e-Publishing Era. Mc Dougall. Anil Kumar (ed). In : Kent. etc. S. e-mail file. Libraries in Retrospect and Prospect: Essays in Honour of Prof D. http://www. R. New York: Marcell Dekker.(ed). Exabyte : An Exabyte is a unit of measurement in computers of one million million million bytes. Kaul.pdf Kaul H. pp 423-37. Libraries in Retrospect and Prospect: Essays in Honour of Prof D. New Delhi: Virgo Publications. San Diago: Academic Press. Networking of Libraries in India: A Critical Review. L. Vol 16. Internet Engineering for Libraries and Information Centres.. and Karisiddappa C R (2002). and Pryterch.

6 2.8 2.2 2.8 Summary Keywords Answers to Self Check Exercises References and Further Reading 2.1 2.3.4.3.9 History and Growth of Library Networks in India Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Developing Library Network (DELNET) Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET) Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET) Pune Library Network (PUNENET) Madras Library Network (MALIBNET) Bombay Library Network (BONET) 2.3.3.5 2.0 OBJECTIVES understand the meaning and importance of library networks.5 2.5 2.4.3 2. After reading this Unit.3.4.1 2. and have an insight into the well-known library networks at the international level.3.7 2. services and current status.2 2.3.4 Library Networks: International Scenario 2.3.1 Objectives of Library Networks Library Networks: The Indian Scenario 2.4.6 2.2.6 Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC) Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) Joint Academy Network (JANET) Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL) China Academic and Library Information System (CALIS) Australia’s Research and Education Network (AARNET) 2.3. you will be able to: 20 .4.4.4 2.4 2.3 Objectives Introduction Library Networks: An Overview 2.0 2.1 2.UNIT 2 LIBRARY NETWORKS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Structure 2. know the important library networks in India with regard to their objectives.2 2.7 2.3 2.

purposes. through communications. As Franklin David Jebaraj and Fredrick Robin Devadoss define. for some functional purpose. accelerating prices of documents and availability of huge amount of information resources. information.2. A network usually consists of a formal arrangement whereby materials. factors like inadequate library budget. Library network ensures that data and other resources can be shared quickly. Earlier. The term “library network” is being used increasingly for library cooperation and resource sharing. etc. which basically covers the technological aspect of the networks. The first Unit of this course “Introduction to Library Networks” deals with the objectives. 2. need. The main advantage of the library network is that data and other information resources can be shared between a number of users. The basic purpose of library networking is sharing of information. As we all know.“ A library network is broadly described as a group of libraries coming together with some agreement of understanding to help each other with a view to satisfying the information needs of their clientele”. libraries work in a networked environment where data and information resources are accessible in electronic format and are shared electronically.2 LIBRARY NETWORKS: AN OVERVIEW Due to information explosion and accelerating prices of information services and products. In this Unit we will acquaint you with some of the functional library networks in India and abroad. make it difficult for any library to acquire sufficient number of documents to fulfill the needs of its readers. resource sharing methods like Inter-Library Loan (ILL) were used to meet the demands of users. In simple words. let us first understand the meaning of library networks with the help of some definitions. of the library networks. reliably and accurately. Before we talk about various national and international library networks. library network means a group of libraries situated at different locations are connected to each other using computers and communication networks. data and resources in order to provide better services to its clientele. Computers and telecommunications may be among the tools used for facilitating communication among them”. Libraries may be in different jurisdictions but agree to serve one another on the same basis as each serves its own constituents. The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) gave definition of a library network in National Programme Document in the year 1975 as: “Two or more libraries and/or other organisations engaged in a common pattern of information exchange. and services provided by a variety of libraries and other organisations are available to all potential users. 21 .1 INTRODUCTION Library Networks : National and International You have already studied the Unit on “Network Concepts” in the first course of this Programme. services. present day libraries are unable to meet the information needs of the users. With the advent of information technology.

networks of metropolitan area thrive to support the information resources of the users of the community based on the resources available within the area.2. several committees and commissions were setup who came up with various recommendations. 2. The primary objectives are: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) promoting sharing of resources amongst the libraries. developing databases of projects. national and international.1 History and Growth of Library Networks in India History of library networks in India can be traced back to the year 1958 when on the instance of Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru. 2. Some of the reports submitted by these committees 22 . providing bibliographic information services from indigenously created databases.1 Objectives of Library Networks From the above definitions it is apparent that the library networks have been conceived as mechanism for optimum utilisation of resources which is necessitated by the shrinking of library budget. optimising utilisation of resources through shared cataloguing. organising document delivery service. promoting computerisation of libraries and information centres through international standards which will facilitate exchange of information. improving information handling capabilities through networking of libraries and information centres. increased cost of materials and varieties of demands of the users. accessing document collection of member libraries through online union catalogues.3. establishing mechanism for access to international databases. However. As a result. augmenting weaker resources in the network by increasing cooperation among the member libraries. Scientific Policy Resolution was adopted emphasising the development of scientific temper among people. sharing equipments etc. coordination with other networks – regional.Library Networks 2. specialists and institutions. avoiding unnecessary duplication of materials through development of adequate collection development policy for member libraries. sharing expertise.3 LIBRARY NETWORKS: THE INDIAN SCENARIO In this section you will be studying some of the functional national library networks. such specificity is slowly blurred due to the development of ICT. though individual networks may have one or more specific objectives depending upon their requirements. The general objectives of such networks can be spelt out as follows. cooperative acquisition.. For example.

inflibnet. Library Networks : National and International 2. Delhi Library Network (DELNET) in 1988. Bombay Library Network (BONET) in 1994. Chattopadhyay as a Chairman of a Committee to evolve a national policy on library information systems. 23 . INFLIBNET offers the following services to fulfill its objectives: Catalogue based services Shared cataloguing of monographs. (now Developing Library Network). National Information System for Science and Technology (NISSAT) established in the year 1977 as a project in the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR). Peter Larzer Committee Report (1972). Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET) in 1993. The NISSAT has ceased operation since 2004. took initiatives for the setting up of Metropolitan Library Networks in India.and commissions included: Sinha Committee Report (1959). Online catalogue access for shared cataloguing and location identification. Ahmedabad. book. namely. file transfer. Government of India. serials and non-book materials. D. Further the Government appointed Prof. The main purpose of setting library networks was to strengthen the resource sharing. This committee submitted the report and stressed the need for resource sharing and linking of education and research organisations. Kamath Report (1972). Keeping in mind the above mentioned objectives the Metropolitan City Library Networks. During the 7th Five Year Plan (1985-90) the Planning Commission of Government of India appointed a working group under the Chairmanship of Dr. Seshagiri to study the aspects of modernisation of library services and inter-linking of library systems. Pune Library Network (PUNENET) in 1992. It became an independent inter-university centre in the year 1996. It was expected from these networks to promote resource sharing. V. Catalogue production in card. P. All these reports recommended cooperation among libraries at local. Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET) in 1995. located at Gujarat University Campus. Union catalogue of books. prepare union catalogue of books and periodicals and create centralised databases. regional and national level. It is a major national programme of University Grants Commission (UGC) started in the year 1991.in/) is an autonomous inter-university center of UGC. N. INFLIBNET(http://www. and computer/audio/video conferencing. serials and non-book materials.3. were established and funded by the NISSAT. bulletin board. magnetic tape/floppy. The INFLIBNET has made provision for document delivery service by establishing resource centres around libraries having rich collection of documents. etc. Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) in 1986. optical (CDROM).ac. INFLIBNET is also working very seriously for effective communication among academicians and researchers in India through electronic mail. to avoid duplication of resources and also to minimise the cost of acquiring resources.2 INFLIBNET: Information and Library Network a) INFLIBNET is an acronym used for Information and Library Network.A. Ranganathan Report to UGC (1965).

.. INFLIBNET which acts as a liaison between UGC.... Experts......... For further details on UGC-INFONET please refer to Unit 1 of this course....................... SDI............................................. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.. INFLIBNET has started many information services: Access to Union Databases of Books..... through the INFLIBNET website....... UGC INFONET Programme 1) Due to rising prices of information resources libraries cannot buy and acquire all possible information sources. Self Check Exercise 1) What are the information services offered by INFLIBNET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below......... Information services In order to ensure free flow of information to the end users and strengthen interaction between academics........ ... ......................Library Networks Database services Bibliographic database services..27 lakh teachers.......... functions on consortia approach.......... Indian universities constitute one of largest education system in the world..21 lakh students and 4... ERNET (Education and Research Network) and universities provides training to library professionals for using the network and resources made available on it... 24 ............. Internet based services The network provides academic community with various resources and services......... current awareness services........... Periodicals............................ It covers more than 88....... There is a great need for effective communication and coordination among UGC and each university for modernising university campus with campus wide networks and also setting up nation-wide network...... Some of the library networks are running consortia for its member libraries and offer information sources and services at a very low cost and bridge the gap between libraries with regard to information have and information have-nots.............. CD-ROM based services Members can access CD-ROM databases in the area of social sciences and humanities........ Retrospective searches........ Scientific Society and the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology....................................... UGC-INFONET has been set up by UGC and ERNET India.........UGC-INFONET programme with this objective..... .................... free of cost.. etc............ institutions and 13150 affiliated colleges............. with 294 universities...

.................... and Internet Connectivity Service.................. Self Check Exercise 2) Mention the products of DELNET.. Newspapers.... Indian Specialists Database... Creation and Maintenance of Bibliographic Databases............ etc................................... Referral Services.... in resource sharing and providing a number of services and products...... Sound Recordings............. 25 ..... Union List of Current Periodicals....... ii) DEL-DOS – for creating MARC (Machine Readable Catalogue) Records of books...... especially in India......... Delnet (http://www............. Initially.... DELNET’s effort........................ ............ Union Catalogue of Periodicals. New Delhi.................... and iv) DELMARC – a LAN based library management software for larger libraries with large collection and clientele.................... In addition to fulfilling the objectives of library network..3.. DELNET provides some useful software products namely.. Document Delivery Services............... Library Networks : National and International 2.................................. Ministry of Communications and Information Technology..3 DELNET: Developing Library Network DELNET (Developing Library Network) earlier known as Delhi Library Network till 2001 started in the year 1988 and registered as a society in 1991......... Apart from these services.......................... is definitely a significant step towards provision of automated library services... Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.......................................in) provides ILL Online............................... Training Programmes......................nic....... ..... Union List of Video Recordings............................... ............................................. i) DELSIS – a powerful library networking software....... Government of India and India International Centre (IIC). The following database services are also provided to its member libraries: Online Databases of Union Catalogue of Books................................................ Bibliographic Database of CD-ROMs................. ..................... it was sponsored by NISSAT................ Department of Information Technology........................ applies the results of research and publishes them.. DELNET also undertakes scientific research in the area of information science and technology.... DSIR and currently is being promoted jointly by National Informatics Centre (NIC).................delnet............................ creates new systems in the field....................... E-mail Service..................... DELNET offers links to related databases and websites on the web in different disciplines.... .......................... Retrospective conversion....................... iii) DEL PLUS – a stand-alone library management software for database creation and maintenance and for OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue).................................. Databases of Periodical Articles..... ..

...........org) provides access to bibliographic information resources available through its centralised databases............ DSIR and managed by the Calcutta Society was established in the year 1986 under the West Bengal Government’s Societies Registration Act.. Developing Library Network................Library Networks ... CalibLink gives e-mail connectivity to member libraries............................................. RetroFile Service provides trend of research on any given specific topic. The CALIBNET (http://www.... .......... CALIBNET. ConFile Service provides contents of journals of users choice.................. which contains bibliographic records of participating libraries............. etc.... Mysore Library Network.......... CalibOrder Service offers the requisite backup service by providing full text................................................. The CALIBNET website also provides the following active links for the benefit of member libraries: Indian Library and Network Resources Overseas Library Resources on India Worldwide Library Catalogues National Libraries of the World Newspapers and Journals Electronic Reference Tools Factual Information Sources 26 Document Supply Services ...................... ConAlert Service gives user the customised service by providing current and tailored bibliographic information................. Madras Library Network............. undertook the task of linking 38 computerised libraries in the field of science and technology located within the Calcutta metropolitan area and would then proceed to connect to other Metropolitan Area Networks namely.................................. CALIBNET offers the following services to fulfill its objectives: Centralised Database (CDB) Service...... 2.......... ..... The CALIBNET website (http://www....calibnet... in the first phase....................4 CALIBNET: Calcutta Library Network CALIBNET (Calcutta Library Network) project funded by NISSAT...............org) activities are centered around providing access to materials available in the eastern region and creation of databases particularly with respect to intellectual assets of West Bengal....................................calibnet.................................... 1961............3....... ............ Ahmedabad Library Network................ Bombay Library Network.....................

..................... In the year 1993 it was registered as a society.....................................org)... access to databases..................3.... Its membership is open to all institution libraries................................................................................................................... CALIBNET has developed inhouse “SANJUKTA” – a multi user storage and retrieval software to support its centralised database and to provide online access from remote areas......................... Library Networks : National and International Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below........... The other Software “PARAPAR” which is a conversion software package has also been developed to support interchange of bibliographic data......... library professionals and students. ......................................................................... Biblio File......... and E-Mail Service....alibnet... Selective Dissemination Information (SDI) Service................................ ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit................................................................... Self Check Exercise 3) Name the software package developed by CALIBNET............. ADINET sponsored by the NISSAT............................................. The services from ADINET includes the following: Database of current periodicals received by over 100 libraries of Ahmedabad Inter-Library Loan Content Pages of LIS Journals 27 .................................... ...... CALIBNET also provides Current Awareness Service (CAS).... information centers.................................................. ................The website also provides details of varied CALIBNET programmes for: On-Demand Information Services Consultative Service for Library Automation Manpower Development Opportunities......................... CD-ROM databases........................ It is a network of libraries located in and around Ahmedabad................... ...... and Research and Development in IT Applications............5 ADINET: Ahmedabad Library Network ADINET is the abbreviation used for Ahmedabad Library Network (http://www....... ............................................................ 2..... LC MARC (Library of Congress Machine Readable Catalogue).................. Union Catalogue.................. ...... ..............................

.................... 2.....................................................................................Library Networks Supply of photocopies from journals received by libraries in and around Ahmedabad Internet surfing facility Database of databases available in LIS Centres in and around Ahmedabad JOLI (Job Opportunities for Librarians) Database Special Internet training to fresh qualified librarians Computer training programmes to library professionals In order to meet the objective of cooperative mode of working among the libraries......................................................................................... ADINET is now offering the following services by special expert team at a reasonable charge: Computerisation of libraries Cataloguing and classification of documents Labelling and shelving of books Stock verification of documents Manpower development programmes Planning for library development Completion of any backlog work in the library Some selected cyber café to give 20% discount to ADINET members.................org) organises various training programme for LIS professionals........................... .............................. Self Check Exercise 4) What are the databases provided by ADINET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below....................................................mylibnet.... .... DSIR in the year 1995 and is located in the Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTR) Campus.............6 MYLIBNET: Mysore Library Network MYLIBNET (Mysore Library Network) was set up by NISSAT............. ...................................... Giving facility to LIS professionals to put their resume on the ADINET website for searching of jobs...................................... Mysore......................... The MYLIBNET (http://www............................................................................................................... ............................... ..... 28 ...................3........................................................................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.................................................... ............. ..........................................................

for the benefit of the users.8 MALIBNET : Madras Library Network The MALIBNET started in the year 1991 in order to provide effective information services to the users in and around Madras. Photocopy service.punenet. PuneNet Libraries Database. Union Catalogue of Periodicals. At present there are more than 20 participating libraries who deposit their data on regular basis. which is issued for short period of time. It subscribes to e-mail service of ERNET. INSDOC. Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) and National Chemical Laboratory (NCL).7 PUNENET: Pune Library Network PuneNet is a joint endeavour of University of Pune.3. MALIBNET offers the following services to its members: E-mail service. industries and individuals. For periodicals database PuneNet may add Ulrich’s database so that more information regarding periodicals may be given to its users.com) is housed in Bio Informatrics Centre. Through its website. Pune. These databases are updated yearly. etc. For the sharing and exchange of bibliographic data from the participating libraries PuneNet follows the international standard for information exchange – 1SO 2709. This project. Services PuneNet Database Services PuneNet hosts many databases namely. photocopy services. This network acts like a gateway to Internet. Other Services Apart from the database services some of the other services includes E-mail and Internet Connectivity. There is also a proposal for online updating of records and databases. 2. online search facility. 29 . Current Awareness Service (CAS). Databases of Booksellers and LIS Professionals. (now NISCAIR) was the executing agency for the MALIBNET project.angelfire. which contain old and rare valuable manuscripts.3.Some of the services provided by MYLIBNET are as follows: Providing technical assistance in the area of LIS. PuneNet (http://www. The membership of MALIBNET (http://www. MALIBNET was registered as a society in 1993. Web access to the Union Catalogue of Periodicals subscribed by member libraries for updating their records in the union catalogue database online. R& D institutions. PuneNet is planning to include Indian language databases. colleges. CD-ROM database services.com/in/malibnet) is open to universities. The participating libraries are provided with login and password. the users can access PuneNet databases on the Internet. Library Networks : National and International 2. funded by NISSAT was started in the year 1992.

It gives access to databases CD-ROM. Due to this standard the exchange of bibliographic information among computerised library system became a reality. MALIBNET permits its members to offer information services on the network.4.3.Library Networks Document delivery service. Directory Database of Current Serials in Madras (Gives journal holdings of member libraries and it is available online). OCLC (Online Computer Library Centre) earlier Ohio College Library Centre. The history of library cooperation can be traced back to 200 BC when Alexandria library shared its resources with Pergamen library. OCLC emerged as an international network from a regional computer system for 50 Ohio Colleges. Specialised databases which gives abstracts of articles. It is the first computer based library network. Contents Database of Journals in Madras (Gives contents information of important journals which is also available online). and also conducts seminars.4 LIBRARY NETWORKS: INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO Library Networks are the extension of the concept of library co-operation. interlibrary loan. In the developed countries. NISCAIR services are also available to MALIBNET users. USA is considered to be the birth place of library networks. 2. etc. DSIR started in the year 1994. The development of MARC during 1960s is a step towards such cooperation. It has enrolled more than 25 libraries as its members.1 OCLC: Online Computer Library Centre In the year 1967 OCLC (Ohio College Library Centre) was founded to develop a computerised system. was changed to Online Computer Library Centre. 30 . In the year 1981. the growth of library networks started long back. the name of OCLC. After this. Databases from INSDOC (now NISCAIR) and other participating institutions are also available on MALIBNET host. 2. Current serials acquired from the libraries. began as the first successful library network. which led to the development of many library networks in different parts of the world subsequently. where academic libraries of Ohio State shared their resources so that the resource costs could be reduced. shared cataloguing and resource sharing. In the year 1963. In the beginning of 20th century Library of Congress compiled National Union Catalogue. 2. the publication of union catalogue of different types by different countries started appearing in increased numbers.9 BONET: Bombay Library Network BONET supported by NISSAT. training programmes for professional development.

and users with economic access to knowledge through innovation and collaboration. For reference and electronic content service WorldCat works as a map showing the users what resources are available and the way to get it. It provides libraries with rich source of cataloguing records. With millions of online records. WorldCat: It is a world wide union catalogue developed and created collectively by more than 9000 member institutions. etc. It is a database in higher education designed for research and development. Connexion.000 libraries (all types) in the US and 84 countries of the world. Digital collection and preservation service is designed to protect and share the digital collection. copy cataloguing. Reference service gives access to full text documents. Member libraries worked together for more than 30 years to build and maintain WorldCat. Cataloguing and Metadata Service provides online cataloguing. and receive discounts on OCLC products and services. The following are some of the OCLC services. it is one of the largest and most comprehensive bibliographic database. For OCLC’s digital collection service WorldCat acts as a portal. OCLC member libraries make up the world’s largest consortium. Many OCLC services are based on WorldCat. Resource sharing service helps in sending ILL requests on the web.The main objective of the OCLC is to have more access to information and reduce costs by offering services to libraries and users. Member libraries can take full advantages of OCLC products and services. The vision of the OCLC is to be a leading global library cooperative. FirstSearch is the powerful reference service for locating references and full text articles. DVD and websites. E-content service enhances the e-collection and other online databases through the net library – electronic collections online services. WorldCat and virtual reference service. For OCLC cataloguing services WorldCat is the authoritative source which helps in resource sharing service of OCLC. It holds location listings contributed by member libraries. record supply and collection sets. cataloguing and reference. Collection Management service helps in achieving the collection goals of the member libraries. Membership: OCLC membership comprises more than 50. Members can make their collections available to the world through resource sharing. It consists of many OCLC services. helping libraries. Library Networks : National and International 31 . WorldCat is the building block for the services provided by OCLC. They can share the world’s largest union catalogue (WorldCat). which are used by the member libraries to share information by reducing the cost. It lists resources from stone tablets to e-resources and MP3s. PromptCat are some of the cataloguing tools of WorldCat. abstracts.

................ Products RLG gives free access (instructional) to a variety of RLG databases to Accredited Schools of Library and Information Science (SLIS).................. The members of RLG use RLIN system for cataloguing...................................... ...... cultural resources............................................ English short title catalogue............ The RLIN legacy computer program is now being replaced with RLIN21: a new web-based interface to RLG databases............ creating...................2 RLIN: Research Libraries Information Network RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network) is a bibliographic information system.........Library Networks Self Check Exercise 5) What is WorldCat? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............. Under this programme the SLIS can access the Art Museum Image Consortium (AMICO) Library from RLG.... maintaining................... RLG was founded in 1974 with its headquarters in California.. Hand Pressbook Database............................... ................. RLG is an international non-profit membership organisation of more than 160 universities......... In order to meet the cooperative action RLG is working towards full online access to research resources................................. RLIN also refers to a computer interface program that is used to work with RLG’s bibliographic records for finding......................... ............ ........... ............................... and contributing records in RLG union catalogue................. developed by the Research Libraries Group (RLG)........................................ display and export MARC records............................... historical societies and other related institutions. SCIPIO (Art and Rare Book Sales 32 .................................................... ........... With the collections of research and learning of member institutions............ 2............. archives. A new RLIN21 interface is used to retrieve.......... authority work and archives and manuscript processing........................................ RLG provides a framework for cooperation.................................. new modes for effective global resource sharing......4..... RLG provides researchers the access to research resources and many innovative information services..... libraries........................ With the RLIN 21 there are some structural changes in all RLG databases..................... problem solving and development of new standard products and services... Further.......... a new RLIN21 client is now used for creating and updating bibliographic and authority records................................. . RLG archival..................... These members are working towards the mission of creating solutions for challenges of information access and management in the digital era......................... and to provide continuous access to resources through digital preservation.................. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit............................

..............3 JANET: Joint Academy Network JANET (Joint Academy Network) is an education and research network funded by UK Government........................... 2..................... RLG’s ILL Manager software programme is for Inter Library Loan...... archival collection........ With SCIPIO RLG Union Catalogue and the Authority files........................................... Technical Services RLG’s RLIN 21 software............... users can take advantage of the cataloguing already done by RLG members and can have a copy for their local systems... This network is operated and developed by UKERNA (United Kingdom Education and Research Network) under the Service Level Agreement from the Joint Information System Committee (JISC) of UK Higher and Further Education Funding Councils.......................... With the help of RLIN web interface............................. Resource Sharing Service SHARES – It is an Inter Lending and Document Supply Programme of RLG for resource sharing among the members of RLG................................................................................................... 33 .......................................................... Services Online Database Service RLG also provides online access to databases. artifacts..... RLG Union Catalogue.............................................................. digital collections... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit. ..................................................... which is windows based............ ........................... ...... Self Check Exercise 6) Enumerate the services offered by RLG? Library Networks : National and International Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.. ............. All the higher education organisations and research councils are connected to this network............................. These databases contain information and resources........ RLIN 21 can also be used as a searching interface...................................4... helps the members to create records in RLG’s Union Catalogue and SCIPIO database and Authority File................................... traditional library resources....................................... The objective of JANET is to advance and support UK’s education and research network................... RLG and Backstage Library Works developed Marcardio service to provide inexpensive. ....... Authority files......................................... ............... . fast automated cataloguing....................................................Catalogue)...............

...... Universities and Poly-techniques.. JANET Services UKERNA offers the following user services over JANET: JANET-CERT is a Computer Emergency Response Team provided by UKERNA as a service on the JANET network... It ensures fast..... There are many other services provided by JANET including Usenet News Service. Super JANET 4 will be over by December 2005.. UKERNA organises workshops. of research and higher education interests..... initially with 50 members by late 1980s there were 200 sites....... Super JANET: Super JANET is the core of JANET network and is the backbone of the JANET..... JANET members are thus able to get access to the local computer networks free of charge. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.. Super JANET 4 was launched to increase the network capacity and strengthen the user base of JANET with further inclusion of education community and the use of Super JANET 4 backbone to inter connect school networks....... 34 . JANET NetSight service is basically a networks monitoring service.... JANET interconnects local computer network in UK Research Councils... Super JANET is being implemented in phases......Library Networks The Joint Academic Network was established in the year 1984....... JANET Co-location service helps the customer..... JANET is connected with the academic networks of other countries and also forms the part of the global Internet. Advisory Services and Web Services which includes web mail service...... Super JANET II started in 1995 to increase the spread of Super JANET and create MANs (Metropolitan Area Network). equipment and services to be securely located on the Super JANET backbone............. This team advises on security of computers and networks and also provides training programmes for this.. ... Mail Services.... It was proposed in 1989 with the aim to develop a high performance wide area network based on optical fibers.. conferences and training programmes for the use of JANET Network and services.. Super JANET III was aimed at consolidating the pioneering work of Super JANET I and II in 2001..... JANET gives multipoint video conferencing service and UKRENA supports the training on equipment and technique side......... and effective communication among the members of JANET and the network to meet the changing needs of the community.......... Self Check Exercise 7) What is Super JANET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below. web filtering and web hosting..... which is developed by UKERNA to view and understand the performance of the JANET..........

.................... Self Check Exercise 8) What are the future plans of CURL? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.. networking and cooperation.................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit............................ National Library of Scotland and Wales........................................... Objective of CURL is to help the researchers to search.....................50 client..................... 35 ................ The future plans of CURL include development of e-resources tools........ Services: CURL has created a database for bibliographic records. digitisation and retention....... discipline and format from the desktop.. request. ....... Its membership is 25 which include 22 university libraries....... The members of CURL get free access to the union catalogue COPAC (National Online PublicAccess Catalogue)....................................... ......................... ........................................................... preservation................................................................... and access the resources irrespective of place... For non-members there is a flat rate for searching............................ Currently the database contains 38 million records which are mostly from the member libraries and also from LC (Library of Congress) and BNB (British National Bibliography).......................... .................... .......... British Library................................................................................................................ The purpose of this database is to provide a unified source of cataloguing records for use by library staff................. ................................................ strategy for digitisation and digital preservation and also developing and implementing communication strategy for consortia. Its access for members is free.................................................. Library Networks : National and International 2.............................. ......................... locate..............................................................................................4 CURL: Consortium of University Research Libraries CURL (Consortium of University Research Libraries) was established in the year 1987 with the mission to “increase the ability of research libraries to share resources for the benefit of the local........ It contains about 30 million records.......... These records are stored in UKMARC and can be accessed through telnet or Z39.................................................................................4.................. Future Plans of CURL CURL-COFOR project is initiated for the sharing of responsibilities in acquisition..................................... national and international research community”........................ ........................ which represents merged holdings of 26 CURL member institutions and a small portion of nonCURL libraries......

... Goals of CALIS By the year 2010...... 2..... public libraries and information service organisations...... was responsible for the origin of Internet in Australia.... Its primary functions include cataloguing services... AARNet........... storage facilities............. Its members include academic libraries.... CALIS endeavours to transform the role of traditional libraries with the adoption of new technologies........ Key discipline databases........... .......... Current Chinese Periodicals.. organise training programmes for staff........ AARNet is also cooperating with local regional networks organisation to increase the capacity of metropolitan regional networks............................. ..................... CALIS envisages itself to become an advanced academic and library resource supporting and serving system.. document delivery service.. union lists... CALIS future plan includes: development of a set of databases based on the available resources of individual libraries in China and abroad... ATM links and Internet services.............................. ............... shared online catalogues.... regional and national) of libraries is to get connected with other international network and information system............. coordinated purchasing and data searching.......4....... funded by the Ministry of Education............... 36 ....... learning and research activities in universities also acted as Internet Service Provider (ISP).......................... ILL.... During 1997............... Australia ViceChancellor’s Committee (AVCC) developed AARNet 2....... training. Dissertation Abstracts and Conference Proceedings... e-content licensing.. union catalogues..... which was a further improvement of the Internet in Australia with high bandwidth.. CALIS is a part of the Higher Education Public System. resource sharing..... e-content loading/presentation..... CALIS has created databases like Union Cataloguing Project... which is one of the projects supported by State Commission of Education............... 2.............................)...............6 AARNET: Australia’s Research and Education Network Australia’s Research and Education Network (AARNet) is managed by a nonprofit APL (AARNet Pvt... develop more e-resources databases and provide e-access to databases developed in China and abroad..... AARNet apart from helping in teaching............ Ltd.... The three level network (local...................................................................Library Networks .. CALIS is a resource-sharing network based on CERNET (China Education and Research Network).............4........ which was initiated as a project in 1989..5 CALIS: China Academic and Library Information System CALIS (China Academic and Library Information System) is a nationwide academic library consortium...

................... Voice Over IP............................ ... participate in alternative and flexible modes of course delivery.................... . Video over IP.................... Its main objective is to provide AARNet with a network serving the academic community in Australia at a world-class level.............................................The main objectives of this network are to: collaborate in the area of teaching........ which is a high capacity research network..................... Europe and Asia...................... AARNet Services: This network plays an important role in giving the services to its clientele base of more than 80.............................. Carrier services for members and advanced Internet workshops............ Some of the Value added Services provided by AARNET are AARNet Large Object Mirror................. 37 ...... This network enables its client-base to: collaborate effectively.. access information for teaching and learning................ AARNet 3 is the third generation of AARNet network. Self Check Exercise 9) What are the value added services provided by AARNET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.............................. help in the development of advanced network infrastructure and applications with access to the global Research and Education Network in North and South America.... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit........... This networks provides primary IP services as: National On-Net National Off-Net International On-Net International Off-Net – provides IP Connectivity between members – provides IP Connectivity to the Australian domestic Internet – provides access to global Research and Education network – provides access to international commodity Internet Library Networks : National and International This network also provides access to GrangeNet..... It was placed to put in active use during 2004.............................. learning and research by connecting people to the Internet resources....... .000 staff and students of universities and research organisation............................ research and administration................................................... ...................................... provide high capacity cost effective Internet services to education and research committees.......

: It refers to centralised storage and usage of unified reference information. in Ahmedabad and BONET (1994) in Mumbai (earlier Bombay). MYLIBNET (1995) in Mysore. PUNENET (1992) in Pune. for example CALIBNET (1986) in Calcutta. We have also studied some of the important library networks at the international level for example OCLC (America). national and international cooperation and contribute to the growth and development of trained manpower through seminars. Note: Students are advised to visit the relevant websites (see section 2. AARNET (Australia). JANET (UK). : A service whereby the Library provides full-text copies of the documents research papers. : A digital collection is a body of materials in digital format treated as a group or considered as a whole.8) for more details. UGC has established INFLIBNET in 1991. 2. The primary purpose of the library network is to modernise and help the libraries. such as resource sharing. DELNET (1988) in Delhi. CURL (UK). They can also support research and development. we conclude that library networks play a major role in bridging the gap between academic libraries and information centres and ensure resource sharing.5 SUMMARY After reading this Unit. CAS (Current Awareness Service) CD-ROM Database Centralised Database Consortia Digital Collection Document Delivery Service 38 .6 KEYWORDS : A service designed to aid research workers in keeping themselves abreast of the current developments taking place in their subjects of interest. ADINET (1993). : An organised collection of information available on a CD-ROM. conferences and symposium. RLIN (US). MALIBNET (1991) in Madras. that cannot be achieved by the individuals alone. The networking of libraries is expected to bring in changes for library and information services in the country. conference papers journal articles etc. to the users on demand irrespective of the location and form of the original. NISSAT has been instrumental in setting up of library networks in India. CALIS (China).Library Networks 2. which is considered to be a national network. : A group of libraries or other organisations that form a partnership to achieve a goal.

: Collaborative arrangements made between libraries for mutual assistance. : A cooperative arrangement among libraries by which one library may borrow materials it does not own from another library. : Retrospective Conversion Service is a service that involves conversion of a library’s paper catalogue records into machine-readable form.E-Resources Gateway : Electronic information resources accessed via the internet. by the sharing of resources or division of costs. such as the server through which people on a company’s local area network access the internet. : A network point that acts as an entrance to another network. : Machine Readable Cataloguing. : A network of computers spread over a metropolitan/city-wide area such as buildings located throughout a town or city. Library Networks : National and International Inter Library Loan Internet Intranet MARC Metropolitan Area Network Online Database Online Union Catalogues OPAC Resource Sharing Retro conversion Service 39 . : A private network inside a company or organisation that uses the same kinds of software as the Internet. : The vast collection of interconnected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60’s and early 70’s. which can be advantageous and efficient. : A database located in a remote computer and accessed through the Internet. : Online Public Access Catalogue. : Union catalogues of the libraries available online. The MARC formats are standards for the representation and communication of bibliographic and related information in machine readable form. but is only for internal use and is not connected directly to the global Internet. It is an online catalogue of a library collection that is available to the public.

videoconferencing etc. : Union catalogues reveal information about the collections of more than one library. Super JANET Project was proposed in 1989 with the aim to develop a high performance wide area network based on optical fibers. 2) Some of the products provided by DELNET are as follows: DELSIS. Future Plans of CURL: CURL will contribute to the development of strategies to coordinate 6) 7) 8) 40 . Shared Cataloguing Union Catalogues Virtual Reference Service 2.7 1) ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES The INFLIBNET is offering the following information services: Access to union catalogue of books. DELDOS. such as. both for cataloguing and inter-library loan purposes. Resource Sharing Service. 3) 4) 5) CALIBNET has developed in house softwares. DELPLUS and DELMARC.Library Networks SDI : SDI is a current awareness system which alerts the user to the latest publications in his/her specified field(s) of interest. Database of Current Periodicals. experts. SANJUKTA and PARAPAR. It is developed and created collectively by more than 9000 member institutions of OCLC. : Virtual reference is reference service initiated electronically where patrons employ computers or other Internet technology to communicate with reference staff. Online Database Service. Communication channels used frequently in virtual reference include chat. without being physically present. periodicals. and Technical Services. Members can also access CD-ROM databases in the area of Social Sciences and Humanities and it also provides number of Internet based services. etc. Database of Databases in LIS Centres in and around Ahmedabad. JOLI (Job Opportunities for Librarians) Database. WorldCat is a world wide union catalogue of millions of online records. They are a way for groups of libraries to share information about their collections in a consistent way. through INFLIBNET website. : A form of cataloguing undertaken by the Library of Congress and other agencies responsible for material bibliography.

CURL-COFOR project initiated the sharing of responsibilities in acquisition.cn) Library and Information System. CURL (http://www. p.calis.provisions of research information and generating solution to the information needs. It will also develop and implement a strategy for digitisation and digital preservation. pp. and Basy. (http://www. 20(3). Chicago: ALA. Unit 7. Partha (2001). (eds).curl. (2003). H. V.D. CURL will adopt the strategy for the development of e-resources discovery tools. K. networking and cooperation. Video over 1P.ja. 63-101.aarnet. and Devadoss.ac. (http://delnet. CALIS: China Academic (http://www. Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET). pp. 3-7.8 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Academic and Research Network. H. Information Today and Tommorrow. 134-164. 9) Value added services provided by AARNET are as follows: Voice over 1P. (1999).R.472.in) Information Library Network ( INFLIBNET).inflibnet. Kaul. Library Networks: A Indian Experience. Overview of Library and Information Networks. digitisation and retention. Kaul. Library Philosphy and Practice. (2004). Calcutta Library Network.org) 41 . New Delhi: Virgo Publications. 13-14. It will also develop and implement communication strategy for consortia.ac.D.net) Jebaraj.calibnet. Library Networks : National and International 2. PGDLAN. NISSAT Networks: Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET). MLI-004. Carrier services for members and Advanced Internet workshop. Information Today and Tomorrow. Kaul.in) JANET. 6(2). Bhattacharya. K. M. K. New Delhi: Virgo Publications. (CALIBNET).S.nic. (http://www. Library Resource Sharing and Networks. (http://www. H.org) ALA World Encyclopedia of Library and Information Services (1986). 2nd Ed.edu.edu.org) CALIBNET: An Overview (1999). 24-93. Library and Information Networking: NACLIN 2002. Library and Information Networks in India.an) Ahmedabad Library Network.uk) Developing Library Network (DELNET). New Delhi: IGNOU. New Delhi: DELNET. Cholin. preservation.mylibnet. AARNet: Australia’s (http://www. (ADINET). 18(4). 1-54.alibnet. (1992). (2003). (http://www. F. F. (http://www.

Paper B.Library Networks Nagarkar.in) Rao. (PUNENET). Need for a National Resource Sharing Network in India: Proposed Model. New Delhi: ESS ESS Publications. Matsumoto (2003). Mysore Library Network: MYLIBNET (Network with a difference). Sujatha. Resource Sharing and Networking of University Libraries. Bibhuti Bhusan (2002). 1-31.ac.33(4). S. Jayasri (1994). 42 . Subhada (2000). pp. N. Information Today and Tomorrow. 13-14 and 30. Workshop on Information Resource Management 13th-15th March. Viswanathan. G. (http://punenet.A. (1999). DRTC Bangalore. 1-7. T.org/worldcat) Pune Library Network.in/retrieve/26 paper B. (http://www.oclc. Information Today and Tommorrow 19(3). OCLC and WorldCat. 21(1).isibang. Pune-Net :Current Status.rlg. (http://www.ernet. and Raghavan. (Also available: http:// drtc. MALIBNET. Some Examples of American and European Library Networks. Research Libraries Group.) Shusaku. 41(1). ABD. 16-18. Krishna (2002).org) Sahoo. Annals of Library Science and Documentation.A.A Library Network for Madras. 2002.

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