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Verb'이다' : to be
'이다' is the form which links a subject with its predicate, indicating equality or identification. If this form is attached to the noun, there can be no pause or space between it and the Noun. It is pronounced like a part of the Noun. It has two different forms '-예요' and '-이에요'. '-예요' is used when the Noun ends with a vowel, and '-이 에요' is used when the Noun ends with a consonant.
안나 + -예요
책상 + -이에요 --> 책상이에요.
2. '예' : yes
'예', which means 'yes', is often pronounced `네'. It is used as a regular response to a knock at the door, or hearing your name called, and being greeted. The opposite of `예' is `아니오'. This means 'no' is used in negative replies to questions, in contradictions and denials, and as an informal reply to apologies, expressions of thanks, and compliments.
3. The subjective marker '-이/가'
The subjective marker `-이/가' is used to indicate that the preceding noun phrase is the subject of the sentence. ‘-가’ is used after a word which ends with a vowel, while `-이’ is used after a consonant. Here are some examples:
가방이 있어요. 모자가 있어요. 4. The topic marker '-은/는' While the subjective marker `-이/가' indicates the subject of a sentence, the topic marker `은/는' is used to indicate the comparison of topics. If there is no connotation of comparison with another subject, this marker cannot be used. '-는' is used after words ending in a vowel, `-은' is used after words ending in a consonant. Here are some examples: This is a pencil. 이것이 연필이에요. This (in comparison with other things) is a pencil. 이것은 연필이에요.
한국말이 재미있어요. 한국말은 재미있어요. Korean is interesting. Korean(in comparison with other languages) is interesting.
5. 이,그,저 (demonstrative)+NOUN : this/these ,it/their, that/those
These are the contractions of '이것, 그것, 저것` and the subjective marker '-이'.
5.1. 이게,그게,저게 '이것' is 'this thing.' '이' is a demonstrative which modifies the dependent noun '-것' and it is used only as a modifier of the following noun. '이것' indicates a thing which is close to the speaker. '그것' indicates a thing which is far from the speaker, but close to the listener. It can be also used as that thing or those things already under discussion. '저것' is used to indicate a thing which is far from both the listener and the speaker. 이것+ 이 -> 이게 'this' (close to the speaker)
그것+ 이 -> 그게 'that' (far
from the speaker, close to the listener)
5.2. 이건,그건,저건 These are the contractions of '이것,그것,저것' and the topic marker '-은'. 이것+ 은 -> 이건 'this' (close to the speaker) 그것+ 은 -> 그건 'that' (far from the speaker, close to the listener) 저것+ 은 -> 저건 'that over there' (far from both the listener and the speaker) A: 이게 뭐예요? What is this?
저것+ 이 -> 저게 'that over there' (far from both the listener and the speaker)
B: 그게 창문이에요. It's window. A: 그럼 저건 뭐예요?Then, what's that? B: 칠판이에요. 5.3. 이분,그분,저분 '이, 그, 저' can indicate persons with '분' which means person. 이분 그분 'this person' (close to the speaker) 'that person' (far from the speaker, close to the listener) That's blackboard.
저분 'that person over there' (far from both the listener and the speaker) There are no contracions when the subjective or topic markers follow '이분, 그분, 저분' like '이분이, 그분이, 저분이, 이분은, 그분은, 저분은'. 이분이 안나씨 아버지예요. 저분은 안나씨 동생이에요. This person is Anna's father and that person is Anna's younger brother. 6. Verb '아니다' : not to be This word is used for making negatives. You have already studied '이다` which indicates equality or identification. The '이다' is attached directly to a noun, and is pronounced as one word with the noun. When you make the negative construction of '이다', the subject marker '-이/가' is attached directly to the noun, and then followed by the negative verb '아니다'. 이것이 의자예요. 이것이 의자가 아니예요. <--->
제가 호주사람이에요. <---> 제가 호주사람이 아니예요.
7. Verb '있다/없다' : to be/not to be The verb `있다' indicates existence, location or possession. The opposite verb is `없다'. (Possesion) 동생 있어요? 네, 동생이 있어요. Do you have a younger brother? Yes, I have a younger brother. 아니오, 동생이 없어요. 그런데 언니는 있어요. No, I don't have a younger brother. But I have an older sister. (Location) 교실에 책상이 있어요? Is there a desk in the classroom? 네, 책상이 있어요. Yes, there is a desk (in the classroom) 아니오, 책상이 없어요. 의자는 있어요. No, there is not a desk (in the classroom). But there is a chair. 8. The marker '-에' : at/in This locative marker indicates that someone or something is stationary in a place. It is attached to nouns, and followed by '있다'(to be) and '없다'(not to be). 교실에 학생이 있어요. There is a student in the classroom.
1. The marker '-에'
1.1. to The marker '에' indicates a destination.
도서관에 가요. 서점에 가요. 생일 잔치에 가요.
1.2. at, in This locative marker indicates that someone or something is stationary in a place. In this case, '에' is attached to nouns, and is followed by an inactive verb, such as '있다 (to be)` or '없다 (not to be)`
서점은 도서관 옆에 있어요. 우리집은 센츄럴에 있어요. 꽃가게 뒤에 있어요.
2. The sentence ending '-아(어/여)요' There are several kinds of speech style in the Korean language and three styles will be dealt with in Novice 1. They are the informal polite speech style, formal polite speech style and the plain speech style. Each speech style is determined by the formality of the situation and the personal relationship of the individuals involved in a dialogue. Both the formal and the informal polite speech styles are used when people want to be polite, but the formal polite speech style is used in a formal situation and the informal polite speech style in an informal situation. The plain speech style is spoken when a superior talks to an inferior in age or is used between close friends. The study of the informal polite speech style will be done first in this lesson and the other two speech styles will be introduced later. The informal polite speech style is most widely used in Korea. Speakers can use this style when they wish to talk politely, but informally, in any situation. The sentence ending which makes the informal polite speech style has three forms. (1) `아요' form :
This is used when the last vowel of the verb stem is 'ㅏ' or 'ㅗ'
알다 ; 알 + 좋다 ; 좋 + 가다 ; 가 + 오다 ; 오 +
--> 알아요 --> 좋아요
--> 가아요 --> 가요(Contraction) --> 오아요 --> 와요(Contraction)
(2) `어요' form : This is used after any other last vowel of the verb stem except for the '아요' and '여요' cases.
있다 ; 있 + 먹다 ; 먹 + 없다 ` 없 + (3) `여요' form : This is used after a '하다` verb. 공부하다 ; 공부하 + 좋아하다 : 좋아하 + 노래하다 ; 노래하 + 여요 어요
--> 있어요 --> 먹어요 --> 없어요
--> 공부하여요 --> 공부해요(contraction) --> 좋아하여요 --> 좋아해요(contraction) --> 노래하여요 --> 노래해요(contraction)
** The verb form like 알다, 가다, 오다 is called the infinitive form. The verb stem is made when '다' is omitted from the infinitive form and many verb forms are made by adding some patterns to this verb stem. 3. Making questions.'-아(어/여)요?' It is very simple to make an interrogative sentence in Korean. There is no subject-verb inversion as in English. You can make Yes/No question with rising intonation at the end of the sentence. For wh-questions, you should use interrogatives such as '어디(where)` and '뭐/무엇(what)`.
의자가 책상 옆에 있어 요. 의자가 책상 옆에 있어 요? 의자가 어디에 있어요? 이것은 맥주예요. 이것은 맥주예요? 이게 뭐예요?
There is a chair beside the desk.
Is there a chair beside the desk? Where is the chair? This is beer. Is this beer? What is this?
The marker '-도` means 'also' or 'too'. This can replace the subjective marker '-가/이', and the objective marker '-을/를`.
4. The marker 도 : also/too 맥주가 있어요. 맥주도 있어요.
There is some beer. There is some beer too.
나는 가요. 나도 가요.
I will go. I will go, too.
5. The pattern '옆/ 앞 / 뒤 / 위 / 아래 + 에' : beside/in fromt of/behind/on/under Words that indicate directions and locations. Combined with
markers indicating location such as '에`, they are used for locations. There is a cat beside the desk. 고양이가 책상 옆에 있어요. 고양이가 책상 앞에 있어요. 고양이가 책상 뒤에 있어요. 고양이가 책상 위에 있어요. 고양이가 책상 아래에 있어요. There is a cat in front of the desk. There is a cat behind the desk. There is a cat on the desk. There is a cat under the desk.
LESSON 3 1. Adverb '안' : do not
before the verb.
The abverb '안' is used to express the negative and means 'do not'. '안' is put
학교에 안 갔어요. 점심을 안 먹었어요. 2. Adverb '못' : want to do but can not
impossibility or strong denial and refusal. The adverb '못' is used with action verbs, and means
파티에 못 갔어요. 형을 못 만났어요. 3. The marker '-에서' : at/in,from The marker '-에서' has two meanings. One is 'at' or 'in' indicating the place where an action takes place. Another meaning is 'from', indicating a starting point or cause. 맥도널드에서 점심을 먹었어요. 스페인에서 왔어요. 4. The objective marker '-을/를' The marker '-을/를' is attached to a Noun to indicate the direct
object of a transitive verb. '-를' is used after a vowel while '을' is used after a consonant.
생일파티를 했어요. 점심을 먹었어요.
5. The pre-ending '-았/었/였-' This is used to indicate an action which took place in the past or a condition which used to exist. (1) -았When the final vowel of the verb stem is 'ㅏ,ㅗ', it takes '-았-' -> 많았어요. 많다: 많 + 좋다: 만나다: 오다: 먹다: 읽다: 좋 + 았어요. -> 좋았어요. 만나 + 오 + 먹 읽 + -> 만나았어요. -> 오았어요. -> 먹었어요. -> 만났어요. (contraction) -> 왔어요. (contracion)
(2) -었When the final vowel of the verb stem is any other vowel like 'ㅓ, ㅜ, ㅡ, ㅣ', it takes '-었-'.
+ 었어요. -> 읽었어요.
가르치다:가르치+ 찍다: 찍 +
-> 가르치었어요.-> 가르쳤어요. (contraction) -> 찍었어요.
(3) -였When the verb is a '하다' verb, it takes '-였-'. 산책하다:산책하+ -> 산책하였어요.-> 산책했어요. (contraction)
기뻐하다:기뻐하+ 였어요. -> 기뻐하였어요.-> 기뻐했어요. (contraction) 가르치다:가르치+ -> 공부하였어요.-> 가르쳤어요. (contraction)
LESSON 4 1. The pattern '-고 싶다' : would like to (do)/want to (do) The pattern ‘-고 싶다’ is used to indicate the desire of the subject and is used with action verbs and ‘있다.’ This pattern ‘-고 싶 다’ is used with first person statements and second person questions. Here are some examples: 사과를 사고 싶어요. 커피를 마시고 싶어요. 한국에 가고 싶어요. 안나씨를 만나고 싶어요? (I) would like to buy an apple. (I) would like to drink a cup of coffee. (I) would like to go to Korea. Would (you) like to see Anna?
Where would (you) like to go? 어디에 가고 싶으세요? Tense and negation are expressed in the verb '싶다'. (I) wanted to eat pizza. 피자를 먹고 싶어요. (I) don't want to eat pizza. 피자를먹고 싶지 않아요. 2. '-세요' : imperative Sentence ending '-세요' is one of the sentence endings which can be used for indicating polite questioning in the Interrogative(-세요?) and polite order(command) in the Imperatives(-세요). This ending is more polite than the sententce ending '-어요.' (1) '-세요?' This form implies respect of the speaker for the subject of the sentence, but the answer to this ‘세요?’ must be ‘-어요’ when referring to the yourself in the first person. Do you go home? 집에 가세요? Yes, I go. 네, 집에 가요. (2) '-세요.' This form means 'Please do something' when referring to the second person. Please give me an apple. 사과 주세요. Please meet Anna. 안나를 만나세요. 3. The marker '-에' : per,for,by,at,in You have already studied this marker '-에' which indicates static location in lesson 2. This marker '-에' is used to indicate the time that something takes place and proportion. 저는 안나씨를 한 시에 만나요. I meet Anna at 1 o'clock. 저는 월요일에 등산을 가요. 그 책을 1,000 원에 샀어요. I go climbing on Monday. I bought that book for 1,000won.
이 사과 한 개에 얼마예요? Interrogatives With Numbers 얼마 몇시 몇개 며칠 몇 가지 이거 얼마예요? 지금 몇 시예요? 몇 개 드릴까요? 오늘 며칠이에요?
How much is this apple for one? How much What time How many What day How many kinds How much for this? What time is it now? How many do you want? What day is today?
How many colors are there? 몇 가지 색이 있어요? 4. Counting unit (1) There are various counting units in the Korean language. '개', which means 'piece, item, object', is widely used when counting things and '명', which means 'person', is used when counting persons. '분' and '사람' are also used when counting persons, but '분' is the polite form and shows respect for the persons counted. These counting units do not occur as independent words, but are connected to numbers. The Korean numbers are used with these units, for example '다섯 개, 열 개', and '일곱 명, 아홉 명', and the name of things or persons should precede these expressions. five watches 시계 다섯 개 책 일곱 개 학생 열 명 seven books ten students
eighteen teachers 선생님 열 여덟 분 Several Korean numbers are changed when they used with counting units. Korean Numbers Number + counting unit 하나 둘 셋 한 개, 한 명, 한 분, 한 사람 두 개, 두 명, 두 분, 두 사람 세 개, 세 명, 세 분, 세 사람
넷 스물 사과 한 개 주세요.
네 개, 네 명, 네 분, 네 사람 스무 개, 스무 명, 스무 분, 스무 사람 Give me one apple.
저는 아이들이 세 명 있어요. I have three children. Other counting units will be introduced later. Both Chinese and Korean units are used according to the counting units. (2) Both Korean and Chinese numbers are used when speaking about time is said. Here are some examples: 04:40 K.N : C.N. 네 시 사십 분 Korean number + 시 (o'clock) one o'clock 한시 ten o'clock 열시 Chinese number + 분 (minutes) fourty minutes 사십 분 삼십 분 thirty minutes Let's meet at 1:30. ('반' is used often as thirty minutes)
한 시 반에 만납시다.
The class ended at 10:05. 수업이 열 시 오 분에 끝났어요. 5. Irregular verbs '으' (1) When verbs ending with '으' meet the vowel, '으' is omitted. Most verbs ending in a final vowel '으' of the stem are irregular. 쓰(다) + -어요 : ㅆ+ㅓ요 => 써요 : to write,to use,to be bitter,to put on(a hat) 크(다) + -어요 : ㅋ + ㅓ요 => 커요 : to be tall 뜨(다) : to rise 끄(다) : to turn off I am writing a letter . 저는 편지를 써요. 편지를 썼어요. 편지를 써야 해요. 동생은 키가 커요. I wrote a letter. I have to write a letter. My brother is tall
(2) '-아요' is used if the vowel before '으' is 'ㅏ' or 'ㅗ', '-어요' is used if the vowel before '으' is other vowel except '아' and '오'. 바쁘(다) + -아요 배가 고프(다) 나쁘(다) 잠그(다) 아프(다) -으 irregular verbs + '-아요'
: 바ㅃ + ㅏ요 => 바빠요 : To be busy : to be hungry : to be bad : to lock : to be painful Today I am busy. I was busy this morning. Because I was busy, I couldn't go.
저는 오늘 바빠요. 오늘 아침에 바빴어요. 바빠서 못 갔어요. -으 irregular verbs + '-어요' 예쁘(다) + -어요 슬프(다) 기쁘(다) 슬프(다)
: 예ㅃ ㅓ요 => 예뻐요 (To be pretty) : 슬ㅍ ㅓ요 => 슬프다 (to be sad) : to be happy : to be sad
LESSON 5 1. The pattern '-아(어/여) 보다' (1) On it's own, '보다' means 'to see.' The pattern '-아(어/ 여)보다' is used to convey meanings such as 'someone tries doing something ( to see how it will turn out) or 'someone does something to see (how it will turn out).' Please try on these shoes. 이 구두를 신어 보세요. 전화해 보세요. Please try to call.
Please wait here. 여기서 기다려 보세요. (2) With past tense form. it can be used to express experience as well as the meanings mentioned in (1) I have been to Korea. 저는 한국에 가 봤어요. I have met Melanie. 저는 멜라니를 만나 봤어요. 2. The pattern '-아/어/여 보이다' : someone(or something) looks (appears, seems...) This pattern conveys meanings such as likeness, resemblance, or similarity. when attached directly to the stems of adjectives. The past tense form of this pattern is '-아/어/여 보였다.' -아 보이다 is after verb stems having '아/오'
-어 보이다 is after verb stems having other vowel '아/오' -여 보이다 is after verb stems having '-하다' The clothes look small. 옷이 작아 보여요. 한국음식이 맛있어 보여요. Korean food looks delicious.
He looks happy. 그분이 행복해 보여요. 3. The marker '-보다' : more than The comparative marker '-보다' (more than) is attached to a standard of comparison (which is usually the second noun) when both items of comparison are mentioned. It is often accompanied by '-더' which means 'more'. 한국말이 영어보다 (더) 어려워요.Korean is more difficult than English. 개가 고양이보다 (더) 커요. Dogs are bigger than cats.
오늘은 어제보다 (더) 시원해요. Today is cooler than yesterday. When the standard of comparison is omitted, '더'('more) is used. This is better. 이게 더 좋아요. 한국말이 더 어려워요. Korean is more difficult.
I like apples more. 나는 사과가 더 좋아요. 4. 제일/가장 : the most While the comparative marker is attached to nouns, superlative sentences are made by putting the word '가장/제일' before adjectives, noun modifiers or adverbs. That one is the prettiest. 그게 제일 예뻐요. 이게 제일 작은 연필이에요. 그분이 제일 잘 가르쳐요. 안나가 제일 커요. This is the smallest pencil. He teaches best of all. (He is the best teacher.) Anna is the biggest.
1. The pattern '-(으)ㄹ 거예요' : will
action which is going to take place in the future.
This pattern is used in the first or second person to express an
(1) -ㄹ 거예요 : If the verb stem ends in a vowel. Anna, what will you do tomorrow?
안나씨, 내일 뭐 할 거예요?
I will move tomorrow. 저는 내일 이사를 할 거예요. (2) -을 거예요 : If the verb stem ends in a consonant. Will you have lunch now? 지금 점심 먹을 거예요? No, I will have it in 30 minutes. 아니오, 30 분 후에 먹을 거예요. If the subject of the sentence is the 3rd person pronoun, this pattern indicates likelihood or probability.
2. The Marker '-까지' : all the way up to This marker '-까지' indicates goal of the time and place, attaching to nouns of place or time. How far are you going? 어디까지 가세요? 시청까지 가요. 아홉시까지 오세요. I am going as far as City Hall. Please come by nine o'clock.
3. The Marker '-부터' : from (when) The marker '-부터' indicates a movement away from a certain place or time. It is much more commonly used for time than place. For place, the marker '-에서' is better. 9 시부터 12 시까지 한국어를 공부해 I study Korean from nine to twelve. 요. 몇 시부터 수업을 시작해요? 이것부터 하세요. 여기부터 읽으세요. What time does class begin? (From what time do you begin class?) Do this first. Read from here.
4. The Marker '-에서' : from
point of movement.
The marker '-에서' is attached to place nouns and indicates a starting
안나는 호주에서 왔어요.
Anna came from Australia.
LA 에서 New York 까지 멀어요? Is it far from LA to New York ? You have studied this marker '-에서' denoting dynamic location. If someone does something at a certain place. this marker designates the location. Let's review it. I study at Sogang University. 서강 대학교에서 공부해요. 한국식당에서 한국 음식을 먹어요. I eat Korean food at a korean restaurant.
5. The Plain Speech Style You have already studied the formal and informal polite speech style. Now you will study the plain style (in Korean 반말) which is used among truly close friends, to a social inferior, or when talking with children. There are several ways to form the plain speech style. 5.1. The easiest way to form the plain speech style is to just attach '-아/어/여' to the verb stem. It is very similar to the formation of the
informal polite style which is formed by the ending '-아/어/여요'. If you drop the '-요', you will get the plain speech style. Where are you going? <Interrogative> 어디 가요? ----> 어디 가? 학교에 가요. ----> 학교에 가. 빨리 가(세)요 ----> 빨리 가 ! 갑시다!---->가 ! <a little awkward> I'm going to home. Go quickly! Let's go. <Declarative> <Imperative> <Propositive>
The sentence ending of the four types of sentences are the same, but they are differenciated by intonation. If the predicate has the construction 'Noun + -이다', the ending '-야' is used. 이름이 뭐예요? ----> 이름이 뭐야?
----> 저게 사탕이야? 저게 사탕입니까? 5.2. First, two kinds of endings can be used for the interrogative '-니' and '아/어/여'. There aredifferences in nuance between the two. The ending '-아/어/여' is used among close friends, and the ending '-니' is used to a social inferior. ----> 어디 가니? 어디 가? 밥 먹었어? ----> 밥 먹었니?
----> 언제 갈 거니? 언제 갈 거예요? 5.3. Second, the propositive ending '-자' is used more frequently in colloquial conversation. 수영하러 가자 ! 이따가 12 시쯤에 만나자 ! 오늘 저녁에 만나자 ! Let's go to swimming. Let's meet at 12 o'clock. Let's meet in the evening.
Let's go to drink. 술 한 잔 하러 가자 ! 5.4. The imperative is formed with the ending ' 아/어/여' . However, its use is restricted and it is not commonly used among close friends. Be quiet ! 조용히 해 ! 나가 ! 빨리 와 ! Get out of here ! Come quickly !
나한테 던져 !
Throw it to me !
6. '-ㄷ' Irregular verbs The final consonant '-ㄷ' of the verb stem changes '-ㄹ' when followed by a vowel, but it does not change when followed by a consonant. ---> 듣다(to listen): 듣 + 어요 들어요. 묻다(to ask): 걷다(to walk): 저는 지금 음악을 들어요. 잘 모르면 저한테 물어 보세요. 어제는 많이 걸었어요. 묻 + 어 보다 걷 + 었어요 ---> ---> 물어 보다. 걸었어요.
I listen to the music now If you really don't know, ask me. I walked a lot yesterday.
Don't ask me. 저한테 묻지 마세요.! However '닫다' to close, '받다' to receive and '믿다' to believe are not irregular verbs. Please close the door. 문을 닫아 주세요. 어제 친구한테서 편지를 받았어요. 지도와 카메라가 필요해요. I received a letter from my friend. I need map and camera.
I study Korean and English these days. 저는 요즘 한국말과 영어를 공부해요. There is another pattern '-와/과 같이' which means 'together', 'with' or 'along with'. This '와/과 같이' is interchangeable with '-하고 같이' and '같이' can be dropped in both '-와/과 같이' and '하고 같이'. I went on a trip with my friends. 친구와 같이(친구하고 같이) 여행했어요. 선생님과 의논했어요. 남동생하고 살아요. I had a discussion with my teacher. I live with my younger brother.
7. '-ㅂ' Irregular verbs Some verbs of which the verb stems ends in the final consonant 'ㅂ' are irregular. When the final consonant '-ㅂ' of the verb stem is followed by a vowel, it changes into '우'. The vowel which follows the verb stem is usually '어요' except for some verbs like '돕다' and '곱다'. When the final consonant '-ㅂ' of the verb stem is followed by a consonant, it does not change. -> 즐거우어요 -> 즐거워요 즐겁다 (to be pleasant) 즐거우 + 어요
(contraction) 반갑다 (to be glad) 춥다 (to be cold) 어렵다 (to be difficult) 덥다 (to be hot) 돕다 (to help) 곱다 (to be pretty) 반가우 + 어요 추우 + 었어요 어려우 + ㄹ거예요 더우 + 어 보여요 도우 + 아요 고우 + 아요 -> 반가우어요 -> 추우었어요 -> 어려울 거예요. -> 더우어 보여요 -> 도우아요 -> 고우아요 -> 더워 보여요. -> 도와요. -> 고와요. -> 반가워요. -> 추웠어요.
LESSON 7 1. The pattern' -(으)ㄹ까요?' Shall we(I) ~ ?/Will it be ~ ? 우리 거기에서 만날까요? 무엇을 할까요?
The pattern '-(으)ㄹ까요?' is used to express inquiring about someone's opinion, view or appraisal on a certain matter or fact with the action verb. In this case, the subject of the sentence is always the first person, singular or plural.
Shall we meet there? What shall I do?
늦었으니까 비행기로 갈까요? Because we are late, shall we go by airplane? When used with the adjectives, or with '있다(to exist)' or '이다(to be)', the subject of the sentence is the third person, and it express doubt or polite denial. Will Korean be interesting? 한국어가 가 재미있을까요? (or You say Korean is interesting ?) 이게 더 나을까요? 도서관이 저기에 있을까요? Will this one be better? Will the library be over there? (Do you think the library is over there?)
2. The Propositive '-(으)ㅂ시다' : let's --(propositive) This form is used to expressing the subject's suggestion with the action verbs and the verb of existence '있다'. It cannot be used with '이다' nor with adjectives. 빨리 갑시다. Let's go quickly. Let's study Korean. Let's stay here. Let's go by train.
한국어를 공부합시다. 여기에 있읍시다. 기차로 갑시다.
Let's meet this weekend. 이번 주말에 만납시다. '- 읍시다.' is used after verb stems ending in a consonant. 먹(다) + -읍시다 ; 먹읍시다. '- ㅂ시다.' is used after verb stems ending in a vowel. 가(다) + ㅂ 시다 ; 갑시다. In plain speech style(반말), with children and sometimes with close friends you can use the form '-자' instead of '-아/어/여'. Drop the '-요' of the informal polite speech style ending '-아/어/여요'. Here are some examples; 빨리 가자. 한국어를 공부하자. 여기에 있자. 기차로 가자. 이번 주말에 만나자. Let's go quickly. Let's study Korean. Let's stay here. Let's go by train. Let's meet this weekend.
3. The Connective '-(으)러' : in order to The connective '-(으)러' is used to express the purpose of the subject's action and is followed by either '가다'(to go), '오다'(to come) or their compounds, or any verb which indicates movement, such as '다니다'(to go and come regularly). 저는 어제 책을 사러 서점에 갔어요. (저는) 공원에 운동하러 왔어요. 수영하러 갈까요? I went to a bookstore (in order) to buy a book yesterday. I came to the park (in order) to exercise. Shall we go for a swim?
Tom will come (in order) to play. 탐이 놀러 올 거예요. As you see the above examples, '-러' is used after verb stems ending in a vowel or the consonant 'ㄹ'. On the other hand, '-으러' is used after verb stems ending in all consonants except 'ㄹ'. Tense and negation are expressed with the verbs 가다 or 오다, but not in the verb connected to '(으)러'. Anna went to buy a book. 안나씨는 책을 사러 갔어요 안나씨는 밥을 먹으러 가지 않았어요. Anna didn't go to eat. 4. The pattern '-(으)ㄹ게요' : I will do -This form is used for expressing the speaker's intention or plan or promise. It is used with action verbs as well as with the verb 있다, but not with adjectives. I will do it. 제가 할게요. 거기에서 기다릴게요. 내일 갈게요. 제가 도와 드릴게요. I will wait (for you) over there. I will go tomorrow. I will help you.
LESSON 8 1. The pattern' -고 싶어하다' : want to do -, would like to 안나씨가 어디에 가고 싶어 해요?
This pattern `-고 싶어 하다' is used to express desires in third person subject statements and questions with all verbs and `있다'.
Where does Anna want to go?
안나씨는 집에 가고 싶어 해요. 앤디씨가 무엇을 먹고 싶어 해요?
Anna wants to go to home. What does Andy want to eat?
앤디씨는 불고기를 먹고 싶어 해요. Andy wants to eat Bulgogi. Tense is expressed in the verb `싶어 하다', such as `싶어 했어요' 미나씨가 어디에 가고 싶어 했어요 ? Where did Mina want to go ? She wanted to go home. 집에 가고 싶어 했어요 Negation is expressed in the verb `싶어 하다' with `-지 않다', such as `싶어 하지 않아요'. 미나씨가 집에 가고 싶어 했어요 ? Did Mina want to go home ?
아니오, 집에 가고 싶어 하지 않았어요. No, she didn't want to go home.
2. The pattern '-ㄹ 줄 알다/모르다' : One knows (doesn't know) how to do sth This pattern is used to express the knowledge or lack of knowledge of a technique or process of doing something. 자동차 운전할 줄 알아요(아세요) ? Do you know how to drive ? 네, 운전할 줄 알아요. 아니오, 운전할 줄 몰라요. 피아노를 칠 줄 알아요(아세요) ? 네, 칠 줄 알아요. Yes, I know how to drive. No, I don't know how to drive. Do you know how to play the piano ? Yes, I know how to play.
No, I don't know how to play. 아니오, 칠 줄 몰라요. The Tense is expressed with the verb '알다/모르다`. 피아노를 칠 줄 알았어요. I knew how to play the piano. (But, now I don't know how to play.) (그런데 지금은 칠 줄 몰라요.) 피아노를 칠 줄 몰랐어요. (그런데 지금은 칠 줄 알아요.). 3. The pattern '아/어/여 주다(드리다)' I didn't know how to play the piano. (But, now I know how to play.)
When the verb '주다' and its respectful counterpart '드리다'(to give) are used in the pattern '-아/ 어/여 주다(드리다)', it expresses the speaker's request for something or offer to do something for someone else. '주다' is used for a request or offer to a social equal or inferior. 저를 도와 주시겠어요 ? 이것을 읽어 주세요. Would you be kind enough to help me ? (Will you help me ?) Please read this for me.
I will help you.(to an inferior) 내가 도와 줄게. '드리다' is used when the speaker makes an offer or request to a social superior, or in any situation when the speaker wants to be polite. Shall I help you ? 도와 드릴까요 ? 제가 도와 드리겠어요. 안나한테 읽어 드리세요. I will help you. Please read it for Anna.
4. '-르' irregular verbs 1. When '르' of the verb stem is followed by the vowel '-어' and preceded by the vowels '-아-' or '-오-', it is changed into '라'. And the consonant '-ㄹ' is added to the preceding syllable. 모르다 ( not to know) --> 몰라요 빠르다 ( to be fast) 다르다 ( to be different) 저는 영어를 몰라요. 비행기는 빨라요. --> 빨라요 --> 달라요
I don't know English well. The plane is fast.
The phone number is different. 전화번호가 달라요. 2. When '르' of the verb stem is followed by the vowel '-어' and preceded by any other vowel than '-아-' or '-오', it is changed into '-러'. Then the consonant '-ㄹ' is added to the preceding syllabel. Sing a song. 부르다( to sing): 노래를 부르세요. 기르다( to bring up): 저는 어렸을 때, 강아지를 길렀습니다 누르다( to press): I raised a puppy when I was little.
Do you want to open the 문을 열고 싶어요? 그러면, 여기를 눌러 주세요.door? Then press here,
please. LESSON 9 1. The ending '-ㅂ/습니다'
People use this formal polite speech style when they speak to strangers, casual acquaintances, superiors, their elders, and social inferiors in formal situations. 1.1 The formation
of present tense The declarative verb form is made by attaching '-ㅂ/습니다' to the verb stem and '-ㅂ/습니까?' must be attached to the verb stem to make the interrogative verb form. '-ㅂ니 다/-ㅂ니까?' is used after verb stems (or the honorific infix -시-) ending in a vowel and '습니다/ 습니까?' after verb stems ending in a consonant. 가다: 가 + ㅂ니다/ㅂ니다 갑니다/갑니까? 묻다: 묻 + 습니다/ 감사합니다 묻습니다/ 묻습니까? Thank you
I feel good 기분이 좋습니다 1.2 The formation of past tense The declarative form is formed by attaching '-았(었/였) 습니다' to the verb stem and the interrogative form is made by adding '-았(었/였)습니까? to the verb stem. The declarative form is made the same way as the past tense of the informal polite speech style. '습니다/습니까?' is attached to '-았/었/였' instead of '-어요'. 만나다: 만나 + 았습니다/았 만났습니다/만났습니까? (contraction) 습니까? 주다: 주 + 었습니다/었습니 까? 하다: 하 + 였습니다/였습니 까? 어제 음악회가 좋았습니다. 수업이 언제 끝났습니까? 주었습니다/주었습니까? 줬습니다/줬습니까? (contraction) (contraction)
The music concert was good yesterday When did the class end?
I was tired yesterday. 어제 피곤했습니다. 1.3 The formation of future tense The declarative form is formed by attaching '(으)ㄹ 겁니다' to the verb stem and the interrogative form is made by adding '(으)ㄹ 겁니까?' to the verb stem. 보다: 보 + ㄹ 겁니다 볼 겁니다. 먹다 :먹 + 을 겁니다 저는 내일 일찍 일어날 겁니다. 먹을 겁니다 I will wake up early tomorrow.
Just leave it. It will be O.K. 그냥 두세요. 괜찮을 겁니다. 1.4 The formation of the imperative form The imperative verb form is made by attaching '-(으)십시오' to the verb stem. '-십시오' is used after verb stems ending in a vowel and '으십시오' after verb stems ending in a consonant 오다 : 오 + 십시오 오십시오. 입다 : 입 + 으십시오. 어서 오십시오. 다음 장을 읽으십시오. 입으십시오. Come on in. Read the next chapter.
2. The pattern '-(으)ㄹ 수 있다/없다' : can/cannot do, be able to do/not be able to do The pattern -ㄹ/을 수 있다/없다 is used with verbs and indicates ability,capability,possibility or permission. (1) - ㄹ 수 있다 ; It is used when the verb stem ends in a vowel: Infinitive Form Formation Inflected Form 가(다) 사(다) 가 + -ㄹ 수 있다/없다 사 + -ㄹ 수 있다/없다 갈 수 있어요/없어요 살 수 있어요/없어요
주(다) 줄 수 있어요/없어요 주 + -ㄹ 수 있다/없다 (2) -을 수 있다 ; It is used when the verb stem ends in a consonant: Infinitive Form Formation Inflected Form 먹(다) 입(다) 먹 + -을 수 있다/없다 입 + -을 수 있다/없다 먹을 수 있어요/없어요 입을 수 있어요/없어요
잡(다) 잡 + -을 수 있다/없다 잡을 수 있어요/없어요 The past tense form `-았/었/였-' and the future tense form `-ㄹ/을 거에요' are combined with the final verb `있다/없다' 갈 수 있었어요 먹을 수 있었어요 갈 수 있을 거에요 먹을 수 있을 거에요
3. The connective '-(으)면' : 'if, when ...'
The connective `-(으)면' can be used with any verb or adjective and indicates condition and/or stipulation. While in English a dependent clause which is introduced with 'if' can either precede or follow the main clause, in Korean the dependent clause precedes the main clause. '-면' is used when verb stem ends in a vowel or the consonant '-ㄹ' and '-으면' is used when verb stem ends in all consonant except '-ㄹ'. 그 영화가 재미있으면 보겠어요. If the movie is interesting, I will see it.
비가 오면 가지 맙시다. If it rains, let's not go. Sometimes, the word `만일/만약' is used at the beginning of a conditional clause as a signal of the condition. 만약 그분을 만나면, 안부 전해 주세요.If you meet him, give him my regards.
4. The pattern '-지 말다' : don't do On it's own, the verb `말다' means 'to stop, to cease, to quit.' So the pattern '-지 말다` preceded by an action verb expresses prohibition or dissuasion. This pattern is always used as a negative imperative sentence or a negative propositive sentence. Please don't go to school. 학교에 가지 마세요. 늦게 주무시지 마십시오. 지금 떠나지 마세요. 울지 마세요. 버스는 타지 맙시다. 오늘은 그분을 만나지 맙시다. Please don't go to bed late. Please don't leave now. Don't cry. Let's not take a bus. Let's not meet him today.
5. The connective -(아/어/여)서: so, because The connective `-(아/어/여)서' is used to indicate cause or reason. In this case, it is mostly used with adjectives and '가다'(to go), '오다'(to come), '없다'(don't have) etc. in declarative and interrogative sentences. That is, `-(아/어/여)서' cannot be used in imperative and propositive sentence, where another connective '-(으)니까' is used. (This connective will be explained later.) I was tired, so I took a rest at home. 피곤해서 집에서 쉬었어요. 바빠서 못 갔어요. I was busy, so I couldn't go.
6. Honorific system Korean has two types of honorifics. (1) One type is expressed by combining `-시-' with verbs, indicating and respect on the part of the speaker for the person spoken to. The honorific form is made by inserting '-(으)시-' between the verb stem and the endings like -아(어/여)요, 었어요, -ㅂ니다, 었습니다, -ㅂ니까? or 었습니까? '-시-' is used when verb stem ends in a vowel and '-으시-' is used when verb stem ends in a consonant. 가다 가 + 시 + 어요 가 + 시어요 가세요 받다 오다 읽다 하다 찾다 받 + 으시 + 어요 오 + 시 + 었어요 읽 + 으시 + 었어요 하 + 시 + ㅂ니다 찾 + 으시 + 었습니다 받 + 으시어요 오 + 시었어요 읽 + 으시었어요 하십니다 찾 + 으시었습니다 찾으셨습니다 받으세요 오셨어요 읽으셨어요.
There are also special honorific verbs indicating respect for the person spoken to. These honorifics are used when the person deserving respect is the subject of the sentence. Plain Form 먹다 자다 있다 아프다 많이 잡수세요. 김선생님 계세요 ? Honorific Form 잡수시다 주무시다 계시다 편찮다 Help yourself. Is Mr.Kim there? Meaning to eat to sleep to exist, to be to be sick
Is your mother seriously sick ? 어머님께서 많이 편찮으세요 ? (2) The other way is to use respectful verbs. They are special words used by the speaker to express his own humility and, simultaneously, show his respect for the person with whom he is speaking. These honorifics are used when the person deserving respect is the object of the sentence.
Plain Form 주다 묻다(말하다) 보다
Honorific Form 드리다 여쭈다/여쭙다 뵙다
Meaning to give to ask/to tell to see/to meet
데리고 가다/오다 모시고 가다/오다 to take/bring someone to somewhere If you learn these honorific/respectful forms, you can handle most of the honorific/respectful expressions 7. '-ㄹ' irregular verbs The final consonant 'ㄹ' of the verb stem is dropped when it is followed by the endings which begins with the consonants '-ㄴ,-ㅂ,-ㅅ'. Where do you live? 살다(to live) 어디에서 사세요? 알다(to know) 저는 그 사람을 잘 압니다. 팔다(to sell) 말다(don't) 그 가게에서 무엇을 파니? 들어오지 마세요. I know the person well. What they sell at the store? Don't come in.
1. The pattern '-(으)려고 하다' : intend to The pattern `-(으)려고 하다' is used with verbs(including `있다'). This pattern is used to indicate a subject's intention. However, this pattern is restricted to first and second personal pronouns. The third personal pronoun will be dealt with in detail later. `려고 하다' is used if the verb stem ends in a vowel. `-으려고 하다' is used if the verb stem ends in a consonant. 저는 내일 극장에 가려고 해요. I intend to go to the theater. 1 달쯤 서울에 있으려고 해요. 1 시부터 공부하려고 해요. I intend to be in Seoul for about 1 month. I intend to study from 1 o'clock.
I intend to eat bulgogi. 불고기를 먹으려고 해요. The negation is expressed in the main verb which has `-(으)려고 하다', not with the `하다' verb. I don't intend to buy that book. 그 책을 안 사려고 해요. (= 그 책을 사지 않으려고 해요.) However tense is expressed in the main verb. It will be dealt with in detail later. 2. The marker '-한테' : to (person) This marker '-한테' is used for indicating the receiver of an action or the one whom something is done or exists. To whom did you give a book? 누구한테 책을 주었어요? 제 친구한테 주었습니다. I gave it to my friend.
누구한테 편지를 쓰세요?
To whom did you write a letter?
안나씨 열쇠는 멜라니씨한테 있어요. Mellanie has Anna's key. Please ask the teacher. 선생님한테 물어 보세요. 3. The marker '-한테서' : from (person) This marker '-한테서' is used for indicating the source or starting point of an action. 누구한테서 그 소식을 들었어요 ? From whom did you hear that news ? 어머니한테서 들었습니다. 누구한테서 편지가 왔어요? I heard from my mother. From whom did you get a letter ?
누구한테서 그 선물을 받았어요? From whom did you receive that present? 4. Pre-ending '-겠-' : guess/conjecture This pre-ending -겠- is used for expressing the speaker's conjecture or supposition or for asking intention of the person spoken to in a polite request. I think you will be busy these days. 요즘 많이 바쁘겠어요. 저 분은 예뻤겠어요. I think he/she was beautiful.
What will you eat? 뭘 드시겠어요 ? 5. The pattern '-(으)ㄴ 다음에' : after doing something On it's own, the noun '다음' means 'later'. The pattern '-(으)ㄴ 다음에' is used to express 'after something happens' or 'after something happened'. It is used only with verbs. Tense and negation is expressed in the main verb. Let's meet after class finishes. 수업이 끝난 다음에 만납시다. 친구를 만난 다음에 그 일을 하겠 I will do that task(job) after meeting my friend. 어요. 전화를 한 다음에 오세요. Please come over after you call.
저녁식사를 한 다음에 뭘 할까요? After we finish supper, what shall we do? However, if the subject of the two clauses (the main clause and the dependent clause which is introduced with this pattern) is the same, this pattern cannot be used with the verbs '가다' (to go) / '오다 '(to come) and their compounds. (awkward/never used) 내가 집에 간 다음에 공부합니다. 내가 학교에 온 다음에 친구를 만납니다. (awkward/never used)
6. '-ㄷ' Irregular verbs The final consonant '-드' of the verb stem changes into '-ㄹ' when followed by a vowel, but it does not change when followed by a consonant. 듣다 (to listen): 듣 + 어요 -> 들어요. 묻다 (to ask): 걷다 (to walk): 저는 지금 음악을 들어요. 잘 모르면 저한테 물어 보세요. 어제는 많이 걸었어요. 묻 + 어 보다 -> 물어 보다. 걷 + 었어요 -> 걸었어요. I listen to the music now. If you really don't know, ask me. I walked a lot yesterday.
Don't ask me. 저한테 묻지 마세요. However '닫다' to close, '받다' to receive and '믿다' to believe are not irregular verbs. Please close the door. 문을 닫아 주세요. 어제 친구한테서 편지를 받았어요. I received a letter from my friend.