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GCE

Edexcel GCE
Chemist ry (6244/ 01)

January 2006

Mark Scheme (Result s)


Chemist ry (6244/ 01)
Edexcel GCE
1. (a) (i) 2Na + O2 Na2O2 IGNORE st at e symbol s
NOT Na2O (1 mark)

(ii) 4P + 5O2 P4O10


OR 4P + 5O2 2P2O5
OR equat ions st art ing wit h P4

species (1) – IGNORE st at e symbol s


balance (1)
balanced equat ion f orming phosphorus(III) oxide scores (1) only (2 marks)

(b) Al 2O3 + 6H+ 2Al 3+ + 3H2O (1)

Al 2O3 + 2OH- + 3H2O 2Al(OH) 4-


-
OR Al 2O3 + 6OH + 3H2O 2Al(OH) 63-
OR Al 2O3 + 2OH- 2AlO2 + H2O (1)


H+ in one equat ion and OH in t he ot her f or acid and alkali on lef t of
t wo equat ions. (1)
IGNORE spur i ous speci es
Non-i oni c equat i ons can scor e 3r d mar k onl y. (3 marks)

(c) (i) mol 3dm ✁ 9


(1 mark)

(ii) [ OH- ] = 2(1. 31x10-4) = 2. 62x10-4 (mol dm 3) (1) ✁


[ H+] = 10-14 / 2. 62 x 10-4 = 3. 82 x 10-11 (mol dm 3) ✁
OR pOH = 3. 58 (1)

pH = -lg(3. 82x10-11) = 10. 4(2)


OR pH 14-3. 58=10. 4(2) (1)
NOT j ust ‘ 10’


If [ OH ] = 1. 31 x 10-4 pH = 10. 12 (max 2)
Consequent i al on [ H+] ✂
pH f or 3r d mar k onl y i f pH > 7 (3 marks)

1
(d) (i) Mg(OH) 2(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + 2H2O (l)
equat ion (1)
st at e symbols (1) – onl y i f speci es cor r ect

OR
Mg(OH) 2(s) + 2H+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) (2 marks)

(ii) barium sulphat e is insoluble


OR less soluble t han magnesium sulphat e / solubilit y of sulphat es
decreases down group (1)
NOT j ust ‘ it is insoluble’
and is t heref ore a barrier (t o f urt her react ion)
(2 marks)
OR coat s solid (1)

Total for Question: 14 marks

2
2 (a) (i) yellow / orange/ red and precipit at e / cryst als / solid
NOT solut ion (1 mark)

(ii) C=N bond (1)


Rest of molecule (1)

H
H N NO2
C N
C6H5CH CH
NO2
IGNORE posi t i on of NO2 gr oups
(2 marks)

(iii) (warm wit h) Fehling’ s/ Benedict ’ s solut ion (1)


red ppt (1)
ment i on of copper (II) oxi de negat es 2nd mar k

OR
(warm wit h alkaline) ammoniacal silver nit rat e / Tollens’ reagent (1)
silver mirror (1)
r ef er ence t o Ag2+ / Ag3+ negat es 1st mar k

ALLOW acidif ied (pot assium) dichromat e (1)


orange t o green/ blue (1)

NOT pot assium manganat e(VII) (2 marks)

(iv) ket one cannot be oxidised / not a reducing agent (1 mark)

(b) (i) HCN (1) + KCN (1)


OR HCN (1) base (1)
OR HCN or KCN (1) pH5-9 (1)
OR KCN (1) acid (except conc H2SO4) (1)
ALLOW CN f or KCN (2 marks)

(ii) Four (1)

It has geomet ric/ cis-t rans and opt ical isomers/ C at om wit h f our
dif f erent groups/ chiral carbon at om/ asymmet ric carbon
OR it has bot h t ypes of stereo-isomerism (1) – st and al one (2 marks)

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(c) (i) reduct ion
OR nucleophilic addit ion (1 mark)

ALLOW redox

NOT hydrogenat ion

(ii) C6H5CH=CHCH(OH)CH2NH2
MUST show C=C

OR f ormat ion of amine salt (1 mark)

(d) (i) (dry) et her / et hoxyet hane (1 mark)

(ii) Grignard reagent s react wit h wat er


ALLOW “ It react s wit h wat er t o f orm an alkane ” (1 mark)

(iii) C6H5CH=CHCH(OH)CH2CH3
C=C bond need not be shown (1 mark)

ALLOW C2H5 f or CH2CH3

(iv) Secondary (1 mark)


Do NOT allow if primary or t ert iary drawn in (iii)

Total for Question: 16 marks

4
3 (a) Kp = p 2(NO2) (1) (1 mark)
p(N2O4)
NOT [ ]

(b) equilibrium moles N2O4 = 0. 2 OR 20 NO2 = 1. 6 OR 160 (1)

mole f ract ions x N2O4 = 0. 2 = 0. 111 and x NO2 = 1. 6 = 0. 889 (1)


1. 8 1. 8

part ial pressures p N2O4 = 0. 2 x 6. 75 = 0. 75 (at m)


1. 8

and p NO2 = 1. 6 x 6. 75 = 6 (at m) (1)


1. 8
48 (1) at m (1) IGNORE S. F.

Not e:
If mol es NO2 = 0. 8, Kp = 21. 6 at m
If mol es NO2 = 0. 2 and mol es N2O4 = 0. 8, Kp = 0. 338 at m (5 marks)

(c) (i) React ion is endot hermic (1)

Kp increases (1)

Theref ore equilibrium posit ion shif t s t o t he right / f orward direct ion (1)

3r d mar k can onl y be awar ded i f i t f ol l ows a change i n Kp (3 marks)

(ii) equilibrium mixt ure get s darker / more brown


Consequent i al on answer t o (c)(i ) (1 mark)

Total for Question: 10 marks

5
4 (a) ent halpy / heat change f or product ion of one mole of gaseous at oms (1)
ALLOW ‘ energy change’
NOT awar ded i f exot her mi c pr ocess st at ed or i mpl i ed
Gaseous can be awar ded f r om RHS of equat i on

f rom an element in it s st andard st at e (1)


ALLOW “ element under st andar d condi t i ons”

½ I2(s) I(g) (1)


St at e symbol s r equi r ed
NOT mul t i pl es (3 marks)

(b) (i) st at e symbols of Li species i. e. LiI(s), Li(s), Li(g), Li +(g) (1)

species (1)

IGNORE st oi chi omet r y (2 marks)

(ii) Ei t her
LE = –270 – (+159) – (+107) – (+520) – (–295)
OR
-270 = (+159) + (+107) + (+520) + (-295) + (LE) (1)

-761 (kJ mol -1) (1)

If uni t s st at ed t hese must be cor r ect


Consequent i al on number s and si gns (2 marks)

(c) magnesium ion is small and highly/ 2+ charged


OR magnesium ion has high charge densit y (1)

leading t o polarisat ion of t he (large) iodide ion (1)


ALLOW dist ort ion of electron cloud of (large) iodide ion

and (causing) covalency (int o t he lat t ice)


OR t heoret ical value assumes magnesium iodide is 100 % ionic
OR magnesium iodide is not 100 % ionic (1)

If at oms or mol ecul es ment i oned, onl y t he 3r d mar k i s avai l abl e. (3 marks)

Total for Question: 10 marks

6
5. (a) (i) NH3+CH(CH2OH)COO
If al l bonds dr awn, + must be shown on N (1 mark)

(ii) high energy needed t o overcome (st rong) ionic at t ract ions/ st rong
ionic bonds (1)

bet ween (dif f erent ) zwit t erion s


OR bet ween molecules [ i f i ons have been ment i oned ] (1)
(2 marks)
Max (1) if int ermolecular f orces ment ioned out of cont ext

(b) (i)
O
C OH
H C CH2OH
NH3+

ALLOW COOH / CO2H and IGNORE posi t i on of char ge on NH3+ unl ess
dr awn i n f ul l (1 mark)

(ii) O
C O-
H C CH2OH
NH2

ALLOW COO OR CO2✁ (1 mark)

(iii) O
HO C H O
H C C O C CH3
NH2 H
or est erif ied zwit t erion

ALLOW COOH on aci d but est er gr oup must be dr awn


ALLOW subst i t ut ed ami de as al t er nat i ve t o, or i n addi t i on t o, est er (1 mark)

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(c) (i) HOCH2CH2OH (1 mark)

(ii) O O H H O O
OCH2CH2 O CC6H4C OR C C O C C6H4C O
H H
bracket s opt ional

CO ]
ALLOW at r i ght hand si de

est er link (1) ALLOW OCO / OOC ( as l i nk was r equi r ed i n (b)(i i i ))


(2 marks)
rest of repeat unit , including cont inuat ion bonds (1)

(d) (i) hydrolysis / nucleophilic subst it ut ion/ saponif icat ion (1 mark)

(ii) only goes one way / goes t o complet ion / irreversible wit h NaOH/ not an
equilibrium (1)

react ion wit h acid is reversible/ is an equilibrium (1)


(so yield is improved wit h alkali)

OR
bot h reagent s cat alyse t he react ion (1)
hydroxide ions react wit h product t o prevent reverse react ion (1)
(so yield is improved wit h alkali) (2 marks)

Total for Question: 12 marks

8
6. (a) st art s at 2. 2 (1)
vert ical sect ion at 40cm 3 of sodium hydroxide (1)
vert ical sect ion cent red bet ween pH 8-9 and bet ween 2 t o 3 squares high
(1)
shape t o include init ial j ump and f inish bet ween pH = 12-13 (1)

If curve drawn back t o f ront , only 2nd and 3rd marks available (4 marks)

(b) (i) maint ains nearly const ant pH / resist s change in pH (1)
on adding small amounts of acid or alkali (1) (2 marks)

(ii) Ka[acid ] [acid]


[ H+] = OR pH = pKa lg (1)
[ salt ] [salt]

[ H+] = 1. 78 x10✁4 x 0. 25 (1)


0. 125

[ H+] = 3. 56 x 10 4
(mol dm -3)

pH = 3. 4(5) (1)
IGNORE no. of deci mal pl aces but penal i se pH = 3 (3 marks)

(iii) acid part ially ionised and salt f ully ionised


OR equat ions (1)

HA + OH✁ ✂ A✁ + H2O (1)


ALLOW H+ + OH✁✄ H2O f ollowed by more dissociat ion of HA

A✁ + H+ ✂ HA (1)

[ HA] and [ A✁] are large (relat ive t o H+ and OH✁ added)/ large
reserves of undissociat ed acid and salt (and so t he values of [ HA]
and [ A ] do not change signif icant ly) (1)

NOTE: If no equat ions given f or ef f ect of adding OH- and H+, correct
explanat ion can score (1) out of t hese t wo marks. (4 marks)

Total for Question: 13 marks

TOTAL FOR PAPER: 75 MARKS