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RESONANT SLOTS

*
By W. H. WATSON, M.A., Ph.D.f
{The paper was received 10th April, 1946.)

SUMMARY which impedance is transferred from the position of the slot centre in
This paper describes how the coupling of a resonant half-wave guide 2 into guide 1 at the same position.
slot to a rectangular wave guide in the wall of which the slot is The coupling of variable reactances to the guide by resonant slots to pro-
cut, came to be studied in order to solve the problem of linear duce a T-section load is described, with experimental confirmation of the
microwave radiators fed from wave guides. The methods of experi- transformation of impedance and phase by the load. The method of radi-
mental investigation* are described and the results are presented in ation coefficients is applied to deduce the law of guide-coupling in the
terms of a method of representing the loading of the dominant wave general case; it may be applied to treat loading and coupling of two waves
in the guide. The important conception is the transformation of the in the same guide. Finally, directive aerial coupling by a pair of slots
circle-diagram variable (w) representing the dominant wave-system in is discussed.
the guide. Finally, the elements of the design problem for a linear microwave
It is shown that wave guides may be coupled by resonant slots. If array and the theory of the wave-guide feed are discussed. Both
such a slot is cut in the wall of a wave guide and lies opposite a register- transverse and longitudinal polarization are considered, together with
ing slot in a second guide in contact with the first, the wave guides are the effects of mutual interaction between the inclined slots cut in the
coupled if the slot can be excited by the dominant wave in both guides. narrow face of the guide in the longitudinally-polarized array. The band-
The type of coupling depends on the aspect of the slot in each width of arrays is treated and a broad-band array of inclined-displaced
guide. slotsinthebroadfaceis described with measurements of its performance.
The laws of guide coupling are explained in terms of the manner in The principle of the microwave Yagi aerial is briefly presented.

Part I. THE COUPLING OF A RESONANT SLOT TO A WAVE GUIDE
(1) INTRODUCTION readily seen that in order to produce a matched input to an array
In the early years of the recent war several attempts were of many elements, it must be possible to couple the radiating
made, for example by Southworth and Hansen to construct loads so that the conductances presented to the H10-wave in the
microwave antennas of large aperture by allowing energy to leak guide are many times smaller than the characteristic admittance
from the wave guide through a long slot parallel to the axis of of the transmission line in terms of which the propagation can be
the rectangular guide. It is easy to demonstrate that such a slot represented. Once it had become clear that the impedance of a
behaves as a parallel-wire transmission line which is continuously load in a wave guide is a well-defined conception, it was obvious
coupled to the H10-wave in the guide. Accordingly, standing that to design a satisfactory array at resonant (guide) spacing, all
waves are set up on the slot due to its finite length and radiation that was required was to find suitably coupled radiators.
from the slot is end-fire instead of broadside to the guide in the To achieve loose electrical coupling, the probes should be
way desired. Linear arrays of dipoles fed from the guide introduced near the narrow face or edge of the guide where the
through probes connecting the coaxial-line feed-supports of the electric force in the H10-wave is small. The first attempt to
radiators to the wave in the guide, were then proposed by exploit this idea was to mount the dipoles on the narrow face
Alvarez. Since the probes were introduced through the centre and to couple them to the electric field by bending the central
of the broad face of the guide, they had to be quite short to conductor of the coaxial-line feed to a dipole, into a plane
allow the energy in the guide to be distributed properly over the parallel to the narrow face of the guide. The bent probe so
array. It was found that in order to feed such an array the formed could be turned round in this plane and the coupling
spacing of the elements had to be different from A /2 and the weakened by increasing the angle between the bent probe and
guide had to be terminated in a matched load to avoid intolerable the electric field in the wave guide. As a practical device this
reflections in the main guide. The dipoles must, of course, be was not very attractive. To remove the need for insulating sup-
coupled with alternately reversed phases in order to produce a ports, slot radiators on the ends of small pieces of wave guide
beam nearly normal to the array. The work to be described in which were coupled by means of the bent probes were developed.
this paper was the natural outcome of experiments at McGill The slots were suitably "choked" to prevent radiation over the
University which were intended to reveal the proper principles surface of the guides (see Fig. 1). An array of 50 of these
on which an array fed from a wave guide should be designed. radiators was constructed and tested in April, 1943. Both the
First it was shown that the impedance presented as a shunt to input impedance and radiation pattern were in accord with
the guide by a single probe-coupled dipole could be measured theoretical expectation. The spacing of the couplings was A^/2,
by standing-wave technique and that the standing-wave ratio and the feed-guide was terminated by a reflecting plunger placed
at the input to an array of such dipoles could be calculated Xg/4 from the nearest coupling point. Fortunately the com-
according to well-known electrical principles using either the plexity and weight of this array prevented it from being adopted,
circle diagram or matrix methods. It was further pointed leaving essentially the original problem but in quite different
out that only if the radiators were spaced half of the wavelength circumstances. The ideas concerning the loading of an H10-wave
for propagation in the guide, is it possible, in general, to impose were clearly grasped, and secondly, knowing from the work of
arbitrarily chosen distributions of phase and amplitude along Booker that a resonant slot in a sheet of conductor is essentially
the array by independent adjustment of the couplings. It was a high-impedance device, it was decided to persevere with slot
* Radio Section paper, based on reports to the National Research Council of radiators. The problem then became the following. A resonant
Canada by W. H. WATSON in collaboration with J. W. DOUDS. E. W. GUPTILL,
R. H. JOHNSTON and F. R. TERROUX. t University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
slot (i.e. about half a wavelength long) is cut in the wall of the
[747]

748 WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS
wide in the broad face by means of a rack and pinion with
Vernier or micrometer attachment. Obvious precautions were
taken to eliminate errors due to transverse displacement of the
probe, which was kept as short as possible. The signal was
detected by a calibrated crystal, amplified in a "noise-free"
amplifier and indicated on a multi-range vacuum-tube voltmeter.
In much of this work high s.w.r.'s were encountered; to avoid
Field error, great care was taken.
Auxiliary equipment consisted of reflecting plungers, guide
couplers, attenuators, double-stub tuners, matching loads, a
Fig. 1.—Slot radiator (with chokes) terminating auxiliary guide phasemeter of simple design, and antennae coupled by coaxial
coupled by rotatable probe. line of specially small diameter for the exploration of rad iation
fields near their source. High-power testing equipment was also
wave guide; how can it be coupled to the wave in the guide? available.
Two answers were soon found for a longitudinal slot, that is, Because it was necessary to measure the impedance and admit-
one whose length is parallel to the axis of propagation in the tance of essentially weak loads, it was obviously advantageous to
guide. measure the property of the slot by itself, free from the
A slot is excited by current flowing through it, so a longi- dominating effect of the guide beyond. Shunt loads were there-
tudinal slot cut in the centre of the broad face is not excited by fore measured with the guide terminated in an open-circuit
the H10-wave. If, however, the flow of current in the guide wall reckoned at the position of the load. This was achieved by
is distorted in such a way that the slot axis is no longer a nodal placing a reflecting plunger A^/4 from the point of loading.
line of transverse current, the slot will be "excited" and radiation Similarly series loads were measured with a short-circuit termina-
to space take place. A bent probe was therefore introduced tion secured by placing the plunger A^/2 from the load. The
through the narrow face of the guide in the transverse section impedance or admittance in the wave system between the load
through the centre of the slot. The probe was in conducting and the generator was determined with the aid of the circle
connection with the guide wall. By proper choice of probe diagram from the s.w.r. (corrected for noise) and the distance of
length and slot length, it was found possible to produce a non- the minimum in the standing wave from the point of loading.
reactive load which could be varied in magnitude merely by The travelling detector was also used in another type of
turning the probe. Further, the phase of the radiation from the measurement designed to elucidate the type of loading by a new
slot could be reversed by rotating the probe through 180n. The coupling. At first, we measured the impedance in the standing-
second method which immediately suggested itself was to dis- wave system on both sides of the slot load when the guide beyond
place the slot from the centre of the broad face parallel to itself. the slot was terminated in a matched load or variable reactance.
By properly proportioning the slot, a pure conductance was Later it was found much more effective to regard the load
obtained which increased in magnitude as the lateral displace- as transforming the complex plane of the circle-diagram variable
ment of the slot was increased. Phase reversal was achieved by w = (Z — 1)/(Z + 1), where Z is the impedance. This method
reversing the sense of lateral displacement from the centre line will be explained in connection with the general slot.
of the broad face of the guide. The same design data as before When slot radiators which were very loosely coupled to the
were applied to the construction of the array and on test it proved guide had to be measured, standing-wave measurements of single
successful. slots became unreliable. The conductance of a non-reactive
It would be out of place to repeat in historical order the shunt load or the resistance of a non-reactive series load was
various steps by which the whole picture of the coupling of slots determined from the square of the ratio of the field strengths in
was elucidated. In what follows the experimental method will the radiation from two similar slots, one of which could be
be explained and then the results will be presented as succinctly measured by standing-wave technique. Another method was to
as possible after a discussion of the method of representing the multiply the effect to be measured by placing a number of similar
loading of the H10-wave in the guide. slots A^/2 apart, when the mutual interaction between them was
known to be negligible.
(2) EXPERIMENTAL
On account of the less stringent demands for precision of work- (3) IMPEDANCE AND OTHER REPRESENTATIONS
OF LOADING
manship, it is convenient in treating single slots to work with
microwaves in the 10-cm band rather than with shorter waves. The. wave guide has been treated as a transmission line and
If arrays of slots are to be studied in the laboratory, however, reference has been made to the impedance of a load. It should
it is advisable to choose waves in the 3-cm band. Standard be understood that impedance as conventionally used is a com-
guide sizes were used. The source of microwaves was a klystron posite notion.1 On a transmission line, treated by the laws of
or other suitable microwave oscillator fed from a power supply electric circuits, impedance represents a function of the relative
of good regulation, and amplitude-modulated in a square wave amplitudes of the principal waves travelling in opposite directions
so as to permit l.f. amplification of the detected signal and to on the line at the place where it is measured. To this extent,
eliminate frequency modulation. impedance at any point of the line depends only on propagation
and discontinuities therein. The scale factor or characteristic
Since dispersion is an important factor in wave-guide propa-
impedance of the line, which determines the actual numerical
gation it is necessary to arrange to monitor the frequency. This
value of the impedance, enters through the relation of the par-
is done by sampling the output of the generator and applying
ticular vector representing the wave to the energy flux on the
the amplified output of the detector of a secondary-standard
line. So long as this relation remains the same, we may ignore
wavemeter to a cathode-ray oscillograph. Incipient frequency
the scale factor and define impedance in terms only of wave
drift is then made evident by distortion of the square-wave
amplitudes. Thus for a transmission line parallel to z on which
pattern.
are propagated waves proportional to ۥ>"' the voltage is given by
The electric force of the H-wave in the guide was measured by
means of a travelling probe moving in a central slot 0-06 in (1)

WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 749
where k 2TT/X and the impedance in our sense at the origin If w represents an open-circuit, i.e. is -f 1, with our choice of
z 0, is Z (A } B)/(A-B). The admittance y-(A-B)/(A-| B). the meaning of A and B,
A is the complex amplitude of the wave travelling in the C
f " 222 _ * - 3/C
direction of ^-increasing (right) and B is the complex amplitude W ^
of the wave travelling in the opposite direction. Tf the generator 1 ! /
is on the left, we denote B/A by w, the circle-diagram variable, Hence 2/
2^ . ]
and \w\ < 1. Evidently w - • This is the admittance presented by the load to the wave. So
The equations which represent the field components in the long as we have to deal with simple series and shunt loads, con-
dominant T.E.-wave in a rectangular guide are well known. ventional circuit methods can be applied with advantage, but in
They show explicitly the dependence of these components on a more general loading of the guide it is much more advantageous
propagation factor common to all and a distribution factor to treat the loading of the wave directly by means of the trans-
specifying how they vary over the guide cross-section. If the formation (4) of the circle-diagram variable w. Thus the
waves are detected by a method which does not vary the aspect measurements of |»v| and arg w are applied directly.
of the detecting antenna with respect to the guide cross-section, It should be obvious that for a shunt load, if w = — 1 (short-
the only variations in the measuredfieldsarise from propagation. circuit termination) w' = — 1; i.e. a short-circuit is invariant
Accordingly the dominant wave may be treated in this respect under the transformation. Similarly for a series load, an open-
like the principal wave on a conventional transmission line and circuit is unchanged by the loading, and, of course, in neither
matrix methods may be applied.2 case can the load draw energy from the guide. This affords the
Localized loading of the wave by an antenna or obstruction in best test of these types of loading the wave. For greater sensi-
the guide causes the radiation of waves which at a sufficient dis- tivity when the loads are weak, a number of them spaced XJ2
tance to allow the disappearance of the evanescent waves of apart may be used in making the test.
higher order in the vicinity of the land, consist of dominant Since a slot is excited, by current flowing through it, most
waves in a special phase and amplitude relation to the incident strongly at its centre, we can infer the simple types of loading
dominant wave. If the secondary waves of electric force on the or coupling from the position and disposition of the slot on the
two sides of the load are of equal amplitude and in phase at guide wall. If the slot is excited only by the longitudinal com-
equal distances from it, the load behaves as a shunt presenting ponent of the surface current, it must radiate equal waves in
an admittance which can be measured by standing-wave pro- opposed phase in opposite directions and is therefore a series
cedure. If the secondary waves of electric force are of equal load. If it is excited only by the transverse current, it is a shunt
amplitude and in opposed phase at the same distance, the load load. If the slot is resonant on the guide wall, then for series
behaves as a series one presenting to the wave an impedance excitation at a certain place in the guide, the radiation from it
which may also be measured. Shunt loading involves a discon- will be in phase quadrature with that from the resonant slot
tinuity in the transverse component of magnetic force at the which is shunt excited with its centre in the same guide cross-
point of loading; series loading involves a discontinuity in section. The reason for this is that the transverse and longi-
electric force. tudinal components of the surface current on the guide wall are
For the convenience of the reader, the example of a shunt load in phase quadrature in a travelling wave.
will be considered. [See Reference (2) for further details]. Let
the load on which is incident from the left a wave of complex (4) THE SIMPLE TYPES OF SLOT COUPLING
amplitude A' (reckoned at the position of the load) radiate waves In presenting the results, we take the simple rectangular shape
of amplitude —/A' and —/A' in each direction. All amplitudes as fundamental, for only two parameters are required to specify
are used with the same convention as to the positive direction of it; nevertheless, it must be pointed out that in actual practice it
the vector representing the waves. Primed and unprimed letters may be desirable to depart from this shape in order to facilitate
are used to denote waves on the left and right, respectively, of accurate but inexpensive cutting.
the point of loading. Further, A denotes a wave travelling to the
right, and B a wave travelling to the left. From the wave (4.1) Displaced Longitudinal Shunt Slots
principle of superposition, we have on equating outgoing wave Let a slot be cut in the guide wall with its long axis parallel
amplitudes with the ingoing plus scattered waves, to the axis of the guide: such a slot is found to present a shunt
A=(1-/)A'-/B 1 load to the dominant wave in the guide. In spite of the length
. . (2) of the slot antenna, this load can be treated as lumped at the
J position of the centre of the slot.
Hence It has been found appropriate in every case of loading the
A' B dominant wave in rectangular guide by means of a half-wave
1- / ' I- / slot, to treat the load as applied in the section of the guide in
which lies the centre of the slot.
When under the chosen conditions Outside the guide, the slot
has been tuned by cutting to the proper length, which is close
The transformation from the complex number pair (A, B), ar- to the half free-space wavelength, the slot presents a pure con-
ranged as a column vector, to (A', B') is effected by the matrix ductance G to the wave. Let xl denote the distance of the centre
1 / of the slot from the centre line of the broad face of the guide
(Fig. 2). Expressed as a fraction of the characteristic admittance
1-/ 1-/ An cn\ M (3) for the dominant wave,
- / 1-2/ \C21 C2l)
1-/ 1-/ ° = K™2^ «
_ C
21 -I- c22w where a is the internal width of the guide, perpendicular to the
and w = (4)
cl2w electric force in the wave, and K is a constant dependent on the

0-4. 0-30 20 \ Fig. 4 (a)-(/). But this method is quite unsuited for the measurement of small / conductances OO^o) which result from placing the slot close to the centre line. In . This result is / readily understood as it shows that G is proportional to the square of the transverse current in the guide wall. Measurements of both conductance G and susceptance B are shown as functions of slot length for 002- several widths in Figs. 13 are normalized. consequently phase reversal without change in load 0-6 is effected by transferring the slot to the image position in the broad face with respect to the central line. which is much higher than for a V slot of the same width cut in an infinite plane sheet. 59 cm The conductance may be measured by the standing-wave detector provided that a reflecting plunger is placed A^/4 from 0-2 / the centre of the slot. 11.—Longitudinal slot: width ^ in. resonant length indicated opposite o on graph. a = 0 • 90 in. On the assumption that the slots H-58cr i radiate with similar directive patterns. 004 The length of slot required for resonance. the difficulties arising from the need to draw energy from the wave into the detector and the great disparity of the field strengths at the maxima and minima 0-1 / of the standing-wave system can be avoided by comparing the radiation fields of two slots one of which can be measured by 0-08 / standing-wave technique. Guide dimensions: 1 in X -Jin. to present a pure conductance. A = 10 • 70 cm. the slot conductances are in the ratio of the squares of the field strengths measured in 0 06 space outside the guide at the same position with respect to the slots. resonant length 2 00 in for A transverse slot with its centre in the middle of the broad displacement x less than 0 • 4 in.2) Series-Coupled Slots Slot displacement from centre oF guide. A — 3-20 cm. load to the guide. At S-band the Q of a i in or wider slot of the type considered is about 9. 1 ^V| This is because the transverse current in the inside wall of the 0-8 guide vanishes there.4 0 sin* Inx/a).in. 0-6 08 10 1-2 1-4 (4. This current reverses phase across the centre line. A. a = 2 • 80 in. Fig.—Longitudinal slot: width & in. if the centre of the slot is displaced laterally. G/y0 = 1 . 2. that is. 3 show the dependence of G on xx for standard S. \I Fig. The magnitude of the resistance is decreased Guide dimensions: 3 in X liin. 3(6).and X-band guides. at which point the line is regarded as loaded. / 100 80 4— 0-01 60 40 \ 0 0-05 0-10 0-15 0-20 0-25 Slot displacement from centre of guidejin. V It follows from equation (5) and it has already been pointed N out that when the longitudinal slot is aligned with the centre of the broad face.750 WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS I . . The values of conductance and susceptance in Figs. is dependent on the position of the slot on the guide and on its width. 0-E 0-4. 5 it is seen that for a given slot position the resonant slot length is linearly dependent on the wavelength of the radiation A— over a 10% band. 3(o). the slot is not coupled to the dominant wave. / 04 guide dimensions and on the wavelength. In that case. Experimental results in Fig. Wall thickness: 0-050 in. the law is that the Wall thickness: 0-081 in.Longitudinal slot 1-0 0-8 ^T62cm 0-6 Fig. This is undoubtedly due to waves spreading round the back of the guide and points to the need for experimental precautions in determin- ing resonant slot lengths.—Transverse section of rectangular guide through centre of slot cut in broad face. face is excited by the longitudinal current and presents a series Zo/R = 1 • 73 sin* (nx(a). 4 (a)-(f). 12.

. length 0-4 Y\\ 4-78 cm §0-6 1f \\ 1 II Resonant length-V 0-2 If 4-88cm \ 03 a xn 0-5 JJ 16 It in It II O II 9 2-75 Frequency. O i in dumb-bell slot (holes j in diameter). -0- O a^in. 4 (c) and (d). 0-6 U \\ / N\\l} Resonant. c/s Figs.78 in from centre of guide in each case.c/s*10 3 2 5 fc Q-4 II \.—Frequency dependence of G/Yo for longitudinal slots of different widths. 4(a). c/s «10 Fig. 4(b). H iin rectangular slot. Fig. i i 1 o / 2 -0-2 0-3 \ -0-4 2-75 3-25 Frequency. x I in. 4(«).—Frequency dependence of b/Y0 for the slots described in Fig.—Longitudinal slots. WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 751 05 085 0-4 —t \ \ •w o-i 11 3-75 • 3-0 Frequency. El iin'< A ijn. In each case the centre of the slot is 0-78 in from the centre of the guide.c/s-109 3 ' 2 5 f-0-1 O z -02 2-75 3-75 -0-3 Frequency. Centre of slot 0.

752 WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 10 0t> 0+ 0-3 t.—Frequency dependence of arc tan b/G for the slots described in Fig.d. However. \ phase-reversal is achieved by changing the sense of rotation.3-20 cm. 1050 r 10-75 \ Fig. a transverse slot perpendicular creased. length) cm Fig« 4(g). to cut as the longitudinal shunt slots. 4(a). For these inclined series-coupled slots. width i in.cm. Likewise if the symmetrical Since the longitudinal component of surface current vanishes transverse slot is rotated about its centre. \ 0 2 . it affords the Fig« 4(/).2 3 Frequency. loading of the guide. centre of slot 0*268 in from centre of standard X-band guide. electrical designer the chance to introduce series as well as shunt G/y0 and 6/yb plotted against slot length. centre of slot 0 • 133 in from centre of standard X-band guide (1 in X } in.—Longitudinal slot. V50 1-52 1-54 1-56 1-58 1-60 This type of slot is suitable for arrays but is not so convenient Slot length. 5. in. o. Width . G/y0 and 6/K0 plotted against slot length.—Longitudinal slot.3) Inclined Transverse-Shunt Slots current at the centre of the slot. resistance is proportional to the square of the longitudinal surface (4. position (see Fig. 4(cj. centre of slot 0-648 in from centre of standard S-band guide..2 1 z 0-2 01 1-50 1-52 V54 156 156 1M) \£. and when close to the central line it is approximately to the axis of the guide and cut in the narrow face will be parallel proportional to the square of the small angle from the unexcited to the lines of current flow and hence unexcited by the dominant . 4-9 014 0-28 < 4-8 0-12 \ 0Z4 a/ 4-7 / 010 > 0-20 \ 4-6 £008 016 / S \ 4-5 •d 006 012 . 6). the resistance is de.'. Xa|cm. 5-2 7 5-1 / Fig. on the narrow face of the guide. X = 3 -20 cm.6 / 1 004 008 3-50 975 1000 10-23 Wavelength. -•. Width ^ in. c/s« 10 s 3 25 ' Slot. 002 004 Variation of resonant length with wavelength. ?. wall 0-050 in).—Longitudinal slot.

will 15°.—Edge slots with alternate phase reversal. but even so. it is necessary to work with a number of slots cut XJ2 apart. As a step towards the elucidation of the mutual effects between its axis parallel to the broad face and perpendicular to the axis the inclined shunt slots (sometimes called edge slots) experiments of the guide. Such a slot could be cut with an end-milling cutter. 7(6)]. wave in the guide. the excitation of the Zo radiators fed from the guide is in part determined by waves / travelling outside the guide with approximately free-space 02 velocity. then the sented by one of them as a function of <f>. I there were no interaction the graph shown in Fig. the slot if cut Fig.e. If 01. It was also / found that with 0 = 0. the later slots are made to contribute pure conductance to the input admittance. edge slots spaced \\g.—Admittance of 1. when <f> is less than impedances of the pairs. shunt-coupled to the inside of the guide. the conductance/transverse slot is less 0-6 / than 0-0004. This indicates the beginning of the process by which an array of slots "lifts" the energy off the guide and throws it normal to the array.— alternately reversed in phase by alternate reversal of the sense of <f> [see Fig. Since the depth of the guide is less than A/2. Inclined series slot: centre of slot on centre of broad face (S-band). i. . It was found that a terminating reactance 1 • was transformed unchanged by their presence. . may. its centre on the centre of the narrow face. Nevertheless it is instructive to note the reduction of the single slot Q because the radiation from the slot can escape along the guide.settles down and by proper choice of the common length of the slots. Twice the mutual impedance of any . 11. the fact of mutual interaction renders of little use the methods adopted for the study of other types without significant mutual effects. be excited by other types of waves inside and outside the guide. thereafter it in Fig. . In practice a somewhat irregular Suppose now that the slot is turned about its centre as shown curve is obtained for the first six or seven slots.The series impedance of each slot was measured singly. Experiments were made which established the presence of waves (especially the principal T.M. and to obtain precise values of the conductance pre. inclination symmetrically. these slots. The mutual impedance between the first of these In order to establish the pure shunt nature of the coupling of and each of the other six was measured in the following way. / It was soon established that mutual interaction occurs between 0-4 members of the array of these slots. and the cut made in the plane making <f> with the on transverse slots on the broad face were undertaken because transverse section of the guide through the centre of the slot. straight line through the origin. 0-2 0-4 0-6 08 10 in order to achieve resonant length it will be necessary to cut the slot partly in the two broad faces. A = 3-20cm. Seven series- The latter is again excited by the transverse current and loads coupled transverse slots were cut on the broad face of the guide the dominant H10-wave as a shunt.E. 10 the principal pattern for an array of two slots at A^/2 spacing and coupled in reversed phase to the wave in the guide is shown for Fig. 3. 9(a) and 9(b) respectively show what may be called the principal pattern of the slot and the way in which the electric force per- pendicular to the guide wall was distributed round the guide up to a distance of 30 wavelengths from the slot. . 15° slot at S-band are shown in Fig. The presence of this interaction is shown by measure- / ments of the input admittance of an array of similar slots. the standing-wave measurements are much easier.—Inclined edge slot (X-band). 7(o). 2. Figs. In Fig. Measurements of conductance and susceptance for a Fig. was cut near its centre and reflection from the ends of the outside of the guide was minimized. however. 8. A 0° 15" 30° 45° 60° 75* 90* 3/4 Inclination to guide axis > 8 0-1 6. Xg/2 apart. hence there is no 0-8 effective series element in the coupling of the slots. 7(a).-mode) on the outside of a long guide when an inclined transverse slot.-wave in the guide. l{b). WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 753 3 30 . 8 would be a 0-08 / / 0-3 006 0O4 / V V —0——0 t^rlo" u \z / 0-2 00?. Because slots are intended to be used in arrays. standard X-band still be unexcited by the dominant T. comparison. alternate phase reversal. It guide.

cm Fig. will vary with r according to quite a sistent error in the setting of the plunger terminating the guide. cm Fig.—Amplitude decay of waves launched from a single edge slot. . is 75° which is the difference between 255J and 180°. 050 02 0-2! 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Distance From slot.that the input admittance to r slots of the array. [3 wave on a broad face. 2. A wave on edge opposite slot. 15° edge slot d i n wide). .3 --0002 \ Fig. on the basis of the foregoing paragraphs.—Radiation from single edge slot. It is of some practical im- portance to note that the waves on the outside of the guide may be reflected by obstacles mounted on the guide such as the Normal to array standing-wave detector: care should be taken to minimize such Fig. the mutual effect between any two members of the pair is the impedance of the two slots acting conjointly minus array will be reduced by the operation of the intervening slots the sum of their separate impedances.754 WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 005 004 003 Normal to array . part of the of the mutual impedances between 1. waves by which the mutual interaction is caused. 3.8 Fig. The limiting point of the spiral is not exactly at the reflecting plunger at the centre of the space before the (r + l)th origin. 002 Amplitude distribution at about 1 metre in the plane half-way between the parallel to the broad faces of the guide (S-band). This displacement is completely explicable by a con.10-7 cm. Fig. (A = 1 0 . A = 3 • 20 cm. 12 shows the values which will radiate into space. iA^ apart and radiating in phase (slots antiparallel).—Mutual impedances in array of series slots spaced $\g (2 • 27 cm) in standard X-band guide. and 1. 9(6). The angle between successive points In a long array of shunt-coupled slot radiators at A^/2 spacing. 15° edge slot ($ in wide) S-band. .—Variation of GfYo with depth of cut. the points lie on a spiral. electrical spacings of the slots at free-space and guide phase. falls off approximately as the reciprocal of the distance between the slots. and into the guide. .) O wave on narrow face containing the slot. 7. Thus the main factor in determining mutual impedance corresponds to the propagation of a nearly spherical wave from one slot to the other. S-band. ll(o). different law when r is small. compared with the law The observations quoted indicate that the mutual impedance when r is considerably greater. < 6 say. Fig. >.—Amplitude distribution at about 1 metre from pair of edge reflections. 12.slot from the input end. terminated by a velocities. 10. the respective it would be anticipated. 12. slots. .7 cm. 1. •075 0-8 09 1-0 H W 2 1. It is fairly evident that when an array of slots is excited from the guide. 9(«). 001 10 03 0-9 10 11 \-Z 13 Depth of cut. X = 10-7 cm. ll(b). and on this basis it is not difficult to estab- lish the result exhibited in Fig.—Variation of b/Yo with depth of cut.

0-t2 t_ The physical facts which must be taken into account in thinking o-io of an array of edge slots may be summarized thus: y / (a) the slots are shunt-coupled to the wave in the guide inside 5 009 which they may be treated like any other shunt load. edge slots. . in (d) the slot remained unaltered. 20D. In Fig. 15 between 0° and (c) a match. it is seen that the input | | 0-06 004 / admittance shows increasing conductance and susceptance as r is increased from 1 to 6 or 7.6. the slot length being varied in each of (a). as the length of . In Fig. the equiphase surface in the radiation (c). the straight line will no longer be parallel to the G-axis but will slope up or down according as 8 1 2 3 .—Edge slots: Variation of incremental conductance with inclination.] extent the waves outside the guide causing mutual interaction in the excitation of the slots affect the phase distribution along the 0-8 10 1-2 array.—Admittance of 1. 10 and 15° were compared. Of course. thereafter. where the results are plotted on a G-b diagram. 16. WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 755 Admittance measurements were made on arrays of inclined 02 slots cut in the narrow face of the guide (1 in x | in outside diameter) at A = 3 • 2 cm. however. we find it tends to a limiting value which will be (5) THE HALF-WAVE SLOT: GENERAL called the incremental conductance of the slot in a long array As soon as it became obvious that a half-wave slot cut in the of similar slots. This fact seems of outstanding significance in understanding the operation of an array of elements with mutual interaction at a resonant spacing in the feeder guide. (X-band.—Edge slots {\\g spacing): Conductance per slot plotted against on the outside of the guide. and the axis of the slot inclined less than 15°. the 1 / input susceptance remains constant and can be tuned out by re- setting the terminating plunger. (b) and 10°. In each case.—Equiphase plot opposite first seven slots of 15-element edge-slot array (inclination 10°). 14) per slot is plotted as a function Fig. -0-4 Fig. | Array If the conductance (see Fig. 13. 7(a).) principal wave is very crude as a representation of the mutual interaction of two slots close together. 10°.degreec Fig. 17 and 18 the behaviour of the slot is In order to extend the graph of conductance against slot in. while the reactance from the array of 10° slots was plotted in order to see to what terminating the guide was varied. the input impedance was measured when the guide bear- the values for the larger angles were approximately proportional ing the slot was terminated in (a) an open-circuit. / ) (b) outside the guide the slots may be regarded. . 15°.shown when its length is varied. . 4 5 G 7 the slots are too short or too long. It is flat to Conductance well within 1 mm over the whole length of the array. As a final check. This behaviour is shown in £3 I 002 * 0-01 / Fig. the centre of the slot and its clination to smaller angles. [X = 3 -20 cm. to show that this law is not natural first step to try to find an equivalent circuit to represent exact for angles greater than 15°. On the assumption that made. i graph tends to a straight line parallel to the G-axis. Provided that the length of the slots is properly chosen. of the number of slots in the array when the input admittance is measured. The measurements to the guide axis. standard X-band guide. 13. 16. (b) a short- to the incremental conductances in arrays of slots. for larger values of r. 2. To a first approximation for angles displaced from the central line. 3 . The equiphase plot is shown in Fig. 14. the loading. The 0008 -—1 1 — / • 0-006 0-004 10 15 IK) Inclination oF slot 0. the conception of the number of slots. The slots were coupled alternately <u 0-1 in reversed phase. Four types of measurement were slots at 3. In any one array all the slots were cut with the same or an equal reversed inclination and the following g 008 / values of cf> were used: 30°. these values circuit (both reckoned at the position of the slot centre) and were used to interpolate in the graph of Fig. the intensities of radiation from single inclination being kept fixed. it is proportional to sin 2 ^.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Number oF slots to the waves in the guide (<f> — 0) can be excited by the waves Fig. see Fig. Slots which are not coupled 0 1 2 3 4 . 15 the incremental conductance is broad face of the rectangular guide with the centre of the slot shown as a function of <f>. 15. If the slots l: >o w ( o oo c O O o O o o 3 O O > O O Q are not of the proper length. it was a are sufficiently precise. for three lengths of slot. is not a simple series or shunt load. very approxi- sO-08 —1 y 1 mately. as series-coupled to the principal wave on the outside of 007 the long guide in which they are cut.

tp is therefore a function of the length of the slot and it is found Note that the two circles do not cut the real axis for the same slot length. and then measuring 90° the transform of w ~ 0. The self-corresponding point S is the point of contact of the unit circle |>v'| = 1 and the circle 1 which is the transform of the unit circle. If e-'8 is the position of the double self-corresponding point. It is found that 8 does not depend on the length of the slot but depends on the position of its centre. With a matched termination. we can determine the bilinear trans- formation completely. one can see in what respect the inclined- displaced slot is intermediate between a pure series and a pure shunt load (see Fig. terminations. 19) that when the inclination and displacement are not too large. and let y be the re- sistance of the pure series. 17. This type of loading has been discussed in Ref.—Circle-diagram plot of input impedance to slot (i in wide. On account of the use for which these slots were intended. or the Z-plane. into a point of the circle 2. 17). w — 0 transforms as we have already seen. The dependence of g on the length of the slot can be explained with the aid of Fig. As the length of the slot is changed. inclined at the same angle. On the circle 2. 18. the displacement and inclination being kept fixed. The radiation coefficients of the slot Pure Series antenna in the guide are as follows: when the dominant wave of unit amplitude is incident from the left. when the dominant wave of unit amplitude is incident from the right. These transformations are bilinear since circles are transformed into circles and the striking experimental fact emerged that the self-corresponding points of each transformation are coincident and lie on the unit circle. each circle corresponds to the indicated value of 6. The point P is the transform of w = 0 when the length of the slot is /0. the point representing the input impedance on the circle diagram. The dependence of Y1 on the lateral displacement and inclination of the slot can be represented approximately in the following way.and open-circuit of the displacement of P when the length of the slot is increased. It will be noticed that the centres of the circles 1 Fig. Mow: x\ . the circle turns from the characteristic shunt position to that for the series slot which is perpendicular to the axis of the guide. S-band). for axis of w'. >v-plane admittance-wise.1 -0 cm. the slot antenna radiates waves (of the same type) of amplitudes geJs and — g to the left and to the right respectively in the guide. the arrow indicates the direction increasing lengths of slot. Let a be the conductance of the pure shunt slot with its centre coincident with that of the displaced-inclined slot. was observed to describe a circle in the clockwise sense. In this way the transform of the unit circle was obtained on the w-plane. Experiment shows (see Fig. Similar behaviour is observed when the inclined slot is moved towards the middle of the guide face carrying the longitudinal surface current. 2. The key to understanding the behaviour of these slots was to plot the results of the method (d) above on the circle diagram. its centre being on the centre of the broad face. and for both short. Thus by finding first the reactive termination tan 8/2 which will put the slot out of action as a radiator. The diameter of the circle for the in- clined-displaced slot is intermediate between the diameters for Pure Series the pure series and pure shunt slots with centres at the same point on the guide wall.—Inclined and displaced slot (& in wide. j» (o) 1 — ge~JSW s where gei is the transform of the matched termination w 0. the transformation is g€js + (i _ 2g)w w = —-. 21. and 2 lie on the same radius OS making 8 with the positive real displaced 0-536 in and inclined at 45° in S-band guide).756 WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS the slot was increased from a small value. susceptance Yv The arrows show the sense in which the circles are described as the slot length is increased. the slot pro- duces secondary waves of amplitudes — g and ge~J8 to the left and right respectively. As the slot is turned from parallelism with axis of the guide. 20. Yl = ± f~\ The sign to be given to Yl depends on the inclination and displacement chosen according to the rules presented in Fig. tan 8/2 then represents the invariant Above: 0 = 30°. it was found to be convenient to use the Fig. . each circle corresponds to the indicated value of x\. Section 8. The guide had a matched termination.

we a ~ j may profit by a brief reference to the principle of it. 22. The matrix representation applied to the problem of the general near. that opposite broad face so as to keep as small as possible the direct the thickness of the guide wall may be ignored.arg g of the radiation from the slot when the guide beyond it is termi- The facts just presented are illuminated by the results of field nated in a match is determined entirely by — \\i. \ • • "i where £ is the conjugate complex of £. \ Now when the slot radiates with unit voltage amplitude at its centre. but the imaginary part of A'involves summation of double •g series. and not on its length and width. The solution of the electromagnetic boundary If a short probe of the proper length is introduced through the value problem under the assumption that the slot is narrow. WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 757 r_\ 0 fraction round the outside of the guide may be left out of con- sideration. Fig. and §. Let p' denote the amplitude of the voltage across the centre of the slot a-l-j a when excited by the dominant T. The diameter the chosen position of the slot centre and inclination of its axis. 19.—Circle diagram for probe-compensated slot by the general slot.—Circle diagram showing transformation of the unit circle Fig.—Susceptance of self-corresponding point for general slot cut in the broad face. like %. 22. of the circle 2 in Fig. the voltage across the slot has the s amplitude Si -n. can be evaluated without diffi- \ g-0-3 culty. It is not difficult to show that in this case K must have the form g is real and we shall call this the resonant slot corresponding to r(a + 1 — j) where r is a real negative number. the inductive . where L is real and depends -08 \ only on the dimensions of the guide cross-section.£ and to the right a wave of amplitude L%. W'-pltne W.r ) \ U) •s 8-Of. -09 \ It follows at once that r \Y\-> \ and 8 2 arg £ '•• n K C) 0-2 04 06 0-8 10 The radiation coefficients have therefore the form indicated by the experimental results. leads to the result -01 P ! K where the complex number % depends on the displacement and inclination of the slot only. a-j ~J dent from the left. the frequency of the radiation and the field vector used in the representation.—Rule for sign of invariant susceptance. \ When the slot is similarly excited only by a wave of unit amplitude from the right. 20.and the variation of the phase Evidently in general a+ 1 ifj = . When the length of the slot is /0. and therefore inductive. where the real part of K.E. /a Jy •" when 8 = — -• The transform is represented by Q in Fig. there is radiated to the left a wave of amplitude Z. and that dif. representing the loading by this type of slot is resonant slot in a rectangular wave guide. also to depend on its width. mutual interaction of the slot and probe antennae.-wave of unit amplitude inci. (6) PROBE-COMPENSATED SLOTS There is a useful type of inclined-displaced slot which trans- Generator Generator forms a terminating match into an admittance whose real part is unity and whose susceptance is negative. 21. Fig.piano Fig. Without entering fully into the details of thefieldcalculation due to Stevenson. 21 is ——. o o.

The deformed slot now resembles a conventional electric field is polarized parallel to the length of the guide. The intersecting at their common centre (Fig. it is also possible to (8) GENERAL REMARKS ON APERTURES IN THE excite the H2i-mode of oscillation. Corresponding effects can be shown and all the energy is radiated. The fact that the two antennae are in the same cross. This is found to be the case. (c) Suppose now that the centre of the cross is displaced from If the aperture is a sufficiently large circular or square hole cut the centre of the broad face. and its radiation pattern also. only the other slot is effective as a radiator.—Crossed half. in such a way broad face of T. transverse series slot. that energy is properly distributed to secure the desired pattern The length of the slot for non-reactive coupling is different in in planes containing the . section of the guide is shown in Fig. these two oscillations have different phases with respect to equal 2. simple mode with transverse electric force predominates as it Another combination pair of slots. slot-pair. each of the tribution parallel to y.y-axis. for example. Thus the polarization of other transverse series. (a) When one of the slots lies along the centre line on the larger the circles at the ends. Dimensions for the aperture section of the guide gives a measure of broad-band behaviour to can be found to produce resonance. THE COUPLING OF WAVE GUIDES BY RESONANT SLOTS (9) INTRODUCTION and a larger registering slot is cut in guide L. suppose a reflecting plunger is used to terminate the guide. cm on end of standard guide: Dimensions (inches): I c 1 a C d i 1-90 i i 1-77 i 1-69 1-59 2-00 Fig. 26.758 WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS input susceptance of the slot when alone may be compensated major and minor axis of symmetry. are to be coupled to T so as to present dimensional arrays. the storage is electrical as in a condenser. Fig. So long as the deforma- 2/(a -f 1). the guide just like a resonant rectangular slot. In a two-dimensional array in the xy-plane different admittances in conformity with a chosen gabling dis- made up of a series of linear arrays parallel to x. The effect of Let the plunger be placed A^/2 beyond the centre of the hole terminating the guide by a movable reflecting plunger can easily so that the transverse current near the centre of the longitudinal be deduced on the basis of the principles already adduced. The slot and probe combination allows the extraction tion is continuous without changing the connectivity of the of energy from the guide without reflection when the termination aperture. 25 and the accompanying table. 24. Hn-modes of the transversefield-distributionin guides of circular cross-section. capacitance and thus reduce the length of the slot for resonance. The latter should be the length and the latter with the width. The slot A pre- The study of the coupling of guides by means of slots arose sents a shunt load to T and is coupled series-wise to L. Part II.—7r-section wave slots. be reduced to zero. More- the shunt slot equals the resistance of the series one and both over. the former associated with by the capacitive susceptance of the probe. The main effect of this is to increase the stantially altered. . parallel to the . hole corresponds to different types of oscillation of the current Circular polarization is possible as a special case. the narrower the gap required in broad face. If the cross is system about it. one longitudinal shunt. 23.y-axis. An example of such a coupling the presence of L from its value for an exposed slot radiator. the corresponding slots A p A2. It is One expects that this device will radiate elliptically-polarized easy to demonstrate experimentally that the radiation from the waves normal to the guide. while small. irrespective of the termination of the latter. several guides L p L2 . resonant circuit in that in the circular ends of the slot. the notation again being based GUIDE WALL on analogy with the names of the circular guide patterns. one slot being kept parallel to the in the broad face off centre. (b) As the cross is turned about its centre both slots are ex. was measured when L was . the dimensions of such slots for If two half-wave slots are cut at right angles to each other S-band are shown in Fig. The Radiation from the longitudinal slot is suppressed when the hole oscillates with electric force parallel to the guide axis like a plunger is A^/2 from the centre of the cross. of the guide. 25. ciently close so that either or both modes may be excited. side of the hole would. is shown in Fig. Slots may be covered with dielectric so as to close the guide in cited and consequently the direction of polarization is not sub. The slot is cut longitudinally in guide T The impedance of a slot (such as A). in its absence. Fig. . and from the trans. the sense of circular polarization is reversed. face. there are two natural modes of guide axis. If the conductance of depends on the position of the plunger inside the guide. distributing guides supporting them must be fed from a trans. . For instance (7) PAIRS OF SLOTS dumb-bell slots have been used. . The the centre. Imagine the slot deformed but still retaining a so the question should be investigated further. . If the hole is large enough. wave slot near its first resonance. must be displaced by different amounts from the centre of the verse guide. depending on the mode of excitation of the hole. none passing the slots in the for a circular hole: the two simplest modes correspond to the guide. 23) the following facts Dumb-bell slot resonant at 10-7 can be established. which they are cut. moved to its image with respect to the centre line on the broad Thus. the does in the longitudinal shunt slots. If the plunger is moved Aff/4.—Dumb-bell slot. with their centres in the same transverse the radiation from the hole. then the pair of slots presents a match to the generator the waves inside the guide. The transverse slot is a series element and therefore oscillation of the aperture with the resonant frequencies suffi- excited in quadrature with the other which is a shunt element. The cross presents a series load to the guide. the other verse when the plunger is A^/4 from the centre. If quite naturally as an essential element in the design of two. The The rectangular slot is a particular type of aperture in the wall foregoing observations are founded on quite rough experiments. the energy This shows that the mutual coupling of these slots is negligibly is mainly stored in the magnetic field as in an inductance. Such an aperture will load the compensation. in the gap. we obtain essentially the same behaviour as the half- is matched. 24.

\ x_ \ It is found that the coupling depends on the length and width \ k R Oft \ of the slot and on the thickness of the metal between the adjacent Slot -. 47 48 49 50 51 5-2 Assume that guide (2) is terminated on each side of the Length of slot. In this case the guides must be at right angles. and experimental data changes in the coupling. These are shown in Fig. both guides which must therefore be parallel. This is the type of coupling introduced in Section 9.—Shunt-series coupling of rectangular guides.shunt (see Fiji 26) \ 12 Fig. when the guides have the same trans- scribed law. Provided that the length of the coupling slot The simplest types of guide coupling by a single slot are is properly adjusted for the frequency used. inside surfaces of the two guides. Y be the corresponding disposition of slot and guides to another. and let Z. The most striking result obtained when the \ length of the coupling slot has been properly adjusted. The slot once excited. we have the following simple laws of impedance and coupled guides. concerns the manner in which impedance is transferred from the position O of the slot in guide (2). (b) Shunt-shunt coupling: the slot is longitudinal in the two (a) Series-series (7) parallel guides. and it may further be desirable to introduce phase verse dimensions. Depending on the aspect of the slot in each guide. to guide (2). and let guide (1) be fed from an oscillator on one Fig. wave practice it is often required to divide wave-guide paths so The laws of impedance transformation for these three simplest that energy may be distributed according to a definitely pre. respectively. 27. radiates into supporting these conclusions are presented in Tables 1. terminated so as to maintain a standing-wave ratio of 2 : 1 in the guide T on each side of the slot. 28 as follows: admittance transfer through the slot at its centre when the wall (a) Series-series coupling: the coupling slot is transverse in thickness is negligible. say.—The simple types of coupling. coupling slot. both guides. the slot (plunger distant A^/4) if it is shunt to guide (1). 27 and for com- 20 16 \-*-Sl ot when c oupled to "ansverse guide (c) Series . types of guide coupling. 49 . Y' be respectively the total impedance the type of coupling and hence the law of impedance or admit. into guide (1) at the same position. input impedance or admittance to guide (1) terminated in the way indicated above. The variation in impedance as the slot length is increased is shown in Fig. More generally. and for the dimensions of the guide cross- radiator cut in the same aspect with respect to each of the sections. 2 and 3. It is likewise determined in coupled t \ free spac part by the disposition of the slot with respect to each of the I \ // coupled guides. 93. (c) Series-shunt (9) VOL. are shown in Fig. The importance of the laws of coupling of guides by means of The two impedances seen from the slot in guide (2) will add slots or holes cut in the metal sheet which forms part of the wall by the law of series or shunt combination if the slot is trans- or termination of both guides arises from the fact that in micro. 28. for the aspect and classified by the modes of coupling of the corresponding slot width of the slot. The input impedance is reckoned at the (10) THE SIMPLE LAWS point of coupling. side and be terminated on the other side so as to produce either (i) a short-circuit at the centre of the slot (plunger distant A /2) parison the corresponding curve for a slot uncovered by the if it is series to guide (1) or (ii) an open-circuit at the centre of guide is also shown. or admittance in guide (2) as seen from the point of coupling. WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 759 (a) Series-series (b) Shunt-shunt -ouplitij' slol lot Hole in in guide T guide L Fig. 26. 29.—X/R plotted against length of slot. cm. verse or longitudinal. let Z'. and (c) Series-shunt coupling: the slot is transverse to guide (1) (6) Shunt-shunt (8) and longitudinal in guide (2). PART IIIA. tance transfer from one guide to the other will change from one which is the centre of the slot.

shunt Fig. fits into the recessed broad faces of guide (2) so that a mechanical as well as an electrical junction is effected at the coupling. 32.3-3 0 0-23 0-75 Fig. which carries the in- (iii) Zin = Z\> T+. 32. it may also be achieved for guide (2). 31.—Series-series coupling.—Series-series coupling. 4 7* 7 / 'in I transfer (1) holds. m (c) Series .760 WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 7?j and n2 are numerical constants and are equal to unity for (a) Series-series (b) Shunt-shunt identical guides coupled in similar aspect. Not only may series coupling be achieved by means of a slot Z't \\ transverse to one of the guides. In this case the law of impedance 'in hi. 34. or it may lie on the centre line Table 1 (i) Zin = Z'2 z2 Zin 0 0-51 0-54 0 2-9 2-9 0 -2-05 . of one guide and in one of the ends of the other as in Fig. Similar cases are shown in Fig. but now Z' stands for the single terminating impedance in guide (2). 30. . the slot centre Fig.-r . 35. must lie on the centre line of the broad faces of the guides which touch each other as in Fig. for example. (Under the most favourable 2 conditions.—The simple laws of impedance transformation. 29. at a wavelength of 10 cm a i-in resonant slot will + 7l K break down at powers exceeding 150 kW.1-9 2-3 2-3 4-5 -2-3 2-3 0-12 Fig. may be inclined in one or both.) In series-coupling. J 77 Inclined slots may also be used to achieve these three different types of coupling. 33. the numerical con- stant «3 may be varied by changing the displacement of the coupling slot from the central line in guide (2). 31. when one end of this guide abuts on to guide (1) as shown in Fig. The dependence of the coupling coeffi- -0-315 0 2-33 0-73 cient on the inclination of the slot is shown for this junction in . the maximum inclination allowable with -0-82 0 0-90 0-74 a slot |-in wide is 40°. ry I may be improved by covering the edges of the slot to increase their radius of curvature and thus reduce the electric field strength at the metal surface. -Z\ 7 clined shunt slot. but the possibilities are somewhat restricted Zm~*" in practice by the difficulty of accommodating slots of sufficient Ad width to transfer large power. Slot centred on the broad face of both guides. The axes of the guides are perpendicular to each other. Table 2 K") *-in — Z2 -\-Z2 Z'I 00 z2 Zm -017 -019 oo -0-90 -0-97 00 + 0-21 0-23 2-3 -2-3 11 Fig. Guide (1). It is unnecessary to place a conducting termina- Z[ Zx Zin 1*1 tion in the series-coupled guide (2) behind the coupling slot. 0-96 2-3 0-71 The strength of coupling may be altered by rotating the slot about its centre.—Series-series coupling. In 00 0 <01 standard S-band guide. 30. An important case of shunt- Table 3 series coupling is shown in Fig. This performance 111 /-r n 111 .

(OR T-) SECTION COMBINATION OF SLOTS The guide couplings used to introduce variable reactances are •oo shown in Fig. In practice the series-shunt coupling is of special importance. where a may be reduced to zero by tuning the slot length. In particular. and (12) to the H-type coupling. particularly when high ratio trans- Fig. In Fig. the coupling laws are 1 //. that in the coupling of re- actances and susceptances. short-circuits and open- circuits may be introduced without any plunger in the main guide. formations are carried out. to which. 33(b). forms impedance. data will be pre- Fig. K may be tuned out by the appropriate series reactance in guide (2). the a. of course. 34. degrees is an equivalent T-section. In Fig. In proof of this. 33(a). 39 the input reactance in guide (1) is . It is found experimentally that the form (10) applies to the E-type Fig. 38. first the series reactance and then the shunt \ reactance. and admittance in the shunt case. and in series with the admittance in a shunt-coupled guide. the resistive losses at the slot may not YT • O (at slot) be negligible due to the very high currents flowing to it. 36. without change. are real and dependent on the length of the slot. In the former. In the series-shunt case the coupling acts as a transformer. 34. If a shunt reactance without transformation was required it would be necessary to turn guide (2) into parallelism with (1) and provide it with two terminations. It should be noted. K may not: it depends on the thickness of metal between the adjacent inside surfaces of the guides being coupled by the slot as shown in Fig. 370). however. Shunt-series coupling. The resonant-slot couplings may be conveniently applied in the design and construction of wave-guide circuits. a2. WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 761 When the slot is not of resonant length. which is shown in Fig. the reactance presented to guide (1) . introduces a departure from the simple law (12). ' (b) Shunt-shunt (11) 1 "3 (c) Series-shunt (12) z T where oq. (a) Series-series /a (10) z Y. Slot inclined in broad face of one guide and in the narrow face of the other.—Series-shunt coupling. A series-coupled and a shunt-coupled reactance with the centres of the coupling slots in the same transverse section of 20 25 30 35 40 the guide behave as a IT-section circuit. . 35.—Shunt-shunt coupling.—Coupling coefficient m plotted against 6 for the slot of sented to show how the section. It may be remarked that the \ form (13) was obtained with the guide (1) terminated on one side by an open-circuit. (11) SOME SIMPLE CONSEQUENCES OF THE LAWS The reactance introduced by the non-resonant slot is in shunt with the impedance in a series-coupled guide. trans- Fig. which is relatively greater in guides intended for higher frequency micro- waves. . In both cases it will be assumed that the slot has the proper length. It has been found that the thickness of guide wall. a3. a means is provided for coupling different loads to a wave guide without requiring at each coupling operation mechanical work on the guide in question. and guide (2) terminated on one side by a \ short-circuit at the position of the slot centre. reactance presented to guide (1) is the transformed value. The form which fitted the experimental facts with standard S-band guide is 1 m TTi Fig. Since the coupling of similar guides by a resonant slot in the same aspect to both guides allows the transfer of impedance in the series case. 14 \ (12) COUPLING OF VARIABLE REACTANCES TO THE GUIDE BY IT. coupling of guides. 37. there &.§3 is that seen at the slot looking into guide (2).

42 the dominant-wave circuit in the guide. then (a) Fig. (13)] in terms of wall thickness. 41 shows these values against the measured reactances introduced by the shunt and series slots separately.Section T. 43.—Equivalent sections. Suppose that we make a = y = j tan \d. 37. Before leaving consideration of the circuit shown in Fig. plotted against the terminating reactance in guide (1). the immediate deduction is that the mutual coupling of the two reactances is zero.Section Fig. This is shown in Fig. 40. 39. then we may easily deduce that when the guide termination is a match. It is not difficult to show with both be pure reactances and the condition for matched trans- the aid of the matrix methods described in a recent paper2 that mission is that the product of the series and shunt reactances if a is the common admittance of the shunt elements of the shall be — 1.—Input reactance vs. Ky+l/a)]. which is standard. 36.762 WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS vat -30 0 25 / 20 O20 / -1-0 K 0 15 -3 0 -20 0 20 30 / 010 -1-0 005 -2-0 n 0 05 010 015 020 0 25 030 Wall thickness. Fig. 38. («) Series-coupled. in. (6) Shunt-coupled. From these facts a and y have been determined for a number of pairs of slots.—II-section arrangement.and T-sections. . II-section and y the common impedance of the series elements of the T-section equivalent to it.—The parameter A: [see eqn. referred to the characteristic impedance of the line equivalent to The theoretical and observed phase shifts are shown in Fig. -4-Ql Fig. 2s Zs Zs Zo ZP •p 'O 7T. -30 Fig. The constant of the hyperbola is [i(y—I/a)] 2 . The wall thickness is measured as the thickness of the metal in which the slot is cut and does not include the thickness of the wall of the second guide. and Fig. It will be seen that a very fair approximation is obtained by putting Variable a = One half of the shunt admittance of the longitudinal slot plunger and y = One half of the series impedance of the transverse slot.n against Z when the latter is a pure reactance is a rectargular hyperbola with centre at [— Ky + I/a). The graph of Z. 38 it will be indicated how it may be used as a phase-changer in a Fig. both being the input is likewise matched and there occurs the phase change 9. 40 shows the and the equivalence of a and y is also established. A wave explanation of this result using the methods of Part I is presented later. matched guide. terminating one with 77-section.—Slot-coupled reactances. They must equivalent II.

we can explain these results for the wave guide in terms of the waves radiated In order to explain the method of radiation coefficients by from the slots. = gA[ .g)B2 The matrix M representing the transformation due to this double In order to determine the impedance relations we put B — An.g)A'2 . ~ 0 2/)~i 1-2/J 1 1— g g g . Let / be the rad:ation — gA\ to the left and gA\ to the right in guide (2).(/ + /')] B to the right.g ~g g — 1/ 1 ' _1»/ = 0 (17) 1 ( \OL g —g 1 — g g which immediately leads to the result stated above. i. unprimed B' = (/' . 44. -20 -1O- -25 •1-5 • Fig. theoretical reactance of series slot. W3-O5 Fig.—Observed vs. For matched trans. and as usual A denotes a wave travelling to the Thus right. theoretical reactance of shunt slot rlO -10 \ Exponmenta: (Theoretical ^ Elrve -1-5 Observed reactance of series slot -30 -2*5 -20 -1-5 -1-0 0-5 10 l -5. we have equations expressing the outgoing wave amplitudes in terms of the incoming waves are given in equations (16) where subscripts A .—Phase change due to matching 7r-section slot combination Fig.gA2 + (1 . —g g -w' g 1 —I . (13) RADIATION COEFFICIENTS IN GUIDE COUPLING By the method previously used by the author. The determinant of 0 the coefficients must therefore vanish.sA.g)A\ + gA'2 + gBl . the phase shift is given by arg 1 . The slot coupling the shunt reactance acts consider the simple case of series-series coupling of similar guides as an aerial in the guide and radiates on each side H10-waves in similar aspect to the coupling slot. we shall first circuit analogue.[I -(/+/')]A' | (/'-/)B refer to the guides. 41(o). These are coefficient of the former and/' that of the latter. = (1 . The senses assumed correspond to the the principle of superposition to the complex amplitudes of the relative voltage due to the series slot cut in both guides. 42. degrees.gB{ + #B2 (15) (16) B'. ~ g But since If . WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 763 2-5 20 5 -1 --5 5 1-0 Observed rea of shunt slot 1-5 Experiinentolu curve 10 05 60 120 180 240 300 V Resulting change of phase. 41(6). Then applying represented in Fig. -B 1 (/I/O A2 = gA[ + (1 . A'v A'2. thus 1 r-f A.e. then M becomes incoming wave amplitudes Bv B2. the coupling slot radiates centre of the slot.(/i /o L w ' ' ' l~(frJJJ j B'2 = . \OL g I. + gA'2 + gB{ + (1 . When a wave of amplitude of equal amplitude and in phase at equal distances from the Aj is incident from the left in guide (1). loading can be read from these equations. B a wave to the left.—Observed vs. The ingoing and outgoing waves. Thus/' — /. instead of relying on the somewhat artificial which the laws of guide coupling may be deduced. thus reducing (16) to a set of four equations homogeneous in the mission it must be diagonal. primed letters to the left of the slot. 1/H'./)A' I [1 . + gB2 B' : -.gB2 A' . The series slot radiates waves of equal a wave gA\ to the left and — gA\ to the right in guide (1) and amplitude and in opposed phase.s)B.

00 'Si o o Fig. .fS 1 <N N N N NN Shunt reactance. it follows from the x: equation of the input and outgoing energy in both guides that a *° "a 3 T3 2 *c3 O C U C3 1 .N N . all impedances being reckoned positive looking to the right.ohnis + 4-j is .2g (w'2 . (w. .—-—-. cross-section is deduced. 44. 1 g Z2 Z2 Zj — Zj tan Since Z.) = " I " Z — 1 We now substitute M1 -. Thus the simple form (1) for guides of the same Jit 1 .1)(1 .2g 1 .3g2 r (1 . 2g When the slot is properly tuned and g is real.w.—Wave amplitudes in series-series coupling of similar guides. * k Guide 2 \ •*-\— I | »• -gA'i Guide 1 8 8 + I Coupling + point Fig. .g)2 (5 on and g -J. -?fa.0 and Z 2 — Z 2 ---. we obtain unt lot 1 1 l-2g g^ I/] z. 43.wv> .—Series reactance plotted against shunt reactance for no reflection from the section.1)(1 .u 'u.Z'. + | ! I I -2 N N 1 o N -3 N C5.764 WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 8 1 8 '—I ' ' 1 1 NT N (N 1 1 N If (M 8 v r-i -{. and we have 1 . + From this we obtain + 1 .

it will be called longitudinally polarized. In long arrays with many elements among which the energy aerial apertures to be many times the wavelength in width and is to be divided.+ X H'.—Radiation coefficients (see Table 4). one being shunt-shunt. there are radiated waves of amplitude L&{ and L£2 to By making suitable assumptions regarding the phases of the the left in the respective guides and to the right L ^ . which applies in that direction along guide (2) in which the fields are in phase. First. due to a com- Jt is with this problem that the present paper has to deal. Similarly for excitation by unit being no reflection from the junction. the The pair of antennae may be regarded as a directive array. In order to deal with the multiple coupling of guides. or. the other series-series. When the incoming wave is of unit amplitude in guide (2). bination of these. and so on. If the electric force is parallel to the plane through the arrangement of linear arrays intended to radiate substantially the point where it is measured and containing the axis of the broadside in a single lobe. we find for the voltage amplitude When complete cancellation occurs in the direction which was at the centre of the slot formerly that of weak radiation. all the energy is transmitted in the other. in any particular case. of their inclination to the guide axis.g L ^ l in Table 4. We can set up the '4 . since the slot is placed close to a A linear array from which the electric force in the main lobe position where the exciting current on the guide wall vanishes is at right angles to the axis of the array. and £t completely at the slots to emerge from the other guide. by a pair of antennae. the reversals of phase which are essential in polarized. either on account of their displacement electrical problem of imposing these distributions and at the from the central line on the broad face of the guide or on account same time ensuring maximum power transfer from the generator. In the treatment of the general case of single slot (14) DIRECTIVE ANTENNA COUPLING OF GUIDES coupling. If. then the radiation from the two antennae will be greater then in place of the equation p' = XJK'm Section 5. to the slot radiating to space. it is possible to represent any guide Thus if the wave A'. To spread the energy coupled to the guide. duced. Directive coupling may be achieved by a pair of coupling antennae not in the same cross-section of either or both guides. can be introduced just as easily as the array. 45. in practice. This result is in accord amplitude from the right with theory using the method indicated above. ImC r»2 — W- n2 (c) (d) from which the law of impedance transformation can be deduced Fig. guide. there is the value of £ for guide (1). without at the same time introducing into the amplitude and phase distribution over the aperture required the radiation pattern serious effects due to the varying aspect or to secure the desired radiation pattern.2 Part III. will be called transversely and changes sign. a wave entering one guide is switched where C plays the part of K in the previous discussion. . is incident on the coupling in guide (1) from coupling by slots The results for a number of cases are given ^ ^ ^ . and L ^ . There remains then the disposition of the slots. SLOTTED WAVE-GUIDE ARRAYS (15) INTRODUCTION (16) LINEAR RADIATORS The advantage of microwaves is that they permit. C and to the right is ~^~AJ. the principle of the calculation based on the ideas Suppose that the second guide is coupled.cft Jn . radiation coefficients. The well suited. It has already been pointed out how over this aperture. WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 765 The foregoing method has been applied to a variety of cases. using the equation of energy and writing <j>l ---2 arg $v <f>2 -= 2 arg £2. 45 shows the meaning of the coefficients intro. each element must be comparatively weakly hence they produce very narrow beams. physical considerations entering the design of such an array are for they can be cut in somewhat different ways to control the twofold. all the other incoming amplitudes being zero. It is convenient to classify linear radiators in two types: . unity. the two guides differ by an integral multiple of 2TT. we reach the result -fet z. corresponding voltage amplitudes at the slot are however. in fact. ^ tQ t h e .Z9 equation system analogous to eqn. for this purpose are slots cut in the guide wali. it is Now when the voltage amplitude at the centre of the slot is appropriate to use matrix methods. to the first. For example. (16). coupling will only occur if the electrical spacings in P2 kC and P2. If one of the antennae is shunt-coupled and the Let the slot be excited by a wave of unit amplitude from the other series-coupled to guide (2) at the same position in that left in guide (1). will also be applied even when they are only substantially correct. well-known principles are applied to determine degree of coupling. one of the equations reads (a) (b) Proceeding in the same way as in the simpler case. Further. If two similar guides are coupled by a pair of slots each in the same aspect to the guides. Fig. These terms variations in amplitude of excitation. they are separated in both guides and both tuned to resonance. introduced in Section 5 will be used. — W. an array may be fed from a wave guide.

(19) When 6 is an integral mutliple of 77. the fractional change l/7Vin the frequency will put one of admittance or impedance.«-'(w-i 1) . In order * The time factor e~Jat is suppressed.766 WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS (i) fixed. series loads at current The band-width of this arrangement is proportionately reduced maxima.( ' + ' ) . consists of a travelling wave in the fairly closely to arrays of longitudinal shunt and series slots. in the first place. to measure the wavelength in the actual guide to be used ARRAY for the mean frequency of the band. otherwise the array will not In the theory of the feeding of an array from a wave guide. two elements. the feed-point may be at one end or it basis of design because of the required stability of the phase may be near the middle of the array. is established in the guide. there continuity in phase-gradient will occur at the feed-point. not reflect in the guide. (22) guide is not attenuated. For this reason it is of the greatest practical importance in constructing long arrays of this (17) THEORY OF THE WAVE-GUIDE FEED TO A LINEAR type. If the loads are spaced equidistant d sufficiently differently from A^/2 in order to present a satisfactory input impedance over a band of frequencies. the current (magnetic force) wave would Vf+l _ Vf == Ar(a> . radiate in phase. but the principle of the method be radiated at an inconvenient angle to the normal of the array. that the mutual effects between satisfactorily over a displaced band. (23) exactly with the spacing. Attempts to control the power taken the elements in opposed phase. and / 0 is the current A^/2 in front factors limiting the band-width of arrays of this type. should be placed at voltage maxima. Alternate couplings reverse phase In order to prevent instability of phase when resonant spacing and the elements. + 1 . co = e# . the wave of transverse magnetic force is attenuated.l)a/ ! B. This shows the decreasing current wave in the The fundamental distinction between the standing wave and shunt loaded line at resonant spacing of the loads. whereas with resonant spacing. The former is essentially a narrow loading would be required at A^/2 spacing. that is. The matter may be band device. both series and shunt of the radiation is altered. If the elements were series coupled at so that the resonant spacing. that farther from the generator must be more Let us treat equation (19) by the analogue of the method of strongly coupled than the other. say mrr. that a travelling-wave aerial must be end-fed. only about one and a half times that in free space. the system of waves in the guide. and in the latter case by distribution for a good main lobe. only if all the elements are weakly coupled to the showing that the voltage wave is not attenuated.c. phase.i 1 ( B . This requires that a considerable fraction (from 5 to 20%) of the input energy may have to be dissipated (21) in the sand load terminating the guide. they are with the auxiliary condition unaffected by this attenuation when the frequency corresponds ( A r + 1 . no matter what that system is on standing-wave ratio varies from infinity to unity if the guide is account of loading. For the purpose of the argument. function is assumed. and is one of the main where Kis the constant voltage.e. 160 and 200~ (guide). when the elements radiate in phase with the wave in the guide where they are coupled. it is necessary to space the elements Let vr be the voltage in the equivalent transmission line at the position of the r-th load. it should be fed from one end and has matched input. the difference terminated by a matched sand-load. or 9 radians reckoned on the unloaded line. of the first load. viz. and. the elements must be coupled at maxima in the standing- main lobe from the array is normal to the guide. be determined by presenting to the wave in the guide the proper ments. hence for the equal excitation of function of r. The amount of power drawn from the guide should the longer the array. often referred to as resonant spacing. The is used. unless the coupling device does JV elements. the latter is generally much less frequency-sensitive. for the limiting condition is that for N ele.-i sin 6 vr . stability of the phase distribution. If ir denotes wave in the guide.the current immediately to the right of the r-th load turbance of the feed. being spaced Ag/2 apart. These are: (1) the guide is skilful design it may be possible to secure somewhat greater terminated by a reflecting plunger and a standing-wave system band-width. For the fractional change n/N. as the frequency to produce attenuation of both waves. i. At a non-resonant From the point of view of theory. Two spacings have been equation satisfied by the voltage* is used.0 . The waste of energy varies with the frequency of the waves. spacing. otherwise a dis- quired amplitude-phase distribution. Conversely. the main lobe will shunt loading will be discussed. Since the velocity of propagation in the latter is usually not to transverse slots. with weak coupling. the AT-th load being most distant from the generator. circuit. however. but since the elements are voltage-excited. (ii) variable azimuth for the main lobe. It may.array the yr should be small compared with unity for weak pete for power exactly like the parts of a d. and further. the guide being apart. if the variation of parameters writing elements are all shunt coupled.A > H . This method will therefore apply gradient along the array. the wave of electric force in the vr = Artor + Broj~r. it should be possible to cal. With half-wave spacing. if each element produces negligible dis. but guide. . whereas in coupling in the proper physical sense of negligible local dis- the latter. It should be noted possible to deduce the couplings necessary to produce the re. it function over the desired band. shunt loads narrow band type of array. (24) not be attenuated. Accordingly. (2) The alternative condi- elements of the array. It is possible to maintain a sufficiently good approximation to a travelling wave in the guide and to obtain the proper amplitude vr+l=-(-l)mvr (20) distribution. the travelling-wave aerials is that in the former the loads are It remains now to discuss non-resonant spacing. each element being coupled in a given way to the terminated in a match. whereas the voltage wave would. In practical arrays. from the guide by any other method are likely to lead to in- (N — n) elements will radiate in phase and n elements in anti. In a long effectively at the same place on the transmission line and com. yr is not a rapidly changing power in the series of loads.B > . . This is the wave of mean frequency which excites them. stated somewhat differently as follows. vf+l — 2 cos 6 vr + iv_! = — JY. is applicable to any type of loading. alternate elements are Let yr be the admittance of the r-th shunt load in the array of coupled in reversed phase. arid the beam will split. apart from their coupling to the H-wave in tion which allows a good approximation to a constant phase- the guide. in principle. the standing-wave ratio never culate the phase and amplitude of excitation of the elements of departs seriously from unity anywhere along the guide when it is an array. the latter being preferable. In a are only two alternative conditions which can be adopted as the standing-wave aerial. the exciting wave is attenuated by the absorption of turbance of the feed. . may be neglected.

where/? = d (30) maximum value of conductance that can be tolerated consistent **(£) with the hypothesis of weak coupling and satisfactory phasing. the value of from the origin of x. and (b) the amount of energy to be dissipated in the terminating mate formula load must be sufficiently small so as not to reduce unduly the efficiency of the array. . The presence of of energy lost due to this cause between two successive radiators.. Except for long arrays. but the then equation (39) must be replaced by uniformity of the phase gradient along the radiators of the array will be preserved if the gradient of the susceptance along the array is small. the conductance gs. consistent with satisfactory radiating pro- If H>r is near zero (matched termination) p will be small. (33) yr . . (29) Since the fraction of energy taken from the guide by a radiator B in a travelling wave is equal to the conductance presented by it to the waves. then or . dB to be extracted by the r-th radiator from the generator end. and in practice it is necessary to strike a compromise. The attenuation of the wave is determined by . let 8 be the fraction In general ys is complex. (37) and terminal values of the circle-diagram variable w = — g . then we dx 2« dx require where /x is a multiplier still to be determined. A reckoned at points distant an integral number of half-wavelengths In order to fix the values of # r . and perties with respect to polarization and side lobes from the array. It has already been shown how to calculate the ratio w>i/wr by matrix methods in the case of weak loading. we have The value of /x is deduced in terms of the ratio of the input . . Let er be the fraction of energy . In con.1)* sin 0. . so that the input con- . terminating load is represented by sequence of the smallness of yr we proceed on the assumption N that A r and B r do not vary rapidly with r and hence the pair of e X P difference equations may be replaced by differential equations in which the variable x\d replaces the index r. ys — €s— jbs.yr+1 -f f? (39) The expression for A r shows the attenuation of the wave is obtained with travelling from the generator. (1 and the amplitude distribution along the array made to follow dx dx the desired law. (36) . susceptance modifies the velocity of phase propagation. or reverting to the discrete loading Computation of the conductances is greatly facilitated by noting that if A p = A o exp (32) (38) the simple formula while . . and (1 o>)— + —^ —j (28) let fr be the amplitude of excitation for that radiator. simultaneously. or in the case of slots./A ductance to the array can be made unity or any desired value G.dB n (25) In the case of half-wave spacing the radiators may be co-phased dx dx by making them pure conductances gr. WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 767 Thus the second-order difference equation (19) in vr can be re. (26) (35) Comparison of these equations shows that dA Ay(u) — to. This will generally be decided by 2(2 one or other of the following considerations: (a) there is a = cos 0 + JXP -!. these two con- (31) siderations usually conflict. . one must take into account the attenuation along } dx L Id = dx the wave guide due to the loads.dB . that for B r the growth of the re- flected wave. the conductances. The fraction of energy reaching the placed by a pair of first-order equations in Ar and B r . by means of the relation -JsinOyQ . therefore 1 — ii tends to cu. We find one of them must be known. If fix) = Yydx and f(L) = Q where L = Nd. . so we obtain the following approxi. These equations are (18) AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION AND INPUT IMPEDANCE JA .1 ) dA To secure the desired amplitude distribution in a travelling- (27) wave aerial. If attenuation in the guide takes place in significant amount due to the finite conductivity of the walls./. By(co .

—(a) Transversely. (iii) the length of slot for resonance varies slightly with dis- Even when Xys g < 1. The fluctuations in standing-wave ratio to be expected are illustrated in Fig. it was related how the invention of slot arrays was the natural outcome of the search for radiating ele. That is. The polarization was of course transverse. 46. the wavelength is changed by the fraction 1/2N. w. the input is matched. with the guide terminated by a reflecting plunger A^/4 from the last . i. 47(a).i J?^I (42) Phase reversal was secured by placing alternate slots on opposite sides of the centre line as shown in Fig. If the coupling of the generator feed in the guide array is series. 7 5 equal conductances O-0133/f S\ I I array was centre-fed: in such a case it is necessary to take into account the phase relationship of the waves to the right and left of the point of coupling. the in- These considerations explain the sensitivity of the input admit. In Sections 1-8. the input admittance is the construction of travelling-wave antennae using these slots. reduced to a half when 9 is changed from IT to the nearest zero An array having the same polarization but not so convenient of sin Nd. either as the result of changing the frequency or changing the width of the guide cross-section. practical development of this device: On the other hand.and (ft) longitudinally-polarked Y • slot arrays. Thus when the terminating load is non-reflecting. \ . . 47.1 (open-circuit termination) and (i) choice of adequate slot-width. Consequently for a centre-fed array. it is not possible to feed the same array when 6 — mv and in the vicinity of these values. From nearest figure found suitable for the machine work of cutting equation (41) it is easily seen that for a system of equal loads (usually with an end-mill). longitudinal polarization is ductance to the wave in the guide. if wT ----. then when B^nm. The conductance presented to the dominant wave 1 in the guide by each slot was determined by its distance from When the termination is matched. provided that a sufficient number (19) TRANSVERSELY-POLARIZED ARRAYS OF SLOTS of elements comprised the a/ray. These same considerations apply in intended to match at half-wave spacing. A^/2 being the spacing between the centres of successive slots. (20) LONGITUDINALLY-POLARIZED SLOT ARRAYS ments which can be coupled so as to present a low. 2S H.e. the displacements can be forced to the termination of the feed guide yielding a matched input. that is. we make use The first array of slots cut in the guide wall consisted of of the result already referred to. This particular As 0 is varied. give a good radiation pattern. observable spurious radiation. Indeed a graph of the modulus of the sum against 6 will resemble the diffraction pattern of a grating with principal and subsidiary maxima. desired because of the increased contrast possible in the radar . the sum which is the numerator of this fraction undergoes rapid fluctuations but its modulus remains small compared with }£y s except when 6 ^ mrr (m integral). and the centre of the guide in accordance with the law G •— Ksir^irxja [see equation (5)]. choosing wT •=--—. dielectric the length of slot for resonance must be measured 5=1 for the covered slots. we can secure a matched input by placement of the slot centre on the broad face of the guide. it is necessary to know the method by which the transmitter is coupled to the guide in order to cut the slots correctly. (a) |M>J| and hence the standing-wave ratio will exhibit fluctuations like the sum in question when the electrical spacing of the ele- ments is altered by varying the velocity of propagation in the guide. to cut could be made with inclined series-coupled slots. the two waves are in anti-phase. 49 longitudinal laterally-displaced slots in the broad face. N (ii) since the slots must be covered with weather-proof >ys 1.768 WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS To study the variation of the input impedance. wT 0. This array had a sufficiently large number of elements so that even the most strongly coupled slots in the centre of the array did not have to be displaced from the centre line by a distance 160" 165 170° 175° 180° 185° 190° 195° 2O5° great enough to distort sensibly the radiation pattern from the Electrical spacing of loads array. i .10 cqu»l conductances -0-1 Fig. The stagger- Fig. ing of the slots with respect to the centre line introduced no Dotted curve: 10 equal conductances. if shunt they are in phase. Full curve: 75 equal conductances. The following refinements and simplification arise in the In each case the total conductance is 3C0. In many practical antennae.—Input standing-wave ratio for two arrays. but of course.g exactly as calculated. if g > 1 there is no possible (iv) it is not necessary to cut the slots with displacements 2 . pure con. the constant K being found by measurement.0.clination of the slots to the guide axis would be small enough to tance of a long array to frequency at A^/2 spacing. viz. (41) slot centre. 46.

k is seen to depend con. For different § « 15 ) the overall O2O 36 0 10 32 0 08 7 \ OO6 O-O4 7 1 :zo \ 002 085 090 095 100 105 110 115 Depth of cut. found a particular depth of cut for each single angle of inclina. Fig. A = 10-7 cm. to apply the information presented below one should approximate to con. The latter affords a somewhat easier crude approximation in design which we now consider. the slots were cut Number of slots at the same inclination but in alternately reversed senses [see J Fig. c Spacing 200 (guide). so far as the wave in the guide be cut to a depth of 0 • 99 cm in standard guide for the band. Arrays of inclined shunt slots may be constructed with resonant or non-resonant spacing [usually 200° (guide)]. 47(6)]. also slots of smaller inclination than 101 should the particular spacing adopted. Firstly. mutual susceptance is approximately cancelled by Since arrays of these slots are desired to give a certain measure self-susceptance. a different result would have been of broad-band behaviour. 49. and thirdly. Fig.Fig.that at 200° spacing. o G/K = 1-66 sin* <f>. stancy of length of slot rather than constancy of depth of cut. this represents ihe effective con-phase at 200° spacing.the slotted guide. With a matched termination. f 0 03 secondly. This graph is consistent with the hypo- ductance G/Yo of each slot in the array. it seems reasonable to maximum radiation by the array at a given wavelength is deter. In Fig. /„ = fraction of input power radiated by n slots. Consequently.—Effective conductance in terms of inclination of edge slots in long array with alternate phase reversal. of varying the frequency with that of varying the slot length. tion ((f>) of the slots which makes the power radiated by the array a maximum (see Fig. so that inclination along the array is nowhere rapid. decrement (k) per slot. Further. As a It is obvious that the particular depth of cut (slot length) yielding practical compromise at A — 10-7 cm. WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 769 > pictures resulting from the use of this polarization. It is seen to follow the sin </> law. This attenuation measurement with a large number of similar 2 slots gives a useful estimate of the contribution of the individual the slots. 50. degrees same for maximum radiation.propose that slots for which 10° < <f> < 15° should be cut mined by the mutual interaction of a large number of slots at 0-95 cm in depth. 50 shows the dependence of G/Yo on the inclination of Since the former changes the relative phases of the contributions . the conditions governing propagation outside are complicated. is concerned.—Array of 10° edge slots (width ft in) spaced at 200 (guide). the number of slots. k = C/Ko for n > 20. Standard S-band. It is fortunate slots in a gabled array at the same non-resonant spacing. 51 gives the depth of cut as a function of <j> for maximum siderably on n. frequency is independent of the inclination (<f> < 15 ). The admittance of one thesis that the overall length for maximum radiation at the given of these slots was measured and found to be 0 017 + 0 015/. the attenuation 002 1 of the wave in . 001 8 12 16 20 length of the slot measured on the outside of the guide is the 0. Because /I 004 of the mutual interaction between these slots in virtue of waves propagated on the outside of the guide the exact design problem is quite difficult. 16 20 8 12 was measured as a function of depth of cut. the amount of unwanted polarization to be tolerated for a given Measurements showed that it is necessary to use more than radiation per slot is less than would be expected on the basis of 10 slots in order to attain a steady value of the logarithmic single-slot measurements. 49. due to radiation by the slots. 48). the effect of mutual interaction is to in- vided that the array is long enough so that the gradient of slot crease the power radiated per slot at a given inclination. in practice. it is interesting to compare the effect obtained if the slots had been cut parallel (without phase reversal). These slots make only a small angle (<j>) with the plane perpendicular to the guide axis. 48.cm Fig. there was Fig. special computing methods would be required to give. The limiting value of k for radiation by an array of similar slots cut alternately in reversed w large is 0-049 when <f> = 10°. the required result. it is not easy to obtain precise measure- ments of the parameters which represent the mutual effects. It may be 0 05 provided by means of the inclined shunt-coupled slots cut in the narrow face of the guide. even if the foregoing information were 3f obtained with the necessary accuracy. For a sufficiently great number of slots.-10° edge slots at 200° (guide) spacing. pro.

this method may be adequate. spaced A^/2 apart. that if the depth of cut is maintained constant as the conductance corresponding to the limiting decrement of energy inclination of the slot is increased. It was found that 45 % is increased sufficiently rapidly to produce considerable change of the energy was abstracted. This is not strictly true according to field . A design procedure Change in based on approximate theory has been worked out by the author. the angle would be about 3 • 8°. the overall length of the slot per slot in a long array of similar slots. They were inclined at 4-2° to the guide: if the radiation change in frequency required is about half of the fractional were phased according to the travelling wave in the guide. As examples. 9C 6ctnN 40 20 iAr '*""••*"•. Let the An array constructed according to this plan will not give the input admittances be measured in each case and be denoted by desired amplitude distribution. The terminating The simplest procedure in designing a broadside array of plunger must be adjusted by trial. antiparallel (reversed phase of the wave in the guide at the position of the slot centre. at the input end as at the load end. one may expect that the waves on the outside to the self-admittance a for slots at the chosen inclination and of the guide travelling toward the generator have larger amplitude than those travelling in the opposite direction. The incre- 10 31 l'°5 mental conductance having been found as a function of inclina- 25 4-9 2-2 tion. intended to be uniform. It should be noted. While this procedure yields inclined-shunt slots cut in the narrow face of the guide of a usable arrays with beams radiated normal to the guide. action could be taken into account by assigning to each slot the however. fore. to the mutual effect at each slot as well as changing the admit. 48). arrays are then cut according to the law for shunt slots at resonant spacing without mutual admittance. spacing (guide) was cut with inclination varying from 6-3° at the Thus Af/a does not vary much with the depth of cut for a given input end to 8 • 1J at the other. as one should expect. Table 5 If higher accuracy is required. the measured distribution is shown by The foregoing is based on the assumption that the mutual Fig. it is expected (and confirmed in Table 5) from the array showed that the equiphase lines are very nearly that to produce a given decrease from the maximum value of straight as is required for a good directive pattern from a linear the power radiated by the array of similar slots.3. ^ in wide. of the energy in the guide on the assumption that mutual inter. 52. with a plunger terminating the guide can be approached through the conception of incremental % 0/ conductance which was explained in Section 4. 200° (guide) spacing. it seems necessary to prescribe 10° SLOTS the length and inclination of each slot in order to secure the desired amplitude and phase distributions. The amplitude distribution was in the arguments of M. a and Af/a.—Amplitude distribution and equiphase plot opposite S-band edge-slot array. we may tribution and to yield a suitable dissipation of power in the load. Y+ and Y_ respectively. examination of the equiphase distribution about 20 cm away tance of the slot itself. for maximum radiation from array of slots (see Fig. the pro- longitudinally-polarized array is to make all the slots of the same cedure does not enable the desired input impedance and amplitude overall length corresponding to maximum radiation in a long distribution to be obtained. degrees Fig. equally inclined.inclination of S-band edge slots. mention the following measurements. tribution is only a fair approximation to the intended one. Fig. The ratio of the mutual admittance M creases radiation. The actual amplitude dis- * „ = 1 0 7 cm. phase coupling) and second. parallel to each other. the fractional array. 92 Gener ator ei id Q 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 90 Number of slots in array 9 <(>. first. The experimental determination of the slots is then chosen so as to approach the desired amplitude dis.770 WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS too 100 ——0 " \ 80 60 / \ Distan reen s ots. spacing is —• Results for f-in slots in standard guide at + Yj An array of 20 slots of the same overall length and 200° a wavelength of 10-7 cm are presented in Tables 6 and 7. does not vary much with <j> for cf> < 15C. The inclination of the individual able numerical work.—Depth of cut vs . Any attempt to improve the design array of similar slots at the same spacing. there- change in slot length. radiated power Change in total Change in An approximate design for arrays of inclined slots in the from the slot length frequency maximum narrow face. 51. necessary parameters is also difficult. The hump in the distribution at the input end of the admittance remains unchanged in numerical value when one of array corresponds with the observation that the wave energy the slots is turned from parallelism to antiparallelism at the beyond the array on the outside of the guide was twice as much same inclination. Also Re(M/a). Whenever the mutual effect in. For many practical purposes. It was designed to extract 40% fixed inclination of slot. but by explicit representation of the mutual effects leads to formid- alternately reversed in phase. 52. The guide is assumed to be weakly loaded by each slot so that Suppose that two slots of the same length and inclination are the phase of each radiator is nearly in constant relation to the cut at half-wave spacing in the guide.

stot for detector Yagi slot corresponding probe lengths. and choose as the most convenient . cm M/a the outside of the guide. Taking into account the law of attenuation of the amplitude of waves propagated outside the narrow face of the guide (see Section 4. At S-band wavelengths. and (iv) the phase shift (retardation) produced in the travelling wave as it passes the slot. when the exciting wave on The slots have small displacement x and inclination 9 measured the outside of the guide has unit amplitude at the position of from the unexcited lontitudinal position on the broad face. is that each radiator is so coupled to the guide that it permits a pure travelling-wave from the generator to the matched termina- tance will be denoted by MJx. This result is so much at TOTAL LENGTH OF SLOTS CONSTANT variance with our physical expectation as regards phase that we conclude that the current system on the guide face in this ex- periment was quite different from that when the Yagi slot was Inclination near the slot coupled to the guide. approximate value of the amplitude of the secondary spherical wave reckoned at the distance X /2. 53. Design of the array depends on the measurement of (i) the value of x and 9 to yield the proper type of displaced-inclined slots (for practical purposes it is sufficient to determine the slot length for only one value of 9. This disposition is pedance on the outside of the guide using the device shown in required for proper compensation when a considerable fraction Fig. so that it allows perfect com- pensation by a probe). 53. For a broad-band slot fore unexcited by the dominant wave inside the guide will be array. longitudinally-polarized array. it is necessary to use transverse polarization. There- fore we may ignore the longitudinal displacement required to Fig. and the sensitivity of the interaction but if the inclination is small enough the error should not be to frequency so that the fraction of energy radiated by the slots large. is fairly strongly frequency-sensitive.—Standing-wave-detector intended to measure impedances compensate for the phase shift when we are concerned with presented to waves on the outside of the guide. (ii) the compensating susceptances and the g-in. It was thought worth while to mention these results for unless experimental methods of this type can be satisfactorily developed. an attempt was made to measure im. placed in the same guide cross-section as the centre of the slot In order to check this. amplitude distribution. The longitudinal slot in the guide through which the detecting probe explored the standing-wave 1076 0-43e-v48-2° system in front of the Yagi slot was about 30 cm away. The principle involved of a parasitic slot distant Xg(2. A Yagi slot at a distance of about one metre from the exciting slot was backed by a large reflecting copper 15° SLOTS sheet which was adjusted to place a short-circuit at the position of the Yagi slot. 5° 0-27 0-28 15° 0-29 (21) A BROAD-BAND ARRAY OF SLOTS (TRANSVERSE POLARIZATION) Because of the mutual interaction between the slots of a theory representation of the radiation on the outside of the guide. The 1-128 0-46e-y52-3° measured series impedance was found to be pure reactance of 1-180 0-44€-y"52-7° magnitude 0 • 364. guide operates to reduce band-width. The latter is compensated by the positive susceptance due to the silver probe (of diameter £ in for S-band) leading to the amplitude of the secondary wave.3) the value of the secondary wave Table 7 amplitude was found to be 0-25e^80°. If the input admittance of an is now presented for achieving this by means of the displaced inclined shunt slot is measured alone and then in the presence and inclined slots described in Section 6. the corresponding phase shift is 14-4° in passing the com- pensated slot. the fractional increase in admit. the following results were obtained for so chosen that the self-corresponding point of the w-plane trans- 12° slots: formed by the slot lies at — j . A wave was launched on the outside of one end of of energy is drawn from the guide by the end slots of the array. The length of the slot is such that M a match is transformed into unit conductance with a small nega- tive susceptance. A method called a parasitic (or Yagi) slot. WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 771 Table 6 the long guide. Mutual interaction by waves outside the theoretical considerations. width of these arrays is limited by the loss of energy to the turb propagation on the outside of the guide was suggested from terminating load. 0-49e-v'18>2°. and opposite to it in the other broad face. (iii) the fraction of power ab- stracted by the compensated slot from a travelling wave as a function of 9. while abstracting a known fraction of the 1 a / a energy from it. In an array with its amplitude distribution tapered symmetrically about its centre most of the radiators will be required to radiate very much smaller fractions of power than 40%. it is clear that the band- A second measurement intended to estimate how the slots dis. A slot at zero inclination and there. as a function of 9. and will produce a phase shift much less than 14°. the ratio —-I— yields the tion of the guide. the exact design of these 3° 0-29 arrays will have to depend on the mathematical theory alone. and the slot. a slot displaced 0-4 in and inclined at 25° abstracts 40% of the energy from a travelling wave in the guide. For example. the latter being series-coupled to the waves on Depth.

mm. mm (Xg . degrees 004 008 012 016 020 01 02 03 04 0-5 Displacement.). .008 / / / b 01 f / g. 0 4 8 12 16 002 Retardation.0-06 // // // I 004| I 1 (0 \ 1 \1 u. degrees. ins. Fig. degrees. 002 I 1 004 1 1 I 001 i 2 3 4 Retardation. 54.and probe length.—Design data for broad-band inclined-displaced slot (S-band). ins.16-2 cm). Slot dimensions -& in x 2 in. h of compensating probe (0 125 indiam. mm.mm. Angle. degrees. (b) (a) acement of slot. (c) Displacement. including the l thickness (2 • 1 mm).and probe length. nation of slot.> 0-6 • 7 0-4 0-6 0-4 / / -8 To 0-2 ^02 a / 1 01 1 t. 5 10 15 20 25 Phase shift produced in travelling wave on passing a slot 2 4 6 8 10 Angle. y z ' .

ll ion ll V 1 (0 t. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Angle. WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 773 0-6 010 008 006 s / s 004 s s / / / / / 002 / / / / / / .). . 6 8 10 12 14 Retardation. 20 3 : J-505 cm. mm. degrees. 3(V: 1-510 cm. 55. inclination of slot centre. mm. — — — length of compensating probe (0-125 in diam. /' // Jj 1 / • 01 "008 7 £ / 11 1 V 1/ a 1 Fig. mm. 005 006 007 008 009 010 Oil 012 Probe length. 1 i. degrees Phase shift produced in travelling wave on passing a slot. n 001 / / 0008 / // 1 i} 0006 1 0-004 1 1 1 i 0 002 1 1 001 0-75 1-25 175 2-25 275 3-25 375 1 Displacement. degrees 0001 005 0-iO 015 020 0 02 0-4 06 0-8 010 ' 012 014 Probe length. f 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 3b Angle. . (a) • — displacement of slot centre.—Design data for broad-band array of inclined-displaced slots ll (X-band). including wall thickness (0-050 in). 02 / / I0 ' / <J L. 002 If llif 1 if 0-01 M 0-2 0-4 0« 08 10 1-2 14 Retardation. ins. in Displacement. mm. degrees Slot lengths: 10": l-495cm.

duce the beam. the fraction of energy to be of the slot nearer to the generator will be nearer to the centre of radiated by it. (b) and (c). 100 80 \ / \ "a. of the guide. .774 WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 10 variable e (denoting the fraction of energy radiated by the slot) (i) the displacement x. The correction is cumulative. 55 (a). 57. Item (iv) i \ X nents y / is used to correct the position of the centres of the slots with respect to the basic spacing A^/2 calculated for the mean fre- quency. Fig. 54 (a). (ii) the inclination 9. The phase correction is applied by equation (36) and of graphs in which are plotted against the bringing the slots nearer to the generator. "10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 HO In order to secure the alternation of phase necessary to pro- Wavelength Aa. The data for a wavelength of 10-7 cm in standard \ / guide are shown in Fig.10-90cm.—Radiation patterns for 45-element array of inclined-displaced slots (S-band). Zr = 1. Further. provided that the phase shift is taken into account. 100 80 / 160 / \ (e) 40 / 20 / \ "-4 s/ . 56.—Frequency dependence of power absorbed in terminating alternately staggered on each side of the centre of the broad face load for 45-element array and for the latter half of it. and (iv) the phase shift converted into equivalent displacements along the guide at mean frequency in . normal to the array. ZT = 1.45 elen tents ciently good approximation to a travelling wave in the guide is assured even if the individual slot-probe combination fails to transform a match into a perfect match off-frequejicy. the maintenance of a suffi- X . X = l l . the beam from the array should be radiated normal to the guide at the mean frequency. the slot centres will be Fig. and for a wavelength of 3 • 20 cm in standard guide in Fig. For a range of fre- quencies off the centre of the band. (c) "40 20 1 -4 -2 Degrees 0 -6 V -4 -2 0 V Degrees X = 10-50cm. (6) and (c). ZT ^ 1. (iii) the length p of the compensating probe.0 c m .cm. ZT = 1. X 10-70cm.6 the band. The array is then designed with the aid both of the guide in every case. In order that the proper slot shall be used. the end variable to characterize a radiator.2 0 2 -2 0 2 Degrees Degrees X .

Yf — X = 10-70cm. YT = +y. . YT = +y. (f) 40 20 20 -6 Ay -4 -2 0 A -6 -4 -2 0 Degrees Degrees X = 10-50 cm. X = 10-90 cm. YT = 4 / . WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 775 100 100 80 80 160 60 I. ST. YT = J00 1 I 80 1\ "5. Fig.—Continued. \ 100 \ 80 60 (i) 40 J IV 20 / -6 -4 -2 0 -4 -2 0 2 Degrees Degrees X = 10-81 cm. I / 20 -4 f -2 0 Degrees 2 K X = 11 00 cm.

illuminated array of the same length. was by mounting the two-dimensional array below (or above) a observed at ± 45J to the normal to the array and did not exceed plane sheet of metal projecting about 10A in front of the array. The linear arrays which have been described in the previous Sections can be used as elements in a two-dimensional array of (23) MICROWAVE YAGI AERIAL slots. Mutual effect between them will be when waves travel on the outside of the guide. thus the matching arrangement is essentially stable. due mainly to the inclination of the slots. of the maximum in the main lobe. Inclined series-coupling slots in the broad face of the feed 11 -0 cm. this array had a band-width arrange that the linear arrays load the transverse feed-guide so as of 8% of the operating frequency. or if the guide may be turned so into a near match. If the slot is 20 h Elevation / t y Ir 031X o % n Plan Width of all slots = l-60mm Fig. for five degrees by variation of the frequency by ± 4%. the achieve this end. When the guide was terminated by a reflecting plug. the spacing of is not serious. however. It may confidently be pre.—Microwave Yagi slot aerial (X-band). 57 broad face the couplings have already been explained in Fig. With both types of coupling. 58. the degree of coupling to the feed-guide could be varied. The lobe of unwanted The required cut-off in the vertical radiation pattern was obtained polarization. is practically load and to terminate the guide with a plunger %Ag from the fixed because of the width of the guide. 56 both for the whole array and for the last half of it.5 cm linear radiators of a longitudinally-polarized cosecant aerial. An antenna of this type was constructed at McGill University by (22) TWO-DIMENSIONAL ARRAYS OF SLOTS Guptill in 1944. in the wavelength range 10-4. The spacing of the linear practice. to 12% at 10-8 cm and 16% at 11 0cm. becoming the source of unwanted radiation.776 WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS As an example of the application of these principles. 10-7 cm. It should be noted that transformation by the loads on the transverse feed-guide may be made any desired these slots reduces the radius of a small circle near the origin figures resonant or not. To satisfactory power absorption. The slots were -^-'m wide. a quarter-wave deep. but it may be sup- element array was cut for S-band.the system of wave guides forming the whole aerial can easily rectly terminated in the maximum side-lobe amplitude was 15% be rigidly bound together. and it is found that the disturbance of phase as not to be perpendicular to the linear radiators. the ar- 2-35 compared to the theoretical value of 2 1° for a uniformly rangement is depicted in Fig. 11 % in amplitude. When the guide was cor. to give the desired transverse amplitude and phase distributions dicted that a longer array would have greater band-width for and a suitable input impedance for the array as a whole. which prevents waves from travelling from the surface of one The energy reaching the matching load at the end of the guide guide to the next. The linear arrays may be either standing-wave or made to the excitation of resonant slots cut in the narrow face travelling-wave radiators. guide have been used to permit the turning of the component the maximum side-lobe amplitude varied from 19 • 5 % at 10. the problem is to dissipated in the terminating load. Throughout the band. if transversely-polarized radiation is used. Care should be taken to prevent the trans- was measured as a function of frequency and the result is shown mission line formed by the channel from resonating and thus in Fig. . important only for transverse polarization. There are two basic types of coupling of shunt-series type that permit the choice of impedance transfer. 34. on the H'-plane. a 45. it is possible to dispense with the terminating arrays. (a)-(j). The correction for phase shift was taken into account. This choke is a narrow channel. For slots cut in the The results of the Held measurements are shown in Fig. On the assumption that not more than 6% of the energy was In the design of a two-dimensional array. 28(o). The band-width of this array is sufficiently By turning the linear arrays about their longitudinal axes some great to allow control of the direction of the beam over four or freedom to adjust the shape of the pattern. but longitudinally- centre of the nearest slot.. The average observed beam-width of the main lobe was while for slots cut in the narrow face of the feed guide. with a basic slot spacing of XJ2 at a wavelength of guides. pressed by introducing a choke between each pair of adjacent 2-in long. the coupling of guides by means of slots offers voltage standing-wave ratio never exceeded 1 1 2 : 1 . In a wide variety of circuit arrangement. was obtained. This particular reactive termination polarized arrays may be spaced more closely. If a feed-guide of may be used because the last few slots of the array transform it specially chosen width is used. thus replacing the combination of a linear radiator with a In discussing longitudinally-polarized arrays reference has been reflector.

however. The major anti-phase and their fields allowed to join in front at the edge of financial support came from the National Research Council of the wedge in which the guide carrying the slots was terminated. The author has Its directivity is limited. which separate accounts of the original war-time reports in time for the is approximately axially symmetric.31A spacing. 1946. An example of this type of aerial was constructed as follows.W. Tt may therefore be used as a parasitic radiator on Sections of Antennas. members of the laboratory. H. by the fact that it is an end-fire much pleasure in acknowledging the collaboration of the other array. . . slot which is coupled to the guide. Part IIIA.ily cut in the edge and with its axis perpendicular to (24) REFERENCES the axis of the guide. Each array consisted of one 20° inclined ACKNOWLEDGMENT slot coupled to the guide with a reflecting plunger A /4 behind The investigations were carried out during 1942-4 in a special it inside the guide. Canada and the facilities of the Field Station of its Radio Branch The details are shown in Fig. the work at McGill University has been given.E. The two arrays were excited in which assisted the work in every way possible. p. Ottawa. laboratory of the Macdonald Physics Building. These advantages are the small Guptill and the writer. 33. An array of slots was cut in each of the narrow faces of a piece of X-band wave guide. The fundamental work on shunt. W.and series-coupled slot The microwave Yagi array has all the advantages of the wire radiators and guide couplings was reported by Mr. 737. a single parasitic-reflector slot and 15 director. Yagi arrays for longer waves.: "Matrix Methods in Transmission Line in the same guide face." Journal I. and Impedance Calculation. Section 3. The radiation is polarized were used in field measurements. it is not excited by the dominant wave in (1) WATSON. the present consolidated report of and simplicity of the array. E. 58. Owing to the impossibility of writing cross-section presented to the direction of the main lobe. 93. McGill University parasitic slots at 0. and from other parasitic slots (2) WATSON. and the extreme portability Radiolocation Convention. W. WATSON: RESONANT SLOTS 777 symmetric.E.: "Wave Impedances and the Effective Cross- the guide." Transactions of the Royal Society the outside of the guide excited by waves from a single inclined of Canada. parallel to the broad face of the guide. 1945. In addition it is very easily made. H. p..