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11 views92 pagesDescriptive and Inferential Statistics made simple

Feb 06, 2018

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Descriptive and Inferential Statistics made simple

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Descriptive and Inferential Statistics made simple

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 92

Page 1 of 92

MANUAL

IN

STATISTICS

… statistics made simple …

18th edition

Subject Teacher

Statistics Handouts

Page 2 of 92

TABLE OF CONTENTS

4 Weighted Means 38

6 Probability 60

7 Normal Distribution 68

8 Test of Hypothesis I 77

9 Test of Hypothesis II 80

4 Weighted Means 32

5 Sampling 40

7 Probability 55

8 Normal Distribution 66

9 Estimation 69

10 Test of Hypothesis 72

11 Two-way ANOVA 84

Statistics Handouts

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Sources/ References:

Concepts, sample problems and information given by this manual were taken from the following :

2. Graduate Research Manual – Guide to thesis and Dissertations (Aquinas Graduate School)

7. Manual on Training on Microcomputer-Based for the Social Sciences (Richie Fernando Hall AdeNU,

2005)

12. http://statistics.about.com/od/Descriptive-Statistics/a/What-Is-Kurtosis.htm

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collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of data.

collecting and describing a set of data so as to yield meaningful information.

analysis of a subset of data leading to predictions or inferences about the

entire set of data

Population vs Sample

Population is the set of all entities and elements under study. Sample is the

subset of population.

Parameters vs Statistics

Parameters refer to all descriptive measures or characteristics of population

while statistics refer to sample characteristics.

Census vs Survey

Census is the process of gathering information from every element of the

population while survey is the process of gathering information from every

element of the sample.

Variable is an observable characteristics of a person or object which is capable

of taking several values or of being expressed in several different categories. It

can be either quantitative (discrete or continuous) or qualitative data.

MEASUREMENT SCALES

a. Nominal – are simply labels, names or categories. Number assignment is

used for identification purposes, no meaning can be attached to the

magnitude or size of such numbers. Examples are gender, civil status,

telephone numbers, etc..

b. Ordinal - whereas nominal scales only classify, ordinal scales do not only

classify but also order the classes. Examples are job position, military

ranks, etc..

c. Interval – quantitative but has no true zero point. Examples are IQ, room

temperature, etc..

d. Ratio – quantitative and has true zero point. Examples are number of

children, physics test scores, etc…

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SUMMATION NOTATION

For a given universe, suppose we observe a variable, say X. We may denote the

first value as X1, the second as X2 and so on. In general, Xi is the observation on

variable X made on the ith individual.

Given a set of N observations or data values represented by X1, X2, …, XN, we express

their sum as

∑ 𝑋𝑖 = 𝑋1 + 𝑋2 + ⋯ + 𝑋𝑁

𝑖=1

i is the index of the summation; and

Xi is the summand.

1 is the lower limit

N is the upper limit

𝑁 𝑁

∑ 𝐶𝑋𝑖 = 𝐶 ∑ 𝑋𝑖

𝑖=1 𝑖=1

Theorem 2. If c is constant, then

∑ 𝐶 = 𝑁𝐶

𝑖=1

𝑁 𝑁 𝑁

∑(𝑎𝑋𝑖 ± 𝑏𝑌𝑖 ) = 𝑎 ∑ 𝑋𝑖 ± 𝑏 ∑ 𝑌𝑖

𝑖=1 𝑖−1 𝑖=1

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1. identify different types of variables

2. classify data according to level of measurement

3. employ summation notation

A. From all patients admitted in a hospital, the following information are collected:

1. name of patient

2. age

3. sex

4. body temperature

5. blood pressure

6. amt. of deposit

7. first time to see a doctor regarding ailment? (yes/no)

8. heartbeat per minute

9. weight

10. height

11. no. of glasses of fluid intake per day

12. no. of meals taken in a day

B. The following information are of interest for selected students of AdeNU who are cigarette

smokers.

1. age when first smoked

2. average no. of sticks consumed per day

3. main source of allowance

4. amt. of weekly allowance

5. Is your father a smoker? (yes/no)

6. occupation of father

7. brand of cigarette

8. position in the family

Date Set 1. Data on head circumference (in cm) and foot length (cm) of 8 new born

babies.

Baby no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Head 31.5 33 37.5 38.5 35 32 38 34

circumference (x)

Foot length (y) 5.6 6.2 6.8 6.6 6.4 5.4 6.0 6.1

Data Set 2. Data on height (cm) and weight (lbs) of 8 stat students.

Student no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Height(x) 168 141 165 180 165 156 150 147

Weight (y) 110 90 120 125 142 97 105 110

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Various methods for data gathering are available. A researcher should be able to

use the most appropriate.

1. Survey Method – questions are asked to obtain information, either through self

administered questionnaire or interview (personal, telephone or internet)

Interview answers field interviews are

More in-depth answers hard to control

Can observe the errors in interviewing

respondent’s behavior time consuming

Questionnaires distribution of low

respondents possible hard to obtain in-

respondents can answer depth information

at their convenience usable mailing list

no personal interviewer’s may be unavailable

bias respondent not the

centralized control o addressee

people doing the survey cannot observe

relatively inexpensive respondent’s behavior

respondent may be more

candid if he/she can

answer anonymously

Interview fast number

centralized control of outdated telephone

people doing survey directory

respondents maybe more interview time needs

candid to be relatively short

selected sample may

not have telephones

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time of occurrence (e.g., observing reactions to a particular stimulus, traffic

count).

does not rely on the respondent’s willingness to provide information

certain types of data can be collected only by observation (e.g., behavior

patterns of which the subject is not aware of or ashamed to admit)

the potential bias caused by the interviewing process is reduced or eliminated

things such as awareness, beliefs, feelings and preferences cannot be observed

the observed behavior patterns can be rare or too unpredictable thus

increasing the data collection costs and time requirements

conditions. An experiment is an operation where there is actual human

interference with the conditions that can affect the variable under study. This is

an excellent method of collecting data for causation studies. If properly designed

and executed, experiments will reveal with a good deal of accuracy, the effect of a

change in one variable on another variable.

4. Use of Existing Studies – e.g., census, health statistics, and weather bureau

reports

Two types:

documentary sources – published or written reports, periodicals,

unpublished documents, etc.

field sources – researchers who have done studies on the area of interest

are asked personally or directly for information needed

admission

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Advantages:

This method is appropriate only if there are few numbers to be presented.

Gives emphasis to significant figures and comparisons

Disadvantages:

It is not desirable to include a big mass of quantitative data in a “text” or

paragraph, as the presentation becomes incomprehensible.

Paragraphs can be tiresome to read especially if the same words are repeated

so many times

Advantages:

More concise than textual presentation

Easier to understand

Facilitates comparisons and analysis of relationship among different categories

Presents data in greater detail than a graph

a. Heading – consists of a table number, title and head note. The title explains

what are presented, where the data refers and when the data apply.

b. Box Head – contains the column heads which describes the data in each

column, together with the needed classifying and qualifying spanner heads.

c. Stub – these are classification or categories found at the left. It describes the

data found in the rows of the table.

e. Source Note – an exact citation of the source of data presented in the table

(should always be placed when figures are not original)

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Illustration:

HEADING

Table 4.4

Philippines Crime Volume and Rate by Type in 1991

1991

Type Volume Crime

BOXHEAD

Rate

d

Total 11,326 195

Murder 8,707 8,707

Homicide 8,068 8,069

STUB Physical Injury 21,862 21,862 FIELD

Robbery 13,817 13,817

Theft 22,780 88,780

Rape 2,026 2,026

SOURCE NOTE

Guidelines:

Title should be concise, written in telegraphic style, not in complete sentence

Column labels should be precise.

Categories should not overlap.

Unit of measure must be clearly stated

Show any relevant total, subtotals, percentages, etc..

Indicate if the data were taken from another publication by including a source

note

Tables should be self-explanatory, although they may be accompanied by a

paragraph that will provide an interpretation or direct attention to important

figures

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relationship in pictorial form

Advantages:

main feature and implication of a body of data can be grasped at a glance

can attract attention and hold the reader’s interest

simplifies concepts that would otherwise have been expressed in so many words

can readily clarify data, frequently bring out hidden facts and relationship

a. Line Chart – graphical presentation of data especially useful for showing trends over

a period of time.

b. Pie Chart – a circular graph that is useful in showing how a total quantity is

distributed among a group of categories. The “pieces of the pie” represent the

proportions of the total that fall into each category.

c. Bar Chart – consists of a series of rectangular bars where the length of the bar

represents the quantity or frequency for each category if the bars are arranged

horizontally. If the bars are arranged vertically, the height of the bar represents the

quantity

d. Pictorial Unit chart – a pictorial chart in which each symbol represents a definite

and uniform value

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presents a histogram-like picture of the data, while allowing the experimenter to retain

the actual observed values of each data point. Hence, the stem-and-leaf display is

partly tabular and partly graphical in nature.

In creating a stem-and-leaf display, we divide each observation into two parts, the

stem and the leaf. For example, we could divide the observation 244 as follows:

Stem Leaf

2 ⋮ 44

Alternatively, we could choose the point of division between the units and tens,

whereby

Stem Leaf

24 ⋮ 4

The choice of the stem and leaf coding depends on the nature of the data set.

2. Draw a vertical line to the right of the stem value

3. For each observation, record the leaf portion of that observation in the row

corresponding to the appropriate stem

4. Reorder the leaves fro lowest to highest within each stem row. Maintain uniform

spacing for the leaves so that the stem with the most number of observations has

the longest line.

5. If the number of leaves appearing in each row is too large, divide the stem into

two groups, the first corresponding to leaves beginning with digits 0 through 4

and the second corresponding to leaves beginning with digits 0 through 4 and the

second corresponding to leaves beginning with digits 5 through 9. This

subdivision can be increased to five groups if necessary.

6. Provide a key to your stem-and-leaf coding so that the reader can recreate the

actual measurements from your display.

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Example: Typing speeds (net words per minute) for 20 secretarial applicants

68 72 91 47

52 75 63 55

65 35 84 45

58 61 69 22

46 55 66 71

2 2

3 5

4 5 6 7

5 2 5 5 8

6 1 3 5 6 8 9

7 1 2 5

8 4

9 1

Note: The stem-and –leaf display should include a reminder indicating the units of the

data value.

Example:

Unit = 1 1 2 represents 12

Unit = 10 1 2 represents 120

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Date Set. Given below is the distribution of statistics test scores of 50 students (Perfect score is 70 and

passing score is 60% of it )

5 20 21 24 27 30 35 38 45 55

8 20 21 25 28 30 35 39 47 58

10 20 23 25 29 32 36 40 48 59

18 20 23 25 29 35 36 40 49 60

19 21 23 26 30 35 37 40 50 70

1. Determine the range R of the distribution.

= 70 - 5

= 65

2. Determine the number of classes, k, desired. By the square root rule.

= √50 = 7.07

K≈7

the number of classes is to be rounded off to the nearest WHOLE NUMBER.

65

First find: c’ = R/K = = 9.28 ≈ 9

7

The class size is to have the same precision as the raw data and should take the

value nearest to c’. Hence, c’ = 9

4. Enumerate the classes or categories based on the quantities calculated in steps 1-3

bearing in mind that:

a) the lowest class must include the lowest observed value and the highest class,

the highest observed value. (The lowest value of the data is the lower class limit of

the first class).

b) That each observation will go into one and only class (that none of the values can

fall into possible gaps between successive classes and that the classes do not

overlap).

lower class limit. And so with the upper limits.

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observations falling into each class.

Classes Frequency

5 - 13 3

14 - 22 9

23 - 31 15

32 - 40 13

41 - 49 4

50 - 58 3

59 - 67 2

68 - 76 1

consider the true range of values.

(Upper TCB) UTCB = UL + 0.5(unit)

UTCB = 13 + 0.5(1) = 13.5

Note:

If data Unit of precision

is a whole number 1

has 1 decimal place 0.1

has 2 decimal places 0.01

2. Class Mark (CM) = the center of a class. It is the midpoint of the class interval

where observations in a class tend to cluster about.

( 𝐿𝑇𝐶𝐵+𝑈𝑇𝐶𝐵) 𝐿𝐿+𝑈𝐿

CM = 𝑜𝑟

2 2

𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

RF = x 100%

𝑁

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Boundaries (TCB) CM Freq RF (%) CF RCF

LL UL

LTCB UTCB < > < >

5 - 13 4.5 - 13.5 9 3 6

14 - 22 13.5 - 22.5 18 9 18

23 - 31 22.5 - 31.5 27 15 30

32 - 40 31.5 - 40.5 36 13 26

41 - 49 40.5 - 49.5 45 4 8

50 - 58 49.5 - 58.5 54 3 6

59 - 67 58.5 - 67.5 63 2 4

68 - 76 67.5 - 76.5 72 1 2

50 100

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Objectives:

At the end of the exercise, the student is expected to:

1. describe the different methods of data presentation;

2. organize data by constructing a frequency distribution table

A. On organizing data: Construct an FDT for the given data. Show computations for R, K and c.

Table 1.

Blood Glucose of 20 individuals of the Honolulu Heart Center, 1969

(in mg)

1 107

2 145

3 237

4 91

5 185

6 106

7 177

8 120

9 116

10 105

11 109

12 186

13 257

14 218

15 164

16 158

17 117

18 130

19 132

20 138

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Table 2.

Socio-Economic Characteristics of 30 Countries as of January 1997

No. Expectancy

1 Japan 80

2 Australia 78

3 Canada 78

4 Hongkong 78

5 Italy 78

6 Switzerland 78

7 France 77

8 US 77

9 Britain 76

10 Germany 76

11 New Zealand 76

12 Singapore 76

13 Brunei 75

14 Taiwan 75

15 Macau 73

16 Fiji 72

17 Malaysia 72

18 South Korea 72

19 Sri Lanka 72

20 China 71

21 Mexico 71

22 Saudi Arabia 70

23 Russia 69

24 Thailand 69

25 Iran 68

26 Brazil 67

27 Philippines 67

28 Turkey 67

29 Vietnam 67

30 Egypt 64

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I. Measure of Location – value within the range of the data which describes its

location or position relative to the entire set of data. The more common measures

are measures of central tendency, percentile, decile and quartile.

value about which the observations tend to cluster. The common measures

are mean, median and mode.

the observations calculated average interval scale

divided by the value is determined value of each score is

number of by every case in the desired

observations totaled distribution values are considerably

affected by extreme concentrated or closed

values to each other

value of an array rank or position is needed

average middle score is desired

not affected by we want to avoid

extreme values influence of extreme

values

observations which inspection average is needed

occurs most not unique; have quick approximation of

frequently in the data more than one mode central tendency

set most “popular” score desired

unaffected by

extreme values

represents the

majority

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B. Percentile (Pi) – divides the data set into 100 equal parts, each part having one

percent of all the data values. For example, if patrick received a rating of 90th

percentile in the National Secondary Achievement Test, this means that 90%

of the students who took the test had scores lower than Patrick’s.

C. Decile (Di) – divides a data set into ten equal parts, each part having ten

percent of all data values. The first decile is the 10 th percentile, the second

decile is the 20th pe4rcentile, and so on, up to the tenth decile which is the

100th percentile.

D. Quartile (Qi) – divides a data set into four equal parts, each part having

twenty-five percent of all data values. The first quartile is the 25th percentile,

the second is the 50th percentile, the third is the 75th percentile, and the

fourth quartile is the 100th percentile.

II. Measure of Dispersion – describes the extent to which the data are dispersed.

The more commonly used measures are:

A. Range (R)

- not a stable measure of variation because it can fluctuate greatly

with a change in just a single score, either the highest or the

lowest

- easiest to compute but the LEAST SATISFACTORY because its

value is dependent only upon the two extremes

B. Variance (s2/𝜎 2 )

- considers the position of each observation relative to the mean of

the set; denoted by 2

- best measure of variation

- important as a measure of heterogeneity or unevenness within a

set of observations

- used when comparing two or more sets of data having the same

units of measurement

D. Coefficient of Variation ( CV )

- used to compare the variability of 2 or more sets of data even

when the observations are expressed in different units of

measurement.

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III. Measure of Skewness (SK) – describes the extent of departure of the distribution

of the data from symmetry.

the total area. Half of the area would fall

to the left and half to the right

mode is the score pt. with the highest

frequency, the pt. on the x-axis

corresponds to the tallest pt. of the curve

mean is the score pt on the x-axis that

corresponds to the pt. of balance

SK > 0, Positively Skewed bump on the left indicates that the mode

corresponds to a low value

tail extending to the right means that the

mean, which is sensitive to each score

value, will be pulled in the direction of

the extreme scores and will have a high

value

median which is unaffected by extreme

values will have a value between the

mode and the mean

mean will have a lower numerical value

than the median because the extremely

low scores will pull the mean to the left

bump usually occurs at the right

indicating that the mode has a high

numerical value

median will still be in the middle

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distribution, denoted by k. If the distribution of the data is bell-shaped, k=3. If

the shape of the distribution is relatively peaked, k>3. If the shape is relatively

flat, k<3.

K= 3

A distribution that is peaked in the same way as any

normal distribution, not just the standard normal

distribution, is said to be mesokurtic. The peak of a

mesokurtic distribution is neither high nor low,

rather it is considered to be a baseline for the two

other classifications.

greater than a mesokurtic distribution. Leptokurtic

distributions are identified by peaks that are thin

and tall. The tails of these distributions, to both the

right and the left, are thick and heavy. Leptokurtic

distributions are named by the prefix "lepto"

meaning "skinny."

Platykurtic distributions are those that have a peak

lower than a mesokurtic distribution. Platykurtic

distributions are characterized by a certain flatness

to the peak, and have slender tails. The name of

these types of distributions come from the meaning

of the prefix "platy" meaning "broad."

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Data Set 1: 115 115 120 120 120 125 125 130 300

Data Set 2: 115 115 120 120 120 125 125 125 130 130

Data 1 Data 2

1. Mean = = Xi/N

2. Median

inspection.

4. Variance

2 = Xi2 - 2

N

Where is the mean of the ungrouped data

square root of variance

6. Coefficient of Variation

CV = [ / ] x 100%

7. Measure of Skewness

3( Mean Median )

SK =

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Data 1 Data 2

𝑖

8. Pi = 𝑥𝑁

100

𝑖

9. Di = 𝑥𝑁

10

𝑖

10. Qi = 𝑥𝑁

4

Note:

MEDIAN

If n is odd, the median position equals (n=1)/2, and the value of the (n+1)2th

observation in the array is taken as the median, i. e.,

Md = X( [n/1] / 2)

If n is even, the mean of the two middle values in the array is the median, i.e.,

𝑋𝑛 + 𝑋𝑛

+1

2 2

Md =

2

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Data Set

3.75 – 4.85 4.3 4 17.2 9

4.85 – 5.95 5.4 8 43.2 17

5.95 – 7.05 6.5 3 19.5 20

7.05 – 8.15 7.6 12 91.2 32

8.15 – 9.25 8.7 8 69.6 40

40 256.7 1783.83

N

fi = frequency of the ith class

Xi= classmark of the ith class

N = total no. of observation

K = number of classes

2. median (Md)

NOTE: the middle class is the class which

N contains the (n/2)th value of the array

2 CFb

= LTCBMd + c

FMd

C = class size

<CFb = <CF of the class preceding

median class

FMd = frequency of the median class

N = total number of observations

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the highest frequency

FMo Fb

= LTCBMo + c

2FMo Fb Fa

where

LTCBMo = LTCB of the modal class

C = class size

FMo = frequency of the modal class

Fb = frequency of the class preceding the

modal class

Fa = frequency of the class following the

modal class

4. Variance ( 2)

fiXi 2

= N

2 where

Xi= classmark of the ith class

N = total number of observations

2G = mean of the grouped data

square root of the variance

6. Coefficient of Variation

CV = [ / ] x 100%

7. Measure of Skewness

3(mean median)

SK =

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7. Percentiles

i

(100 ) N CFb

Pi = LTCBPi + c

FPi

C = class size

<CFb = <CF of the class preceding Pi

class

FMd = frequency of the PI class

N = total number of observations

8. Deciles

i

(10 ) N CFb

Di = LTCBDi + c

FDi

where LTCBDi = LTCB of the Di class

C = class size

<CFb = <CF of the class preceding Di

class

FMd = frequency of the Di class

N = total number of observations

9. Quartiles

i

( 4 ) N CFb

Qi = LTCBQi + c

FQi

C = class size

<CFb = <CF of the class preceding Qi

class

FMd = frequency of the Qi class

N = total number of observations

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FORMULAS:

1. Mean () =

fixi

N

N fiXi 2

2 CFb

2. Median (Md) = LTCBMd + c

7. Variance (2) = N

2

FMd

FMo Fb

3. Mode (Mo) = LTCBMo + c

2FMo Fb Fa

i

(100 ) N CFb 9. CV =

x100%

4. Pi = LTCBPi + c

FPi

3(mean median)

10. SK =

i

(10 ) N CFb

5. Di = LTCBDi + c

FDi

i

( 4 ) N CFb

6. Qi = LTCBQi + c

FQi

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THE BOXPLOT

Definition. The boxplot is a graph that is very useful for displaying the following

features of the data:

Location

Spread

Symmetry

extremes

outliers

1. Construct a rectangle with one end of the first quartile and the other end at the

third quartile

2. Put a vertical line across the interior of the rectangle at the median

3. Compute for the interquartile range (IQR), lower fence (FL) and the upper fence

(FU) given by:

IQR = Q3 – Q1

FL = Q1 – 1.5 IQR

FU = Q3 – 1.5 IQR

4. Locate the smallest value contained in the interval [FL , Q1]. Draw a line from this

value to Q1.

5. Locate the largest value contained in the interval [Q3 , FU]. Draw a line from this

value to Q3.

6. Values falling outside the fences are considered outliers and are usually denoted

by “x”

Remarks:

1. The height of the rectangle is arbitrary and has no specific meaning. If several

boxplots appear together, however, the height is sometimes made proportional to

the different sample sizes.

2. If the outlying observation is less than Q1 – 3 IQR or greater than Q3 + 3 IQR it is

identified with a circle at their actual location. Such an observation is called a far

outlier.

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Examples:

1. Data Set A: 1 15 21 22 24

10 18 22 23 25

14 20 22 24 28

2. Data Set B: 3 10 11 12 19

8 10 12 16 19

9 10 12 16 30

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More Problems:

1. Suppose a teacher assigns the following weights to the various course requirements:

Assignment 15%

Project 25%

Midterms 20%

Finals 40%

The maximum score a student may obtain for each component is 100. Sheila obtains

marks of 83 for assignment, 72 for project, 41 for midterms and 49 for the finals. Find her

mean mark for the score.

2. Two of the quality criteria in processing butter cookies are the weight and color development

in the final stages of oven browning. Individual pieces of cookies are scanned by a

spectrophotometer calibrated to reflect yellow-brown light. The readout is expressed in per

cent of a standard yellow-brown reference plate and a value of 41 is considered optimal

(golden-yellow). The cookies were also weighed in grams at this stage. The means and

standard deviations of 30 sample cookies are presented below.

Mean sd

Color 41.1 10

Weight 17.7 3.2

3. The following are weight losses (in pounds) of 25 individuals who enrolled in a five-week

weight-control program:

2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 8

8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12

Compute for the 3rd quartile, 7th decile, and 89th percentile.

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Objectives:

A1t the end of the exercise, the student is expected to identify and compute appropriate numerical

descriptive measures for ungrouped and grouped data, specifically,

measure of central tendency

measure of dispersion; and

measure of skewness

A. Using your raw data set and the FDT you constructed in exercise # 2, compute for

the appropriate descriptive measures (ungrouped and grouped). Show solution for

grouped data only.

B. Construct these tables in your workbooks and summarize the values obtained.

ungrouped grouped ungrouped grouped ungrouped grouped

ungrouped grouped Ungrouped grouped ungrouped Grouped ungrouped Grouped

ungrouped Grouped

IV. Fractiles

P90 D6 Q3

Ungrouped Grouped Ungrouped Grouped Ungrouped Grouped

C. Interpret the obtained values for your mean, median and mode (ungrouped data

only).

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Weighted Means

Weighted Mean is a statistical measure obtained when data is gathered from a survey questionnaire

using the Likert Scale

A Likert scale is a psychometric scale commonly used in questionnaires and is the most widely

used scale in survey research. When responding to a Likert questionnaire item, respondents specify

their level of agreement to a statement.1 A Likert item is simply a statement the respondent is asked

to evaluate according to any kind of subjective or objective criteria.

Generally, the level of agreement or disagreement is measured. Often five ordered response levels

are used, although many psychometricians advocate using seven or nine levels. A recent empirical

study2 found that a 5- or 7- point scale may produce slightly higher mean scores relative to the

highest possible attainable score, compared to those produced from a 10-point scale, and this

difference was statistically significant.

Practices: 5- Highly Observed/Always/Fully Aware, 4- Observed/Sometimes/Aware,…

Traits/Attitudes: 5-Very Evident, 4-Somewhat Evident, 3-Undecided, 2-Somewhat inevident, 1-Not

evident

1

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Likert_scale

2

Dawes, John (2008). "Do Data Characteristics Change According to the number of scale points used? An experiment using 5-

point, 7-point and 10-point scales". International Journal of Market Research 50 (1): 61–77.

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Below is a list of Solid Waste Management practices. Please check the boxes with the appropriate

number corresponding to your chosen answer as to how these are practices are observed.

Scale: 5 - Very High

4 - High

3 - Moderate

2 - Low

1 - Very Low

5 4 3 2 1

A. GENERATION OF WASTE

seminars about solid waste generation

( Reuse, Recycle, Reduce and Respond ) of Solid Waste

Management

and recycled materials

environment such as foam, styrofoam, CFC aerosols,

oil-based paints, pesticides, insecticides, plastics,

wood preservatives, glues and adhesives

recycles its own paper ( as shown by the exam papers

used, handouts, memo, letters, etc)

pens, ballpens, printers, etc..

instead of requiring new ones

materials and folders

laboratories or offices

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Weighted

5 4 3 2 1

Means

A. GENERATION OF WASTE

waste generation

2 8 10 29 71

2. Introduces strategies on how to apply the 4R's ( Reuse,

Recycle, Reduce and Respond ) of Solid Waste Management

6 8 22 38 46

3. Provides campaign to patronize the use of reusable and recycled

materials

foam, styrofoam, CFC aerosols, oil-based paints, pesticides,

insecticides, plastics, wood preservatives, glues and adhesives

own paper ( as shown by the exam papers used, handouts, memo,

letters, etc)

1 1 4 41 73

6. Encourages or requires the use of refillable inks for pens,

ballpens, printers, etc..

2 3 4 42 69

7. Allows the use of old notebooks from previous years instead of

requiring new ones 6 11 18 27 53

8. Encourages to reuse envelopes, boxes, packaging materials and

folders 0 2 3 43 72

offices

Cumulative Weighted Mean

Source: Valenzuela 2007, p.66

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Table 3

Adjectival Interpretation of the Likert Scale (cumulative mean)

practiced

practiced

were practiced

Table 4

Adjectival Interpretation of the Likert Scale (per item)

the said indicator

respondents…

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Table 5 .

Extent of Solid Waste Management in AdeNU ( faculty and students) , 2007

Weighted Interpretation

Mean

A. GENERATION OF WASTE

solid waste generation

2. Introduces strategies on how to apply the 4R's ( Reuse, 1.68 Very Low

Recycle, Reduce and Respond ) of Solid Waste Management

2.08 Low

3. Provides campaign to patronize the use of reusable and recycled

materials

4. Rejects products which are harmful to the environment such as 1.52 Very Low

foam, styrofoam, CFC aerosols, oil-based paints, pesticides,

insecticides, plastics, wood preservatives, glues and adhesives

5. Encourages the use of unused side of old papers or recycles its 1.86 Low

own paper ( as shown by the exam papers used, handouts, memo,

letters, etc)

1.47 Very Low

6. Encourages or requires the use of refillable inks for pens,

ballpens, printers, etc..

1.56 Very Low

7. Allows the use of old notebooks from previous years instead of

requiring new ones

2.04 Low

8. Encourages to reuse envelopes, boxes, packaging materials and

folders 1.46 Very Low

9. Repairs or disposes defective computers in laboratories or

offices

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Generation of Waste

The extent of performance of SWM practices of students and faculty on the area of generation of

wastes is given in Table 5. The results show the respondents’ mean, based on the nine (9) indicators

used, ranged from 1.4 to 2.08 or from “ very low” to “low” ratings. The respondents gave an overall mean

that resulted to “very low” to the following indicators: “provides information through campaigns or

seminars about SWM (1.67)”, “introduces strategies on how to apply the 4R's of Solid Waste Management

(1.68)”,, “rejects products which are harmful to the environment such as foam, Styrofoam, CFC aerosols,

oil-based paints, pesticides, insecticides, plastics, wood preservatives, glues and adhesives (1.52)” ,

“encourages the use of refillable ink (1.47)”, “allows the use of old notebooks (1.56) “ and “repairs or

disposes defective computers (1.46)”. The “very low” also implied that almost none of the respondents

On the indicators stating that “provides campaign to patronize the use of reusable and recyclable

materials (2.08)”, “encourages the use of unused side of old papers or recycles its own paper (1.86)”,

“encourages or requires the use of refillable materials (3.2)”,and “encourages to reuse envelopes, boxes,

packaging materials and folders (2.04)” had an overall mean of “low”. Only 25% of the respondents

The students and faculty gave an overall weighted mean that resulted to “very low”. In totality,

the cumulative mean score resulted to 1.7. The result implied that almost none of the indicators were

Survey results reveal that there was a need for intensive information campaign about SWM and

that the University had yet to implement strategies on how to apply the 4R’s. Such an outcome presents

an opportunity to promote waste-saving measures among the student and teaching population in the

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A. For the raw data given, obtain the weighted mean for each item and the

cumulative/total weighted mean.

C. What is the highest and lowest obtained weighted means. Interpret the values.

D. Conclusion. Make a discussion on the result of the test base on the objective of the

study.

Likert’s Scale

indicators are evident.

indicators are evident.

indicators are evident.

indicators are evident.

none of the indicators are evident.

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Problem Set

Thesis title: Portable Games and Devices towards Aggressive Behavior of the First Year BS Digital

Animation Students of Ateneo de Naga University

Objective: To determine the level of influence of playing Portable Games and Devices on the behavior

specifically aggressiveness of the respondents

Table 1

Results from the Standard Questionnaire by Buss and Perry.

Weighted

Indicators 5 4 3 2 1 Means

1. Some of my friends think I am a 18 12 15 12 13

hothead.

2. If I have to resort to violence to protect 17 21 10 15 7

my rights, I will.

wonder what they want.

4. I tell my friends openly when I disagree 17 28 10 10 5

with them.

5. I have become so mad that I have broken 10 17 14 15 14

things.

6. I can’t help getting into arguments when 16 18 14 13 9

people disagree with me.

7. I wonder why sometimes I feel so bitter 9 23 15 17 6

about things.

8. Once in a while, I can’t control the urge 12 16 10 16 16

to strike another person.

9. I am an even/tempered person. 18 21 15 13 3

10. I am suspicious of overly friendly 11 19 17 13 10

strangers.

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Lesson # 5 – Sampling

N

Slovin’s Formula: n

1 Ne 2

N = population size

e = margin of error (usually at 5%)

population of 5000 students. If he allows a margin of error of 5%, how many students

must he take into sample?

5000

n =

1 5000(0.05) 2

5000

=

1 5000(.0025)

5000

=

1 12.5

5000

=

13.5

= 370.37 ~ 370

expenditure of time and energy. A recommended minimum number of subjects is 100

for a descriptive study, 50 for a correlational, and 30 in each group for experimental

and causal- comparative study.

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SAMPLING METHODS

every element in the population not all elements are given a equal

chosen sample

to find out how her faculty feel elements for the sample

She places all 150 names of the university wants to find out how

thoroughly , and then draws the bookstore provides. Every day for

out the names of 25 individuals two weeks during her lunch hour,

completed questionnaires.

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units in the population in such a way that every distinct sample of size n has

an equal chance of being drawn.

chance and independent chance of being chosen

population is homogeneous

ii. Table of Random Numbers

iii.Calculator/computer generated random numbers

912334 379156 233989

086401 016265 411148

059397 022334 080675

666278 106590 879809

051965 004571 036900

063045 786326 098000

560132 345678 356789

727009 344870 889567

000037 121191 258700

667899 234345 076567

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subpopulations called strata. Then a simple random sample is drawn from

each stratum, the selection being made independently in different strata.

respondents according to gender where there are 219 females and 146 males.

Using stratified sampling, how many respondents will be obtained from each

strata?

365

n =

1 365(0.05) 2

365

=

1 365(.0025)

365

=

1 0.9125

365

=

1.9125

= 190.849 ~ 191

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Population of 365

Researcher identifies

2 subgroups or strata

219 146

219 females (60% = ) 146 males (40% = )

365 365

the required sample size n,

then we multiply it by the percentage

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or clusters, of elements is selected and then a census of every element in the

selected clusters is taken.

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sampling, the population is divided into primary stage units (PSU) then a

sample of PSUs is drawn. In the second stage of sampling, each selected PSU

The process of subsampling can be carried to a third stage fourth stage and so

stage.

large universe

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R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10

Choose randomly 1 city for each province

C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10

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Populations

A B C D E

25%

AHG K L I D W E R

F G H I J

T Y U O P S F G H J K L M N O

50%

Z X C V B N M

P Q R S T

25%

M N

B C 25%

F H M O 50%

O C M Q S 25%

SAMPLING

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Populations

AB

CD

CDE

FG AB

IJK

MNO GH

HKL

EF

CD

AB

FG

AB

HKL

CLUSTER SAMPLING D A

TWO-STAGE SAMPLING

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example. To find out how students feel about food service in the student

union at an East Coast university, the manager stands outside the main

door of the cafeteria one Monday morning and interviews the first 50

students who walk out of the cafeteria

B. Purposive - use their judgement to select a sample that they

believe will provide the data they need

example. A graduate student wants to know how retired people aged 65

and over feel about their “golden years”. He has ben told by one of his

professors, an expert on aging and the aged population, that the local

Association of Retired Workers is a representative cross section of retired

people age 65 and over. He decides to interview a sample of 50 people who

are members of the association to get their views.

C. Quota - sets a sample size then chooses the respondents

without setting criteria. The researcher proceeds to fill the prescribed

quota. The researcher is left to his own convenience or preference.

D. Snowball

a. Some might use this technique because they just want to get a “feel” of the

market before launching or producing a certain product.

whoever make the choice.

Example. One would naturally use judgement instead of randomness

in the choice of people who will work for a company.

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different ways, and if, after it has happened in one of these ways, a second event can

occur in n different ways, then both events can occur, in the order stated, in m x n

different ways.

Examples.

1. If there are eight doors providing access to a building, in how many ways can a

person enter the building by one door and leave by a different door?

2. How many even three-digit numbers can be formed fro the digits 1, 2,5,6 and 9 if

each digit can be used only once?

3. How many positive integers of three different digits can be formed from the integers

1,2 3, 4 and 5.

4. How many different arrangements, each consisting of five different letters, can be

formed from the letters of the word “PERSONAL” if each arrangement is to begin and

end with a vowel?

5. How many different arrangements of five distinct books each can be made on a shelf

with space for five books?

6. Suppose that there are 3 math books and 3 physics books, how many different

arrangement of the six books can be made on a shelf if books on the same subject

are to be kept together?

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a positive integer such that r < n. Then a permutation of r elements of s is an

arrangement in a definite order, without repetitions of r elements of s.

either of the following formulas:

a. nPr = n(n-1)(n-2) … (n-r+1)

b. nPr = n! / (n-r)!

Examples:

1. A bus has six vacant seats. If three additional passengers enter the bus, in how

many different ways can they be seated?

2. In how many ways can 3 boys and 3 girls be seated in a row containing six seats if

a. a person may sit in any seat

b. boys and girls must sit in alternate seats?

Theorem 2. If we are given n elements, of which exactly m1 are of one kind, exactly m2

are alike of a second kind, …, and exactly mk are alike of a kth kind, and if n=m1 +

m2 + .. + mk, then the number of distinguishable permutations that can be made of the

n elements taking them all at one time is

𝑛!

𝑚1 ! 𝑚2 ! 𝑚3 ! … 𝑚𝑘 !

Examples:

1. Determine the number of different nine-digit numerals that can be formed from the

digits 6,6,6,5,5,5,4,4 and 3.

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a positive integer such that r< n. then a combination of r elements of s is containing r

distinct elements.

nCr = nPr / r!

= n! / (n-r)!r!

Examples:

1. A football conference consists of 10 teams. If each team plays every other team, how

many conference games are played?

2. A student has twelve posters to pin up on the walls of her room, but there is space

for only 7. In how many ways can she choose the posters to be pinned up?

3. How many committees of five can be formed from 7 sophomores and 5 freshmen if

each committee is to consist of 3 sophomores and 2 freshmen?

at most 3 sophomores?

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Objectives:

At the end of the exercise, the student is expected to be able to:

a. listing all possible outcomes in the sample space corresponding to the event; and

b. using the method of counting.

2. Solve problems requiring the applications of the concept of permutation and combination.

1. How many different outcomes are possible in a roll of 2 dice? In tossing 5 coins? In

rolling 2 dice and tossing 3 coins simultaneously?

2. How many distinct permutations can be made from the word COOL? List them

down.

3. Package of 10 game boy sets contains 3 defective sets. If 5 sets are to be picked out

randomly and sent to a customer for an inspection, in how many ways can the

customer find at least two defective set?

4. How many different telephone numbers can be formed from a seven-digit number if

the first digit cannot be zero?

5. A college freshman must take a science course, a humanities course, and a math

course. If she may select any of 6 science courses, any of 4 humanities, and any of 4

math courses, how many ways can she set her program?

6. A shelf contains 3 books in red binding, 4 books in blue and 2 in green. In how

many different orders can they be arranged if all the books of the same color must

be kept together?

7. How many different numbers greater than 200 can be formed from the digits 1,2,3,4

and 5 (a)if repetitions are not allowed? (b) repetitions are allowed?

8. How many committees of 5 can be selected from 12 republicans and 8 democrats (a)

if it must contains 2 republicans and 3 democrats? (b)if it must contains at least 3

republicans?

9. There are 8 baseball teams in a league. How many games will be played if each team

play each of the other teams 40 times?

10. In how many ways can one make a selection of 5 black balls, 3 red balls, and 2

white balls from a box containing 8 black balls, 7 red balls and 5 white balls?

11. The tennis squad of one college consists of 8 players that if another consist of 10

players. In how many ways can a doubles match between the 2 institutions be

arranged?

12. In how many ways can one make selection 4 novels, 3 biographies and 6 detective

stories from a shelf containing 10 novels, 8 biographies and 10 detective stories.

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Lesson #7 – Probability

PROBABILITY

A subset of the sample space of an experiment is called an EVENT associated with

the experiment

E is an event associated with the experiment, the probability of E, denoted by P(E), is

defined by

P(E) = . n(E) . where n(E) are the numbers of elements in E and S respectively.

n(S)

Furthermore, if P(E)= 0 then the event will never happen or it is an “impossible” event.

If P(E) = 1, the event is certain to happen or it is a “sure” event.

Examples:

1. Determine the probability of each of the following events:

a. Obtaining a 4 on a throw of a single die

b. Obtaining a head on a toss of a coin

2.

1 2 3 4 5 6

a. a. If 2 dice are thrown, what 1 (1,1) (1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (1,6)

is the probability of obtaining 2 (2,1) (2,2) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (2,6)

a sum of 8? a sum of 3? 3 (3,1) (3,2) (3,3) (3,4) (3,5) (3,6)

4 (4,1) (4,2) (4,3) (4,4) (4,5) (4,6)

5 (5,1) (5,2) (5,3) (5,4) (5,5) (5,6)

6 (6,1) (6,2) (6,3) (6,4) (6,5) (6,6)

a. Drawing a heart from a deck of 52 playing cards

b. Drawing 4 spades in succession from a deck of 52 playing cards if after each

card is drawn it is not replaced in a deck

4. If a French, Spanish, Russian and English books are placed at random on a shelf

with a space for 4 books, what is the probability that the Russian and English books

will be next to each other?

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events happening together, one event and another event occurring at the same time.

Events, however, may be independent or dependent

When the occurrence of one event does not influence the probability of the

occurrence of the other event, these events are said to be independent.

approximately 7/10. The probability that a male will survive to age 65 is

approximately 3/5. What is the probability that both male and female will

be alive at age 65?

What is the probability that only the male will be alive at age 65?

What is the probability that at least one of the two will be alive at age 65?

When the occurrence of one event is conditioned by the other event, these

events are said to be conditional.

the probability of drawing at random two defective fuses in succession if

the first fuse that has been drawn is not returned before making the

second draw?

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several events that happen either separately or simultaneously. Disjunction probability

is concerned with “either or” relationship.

When the events do not have common sample points, they are said to be

mutually exclusive.

Example. What is the probability that in a single toss of a two dice, the sum

will be 4 or 7?

There are also cases of joint events which are not mutually exclusive

because there are some elements common to both events.

than 7 in a throw of two dice?

Example. Take a math class with 52 students, 27 of whom are males and

the rest are females. A total of 21 of the males and 15 of the females got a

grade above 90. What is the probability that if a student is chosen at

random, this student has either grade of above 90 or is a male?

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When the data are presented in the form of frequencies and are classified

according to qualitative rather than quantitative categories, they are called

qualitative data in contingency tables.

Illustration:

Vegetarian Status

Vegetarian Non Total

Gender Vegetarian

20 23 43

Male

22 25 47

Female

42 48 90

Total

divide the subtotal of the desired event by the grand total.

qualitative data, divide the observed frequency where the two events

intersect by the grand total.

Grand total

Example. The probability that a person is female and a vegetarian

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divide the observed frequency where the two events intersect by the

subtotal of the event which is used as a condition

Subtotal of the conditional events

Example. The probability of getting a male at random provided that he is a

non- vegetarian

grand total grand total

grand total

vegetarian

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Exercise # 6 - Probability

Objectives:

At the end of the exercise, the student is expected to be able to apply the different operations on probability

1. On a throw of two dice, what is the probability of obtaining a sum that at most 5?

2. If a single card is drawn from deck of 52 playing cards, what is the probability of

each of the following events: (a) obtaining a red card; (b) obtaining a heart; and (c)

obtaining an ace or spade?

probability that the committee is to consist of at most 3 juniors?

4. A number of two different digits is to be formed from the digits 1,2,3,4 and 5.

Determine the probability of each of the following events:

a. the no. is odd

b. no. is greater than 25

5. A couple is planning to have three children. Find the probabilities that the couple

will have

a. two girls and one boy

b. at least two boys

c. no boys

d. at most two girls

e. two boys followed by a girl

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Male 0 27 35 62

Female 28 49 11 88

28 76 46 150

What is the probability that a patient chosen at random from among the 150 will be:

a. pregnant

b. female or elderly

c. female and elderly

d. male or a child

e. male provided that he is elderly

f. child given male

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PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

Definition. A function whose value is a real number determined by each element n the

sample space is called a random variable.

Remark. We shall use an uppercase letter, say X, to denote a random variable and its

corresponding lowercase letter, x in this case, for one of its value.

observing the result. The possible outcome and the values of the random variables X

and Y, where X is the number of heads and Y is the number of heads minus the

number of tails are

Sample Points X Y

HHH 3 3

HHT 2 1

HTH 2 1

HTT 1 -1

THH 2 1

THT 1 -1

TTH 1 -1

TTT 0 -3

sequence with as many elements as there are whole numbers, it is called a

discrete sample space.

Definition. A random variable defines over a discrete sample space is called a discrete

random variable

number of points on a line segment, it is called a continuous sample space.

continuous random variable.

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Definition. A table or formula listing all possible values that a discrete random

variable can take on, along with the associated probabilities, is called a

discrete probability distribution.

Remark. The probabilities associated with all possible values of a discrete random

variable must sum to 1.

Examples. For Experiment #1, the discrete probability distributions of the random

variables X and Y are

x 0 1 2 3

P(X = x) 1/8 3/8 3/8 1/8

Y -3 -1 1 3

P(Y = y) 1/8 3/8 3/8 1/8

Definition. The function with values f(x) is called a probability density function for the

continuous random variable X, if

*the total area under its curve and above the horizontal axis is equal to 1; and

*the area under the curve between any two ordinates x=a and x=b gives the

probability that X lies between a and b.

Remarks:

its values, that is, if X is a continuous random variable, then P(X=x) = 0 for all real

numbers x.

2. The probability random variable X that can assume values between 0 and 2 has a

density function given by

f(x) = {

0 𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑤𝑖𝑠𝑒

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Expected Values

x x1 x2 … xn

P(X = x) f(X1) f(X2) … f(Xn)

Examples:

x 0 1 2 3

P(X = x) 1/8 3/8 3/8 1/8

Y -3 -1 1 3

P(Y = y) 1/8 3/8 3/8 1/8

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x x1 x2 … xn

P(X = x) f(X1) f(X2) … f(Xn)

The variance of X is

𝑛

𝑖=1

Example:

E(X) = 1.5

= 0.75

Example. A used car dealer finds that in any day, the probability of selling no car is

0.4, one car is 0.2, two cars is 0.15, 3 cars is 0.10, 4 cars is 0.08, five cars is 0.06 and

six cars is 0.01. Let g(X) = 500 + 1500X represent the salesman’s daily earnings, where

X is the number of cars sold. Find the salesman’s expected daily earnings.

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shaped figure, has the following six properties:

1. It is symmetrical about X .

2. The mean is equal to the median, which is also equal to mode.

3. The tail or ends are asymptotic relative to the horizontal line

4. The total area under the normal curve is equal to 1 or 100%

5. The normal curve area may be subdivided into at least three standard scores

each to the left and to the right of the vertical axis.

6. Along the horizontal line, the distance from one integral standard score to the

next integral standard score is measured by the standard deviation.

In making use of the properties of the normal curve to solve certain types of

statistical problems, one must first learn how to find areas under the normal curve.

The first step in finding areas under the normal curve is to convert the normal

curve of any given variable into a standardized normal curve by using the formula:

X X

Z

S

X = mean

S = Standard deviation

X = given value of a particular variable

WORDED PROBLEMS:

1. Given a normal distribution with mean 350 and standard deviation s=40, find the

probability that x assumes a value greater than 362.

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2. An electrical firm manufactures light bulbs that have a length of life that is

normally distributed with mean equal to 800 hours and a standard deviation of

40 hours. Find the probability that a bulb burns between 778 and 834 hours

3. On an examination the average grade was 74 and the standard deviation was 7. If

12% of the class are given A’s, and the grades are curved to follow a normal

distribution, what is the lowest possible A and the highest possible B? Find D6.

normal distribution with a mean of 2.1 and a standard deviation of 0.8. How

many of these freshmen would you expect to have a score

b. greater than 3.85?

c. less than 1.75?

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Objectives: At the end of the exercise the student should be able to:

1.Find probabilities using the standard normal probability curve;

2. Apply the concepts of finding areas under the normal probability curve in solving

problems

a. P( z < -1.257 f. P( z > 0.85) k. P(1.33 < z < 1.56)

b P( z < 1.65) g. P( z > 0.69) l. P(-1.48 < z < 2.04)

c. P( z < 0.92) h. P( z > 3.01) m. P(-0.58 < z < 1.05)

d. P( z < -2.02) i. P( z > 2.84) n. P(-0.92 < z < 0.07)

e. P( z < -1.24) j. P( z > 0.53) o. P(-1.45 < z < 1.87)

II. Find the unknown constant a given the area under the normal curve.

a. P(z < a) = 0.25

b. P(z > a) = 0.99

2.5, find

i. P(X < 15)

ii. P(17 < X < 21)

iii. the value of k such that P(X < k) = 0.2578;

iv. the value of k such that P(X > k) = 0.1539

with a mean of 74 and a standard deviation of 7.9, find

i. the lowest passing grade if the lowest 10% of the students are given F’s;

ii. the highest B if the top 5% of the students are given A’s;

milliliters per cup. If the amount of drink is normally distributed with a = 15

milliliters,

i. What is the probability that a cup contains between 180 and 230

milliliters?

ii. How many cups will likely to overflow if 220 milliliter cups are used to

the next 1000 drinks?

iii. Below what value do we get the smallest 35% of the drinks?

Statistics Handouts

Page 70 of 92

Lesson # 9 – Estimation

ESTIMATION

- refers to any process by which sample information is used to predict or estimate the

numerical value of some population measure.

called an estimator. The value obtained with the use of the estimator is the

estimate.

- Two types of estimators: point estimator and interval estimator. A point estimator

yields a numerical value of the estimate. An interval estimate gives a range or band

of values within which the value of the parameter is estimated to lie.

An interval estimate of ( or any parameter) incorporates a measure of the

confidence in the reliability of the range or interval of values within which the

parameter is estimated to lie. Thus, an interval estimate is also called a confidence

estimate, and its limits, confidence limits.

P( X k X k ) 1

Where

𝑥̅ = 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛

k Z ( s.e.)

2

s.e.

n

= level of significance

1- = level of confidence

Statistics Handouts

Page 71 of 92

Example.

1.The mean IQ of a random sample of 400 high school students is 110. The standard

deviation of the population of IQ scores is 16. If the population is normally distributed,

find:

a. a .95 confidence interval estimate of

Z 1.96

2

Z 1.64

2

Find the .90 confidence interval estimate of the mean weight of all the pupils in a

certain school if a random sample of 25 pupils has a mean weight of 70lbs with a

standard deviation of 15lbs. Assume the population weights to be normally distributed.

t 1.711

2

Statistics Handouts

Page 72 of 92

3. The contents of 7 similar containers of sulfuric acid are 9.8, 10.2, 10.4, 9.8, 10.0,

10.2 and 9.6 liters. Find a 95% confidence interval for the mean content of all such

containers, assuming an approximate normal distribution for containers contents. (

𝑡∝ = 2.447 )

2

4. The mean and standard deviation for the quality grade-point averages of a

random sample of 36 college seniors are calculated to be 2.6 and 0.3, respectively. Find

the 99% confidence interval for the mean of the entire senior class. Interpret the

obtained confidence interval. ( 𝑍∝ = 2.575 )

2

5. The manager of a home delivery service for pizza pies wants an estimate of the

average time it takes to deliver an order within the town proper of the City of Naga. A

sample of 25 deliveries had a Mean time of 15 minutes and a standard deviation of 4

minutes. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the average time for all deliveries.

Interpret the interval obtained. ( Z = 1.96 )

expenditure of P400 for snack foods, with a standard deviation of P50.25. Construct a

90% confidence interval for the average amount spent each week on snack foods by

female students living in this dormitory, assuming the expenditure to be approximately

normally distributed. Interpret your confidence interval.

( t /2 = 1.796)

Statistics Handouts

Page 73 of 92

world. A test of hypothesis is a two-way decision problem. It is a procedure to

substantiate or invalidate a claim which is stated as null hypothesis

or reject; must always express the idea of non significance of difference

An ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (Ha). The rejection of Ho is the

acceptance of this hypothesis.

Accept Ho Correct decision Type II error

Type I error ( error) – when we reject the null hypothesis when in fact the

null hypothesis is true.

Type II error ( error) – when we accept the null hypthesis when in fact the

null hypothesis is false.

Definition. When the rejection region located at only one extreme of the range

of values for the test statistics, the test is ONE-TAILED. If Ha is a statement of

non-equality represented by the sign , then the hypothesis is non-

directional, thus we have a two-tailed test.

Statistics Handouts

Page 74 of 92

ii. Determine the appropriate test statistic to use

iii. Choose the level of significance and formulate the decision rule

iv. Compute the value of statistic from the sample data

v. Make a decision (reject or accept) in accordance with the decision rule formulated

vi. Draw a conclusion in relation to the objective of the original problem

Case 1. Z Test

A. Ha: 0 or

B. Ha: 0

C. Ha: 0

j. Computation:

X 0

Zc

n

k. Decision Rule: At a level of significance ,

2

Statistics Handouts

Page 75 of 92

ounces and standard deviation of 3 ounces. A new breeder claims that he

can breed crabs yielding a mean weight of more than 28 ounces. A random

sample of 16 crabs from the new breeder had a mean weight of 29.2

ounces. At = 5%, do the data support the breeders claim?

i. Ho: = 28.5

Ha: > 28.5

iv. Computation:

𝑋̅ − 𝜇𝑜 29.2 − 28.5

𝑍𝑐 = 𝜎 = = 0.933

3

√𝑛 √16

Z = 1.645

support the new breeders claim OR the mean weight of the samples is not

significantly different from the mean of 28.5.

Example 2. For the past five years, the mean height of AdeNU students is 60

inches with a standard deviation of 4 inches. A simple random sample of 100

is taken from the present students. It was found that the mean height is 65

inches. Is there reason to believe that the mean height of present AdeNU

students different from the past five years at 5% level of significance?

Statistics Handouts

Page 76 of 92

Case 2. T Test

D. Ha: 0 or

E. Ha: 0

F. Ha: 0

m. Computation:

X

Tc

s

n

[ , n 1]

2

cup. If the machine is tested eight times, yielding a mean cup fill of 5.8

ounces with a standard deviation of 0.16 oz. Is there evidence at 5% level of

significance that the machine is underfilling cups. Assume normality.

i. Ho : = 6

Ha: < 6

iii. Decision Rule : reject Ho if Tc < -T, otherwise accept Ho.

v. Computation:

𝑋̅ − 𝜇 5.8 − 6

𝑇𝑐 = 𝑠 = = −3.536

0.16

√𝑛 √8

Statistics Handouts

Page 77 of 92

machine is under filling the cups.

nine randomly selected months. The results obtained (in tons) are 100, 120,

100, 102, 130, 140, 150, 140 and 145. Test the hypothesis that the mean

monthly output is 140 tons against the alternative that it is not 140 tons at

10%level of significance. Assume that the monthly output is normal random

variable.

Statistics Handouts

Page 78 of 92

1. A certain brand of powdered milk is advertised as having net weight of 250 grams. If

the net weights of a random sample of 10 cans are 253, 248,

252,245,247,249,251,250,247 and 248 grams, can it be concluded that the average

net weight of the cans is less than the advertised amount? Use = 0.01 and assume

that the net weight of this brand of powdered milk is normally distributed.

2. In a time and motion study, it was found that the average time required by workers

to complete a certain manual operation was 26.6. A group of 20 workers was

randomly chosen to receive a special training for two weeks. After the training it was

found that their average time was 24 minutes and a standard deviation of 3

minutes. Can it be concluded that the special training speeds up the operation? Use

= 0.05

3. The manager of an appliance store, after noting that the average daily sales was only

12 units, decided to adopt a new marketing strategy. Daily sales under this strategy

were recorded for 90 days after which period the average was found to be 15 units

with a standard deviation of 4 units. Does this indicate that the new marketing

strategy increased the daily sales? Employ = 0.01

4. The daily wages in a particular industry are normally distributed with a mean of

P66.00. In a random sample of 144 workers of a very large company in this industry,

the average daily wage was found to be P62.00 with a standard deviation of P12.50,

can this company be accused of paying inferior wages at the 0.01 level of

significance?

Statistics Handouts

Page 79 of 92

i. Ho: population mean of A is equal to population mean of B

Ha: The population means are not equal

ii. Decision rule: Reject Ho if p-value < level of significance

Or t-computed > t-value, otherwise accept Ho.

III. ANOVA

Sample Problems:

a. A researcher wishes to know if there are differences on the average preparation time of

four methods of preparing a solvent.

b. An agriculturist may compare the average yields of three corn varieties used by Los

Banos

c. A consumer wish to know if the different brands of gasoline in the market are equally

good with respect to average mileage

d. A medical researcher is interested in comparing the effectiveness of 3 different

treatments to lower the cholesterol of patients with high values

e. An ecologist wants to compare the amount of certain pollutant in five rivers

Ha: There is difference between groups

i. Decision rule: Reject Ho if p-value < level of significance

Or f-value > critical value, otherwise accept Ho.

tests the association or independence of one variable from another variable.

Ha: The two variables are dependent.

ii. Decision rule: Reject Ho if p-value < level of significance

Or X2 value > critical value, otherwise accept Ho.

Statistics Handouts

Page 80 of 92

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

A. Dependent or Paired

simple random sample of 8 persons engaged in a prescribed program of

physical exercise for one month showed the ff. Results:

Before

After

program of exercise is effective?

a. Ho: The weights before and after are equal therefore the procedure is not

effective.

Ha: The weights before and after are not equal therefore the procedure is

effective.

1% level of confidence.

Critical value = 3.499

the program is not effective.

Statistics Handouts

Page 81 of 92

B. Independent

2. Some statistics students complain that pocket calculators give other students

advantage during statistics examination. To check this contention, a simple

random sample of 45 students were randomly assigned to two groups, 23 to

use calculators and 22 to perform calculations by hands. The students then

took a statistics examination that required a modest amount of arithmetic.

The results are shown below:

With Calculator 85 86 89 84 82 83 90 91 86 90 87 87 92 85 86 89 88

88 89 90 85 89 90

Without Calculator 86 88 90 92 86 85 88 89 85 91 86 85 92 84 83 88 90

91 86 90 86 87

Do the date provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the students taking

this particular examination obtain higher scores when using a calculator? Test at

= 10%.

Ha: The mean scores are not equal.

b. Decision rule: Reject Ho if T-computed > critical value, otherwise accept Ho.

Critical value = 1.303

that the use of calculators will assure students of higher scores.

Statistics Handouts

Page 82 of 92

ANOVA

3. A study was conducted to compare the three teaching methods. Three groups

of 6 students were chosen and each group is subjected to one of three types of

teaching method. The grades of the students taken at the end of the semester

are given as:

Method A Method B Method C

Student 1 84 70 90

Student 2 90 75 95

Student 3 92 90 100

Student 4 96 80 98

Student 5 84 75 88

Student 6 88 75 90

Ha: The three teaching methods are not equal.

b. Decision rule: Reject Ho if F-computed > critical value, otherwise accept Ho.

Critical value= 3.68

f. Conclusion: There is evidence to say that the three methods are not equal.

We can also conclude that Method III is more effective since it students got higher

grades compared to the other two methods.

Statistics Handouts

Page 83 of 92

4. It is believed that people with high blood pressure need to watch their weight.

A random sample of 300 subjects was classified according to their weight and

blood pressure. At the 5% level of significance, is there sufficient evidence to

conclude that a person’s weight is related to his blood pressure?

Blood Pressure

Weight High Normal Low

Overweight 40 34 18

Normal 36 77 27

Underweight 16 33 19

blood pressure or the two variables weight and blood pressure are

independent.

pressure or the two variables weight and blood pressure are dependent.

b. Decision rule: Reject Ho if X2-computed > critical value, otherwise accept Ho.

Critical value = 9.49

is affected by blood pressure. For overweight persons, most of them

(approximately 40% of the actual population) will have higher blood pressure. For

normal weight person, they are most likely to have normal blood pressure. Those

who are underweight will also most likely to have normal blood pressure.

Statistics Handouts

Page 84 of 92

Objectives:

At the end of the exercise, the student is expected to be able to apply the appropriate statistical procedure

in performing test of hypothesis of various problems

weight gain, 12 healthy females were weighed at the beginning of a course of

oral contraceptive usage. They were reweighed after three months. Do the

results suggest evidence of weight gain? Use = 0.05

Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Initial 120 141 130 162 150 148 135 140 129 120 140 130

Weight

3-Month 123 143 140 162 145 150 140 143 130 118 141 132

Weight

Source: Basic Statistics for Health Sciences by Kuzma

d. Ho:

Ha:

e. Test Statistic:

f. Decision Rule:

Critical value = 2.201

h. Decision:

i. Conclusion:

Statistics Handouts

Page 85 of 92

2. An investment analyst claims to have mastered the art of forecasting the price

changes of gold. The ff. Table gives the actual gold price changes and the

changes forecasted by the investment analyst (in%) on a simple random

sample of 8 months. Use a = 5%.

Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Actual Price Changes 7.3 -2.1 8.5 -1.5 9.2 6.7 -4.8 -0.8

Forecasted Changes 14.9 -19.7 7.0 -5.3 1.0 -0.8 -8.3 6.7

a. Ho:

Ha:

b. Test Statistic:

o. Decision Rule:

Critical value = 2.365

q. Decision:

r. Conclusion:

Statistics Handouts

Page 86 of 92

treatment fort he same ailment. The following data are on the number of days

that elapsed before that were completely cured. What conclusions may be drawn

about the four types of treatment?

A B C D

Patient 1 10 11 3 6

Patient 2 9 11 4 10

Patient 3 6 18 5 8

Patient 4 7 6 7 11

a. Ho:

Ha:

b. Test Statistic:

c. Decision Rule:

Critical value = 3.49

e. Decision:

f. Conclusion:

Statistics Handouts

Page 87 of 92

Academic

Performance

Passed 31 45 4 80

Failed 1 4 15 20

Total 32 49 19 100

a. Ho:

Ha:

b.Test Statistic:

c.Decision Rule:

Critical value = 5.99

e.Decision:

f.Conclusion:

Statistics Handouts

Page 88 of 92

Example 1. A research study was conducted to examine the impact of eating a high

protein breakfast on adolescent’s performance during a physical education physical

fitness test. Half of the subjects received a high protein breakfast and half were given

a low protein breakfast. All of the adolescents, both male and female, were given a

fitness test with high scores representing better performance. Test scores are

recorded below.

Males Females

High Protein Low Protein High Protein Low Protein

10 5 5 3

7 4 4 4

9 7 6 5

6 4 3 1

8 5 2 2

Treatment F -value F-critical

within (gender) *20.00 4.49 8.53

among (interaction betwn 2.22 4.49 8.53

protein level and gender)

5% 1%

There is no difference on the performance between the two gender

There is no interaction between protein levels and gender

Interpretation:

on the performance for both protein level and gender. There was no significant

interaction effect. Based on this data, it appears that a higher protein diet results in a

better fitness test scores. Additionally, young men seem to have a significantly higher

fitness test score than women.

Statistics Handouts

Page 89 of 92

Seatwork:

1. Different typing skills are required for secretaries depending on whether one is

working in a law office, an accounting firm, or for research mathematical group at a

major university. In order to evaluate candidate for this positions, an employment

agency administers three distinct standardized typing samples. A time penalty has been

incorporated into the scoring of each sample based on the number of typing errors. The

mean and standard deviation for each test, together with the score achieved by a recent

applicant, are given in Table below. For what type of position does this applicant seem

to be best suited?

Score Deviation

Accounting 7min 10min 2min

Scientific 33min 26min 5min

Statistics Handouts

Page 90 of 92

2. Researchers have sought to examine the effect of various types of music on agitation

levels in patients who are in the early and middle stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Patients

were selected to participate in the study based on their stage of Alzheimer’ s disease.

Three forms of music were tested: easy listening, Mozart, and piano interludes. While

listening to music, agitation levels were recorded for the patients with a high score

indicating a higher level of agitation. Scores are recorded below.

Piano Easy Piano Easy

Interlude Mozart Listening Interlude Mozart listening

21 9 29 22 14 15

24 12 26 20 18 18

22 10 30 25 11 20

18 5 24 18 9 13

20 9 26 20 13 19

Statistics Handouts

Page 91 of 92

3. A study examining differences in life satisfaction between young adults, middle adult

and older adult men and women was conducted. Each individual who participated in

the study completed a life satisfaction questionnaire. A high score on the test indicates

a higher level of life satisfaction. Test scores are recorded below.

Male Females

Young Middle Older Young Middle Older

Adult Adult Adult Adult Adult Adult

4 7 10 7 8 10

2 5 7 4 10 9

3 7 9 3 7 12

4 5 8 6 7 11

2 6 11 5 8 13

Mean = 3 6 9 5 8 11

Statistics Handouts

Page 92 of 92

Pearson Moment is one of the measures of correlation which quantifies the

strength as well as direction of such relationship. The correlation coefficient (r) has the

following interpretation:

Scale ( +/ -) Decision

0.80 - 0.99 Very Strong Relationship

0.60 – 0.79 Strong relationship

0.40 – 0.59 Moderate Relationship

0.20 – 0.39 Weak Relationship

0.01 – 0.19 Very Weak Relationship

0.00 No relationship

Table.

Result of AdNU Entrance Examinees of 20 Examinees

No. SAI RPM Math English

1 52 25 47 21

2 84 40 48 11

3 113 90 58 29

4 92 90 47 14

5 98 80 54 17

6 91 80 56 19

7 52 15 52 18

8 116 40 68 38

9 101 60 69 22

10 83 15 48 16

11 65 10 52 16

12 96 95 54 19

13 94 80 54 15

14 89 65 56 20

15 91 45 54 21

16 92 80 64 17

17 101 95 58 33

18 97 95 56 17

19 89 80 56 11

20 96 95 58 27

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