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GROUP I-B – COINAGE METALS - Types: American & Sterling

- 2 Types of Silver Salts:


- Used in fabrication of coins
 Highly ionized
- Occur in the free metal state
 Slightly ionized
- Colored compounds are numerous
- Pharmacologic actions: oligodynamic
- Hydroxides & many simple salts – insol.
properties; protein precipitant
In H2O
- Toxicity: Argyria
- Sol. Compounds = toxic
- Antidote: Saline sol’n
I. COPPER – Cuprum (Cu)
- COMPOUNDS:
- Only reddish colored metal
 Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) – argenti
- 3rd most malleable and 3rd best
nitras, Lapiz Infernularis, Lunar
conductor of electricity
caustic, indelible inks -
- Used in water purification
treatment for wartsand
- Cu++ ion = blue color
antiseptic for the eyes
- Anhydrous salt = white
 Ammoniacal Silver nitrates –
 2 Important alloys
[Ag(NH3)2NO3] – desensitizing
BRASS = Copper + Zinc
agent
BRONZE = Copper + Tin
 Silver Iodide (AgI) – germicide
- Occurs in Hemocyanin (respiratory
 Silver Proteinates:
pigment) & cytochrome oxidase
o Mild: Argyrol – 19-23/25%
(enzyme)
o Strong: Protargol – 7.5-8.5%
- Pharmacological actions: protein
o Colloidal: Collargol – 18-22%
precipitant
- Qualitative test:
- Toxicity: Wilson’s disease
1. Silver salts sol’n + HCl = white
- Antidote: Penicillamine
curdy precipitate; insol in nitric
- Compounds of Cu:
acid; sol in 6N NH4OH
i. Copper sulfate (CuSO4 . 5 H2O)
2. Silver Mirror Test: 6N NH4OH +
=Blue Vitriol or Blue stone
salts+ formaldehyde TS + warmed=
ii. Copper acetoarsenate
mirror of metallic silver forms at
[Cu3(AsO3)2 . Cu(C2H3O2)s =paris
the sides
green
III. GOLD – Aurum (Ar)
iii. Cuprous Citrate [(Cu)3(C6H5O7)3
- king of all metals
= ASTRINGENT 8 %
- most malleable and conductor of
- QUALITATIVE TEST FOR COPPER ION:
electricity
1. Cupric compounds + HCl = red film
- dissolved by agua regia to form
of metallic copper
chlorauric acid; & selenic acid
2. 6 M NH4OH + Cupric salts Sol’n =
- Purple of Cassius – pigment (gold +
blue ppt. & deep blue sol’n
stannic acid
3. Potassium ferrocyanide TS + cupric
- Panning method – crude metallurgic
salts sol’n = reddish ppt.; insol. In
procedure for the extraction of gold
dil. Acids
- Types: white, yellow
II. SILVER – Argentum (Ag)
- Used in H2O purification - Present in chlorophyll
- Toxicity: antidote: BAL/ dimercaprol - Component of Grignard’s reagent
- Compounds: (RMgX)
 Aurothioglucose – for gout& - Antidote: Calcium gluconate
rheumatoid arthritis; IM - Compounds:
 Gold sodium thiomaleate –“  Magnesium carbonate (MgCO3)
 Auronofin – “; orally –magnesia; antacid & laxative
 Radioactive 198 Au – treatment  Magnesium oxide (MgO) –
for some malignancies calcined magnesia; A&L,
component of universal
GROUP II – A/ ALKALINE EARTH METALS antidote
 Magnesium Trisilicate
- Has 2 valence electrons
(2MgO.SiO2.H2O) –
- All are strictly metal, except for Be
antacid(forms a protective
- Do not occur in free in nature
coating on ulcers)
- Functions uniformly in +2 oxidation
 Magnesium Sulfate(MgSO4)-
state
Epsom salt, bitter salt
- Ca, Sr, and Ba react readily c H2O to
 Hydrated magnesium silicate (3
form hydoxides; Mg- only at elevated
MgO . 4 SiO2 . H2O) – talc,
temp.
soapstone, French chalk
- Hydroxides of Ca, Sr, & Ba give trongly
 Magnesium Citrate
basic sol’n
[Mg3(C6H5O7)2] – Limonada
- Be & Mg insol in H2O; Be(OH)2 –
purgante (purgative lemon)]
amphoteric
 Magnesium stearate –
I. Beryllium
lubricant in prep of
- Very toxic
compressed tabs.
- Used in fluorescent lighting industry
- Qualitative test:
II. Magnesium
a. Mg salts + NH4Cl+ ammonium
- Lightest
carbonate TS = no ppt+ dibasic
- Used in manufacturing flares
sodium phosphate TS = white,
- Burns in intense white light; used in
crystalline ppt; insol in 6 N NH4OH
flash light powders, star shells & tracer
b. (Mg++ ion + S&O reag)+NaOH= blue
bullets
ppt /lake
- Natural sources:
III. Calcium
 As silicates: Talc (3MgO . 4SiO2 .
- 2nd most abundant cation in
H2O) & Asbestos [CaMg3(SiO3)4]
extracellular fluid
 As carbonates: magnesite
- Natural resources:
(MgCO3) & dolomite (MgCO3 .
 Dolomite (MgCO3 . CaCO3)
CaCO3)
 Fluorite(CaF2)
 As sulfates: kaiserites (MgSO4 .
 Gypsum or selenite (CaSO4)
H2O)
nd  Phosphate rock (Ca3PO4)5
- 2 most abundant intracellular cation
 Apatite(Ca3PO4)2 . (CaF2)
- Pharmacological actions: blood  strontianite and celestite
coagulation factor, muscle contraction, - compounds:
release of neurotransmitters; Strontium chloride (SrCl3) –
structural functions temperature desensitizing agent
- Vitamin D – necessary for maximum - qualitative test:
absorption dietary calcium in the  brilliant red flame color
upper portion of the intestines V. Barium
- Deficiency state: osteomalacia - Toxicity: baritosis
&rickets; hypocalcemic tetany - Antidote: Epsom salt
- Compounds: - Green pyrotechnics
 Calcium Bromide (CaBr2) = - Barium chloride – used in heart blocks
sedative - Compounds:
 Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) = 1. Barium Sulfate (BaSO4) – barite =
precipitated chalk or prepared GIT; aka: blanc fixe – filler of
chalk; limestones paints… etc
 Calcium Chloride (CaCl3) = 2. Barium hydroxide [Ba(OH)2] –
muriate of lime baryta water = CO2 absorbent
 Calcium gluconate = 3. Barium Carbonate (BaCO3) –
electrolyte replenisher witherite
 Calcium Hydroxide[Ca(OH)2] = - Qualitative test
slaked lime, milk of lime,  Ba salts yield white ppt with
calcium hydrate 2N sulfuric acid; ppt insol in
 Calcium lactate[Ca(C3H5O3)2 – HCl & nitric acid
source of calcium supliment  Nonluminous flame: green;
 Calcium Oxide (CaO) – Lime, green glass: blue
Quicklime, calx – insecticides VI. Radium
 Calcium phosphate (Ca3PO4) –
bone ash - Discovered by marie curie
 Calcium hypochlorite (CaOCl) – - Used in cancer chemotherapy and
chlorinated lime, chloride of diagnostic purposes
lime or Chlorox® = bleaching
agent & disinfectant
 Calcium sulfate (CaSO4 . 2 H2O)
– plaster of paris, gypsum,
terra alba
 Artificial radioactivity 45 Ca
isotope – involved in mineral
metabolism
IV. Strontium
- Red pyrotechnics
- Sources: