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At the end of the lesson students should be able to:
a. Define rational equation
b. Simplify rational expression
c. Apply the procedure on how to simplify rational expression

II. Subject Matter

Topic: Quadratic Applications
References: Oronce, O.A and Medoza, M.O
Materials: PowerPoint presentation, LCD, activity sheets, metacards, and cartolina
Time: one hour
Strategies: Guided-Discovery Learning, Exposition and Cooperative Learning

III. Lesson Proper

Teachers Activity Student’s Activity
Daily Routine

Good afternoon, class. Classmates, let’s bow down our

Before we are going to start our lesson this heads and feel the presence of the Lord.
afternoon, let us have a prayer first. Let us pray. In the name of the Father, and
Pastor, kindly lead the prayer. of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen.

Good morning, Class! Good morning, sir!

Before you take your seats please pick up Students will pick up the pieces of paper
the pieces of paper under your chairs and and arrange their chairs
arrange your chairs as well.

You may now take your seat. Students will take their seat

May I know who are absent today? Students will say nobody is absent today.


Now! Who among here in this class, can It is shorter process of adding numbers,
still recall what multiplication is, Jayson? sir.

Very Good!

Talking about multiplication, what do we call They were called factors, sir.
the two numbers to be multiplied, Danny?


How about the result of the multiplication, We call them, Product, sir.
what do we call those numbers, Jay Marie?
Very Good!

Now, we are going to have a guessing

game. I will have to give the product and I
will call somebody to give the factors. Is it
clear? Yes, sir.


What are the factors of 6, Rowell? 3 and 2, sir.


Florecito, what are the factors of 24? 8 and 3, 6 and 4, sir.

Very Good!

How about 25, Analyn? 5 and 5, sir.

Absolutely Correct.

C. Presentation Yes, Sir

This afternoon we will discuss factoring of

Quadratic function but before that we will
have an activity first.

I will divide the class into three groups. This Students will choose leader and secretary
side will be the group one while that side
would be the group two. On the other hand,
this side will be the group three. Now,
choose your leader and secretary.

D. Lesson Proper

There are many real-world situations that

deal with quadratics and parabolas.
Throwing a ball, shooting a cannon, diving Student listening.
from a platform and hitting a golf ball are all
examples of situations that can be modeled
by quadratic functions.

Quadratic functions are widely used in

science, business, and engineering. Most of
the objects we use every day, from cars to
clocks, structures like the parabolic
reflectors would not exist if someone hadn't
applied quadratic functions to their design.

A quadratic equation has a formula of ax 2

+ bx + c = 0, where the highest exponent is

When a ball is thrown, kicked, or hit, the

trajectory it follows is parabolic ... ...
Quadratic Equation tells you where it will



Lets take an example

A ball is thrown straight up, from 3m above

the ground, with a velocity of 14m/s.
Assume gravity changes the ball’s speed by
5 m/s 2 When does it hit the ground?

Knowing that the height of the ball as a

function of time is quadratic, let’s look at
making an equation.

height (h) = at 2 + bt + c

Height starts at 3m so that’s the constant

term c = 3

The ball starts travelling up with a velocity

of 14 m/s so that’s the linear term bt = 14t

Gravity slows it down as it moves up at a

rate of 5m/s 2 so that’s the quadratic term
at2 = -5t 2

height (h) = -t 2 + 4t + 21

The Qu is “when” does the ball hit the

ground so we are looking for the time when
height = 0.

0 = -t 2 + 4t + 21

Let us solve it ...

There are many ways to solve it, here we

will factor it using the "Find two numbers
that multiply to give a×c, and add to give b"
method in Factoring Quadratics:
a×c = −15, and b = −14.
Leah, can you give me a factor −15? -3 -5 and 3, sir.
(Write the answer in tabular form)

Factors of -15
-5 +3

Give me another factor, Joseph? 5 and -3, sir.

Very Good!

(Write and add the answer in the table.)

Factors of -15
-5 +3
+5 -3

Is there another factor, Danny? -15 and 1, sir.

Absolutely correct!

(Write and add the answer in the table.)

Factors of -21
-5 +3
+5 -3
-15 +1

Who can give me the last factor of -21, Jason? 15 and -1, sir.

(Write and add the answer in the table.)

Factors of -21
-5 +3
+5 -3
-15 +1
+15 -1

Let’s move into the second step.

Based on the given factors, which pairs in will -15 and 1, sir.
give a sum of -14, Felix?

Your right!

Rewrite middle with −15 and 1 into 5t2 − 15t


Factor first two and last two: 5t2 − 15t + t −


The result is 5t(t − 3) + 1(t − 3) = 0

Common Factor is (t − 3):
(5t + 1)(t − 3) = 0

And the two solutions are:

5t + 1 = 0 or t − 3 = 0

5t +1 = 0 (trasponse 1)
5t = -1 (divide by 5)
t = -1/5

t-3 = 0 (trasponse 3)

The "t = −0.2" is a correct answer? is a

No sir, because it is negative and impossible
negative time, impossible in our case. on our case

Therefore "t = 3" is the answer we want:

The ball hits the ground after 3 seconds!

E. Generalization
To identify the possible factors of the last
As your observation based on the activity
that you did and based on our discussion, value of the trinomial and determine which
how do you solve quadratic function, of the factors when added together will form
Kenworth? the value of the binomial it preceded, sir.

Your right!


(The different images that you have

identified earlier are a real-world examples
of when this formula can be used to solve
problems that can be modeled using
quadratic functions.)
Before the lesson starts, the teacher will tell
the students that they will have first a game.

The teacher will group the students into 4.

After grouping, the teacher will ask each
group to choose a representative who will
get one envelope containing 5 pieces of
bond paper and a pentel pen. After each
group’s representative has taken the
envelope, the teacher will tell the students
to look at the picture slide show and identify
what shape is shown in the picture. After
identifying the shape, the students will then
write their answer on the paper provided.

The first group who will be able to raise the

bond paper with the correct answer will get
a point. There will only be 5 pictures to be
shown. The group with the highest point at
the end of the game wins.

Before the lesson starts, the teacher will tell

the students that they will have first a game.

Last time, we discussed about what is a

complex fraction and we learned that there
are two methods used in simplifying
complex fraction. Let’s see if you really
understood the lesson by recalling some
concepts about our previous lesson. Let’s
do our review in the form of Music and
Learning is Fun.
To play this game, When the music starts I
will give the ball in the class and it will be
passed around. Pass the ball to your
classmate next to you. When the music Yes, Ma’am
stops, the students with the ball will
answer the question. Is my instruction
clear, Class?

So let’s start. (Music plays then stop)

It is a fraction that has a rational

expression either in the numerator, Complex fraction
denominator or both.

How many methods were used in Two methods

simplifying complex fraction?

In method one, in simplifying complex Reciprocal

fraction you have to invert the denominator
to its what?

In method two I simplifying complex We multiply it by the LCD

fraction, we multiply the numerator and
denominator to its what?

What is the LCD of x+4 and x-6? (x+4)(x-6)

Before we proceed to our new lesson, Yes, Ma’am!
remember that during Grade 7 you
discussed about how to find x, right?

Let’s play a short game again. It is called

“Find your X”. I will choose 10
representatives from the class .Each (The class will choose a representative)
representative will be given a metacards. Yes, Ma’am!
The metacards consists of an equation to
find x and the answer. Everybody will be
scattered around the room and when the
music starts you must find your x by
greeting to each other and solving the
equation if it matches to yours. When the
music stops, you must already found your
partner and tell to the class how come you
arrive in that pairing. Is it clear?
So, let’s begin! (Music starts) Students will mix around the room to find
their match

(Music stops) Since you already found (Students will explain why they come up
your pairing, will you tell now to the class with such paring)
why you arrive with that pairing?

Very good! You may now take your seats. The representatives will take their seat

Today, we’re going to discuss about

Equations Involving Rational Expression
and it involves how to find x.

A. Activity

Our activity before I discuss our topic is

that you’re going to complete the table
first. (Showing the cartolina with a table to
fill). The first and second column are the
values of a and b. The third and fourth
column, you have to multiply the values of
a and b and simplify it. You will be given 7
minutes to finish the task. Afterwards, I will
randomly call some of you to fill the
a b a˙b Simplified
5 x+ 1
12 m- 1
3x +4
10a 1 3
2𝑎 5𝑎

Let me answer number one for you. What The value of a and b are 5 and x+1.
is the value of a and b? 5

In the third column, we have to multiply the

value of a and b? What does it look like if 5(x+1)
we multiply a and b?

If we multiply it the simplified form of 5x+1

number one is what?
Do you understand what are you going to Yes, ma’am
do now?

Ok, you may now begin. Students will start answering the activity

(After 7 minutes) Ok, time’s up. Let’s a b a˙b Simplified

answer the activity. (The teacher will
5 x+ 1 5(x+1) 5x+1
randomly call to fill the columns) 5 5

12 m- 1 12(m- 1 ) 12m – 1
12 12
3x +4 3x(4 +4) 24
x x

10a 1 3 10a( 1 + 11
+ 2a
2a 5a

Very good! How about if we’re now going

to find x? (Showing another set of rational
Rational LCD x
𝑥 1 𝑥
+ 4 =2
3(𝑥+3) 3𝑥+1
+2 = 𝑥+1
2 3 4
𝑥−3𝑥+2 + 𝑥−2= 𝑥−1
𝑥 2 1
9 -5 = 3

B. Analysis
Observe our denominators first. What do They are dissimilar fractions
you notice in our denominators?

Since they are dissimilar fractions, what We’re going to find the LCD
are you going to find?

In number 1, what is the LCD of our The LCD of 5, 4 and 2 is 20.


Next thing, we’re going to multiply both

sides by 20 then simplify. What is now our 4x+5= 10x
new equation?
That’s right! Our new equation is 4x+5= Apply the subtraction property and divide
10x. What are we going to do next to find both by 6.

Very good! What is x? x is 5


Excellent! To see if x is 5 we will only


substitute the value of x to our equation to

see if our answer is correct. (Showing the
checking to the class) So we have the
correct answer.

In number two, what is our LCD? The LCD is x+1

Since our LCD is x+1, what are we going We will cancel out the common term then
to do next? Are we going to multiply first or we multiply.
cancel out the common factors?

After we cancel out and multiply we can The new equation is 5x+11=3x+1
now combine like terms. So what is our
new equation?

So what is x? x is -5

Let’s see if our x is equal to -5. Let’s

substitute -5 to our x. (Showing the
checking) Therefore, the value of x is
indeed -5.

What if our x didn’t match in our checking? The equation has no solution
How are you going to write the solution if it
is false?

Very good! If our equation doesn’t have

any solution it is called extraneous

C. Application
Will you try to solve the remaining items? I
will be giving you 7 minutes to complete
the task. Then after 7 minutes, we’re going
to check. Is that clear, Class?

(After 7 minutes)Okay, time’s up! Finish or

not finish, let’s check. (Checking of

D. Abstraction
Based on the two activities we have, can Rational equation is an equation that
you described to me rational equation? Or contains one or more rational expressions.
what is a rational equation?
Rational equation is an equation that
contains in which one or more terms is a
fractional one.

How do we simplify rational equation? To simplify rational equation we must

eliminate the rational expressions in the
equation by multiplying both sides of the
equation by the LCD. Solve the equation
then check.

What is an extraneous solution again, Extraneous solution is an apparent

class? solution that does not solve its equation.

Do you have any question, class? None, ma’am

Do you understand now how to solve Yes, ma’am

rational equation?

IV. Evaluation
Let’s have one last activity. I’ll be grouping
you into three groups. I will call the three
leaders of the group to come in front and
get the list of your members and the
activity sheet. I will be giving you another Yes, Ma’am
10 minutes to complete the task then we
will check. Is it clear, class? (The teacher
will call the leaders and give the activity

(After 10 minutes) Ok, time’s up. Finish or

not finish, let’s check.(Randomly calling
students for the checking of activity) Are
you done checking, Class?

Please pass your paper to the center aisle Students will pass the papers to the center
then to the front. aisle then to the front
V. Assignment
For your assignment, answer page135
nos. 2, 3, 21, 27 and 28. Show your
solution. Put it in your notebook.

Prepared by:

Eileen M. Pagaduan
Practice Teacher

Approved by:

Mr. Jeffrey S. San Juan

Cooperating Teacher

Ms. Nenita S. Juvida

Vice Principal

Ms. Claribel S. Verdadero


SGD Felicidad O. Rodelas

Practice Teaching Supervisor
High School