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ANIMAL AND LIFE PROCESSES

To live, animals perform three life processes: nutrition, reproduction and interaction.

1. NUTRITION.

Animals absorb nutrients they need to grow from the food.

Animals food depends on where they live.

Depending on what they eat, animals are classified into three groups: Carnivores,
herbivores and omnivores.

CARNIVORES: They eat meat from the other animals. Examples: Lions, tigers,
frogs (they eat other insects), snakes, eagles, sharks…

HERBIVORES: They eat plants, roots, leaves and fruit. Examples: Rabbits,
zebras, giraffes, cows, horses, squirrels…

OMNIVORES: They eat both, plants and


other animals. Examples: Bears, hens,
monkeys, pigs, bats, rats, dogs..

2. REPRODUCTION.

This is the ability to produce other living things with the same characteristics.

Fish can have hundreds of babies, while others, such as elephants have one baby
after a long pregnancy.

Animals that normally has more than one baby at a time:

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Animals that normally has one baby at a time:

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The babies can be born from an egg (OVIPAROUS) or directly from the mother’s
womb (VIVIPAROUS).

The starfish: Some animals reproduce by


themselves. A starfish breaks in two, each part
becomes a new starfish.
FROGS LIFE CYCLE.

1. Frogs are oviparous; they are born from an egg. They are amphibians.

Most of amphibians change when they become into adults.

2. When they are babies they are not


frogs, they are TADPOLES.

3. When they become into adults, they


are frogs. They can breathe in three
different ways:

- Through the skin.

- Through gills (like fish)

- Through lungs (like mammals)

3. INTERACTION.

This process allows animals to get information about their surroundings and act on it.
For example, most animals run away when they feel they are in danger.

Animals detect what is happening around them with the senses.

Animals interact with the environment. Animals are adapted to the environment in
which they live. For example: camels can tolerate the heat of the desert and can go
without drinking water lots of days.

CAMEL FACTS.

The main difference between camels and dromedaries is


that camels have got 2 humps and dromedaries 1 hump.

They eat spiky desert plants, they are herbivores.

They can go up to 6 months without eating and 2 months


without drinking. They can do this because they store
water and fat in their humps. They can drink up to 100
litres of water in 15 minutes!

They are very strong because they are used for transport. They can carry up to its
own body weight.

Camels and dromedaries run as fast as a horse.


THEY ARE BUILT FOR SURVIVING IN THE DESERT.

- NECK: They have got long necks to help them


reach and eat high trees.

- NOSTRILS: They can close their nostrils to


protect them in a sand storm in the desert.

- EYES: They have got very long eyelashes and


they have got a special eyelid to see during the
sand storms.

- HEAD: They have furry heads and long hair in their ears to protect them from the
sand.

- LEGS: They have long legs to keep their bodies away from the hot sand.

- FEET: Their feet are flat and wide to stop them from sinking in the sand.

Giraffes are animals with special characteristics to adapt their bodies to the
environment.

GIRAFFES FACTS

- Why do giraffes have large muscles in their shoulders?

Giraffes have got enormous necks. They need strong muscles in their shoulders to
hold up the long necks.

- How fast can a giraffe run?

Giraffes run very fast. They can run up to 60 km/h. They can sometimes escape from
their predators, like lions.

- Why do giraffes have tassels on their tails?

Giraffes have got tassels at the end of their tail to swat flies. Giraffes use their
tails to express their feelings too, to communicate with other giraffes.

- How does a giraffe walk?

When giraffes walk they move both legs on one side of their bodies and then both
sides on the other side. This way of walking is unique of giraffes.

But they run like the other animals.


MALE FEMALE

HEAD SIZE.

Giraffes have got a medium size head. On the


top of their heads they have got two horns
called OSSICONES.

NECK SIZE.

Giraffes´ necks are around 1´8 metres long.


The neck of a giraffe is very strong and can
weigh 272 Kg.

HEIGHT.

Giraffes are the tallest animals in the world. Male giraffes are taller than female
giraffes.

Females grow up to 4´3 metres tall and males grow up to 5´5 metres tall.

A baby giraffe is 1´80 metres tall when they are just born.

WEIGHT.

Males weigh around 1.360 kg and females weigh up to 680 kg.

BIRTH OF GIRAFFES.

Giraffes sleep and give birth standing up. Babies drop 2 metres to the ground and
lands on their heads, but this doesn´t hurt them! After one hour… they can walk!