K-e, R-NGCombustion Modelling for Direct Injection Diesel Engines

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K-e, R-NGCombustion Modelling for Direct Injection Diesel Engines

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engines

Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA

tationally eYcient description of the reaction mechanisms. For a typical medium speed compression

ignition direct injection (CIDI ) engine under normal operating conditions, from 70 to 95 per cent of

the injected fuel is in the vapour phase at the start of combustion and 10–35 per cent of the vaporized

fuel has mixed to within ammability limits. This indicates that both a premixed combustion mechan-

ism and a diVusion combustion mechanism are important to model CIDI engines. In the early stages

of combustion, a premixed combustion mechanism should be utilized while, late in the combustion

process, a diVusion-based mechanism will be dominant. The former is chemically based, while the

latter is physically based. In this article, the two combustion mechanisms mentioned above and

various combinations of the two mechanisms for the intermediate stages of combustion are investi-

gated. The study was done on a Caterpillar 3401 diesel engine. It was found that by utilizing a hybrid

scheme whereby the premixed combustion mechanism is employed up to a user-specied crank angle,

beyond which point a diVusion combustion method is utilized, reasonable agreement for both

in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate with experimental data could be obtained.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, direct injection, chemical kinetics, combustion, compression

ignition, diesel, engine modelling, computational uid dynamics

NOTATION 1 INTRODUCTION

c̄ time-mean concentration of fuel because of their superior thermal eYciency, are being

f

c̄ time-mean concentration of O considered seriously as the primary power plant for the

O2 2

c̄ time-mean concentration of products next generation of high eYciency vehicles. With their

p

C ,C model constants non-homogeneous combustion, direct injection diesel

A B

E activation energy engines allow overall leaner combustion, resulting in

a

k turbulence kinetic energy higher baseline eYciency, better fuel economy, lower

n stoichiometric coeYcient CO emissions, near-zero evaporative emissions and low

2

r stoichiometric oxygen requirement to burn cold-start emissions. The diesel engine represents one of

f

1 kg fuel the most complex combustion systems used today;

R gas constant consequently, understanding the physics and chemistry

RR reaction rate involved in diesel combustion is quite challenging.

T temperature Specically, the major complexity of diesel engines arises

from transient eVects and the inhomogeneity of spray

å dissipation rate of k combustion. An overall description of diesel combustion

[] species concentration requires an understanding of three major processes:

spray dynamics and the interaction with the combustion

chamber walls, ignition kinetics and post-ignition

combustion. Because of recent advances in computer-

controlled fuel injection systems, which are capable of

The MS was received on 27 July 2000 and was accepted after revision producing a well-controlled spray with ne droplets,

for publication on 23 November 2000.

* Corresponding author: Mechanical Engineering Department, direct injection engines now show great promise for

University of Alabama, PO Box 870276, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA. reducing fuel consumption. However, a major challenge

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D08000 © IMechE 2001 Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol 215 Part D

652 G J MICKLOW AND W GONG

for a conventionally fuelled CIDI engine is the reduction to predict important physical quantities while main-

of NO and particulate emissions to meet current taining computational eYciency. These quantities are

x

Federal Tier II standards and California ultralow emis- rate of heat release, in-cylinder pressure and tempera-

sion vehicle ( ULEV ) standards, as well as the proposed ture, and the concentration of important principal

low emissions vehicle (LEV ) II standards. However, species, fuel, CO, CO , H and H O. The simplest over-

2 2 2

more signicant diesel emissions reductions can only be all reaction representing the oxidation of a typical hydro-

achieved if the fundamental theories of combustion are carbon fuel is a one-step scheme:

explored in detail. Investigation of the liquid spray has

been the focus of many researchers. Curtis et al. [1 ] Fuel +n O n CO +n H O (1)

1 2 2 2 3 2

developed a high-pressure droplet vaporization model

where the fuel determines the stoichiometric coeYcients

for compression ignition engines. Ayoub and Reitz [2]

n . This global reaction is often a convenient way of

investigated the numerical simulation of multicompon- i

approximating the eVects of the many elementary reac-

ent spray vaporization and combustion. Taskinen et al.

tions which actually occur. Its rate must therefore rep-

[3] investigated the penetration and break-up of the

resent an appropriate average of all the individual

liquid spray and proposed modications to existing

reaction rates involved. The single-rate expression is

spray models to improve the predictive capability.

usually expressed as

Studies by Uludogen et al. [4] computationally studied

the eVect of engine speed on engine performance and

A B

E

emissions for a direct injection diesel engine. Rutland RR =AT n exp Õ a [fuel ]a[O ]b (2)

1 RT 2

et al. [5] present a good overview of the ongoing diesel

combustion modelling eVort at their institution. Comparisons between computed and experimental com-

It is clearly apparent that success in understanding a bustion rates are required to evaluate the constants in

signicant portion of present combustion problems the above equation, including the pre-exponential factor,

depends on a detailed and correct understanding of A, the activation energy, E , n, a and b. Note that, in

hydrocarbon chemistry. The general mathematical for- a

general, a and b are not related to the stoichiometric

mulations of the problem of combustion in an internal coeYcients in the global reaction but are empirical con-

combustion engine consist of equations for conservation stants determined either from experiment or from a

of mass, momentum, energy, concentration of each detailed kinetics calculation [7].

chemical species, etc. In general, the computer time and Equation (2) is based on chemical reaction rate, which

storage constraints place severe restrictions on the com- may work well for premixed combustion. However, at

plexity of the reaction mechanisms that can be accom- the start of combustion only 10–35 per cent of the vapor-

modated in numerical simulations of combustion ized fuel has mixed to within ammability limits in a

systems. Further, detailed mechanisms and rate typical medium speed direct injection diesel engine [8];

coeYcients for chemical reactions of practical interest thus combustion is largely mixing limited, especially

are often highly uncertain, so multidimensional reactive in the late combustion stage. Such a non-premixed

ow calculations ordinarily use simplied ‘global’ chemi- combustion may often be viewed as a mixing problem.

cal kinetics schemes, in which the reaction of interest is Magnussen and Hjertager [9 ] proposed a model that

represented by a manageably small number of reaction relates the rate of combustion to the rate of dissipation

steps involving a small number of chemical species [6 ]. of turbulent eddies and expressed the rate of reaction by

the mean concentration of a reacting species, the turbu-

lent kinetic energy and the rate of dissipation of this

2 COMBUSTION MODELLING

energy. In this model, the chemical reaction is assumed

to be very fast and the rate of combustion will be deter-

Since both premixed combustion and mixing-controlled mined by the rate of intermixing on a molecular scale of

combustion mechanisms occur in typical diesel engine fuel and oxygen eddies. When excess oxidizer is present,

operation, neither of them works well alone in a numeri- the reaction rate is given by

cal simulation. Therefore it is necessary to combine these

å

AB

mechanisms in a logical scheme for diesel engine simu-

RR =C c̄ (3)

lation. The combination should have the following 2 A f k

characteristics:

1. It should be simple. When the fuel is in excess, the reaction rate is assumed

2. Reasonable agreement with experimental measured to be

quantities should be obtained. å

A BA B

c̄

3. Parameters used in the model should be able to be RR =C O2 (4)

3 A r k

changed, and such a change should be easy to handle. f

Overall kinetic schemes attempt to simplify the chemistry Accounting for the burning rate in premixed turbulent

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COMBUSTION MODELLING FOR DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES 653

ames, the reaction rate is equation (2), the lower burning rate can be con-

sidered to represent the delay time. Thus, the pre-

å

A BA B

c̄

RR =C C p (5) exponential factor A and the activation energy E

4 A B 1 +r k a

f eVectively control the delay period. When A is

increased and E is reduced, the ignition delay is

where C , C are constants. C will depend on the struc-

A B A a

ture of the ame and the rate of reaction between fuel reduced. In the calculation, it can be assumed that

and oxygen, and C is usually set empirically at 0.5. c , ignition occurs when the temperature of one or

B f several cells reaches a value T (e.g. 2000 K ). The

c and c are time-mean concentrations of fuel, oxygen

O2 p limit

and products respectively. å is the rate of dissipation of crank angle (CA) when the highest temperature

reaches T is stored as õ . During the ignition

turbulent kinetic energy and k is the turbulent kinetic limit limit

energy. r is the stoichiometric oxygen requirement to delay stage, the chemical reaction rate determined by

f equation (2) is low owing to low temperature and is

burn 1 kg fuel.

The equation that gives the lowest reaction rate in less than the mixing rate; thus premixed fuel is

equations (3) to (5) is the one that determines the local accumulated.

rate of combustion. Thus, an expression for the reaction 2. Following the ignition delay is the premixed combus-

rate is given by tion stage. During this period the premixed fuel and

air formed in the ignition delay stage are burned at

RR =min (RR , RR , RR ) (6) the rate given by equation (2). Miyamoto et al. [10]

5 2 3 4

In the mixing-controlled combustion model, the chemi- found that the premixed combustion stage remained

cal reaction rate is assumed to be very fast, which is not almost constant in direct injection diesel engines,

reasonable at the ignition delay stage of the combustion with a duration of approximately 7ß of crankshaft

rotation. Thus from the start of fuel injection õ to

process owing to low temperature. Although equation inj

crank premix, where crank premix =õ +õ + 7ß

(5) can account for this condition to some extent, the inj limit

independence from chemistry of the mixing controlled CA, equation (2) is used.

model is one of its deciencies. To overcome this short- 3. After most of the premixed fuel is consumed, the

coming, equation (2) is also considered when mixing- burning rate is then controlled by the mixing rate.

controlled model is employed in some applications. The burning rate in this period is assumed to be con-

Further, numerous schemes can be generated in an trolled by

attempt to model the physical phenomena. Several are RR =min( RR , RR ) ( 10)

9 2 3

as follows:

This combination is denoted as the chem-mixing model,

RR =min (RR , RR , RR , RR ) (7) and the combustion rate is determined by

6 1 2 3 4

RR =max (RR , RR ) (8) RR = RR , when crank ¢crank premix ( 11)

7 1 5 10 1

RR =min (RR , RR , RR ) (9) RR = RR , when crank > crank premix ( 12)

8 1 2 3 10 9

Equation (7) is typically not used as it is likely to under- where crank is the crankshaft angle and crank premix is

predict the combustion rate, especially during the determined by experience and input as a parameter for

premixed combustion period. Equation ( 8) is more typical engine congurations and operating conditions.

reasonable in the premixed combustion period but may This type of combination has several advantages, e.g. it

over-predict the burning rate in the late stages of com- is simple, and it agrees with the major aspects of the

bustion. As RR [equation (2)] is able to account for diesel combustion phenomenon. The shortcoming is that

1 it is diYcult to determine the parameter crank premix

the premixed combustion, RR [equation (5)] can be

4 exactly. The sensitivity of the results to crank premix

deleted in the right-hand side of equation (7), which

results in equation (9). In contrast to equation ( 8), equa- will be studied in this article.

tion (9) is more applicable for both the ignition delay

and the mixing-controlled combustion stages; however, 3 COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUE

it may under-predict the burning rate at the premixed

combustion stage.

The program to be used in the current study is the KIVA-

In this article, another combination of the chemical

III code [11] developed by Los Alamos National

reaction mechanism and mixing mechanism for a typical

Laboratory which has been modied with improved

medium speed diesel engine is proposed. This model is

physical models to include the eVects of spray wall

based on the following assumptions:

impingement, improved heat transfer and turbulence

1. The period from start of injection (SOI ) to ignition models and a mixing-controlled turbulent combustion

is regarded as the ignition delay stage. During this model. The code has its primary application for investi-

period, the reaction rate is determined by equation gation of the complex combustion processes in internal

(2). Although no ignition delay time is considered in combustion engines. KIVA and KIVA-II have been

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654 G J MICKLOW AND W GONG

widely used by the automobile industry for a number of Table 1 Engine specications and some input data

years and have been thoroughly tested under a wide

Bore 6stroke 137.6 cm6165.1 cm

range of operating conditions. Squish 0.458 cm

The KIVA-III computer code solves compressible, tur- Rotational speed 1600 r/min

bulent, three-dimensional transient equations of reacting Connect rod 261.62 cm

Low limit for kinetic reaction calculation 800 K

multicomponent gas mixtures with the ow dynamics of Low limit for equilibrium chemistry calculation 1200 K

an evaporating liquid spray. The conservation laws for Compression ratio 15.1

vapour–gas mass, momentum and energy are solved by Number of nozzle orices 6

Inlet air pressure 184 kPa

a Lagrangian–Eulerian nite volume approach, when the Injection pressure 90 MPa

initial and boundary conditions are specied, by using Fuel C H

14 30

an explicit time marching technique. The spatial diVer- Initial swirl ratio 1.0

Cylinder wall temperature 400 K

encing is made conservative. Coupled implicit diVerenc- Cylinder head temperature 525 K

ing is used for the diVusion terms and terms associated Piston face temperature 525 K

with pressure wave propagation. The coupled implicit CA after top dead centre to inject fuel 349ß

Duration of injection pulse 21.5

equations are solved by a method similar to the SIMPLE Number of valves 2

algorithm [12], with individual equations being solved Displacement volume 2.44 l

by the conjugate residual method. KIVA-III uses an Spray angle (from cylinder head) 27.5ß

Inlet air temperature 310 K

explicit quasi-second-order upwind (QSOV ) scheme for Fuel injected 0.1622 g /cycle

convection. This scheme is monotonic and approaches

second-order accuracy when convecting smooth proles.

Turbulence is modelled using a k–å model. The Monte

Carlo based particle uid spray model allows the predic-

tion of droplet sizes, lifetimes, velocities and trajectories

of fuel droplets emanating from fuel injectors. For com-

bustion, the number of species and chemical reactions

that can be included is arbitrary. The code distinguishes

between slow reactions, which proceed kinetically, and

fast reactions, which are assumed to be in equilibrium.

Chemical rate expressions, which are Arrhenius in

form, are evaluated by a partially implicit procedure. A

fast implicit algebraic solver is used to compute chem-

ical equilibria. The prediction of NO formation is

x

accomplished through an extended Zeldovich mechan-

ism. This is the most predominant NO mechanism at

x

high temperatures.

Fig. 1 Computational mesh for the Caterpillar engine

Fuel +n O n CO +n H O

1 2 2 2 3 2

4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION O + 2N 2N + 2NO

2 2

2O + N 2O + 2NO

The two combustion schemes and the various combi- 2 2

nations discussed above were investigated. The engine 2OH + N 2H + 2NO

chosen for the study was a CAT 3401 single-cylinder 2

direct injection diesel test engine. The engine specica- The equilibrium reactions are

2=

tions and input parameters are listed in Table 1. For H 2H

computational eYciency, because of engine symmetry

2=

O 2O

with six fuel nozzles, the domain considered is only a

60ß sector of the combustion chamber. Figure 1 shows N = 2N

2

the computational domain for the Caterpillar 3401 diesel

O + H = 2OH

engine. There are 20 cells in the radial direction, 18 cells 2 2

in the circumferential direction and 56 cells in the O + 2H O = 4OH

2 2

axial direction along the engine centre-line. This mesh

O + 2CO = 2CO

resolution has been shown to give adequately grid- 2 2

independent results [13]. The in-cylinder pressure obtained by KIVA3V with

Four kinetic reactions and six equilibrium reactions the kinetically controlled combustion model given by

were considered. The kinetic reactions are equation (2), RR , is compared with experimental data

1

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COMBUSTION MODELLING FOR DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES 655

[1] in Fig. 2. The pre-exponential factor A, the activation parison for å/k versus CA obtained with the renormaliz-

energy E and a, b used were the values found in the ation group (RNG ) theory k–å turbulence model [14]

a

KIVA3 manual [11]. From Fig. 2, it can be seen that and standard k–å turbulence model. For the RNG

the calculated maximum pressure is higher than the mea- model, all model constants can be evaluated by the

sured value. The calculated rate of increase in pressure theory explicitly on the basis of certain assumptions and

at the initial combustion stage was lower than the meas- mathematical development. In the latest version of the

ured value. This may be caused by the activation energy RNG k–å turbulence model, an additional term has been

E being too high or the pre-exponential factor A being added to the å equation. This term dynamically changes

a

too low. As the calculation proceeds beyond this point, with the rate of strain of turbulence, providing more

the calculated pressure becomes much higher than the accurate predictions for ows with rapid distortion and

measured value. This diVerence results from the fact that anisotropic large-scale eddies. A marked diVerence can

the reaction rate given by equation (2) is higher than be seen between the two turbulence models. The value

the actual reaction rate, which is largely mixing limited of å/k obtained by RNG k–å model between 350ß and

in the late stages of combustion. 372ß CA was much larger than that obtained by the

Next, the ‘pure’ mixing-controlled combustion model, standard k–å model. After 372ß CA, the value of å/k

in which equation ( 6), RR , determines the burn rate, obtained with the RNG k–å model was slightly larger

5

was investigated. Since the value of å/k plays an import- than that obtained with the standard k–å model. From

ant role in the reaction rate in the mixing-controlled Fig. 3, it seems that a higher burn rate was obtained with

combustion model, the inuence of diVerent turbulence the standard k–å model. However, from Fig. 4, it is seen

models must be investigated rst. Figure 3 shows a com- that the maximum pressure obtained with the RNG k–å

model is higher than that obtained with the standard k–å

model. The diVerence in swirl ratio may account for this

eVect. A higher swirl ratio was obtained with the RNG

k–å model between 290ß and 360ß CA, as shown in Fig. 5,

which enhances the mixing rate of fuel and air. Figure 6

shows the fuel mass whose equivalence ratio is between

0.5 and 1.5. It is clear that more fuel is mixed to amm-

ability limits shortly after injection with the RNG k–å

model.

The mechanisms to determine the burn rate in the

kinetically controlled combustion model, i.e. equation

(2), and mixing controlled combustion, equation ( 6),

are totally diVerent. The former is based on a chemical

mechanism, while the latter is based on a physical

mechanism. Figures 7 to 11 show the pressure, average

temperature, NO mass, CO mass and CO mass in the

Fig. 2 In-cylinder pressure predicted by KIVA3V with normal 2

cylinder obtained with equations (2) and (6). The burn

combustion model (RR ) and by experiment

1 rate between 360ß and 370ß CA determined from equa-

tion (2) was slightly higher than that determined from

Fig. 3 Value of å/k versus crank angle predicted with RNG Fig. 4 In-cylinder pressure predicted with mixing-controlled

k–å model and standard k–å model (RR is used, combustion model (RR is used, C =7) and diVerent

5 5 A

C = 7) turbulence models

A

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656 G J MICKLOW AND W GONG

Fig. 5 Swirl ratio predicted with diVerent turbulence models Fig. 8 Average temperature predicted by KIVA3V with

(RR is used, C = 7) mixing-controlled combustion model (RR is used,

5 A 5

C =7) and normal combustion model (RR )

A 1

Fig. 6 Fuel mass at ER = {0.5, 1.5} predicted with mixing- Fig. 9 NO formation predicted by KIVA3V with mixing-

controlled combustion model (RR is used, C = 7) controlled combustion model (RR is used, C =7)

5 A 5 A

and diVerent turbulence models and normal combustion model (RR )

1

mixing-controlled combustion model (RR is used, Fig. 10 CO formation predicted by KIVA3V with mixing-

5

C = 7, RNG k–å) and normal combustion model controlled combustion model (RR is used, C =7)

A 5 A

(RR ) and normal combustion model (RR )

1 1

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COMBUSTION MODELLING FOR DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES 657

of the kinetically controlled and mixing-controlled com-

bustion models. Equation ( 7) simply takes the minimum

reaction rate of equations ( 2) and (6). It is apparent

that this simple modication under-predicts the combus-

tion rate. Although it may be possible to improve the

result by changing certain parameters, good correlation

against experimental data for in-cylinder pressure and

heat release rate is diYcult to obtain using this model.

Figure 14 to 16 show the in-cylinder pressure, heat

release rate and volume of equivalence ratio between 0.5

and 1.5 obtained with equation (8) for several diVerent

values of the mixing controlled reaction rate constant,

C . Equation (8) uses the maximum reaction rate of the

A

kinetically controlled mechanism, equation (2), and the

Fig. 11 CO formation predicted by KIVA3V with mixing- mixing-controlled mechanism, equation (6). This combi-

2

controlled combustion model (RR is used, C = 7) nation is used in the current commercial version of the

5 A

and normal combustion model (RR ) KIVA3V code. From Fig. 14, it can be seen that equation

1

(8) over-predicts the combustion rate. Decreasing C

A

equation ( 6); thus the pressure, temperature and CO will decrease the reaction rate and lower the combustion

2

mass fraction obtained with equation (2) were also rate. This will occur to the point where equation (2),

higher than those obtained with equation (6). Because RR , will be chosen as the reaction rate and further

1

of the temperature diVerence between 360ß and 370ß CA, changes in C will have no eVect. From Figs 15 and 16,

A

the forming rate of NO with equation (2) was also higher it can also be seen that changing C strongly inuences

A

than with equation (6), as shown in Fig. 9. While these the heat release rate and the fuel evaporation and distri-

diVerences exist they are not marked. However, the bution, especially when equation (2) is chosen because

diVerence in the rate of formation of the CO mass frac- of small C . Thus, the eVect of varying the constant C

A A

tion was substantial and it was studied in detail. As a is very complicated and diYcult to utilize.

one-step scheme is employed in this article, CO comes From Fig. 17, it can be seen that the average

from the equilibrium reaction between CO and CO. in-cylinder pressure predicted with the reaction rate

2

Since there is no marked diVerence in CO mass as given by equation (9), RR , is in good agreement with

2 8

shown in Fig. 11, a possible reason for the diVerence in the measured value. However, the initial reaction rate

CO is the in-cylinder distribution of CO, CO , O and appears to be low owing to the slow rise in pressure

2 2

temperature. The temperature plays a very important when compared with the experimental data. This is

role in the chemically controlled combustion model of equivalent to the ignition delay being too long. Two

equation (2), but the temperature is not present in the schemes were investigated to solve this problem. One is

diVusion-controlled model of equation (6). Therefore, to increase the pre-exponential factor A, while the second

the ‘burn acceleration eVect’ and ignition delay eVect are is to reduce the activation energy E for the kinetically

a

apparent when equation (2) is employed. These eVects controlled scheme. From the results shown in Fig. 18, it

result in a smaller reaction zone owing to rapid local is apparent that the calculated pressure obtained with

oxygen depletion but higher CO concentration with reduced activation energy agrees well with the meas-

2

equation (2 ) as compared with equation (6), as seen in ured value.

Fig. 12. In the cells where fuel has existed for enough Next, a new combination of the kinetically controlled

time to initiate a burn, e.g. the plane z=17.9 cm with combustion model and the mixing-controlled combus-

respect to the piston bottom dead centre (BDC ) pos- tion model given by equations ( 11) and (12), RR , was

10

ition, the reaction rate is increased exponentially with studied. Here, the kinetically controlled reaction rate is

equation (2) as temperature increases. Thus, more CO used up to a user-specied CA. This was to accommo-

2

is produced, and from the equilibrium reaction, if the date the combustion process of the premixed air and

temperature remains high, more CO is converted from fuel. Beyond the specied CA the mixing-controlled

CO . Thus, the CO concentration obtained with equa- reaction rate presented in equation (10) is used. This

2

tion ( 2) in these cells is much higher than that obtained was to accommodate the dominant physics of the

with equation (6). For the cells that fuel has recently combustion process in the later stages of combustion.

reached, e.g. the plane z=17 cm, the temperature and Figure 19 shows the pressure obtained with diVerent

the reaction rate with equation (2) are lower than with mixing-controlled reaction rate constants, C . It can be

A

equation (6). However, such a diVerence is important seen that the calculated pressure with both values of C

A

when pollutant emissions are considered. is the same before 360ß CA. This is because the kin-

Figure 13 shows the average in-cylinder pressure pre- etically controlled reaction rate of equation (2) is

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D08000 © IMechE 2001 Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol 215 Part D

658 G J MICKLOW AND W GONG

Fig. 12 Iso-surfaces of CO , CO, fuel and temperature at 358ß CA predicted with mixing-controlled

2

combustion model (RR is used, C =7) and normal combustion model (RR )

5 A 1

employed. It is also clear that either the activation energy crank premix, changes the point which separates the

is too high or the pre-exponential factor is too low, since reaction rate that dominates the combustion process.

the calculated pressure at the initial combustion period Figure 21 shows the pressure obtained with crank premix

is lower than the experimental value. Figure 20 shows equal to 358ß CA. Since premixed combustion and

the calculated pressure obtained with reduced activation mixing-controlled combustion are used before and after

energy and increased pre-exponential factor. The results crank premix respectively, it is simple to handle various

are improved. Changing the user-specied parameter, parameters, such as the pre-exponential factor, C , etc.

A

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COMBUSTION MODELLING FOR DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES 659

mixing-controlled combustion model (RR is used, Fig. 16 Volume of ER ={0.5, 1.5} predicted by KIVA3V

6 with RR with diVerent C

C =18) and experiment 7 A

A

Fig. 14 In-cylinder pressure predicted by KIVA3V with RR Fig. 17 In-cylinder pressure predicted by KIVA3V with RR

7 8

with diVerent C and experiment (capa= 6) and experiment

A

Fig. 15 Heat release rate predicted by KIVA3V with RR 8

7 pre-exponential factor A or reduced activation

with diVerent C

A energy) and experiment

D08000 © IMechE 2001 Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol 215 Part D

660 G J MICKLOW AND W GONG

can inuence the rate of the pressure rise at the initial

combustion stage. Changing the constant C can control

A

the burn rate in the later stages of combustion. Since

equation (2) is employed before crank premix, the value

of å/k at the early combustion stage (before crank

premix) should not greatly inuence the results as in

the mixing-controlled combustion stage [equation (6)].

Figures 22 to 26 show the value of å/k, heat release rate,

average temperature, NO mass and CO mass obtained

with the RNG and standard k–å turbulence models. The

result of the value of å/k obtained with both turbulence

models is similar to that in Fig. 3. Higher heat release

rate is obtained with standard k–å model at the initial

combustion stage as seen in Fig. 23. The lower heat

Fig. 19 In-cylinder pressure predicted with RR (crank release rate obtained with standard k–å model between

10

premix= 360ß CA) and experiment 360ß and 375ß CA could be a result of diVerent in-

cylinder fuel concentrations. From Fig. 23, it is easy to

explain the diVerence in average temperature shown in

Fig. 24. The diVerence in temperature also causes the

10

(crank Fig. 22 Value of å/k predicted with RR (crank premix=

10

premix= 360ß CA) and experiment 358ß CA, A6 1.5; RNG k–å, C =2; standard k–å,

A

C = 1)

A

Fig. 21 In-cylinder pressure predicted with RR (crank Fig. 23 Heat release rate obtained with RR (crank premix=

10 10

premix= 358ß CA, A61.5; RNG k–å, C =2; 358ß CA, A6 1.5; RNG k–å, C =2; standard k–å,

A A

standard k–å, C =1) and experiment C = 1)

A A

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Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol 215 Part D D08000 © IMechE 2001

COMBUSTION MODELLING FOR DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES 661

NO formation increases exponentially with temperature.

As previously discussed, the diVerent combustion mech-

anisms have an important eVect on CO formation, which

can account for the rst peak for CO mass at around

crank premix in Fig. 26. Since, in a one-step scheme, CO

is formed from an equilibrium reaction, which is greatly

inuenced by temperature, the rst peak of CO obtained

with the standard k–å model was higher than that

obtained with RNG k–å model, as seen in Figs 24 and 26.

5 CONCLUSION

Fig. 24 Average temperature predicted by KIVA3V with Since both premixed combustion and mixing-controlled

RR (crank premix= 358ß CA, A6 1.5; RNG k–å, combustion mechanisms occur in typical diesel engine

10

C =2; standard k–å, C =1) operation, neither of them works well alone in a numeri-

A A

cal model. Therefore, it is necessary to combine these

mechanisms in a logical scheme for diesel engine simu-

lation. The combination should be simple for compu-

tational eYciency, give a reasonable match with

experimental data and have parameters in the model that

can be easily changed to improve the accuracy of the

calculation.

Two combustion schemes, one kinetically controlled

(premixed ) and one mixing controlled (diVusion),

together with various combinations of these two models,

were investigated in this article. The in-cylinder pressure

predicted by the kinetically controlled combustion model

given by equation (2) was compared with the experimen-

tal data. It was found that the calculated maximum

pressure was higher than the measured value. The calcu-

lated rate of increase in pressure at the initial combustion

stage was lower than the measured value. This is believed

Fig. 25 NO formation predicted by KIVA3V with RR to be caused by the activation energy E being too high

10 a

(crank premix=358ß CA, A6 1.5; RNG k–å, or the pre-exponential factor A being too low. As the

C =2; standard k–å, C =1)

A A calculation proceeds beyond this point, the calculated

pressure is much higher than the measured value. This

diVerence results from the fact that the reaction rate

given by equation (2) is higher than the actual reaction

rate, which is largely mixing limited in the late stages of

combustion. Therefore, it was concluded that the kin-

etically controlled combustion model alone would

be inadequate to predict the in-cylinder pressure

distribution.

The mixing-controlled combustion model was then

evaluated alone. A strong dependence on the turbulence

modelling was found and the in-cylinder pressure distri-

bution was under-predicted with the RNG turbulence

k–å model and over-predicted with the standard k–å

model. These results were related to the fact that the

standard k–å model has a much higher value of å/k

during the fuel injection period and a slightly lower value

after the injection period in comparison with the RNG

Fig. 26 CO formation predicted by KIVA3V with RR k–å model. It is thus concluded that turbulence model-

10

(crank premix= 358ß CA, A6 1.5; RNG k–å, ling has an important eVect on the computed results.

C =2; standard k–å, C =1) The RNG k–å is recommended, however, because of the

A A

Downloaded from pid.sagepub.com at Purdue University on May 30, 2015

D08000 © IMechE 2001 Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol 215 Part D

662 G J MICKLOW AND W GONG

incorporation of improved physics. The importance and trolled scheme to the diVusion-controlled scheme with-

accuracy of diVerent turbulence models for modelling out a user-specied value. Further, the model has been

in-cylinder ows are currently under investigation divided into three phases, ignition, premixed combustion

and those results will be published when completely and diVusion combustion. This work will be published

obtained. Further, it was concluded that the mixing- when completed.

controlled combustion model alone would be inadequate Finally, since two diVerent reaction mechanisms are

to predict accurately even the in-cylinder pressure employed in these two models, one that is chemically

distribution. determined, the other being physically determined, their

Simple combinations of the kinetically controlled reaction zones are diVerent. Such a diVerence has an

combustion model and the mixing-controlled combus- important eVect on the products’ composition. Although

tion model were investigated. When the reaction rate both models can obtain a reasonable match against

was set by taking the minimum of these two models, it experimental data for global thermodynamic quantities

was apparent that the combustion rate was under-pre- such as average in-cylinder pressure and average tem-

dicted. Although it may be possible to improve the result perature, other detailed information, such as CO mass

by changing certain model parameters, good correlation history, can be very diVerent. Therefore, it is recom-

against experimental data for in-cylinder pressure and mended that a more detailed reaction scheme, e.g. a

heat release rate is diYcult to obtain using this type of multistep scheme, is required to predict pollutant emis-

modication. The combination in the most recent release sion formation. Several levels of multistep combustion

of the KIVA3V code is to simply take the maximum of modelling schemes are currently under investigation and

the reaction rate predicted by the kinetically controlled the results will be published when the study is completed.

and the mixing-controlled models. For this combination,

it was concluded that the combustion rate was over-

predicted. Reducing C , the mixing-controlled model REFERENCES

A

constant, could not solve the problem, since the kin-

etically controlled model will set the reaction rate when 1 Curtis, E. W., Uludogan, A. and Reitz, R. D. A high pressure

C is reduced too far. This had a marked eVect on the droplet vaporization model for diesel engine modeling. SAE

A paper 952431, 1995.

heat release rate and the fuel evaporation and in-cylinder

fuel distribution. Therefore, since the eVect of varying 2 Ayoub, N. S. and Reitz, R. D. Multidimensional compu-

tation of multi-component spray vaporization and combus-

the constant C is complicated and diYcult to utilize,

A tion. SAE paper 950285, 1995.

this combination is not recommended as an appropriate 3 Taskinen, P., Karvinen, R., Liljenfeldt, G. and Salminen,

combustion model. H. J. Simulation of heavy fuel spray and combustion in a

Next, a new combination of the kinetically controlled medium speed diesel engine. SAE paper 962053, 1996.

combustion model and the mixing-controlled combus- 4 Uludogan, A., Foster, D. E. and Reitz, R. D. Modeling the

tion model was proposed. Here, the kinetically con- eVect of engine speed on the combustion process and emis-

trolled reaction rate is used up to a user specied CA. sions in a DI diesel engine. SAE paper 962056, 1996.

This was to accommodate the combustion process of the 5 Rutland, C.J., Ayoub, N., Han, Z., Hampson, G., Kong, S.,

premixed air and fuel. Beyond the specied CA, the Mather, D., Musculus, M., Patterson, M., Ricart, L.,

mixing-controlled reaction rate is used. This was to Stephenson, P. and Reitz, R. D. Progress towards diesel

accommodate the dominant physics of the combustion combustion modeling. SAE paper 952429, 1995.

6 Butler, T. D., et al. Multidimensional numerical simulation

process in the later stages of combustion. It was found

of reactive ow in internal combustion engines. Prog.

that by slight changes in the pre-exponential factor and Energy Combust. Sci., 1981, 7, 293–315.

activation energy, which are important during the initial 7 Westbrook, C. K., et al. Chemical kinetic modeling of

phase of the combustion process dominated by the hydrocarbon combustion. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.,

chemical kinetics, the initial burn rate could be con- 1984, 10, 1–57.

trolled. Changing the constant, C , could control the 8 Heywood, J. B. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals,

A

burn rate in the later stages of combustion. With the 1988 (McGraw-Hill, New York).

appropriate selection of the user-specied CA to denote 9 Magnussen, B. F. and Hjertager, B. H. On mathematical

which reaction mechanism is used, reasonable agreement modeling of turbulent combustion with special empha-

for in-cylinder pressure distribution and heat release rate sis on soot formation and combustion. In Sixteenth

is obtained. The scheme’s sensitivity to user-specied CA Symposium on Combustion, 1976, pp. 719–729

(Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania).

is one of its shortcomings, but it is simple to handle the

10 Miyamoto, N., Chikahisa, T., Murayama, T. and Sawyer, R.

various model parameters and it is concluded that this

Description and analysis of diesel engine rate of combustion

method of combustion modelling can be used with suc- and performance using Wiebe’s functions. SAE paper

cess to model a specic engine type. Ongoing research 850107, 1985.

in this area has been in the use of empirical correlations 11 Amsden, A. A. KIVA-3: a KIVA program with block-struc-

for direct injection diesel engines to determine the CA tured mesh for complex geometries. Los Alamos National

at which the scheme switches from the kinetically con- Laboratory Report LA-12503-MS, March 1993.

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Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol 215 Part D D08000 © IMechE 2001

COMBUSTION MODELLING FOR DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES 663

12 Patankar, S. V. Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, 14 Han, Z. and Reitz, R. D. Turbulence modeling of internal

1980 (Hemisphere, Washington, DC ). combustion engines using RNG k–å models. Combust. Sci.

13 Uludogan, A., Xin, J. and Reitz, R. D. Exploring the use Technol., 1995, 106, 267–295.

of multiple injectors and split injection to reduce DI diesel

engine emissions. SAE paper 962058, 1996.

D08000 © IMechE 2001 Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol 215 Part D

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