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APPLICATION OF SPHERICAL GEOMETRY

TO DETERMINE QIBLAH DIRECTION


IN THE MOSQUE OF 3rd AHMAD DAHLAN
UNIVERSITY

Written by
AmanahOktaviandari 11A06011
NettyKurniawati 11A06013
SidikNurIrfan 11A06017

PGBI P. MATEMATIKA

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION


AHMAD DAHLAN UNIVERSITY
YOGYAKARTA
2012
APPLICATION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLE
TO DETERMINE QIBLAH DIRECTION
IN THE MOSQUE OF 3rd AHMAD DAHLAN UNIVERSITY
Written by
Amanah Oktaviandari (11A06011)
Netty Kurniawati (11A06013)
Sidik Nur Irfan (11A06017)

ABSTRACT
The research was motivated by the movie "Sang Pencerah" where the
figure KH Ahmad Dahlan, the founder of Muhammadiyah organization
fighting for a position in the kiblah direction Masjid Gedhe Kauman. Because
Qibla Direction is one of his prayers and legal requirements including the
obligation of Muslims to Mecca mengahadap when praying. In determining the
Qibla direction we can use the concept of spherical geometry. Spherical
geometry in many ways different from the ordinary or Euclidean geometry
where the angles in a triangle exceeds 180 °.
The purpose of this study was to determine the application of the basic
concepts of geometry in determining the direction of the ball and the Qibla
direction and to know the position of the mosque Qibla 3 UAD campus and
surrounding areas.
This research method using a library of study related literature. The data
source used is the data latitude and longitude using Google Earth and books
appropriate to the source of data about the calculation of the kiblah direction.
The results of the discussion showed that the angle kiblah direction in the
mosque 3 UAD campus are as follows 65 ° 17 '49,14654''

Keywords: Qibla direction, spherical geometry

A. INTRODUCE
1. BACKGROUND
"Sang Pencerah" is a movie that told us about the story of life, the fighting
of KH Ahmad Dahlan and Muhammadiyah organization. One of the topics
which is discussed in that movie is the fighting of KH Ahmad Dahlan to
correct the Qiblah direction in the Great Mosque of Yogyakarta. In 1896, K.H.
Ahmad Dahlan was deposed and hostiled by people around bacause of his
fighting to change the qiblah direction. His fighting was so strong to correct
qiblah direction. That is because the Qiblah direction is one of the most
important requirement in the daily prayers and there is an obligation for
Muslims to face Kiblah when they do praying. For Indonesian moslem, the
kiblah is facing to the west. Although it does not face straight west. Based on
the knowledge by Falak Science held by KH Ahmad Dahlan, the Kiblah
direction of Java Island is skewed approximately 24.5 ° to the north. Based on
his knowledge, KH Ahmad Dahlan corrected the Kiblah direction of the great
mosque of Yogyakarta and the mosques in the region of Yogyakarta.
The background of our paper is the fighting of K.H. Ahmad Dahlan to do
measurement of the Kiblah direction, especially by use spherical geometry
concepts in order to know the correct of kiblah direction.
In this paper, the writers will present a quick method of determining the
kiblah direction with the concepts and formula of spherical geometry caused of
the formulas of spherical geometry is given without any proving. Therefore,
the writers took sample the mosque of 3rd UAD to be measured of the Kiblah
direction.

2. THEOLOGICAL PROBLEM
Based on the background that we formulated the problems as follows:
a. How to determine the angle of kiblah direction using spherical
geometry?
b. What is the angle of kiblah direction the mosque of 3rd UAD?

3. OBJECTIVE :
The objectives of writing this paper are:
a. To understand the basic concepts of spherical geometry.
b. To know the application of spherical geometry in determining the kiblah
direction.
c. To determine the kiblah direction angle of the mosque of 3rd UAD.

B. THEORETICAL
1. SPHERICAL GEOMETRY
The sphere can be defined as the set of points in three-dimensional space
which has equidistant from a certain point. That point is called the center of the
sphere. Distance from the center to the points on the perimeter of the sphere
called radii sphere. Spherical geometry is two-dimensional geometry of the
surface of the sphere. Spherical geometry is the simplest form of elliptic
geometry.
If it is a line and a sphere in three-dimensional space, there will be several
possibilities
a) The line and the sphere did not meet each other.
b) The line and sphere intersect at one point, that is called a tangent of
the sphere and its point is called the point of tangent.
c) The line and the sphere intersect in exactly two points. The interesting
case when the line through the center of the sphere, then the two
points of intersection are called antipodal points.

There are several possibilities between the plane and the sphere :
a) The plane and sphere has no intersection.
b) The plane and sphere have intersection and ball meet. In this case,
there are two possibilities, first the sphere and the plane intersect at
exactly a point the plane is called the tangent plane of the sphere in the
point of intersection. Second, plane and sphere intersect. The
intersection of the sphere and the it is a circle. This circle has a variety
of sizes, it can be big it can be small. The greatest circle is formed if
the throughs the center of the sphere, the circle is called a great circle.
For more details see the image below :

In the spherical geometry, a point is defined as the point in general in


Euclidean geometry. Because the surface of the sphere is used, then
the points are points that lie on the surface of the sphere. The straight
in the spherical geometry is the shortest path between two points the
that is called the geodesic. While the interpretation of the line in the
spherical is a big circle. The distance between two points in spherical
geometry is the distance along the great circle which connecting the
two points. Because of this large circle as a whole lies on the plane
this then, it can be drawn using the image of plane as shown below. If
the angle ABC is a , and if a is measured in radians then the distance
between A and B is given by the formula: d (A,B) = Ra, where R is
the radii of the sphere.
B A

a R

C
d(A,B) = Ra
The Postulates of spherical geometry are:
1. Two points lie on a unique straight line unless the points are antipodal,
in which case they lie on some straight line.
2. There is a certain distance C such that if a straight line is extended to
distance C, it met to itself. Distance C is the circumference of the
sphere. Thus, a straight line is unlimited.
3. A circle can be drawn with any point as center and any radius, given a
radius less than C / 2
4. All right angles are equal
5. All the lines meet at two points

There are two incidence relations in the spherical geometry, namely: first, if the
point A and B are two points that are not antipodal point then there is a unique
circle containing the two points. If the point A and B are antipodal points, then
there is an infinite number of great circles containing the two points. Second, two
different large circle meet in exactly two antipodal points.
In the spherical geometry, all the curves or lines do not lie on a plane. When two
great circles meet at a point, "angle of sphere" between them is the angle between
the tangents of two great circles at the point intersection. The tangents at that point
to them. Furthermore "angle of sphere" is called "corner." In the spherical
geometry, the measurement of angle is expressed in radians.

2. Spherical Triangle
Spherical triangle is defined as a triangle on the plane in general, that is an
enclosed area on the surface of the sphere formed by three arc pairs of great
circle which its pairs meet each others. In the figure below, ABC is a
spherical triangle formed by great circle AB, BC and CA. Vertex are denoted
by A, B, and C. Equally, A'B'C 'is also spherical triangle.
Properties of spherical triangles
Properties of the plane triangle can be used on the spherical triangles:
a. Largest or smallest angle is formed at the vertex facing the largest or
smallest side of triangle
b. The sum of two sides of a triangle is always greater than the third side of
the triangle.

The important difference spherical triangle and triangle plane is in the study of
astronomy triangles which are summarized as follows:
a. Although the sum of the three angle in the triangle plane is always equal to
the number two right angle. The upper limit of the sum of the angles is
amount of six right angle. In other words, in the spherical geometry effect:
180° < 𝐴 + 𝐵 + 𝐶 < 540 °
b. While in a plane triangle, the sides a, b, and c are defined in length units,
in the case of spherical triangles they are generally defined in terms of
angle. Amount three sides of the triangle ball meets the following
inequality: 0 < 𝑎 + 𝑏 + 𝑐 < 2𝜋

Formula in the Spherical Triangle


There are so many generic versions of spherical triangles that can be known,
the following formula spherical triangle given some of the easiest to
understand that are:
Cosine rule on the triangle ball
𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑏 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑐 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴
𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑐 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐵
𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑏 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐶
(Ngatoillah, 2001:155)

This formula states that the value of a spherical triangle can be determined if
the angle into it and the other two sides are known. In other words, given two
sides and an angle that is flanked by the two sides, then using the cosine
formula is directly on the other side can also be shown. This formula in
goniometry known pattern of relations side-angle-side (Faturrahman, 2007:5).
Sine rule in triangle ball
Sine rule is derived based on cosine rule on spherical triangles so that, we
obtained
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐴 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐵 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶
= =
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑏 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑐

(Ngatoillah,2001:155)

Sepherical geometry Application in the Determination of Qibla Direction


Each point on the earth's surface can be expressed in two coordinates, the
longitude (longitude) and longitude (latitude). All the points that has zero
longitude is the Greenwich meridian line (half circle linking the north and
south poles and through Greenwich). Meanwhile, all the points that has zero
latitude is the equator (equator). Located east longitude east of Greenwich,
while located west longitude west of Greenwich. According to the agreement
public, positive longitude is positive, while the western longitude is negative.
Meanwhile, all the points are located on the north equator is called latitude
north, as well as to a point south of the equator is called latitude south.
Northern latitude is positive, while the southern latitude is negative.Spherical
triangle ABC connects the three points A (Ka'bah) point B (which we will look
for locations) and point C (the north pole). Point A (the Ka'bah) has longitude
coordinates (λ) and latitude (θ). Point B has coordinates of longitude (λ) and
latitude (θ). Point C has 90o. The arc is a long arc that connects points B and C.
Arc b is the length of the arc that connects points A and C. Arc c is the length
of the arc connecting the points A and B. Angle C is difference between the
longitude (𝜆𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑑 )and longitude (𝜆𝑚𝑒𝑐𝑐𝑎 ). Angle 𝐶 = |𝜆𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑑 − 𝜆𝑚𝑒𝑐𝑐𝑎 |.
While the angle B is the direction toward the point A (the Ka'bah). So the
kiblah direction from point B can be determined by determining the angle
B.Furthermore, the earth radius is considered equal to 1. The angle that
connects the point on the equator, the Earth's center and the north pole is 90
degrees. Since the latitude of point A is θ_mekkah, then the arc b equal 𝑏 =
90𝑜 − 𝜃𝑚𝑒𝑐𝑐𝑎 . Since the latitude of point B is 𝜃𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑 , the arc a
equal 𝑎 = 90𝑜 − 𝜃𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑 .
Azimuth kiblah direction indicated by the angle B. Azimuth 0 degrees indicates
the north (true north). Azimuth angle direction clockwise. Azimuth 90, 180 and
270 degrees respectively show the east, south and west.

C. DISCUSSION
Determine The Qiblah Direction Using Formulas The Spherical Triangle
In order to determine the Qiblah direction using spherical triangle
formula we must first know the latitude and longitude of a place to be
determined direction of the Qiblah. In addition to latitude (θ) and longitude (λ)
to be determined where the Qiblah direction, we also need to know the latitude
and longitude of Mecca (Kaaba).
In this case we will take samples to determine the kiblah directionh in
campus 3th UAD. The campus 3𝑟𝑑 UAD is located at Jalan Prof. Dr.Soepomo,
Janturan, Warungboto, Yogyakarta 55164 has latitude (θ) −7° 48′ 29′′ LS and
longitude (λ) +110° 23′ 21′′ BT. To Mecca (Kaaba) has latitude (θ)
+21° 25′ 21,12′′ LU and longitude (λ) +39° 49′ 34,35′′ BT.
The first step that must be do to calculate kiblah direction 3rd UAD
campus mosque is to determine the value of the points required are:
1. We suppose that point A is located at the location of the Kaaba known
latitude and longitude as follows:
Kaaba latitude (φ) = +21° 25′ 21,12′′
Kaaba longitude (λ) = +39° 49′ 34,35′′
2. Determine the point B is the location / place to be counted direction
the Qibla. Furthermore, in this paper we will determine the kiblah
direction 3rd UAD campus. Then must be known the latitude (φ) and
longitude (λ) area.
Latitude Mosque Campus 3rd UAD (φ) = −7° 48′ 29′′
Longitude Mosque Campus 3rd UAD (λ) = +110° 23′ 21′′
3. Next, determine the point C is the location of the North Pole. Point A
and point C are two points that do not change, since the point A is
located right in the Kaaba and the point C is located right at the North
Pole, while point B tends to change depending on the location or place
to be determined direction of the Qibla.
If the geographical location Kaaba, location / place to be counted
direction the Qibla and the north pole in a row placed at point A, point
B and point C, so that the geographical data as a (arc BC), the b (arc
AC ), and C can already known, namely:
𝑎 = 90𝑜 − 𝜃(the place to be searched)
𝑏 = 90𝑜 − 𝜃𝑚𝑒𝑐𝑐𝑎
𝐶 = |𝜆𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑 − 𝜆𝑚𝑒𝑐𝑐𝑎 |
Such that,
𝑎 = 90𝑜 − (−7° 48′ 29′′ ) = 97𝑜 48′ 29′′
𝑏 = 90𝑜 − (+21° 25′ 21,12′′ ) = 68𝑜 34′ 38,88′′
So, we get
𝐶 = |+110° 23′ 21′′ − (+39° 49′ 34,35′′ )| = 70𝑜 33′ 46,65′′
4. Determine the length of side c by using the formula reduction
spherical triangle
𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑏 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐶
𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 97𝑜 48′ 29′′ 𝐶𝑜𝑠 68𝑜 34′ 38,88′′
+ 𝑆𝑖𝑛 97𝑜 48′ 29′′ 𝑆𝑖𝑛 68𝑜 34′ 38,88′′ 𝐶𝑜𝑠 70𝑜 33′ 46,65′′
𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐
= (cos 97,8080555556𝑜 )(cos 68,5774666667𝑜 )
+ (sin 97,8080555556𝑜 )( 𝑠𝑖𝑛 68,5774666667𝑜 )(cos 70,5629583333𝑜 )
𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 = (−0,1358548662)(0,3652429406)
+ (0,9907287496)(0,9309122448)(0,332770855)
cos 𝑐 = (−0,04962003083) + 0,3069084114
cos 𝑐 = 0,2572883806
c = 𝑎𝑟𝑐 cos (0,2572883806)
𝑐 = 75,09077513°
Then B (the direction Qibla of campus 3rd UAD) can be determined as
follows:
With the formula cosine
𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑐 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐵
cos 𝑏 − cos 𝑎 cos 𝑐
𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐵 =
sin 𝑎 sin 𝑐
cos 68𝑜 34′ 38,88′′ − cos 97𝑜 48′ 29′′ cos 75,09077513°
cos 𝐵 =
sin 97𝑜 48′ 29′′ sin 75,09077513°
cos 68,5774666667° − cos 97,8080555556 cos 75,09077513°
cos 𝐵 =
sin 97,8080555556 sin 75,09077513°
0,3652429225 − (−0,1358548662)(0,2572883806)
cos 𝐵 =
(0,9907287496)( 0,9663346673)
0,3651476021 − (−0,03495387852)
cos 𝐵 =
0,9573755366
0,4001014806
cos 𝐵 =
0,9573755366
cos 𝐵 = 0,417914878
𝐵 = 𝑎𝑟𝑐 cos ( 0,417914878) = 65,29698515° = 65°17′ 49,14654′′
Thus can be known the kiblah direction for mosques on campus 3rd UAD is
65°17′ 49,14654′′
D. CONCLUSION
1. Formula spherical triangles in spherical geometry concepts are used to
determine the kiblah direction is

𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑏 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑐 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴


𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑐 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐵
𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑏 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐶

2. The results of calculation of angle in the kiblah direction Masjid Campus


3rd UAD spherical triangle formula is 65°17′ 49,14654′′(from north to
west)

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Software Google earth v.5