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IN THE MOSQUE OF 3rd AHMAD DAHLAN

UNIVERSITY

Written by

AmanahOktaviandari 11A06011

NettyKurniawati 11A06013

SidikNurIrfan 11A06017

PGBI P. MATEMATIKA

AHMAD DAHLAN UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

2012

APPLICATION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLE

TO DETERMINE QIBLAH DIRECTION

IN THE MOSQUE OF 3rd AHMAD DAHLAN UNIVERSITY

Written by

Amanah Oktaviandari (11A06011)

Netty Kurniawati (11A06013)

Sidik Nur Irfan (11A06017)

ABSTRACT

The research was motivated by the movie "Sang Pencerah" where the

figure KH Ahmad Dahlan, the founder of Muhammadiyah organization

fighting for a position in the kiblah direction Masjid Gedhe Kauman. Because

Qibla Direction is one of his prayers and legal requirements including the

obligation of Muslims to Mecca mengahadap when praying. In determining the

Qibla direction we can use the concept of spherical geometry. Spherical

geometry in many ways different from the ordinary or Euclidean geometry

where the angles in a triangle exceeds 180 °.

The purpose of this study was to determine the application of the basic

concepts of geometry in determining the direction of the ball and the Qibla

direction and to know the position of the mosque Qibla 3 UAD campus and

surrounding areas.

This research method using a library of study related literature. The data

source used is the data latitude and longitude using Google Earth and books

appropriate to the source of data about the calculation of the kiblah direction.

The results of the discussion showed that the angle kiblah direction in the

mosque 3 UAD campus are as follows 65 ° 17 '49,14654''

A. INTRODUCE

1. BACKGROUND

"Sang Pencerah" is a movie that told us about the story of life, the fighting

of KH Ahmad Dahlan and Muhammadiyah organization. One of the topics

which is discussed in that movie is the fighting of KH Ahmad Dahlan to

correct the Qiblah direction in the Great Mosque of Yogyakarta. In 1896, K.H.

Ahmad Dahlan was deposed and hostiled by people around bacause of his

fighting to change the qiblah direction. His fighting was so strong to correct

qiblah direction. That is because the Qiblah direction is one of the most

important requirement in the daily prayers and there is an obligation for

Muslims to face Kiblah when they do praying. For Indonesian moslem, the

kiblah is facing to the west. Although it does not face straight west. Based on

the knowledge by Falak Science held by KH Ahmad Dahlan, the Kiblah

direction of Java Island is skewed approximately 24.5 ° to the north. Based on

his knowledge, KH Ahmad Dahlan corrected the Kiblah direction of the great

mosque of Yogyakarta and the mosques in the region of Yogyakarta.

The background of our paper is the fighting of K.H. Ahmad Dahlan to do

measurement of the Kiblah direction, especially by use spherical geometry

concepts in order to know the correct of kiblah direction.

In this paper, the writers will present a quick method of determining the

kiblah direction with the concepts and formula of spherical geometry caused of

the formulas of spherical geometry is given without any proving. Therefore,

the writers took sample the mosque of 3rd UAD to be measured of the Kiblah

direction.

2. THEOLOGICAL PROBLEM

Based on the background that we formulated the problems as follows:

a. How to determine the angle of kiblah direction using spherical

geometry?

b. What is the angle of kiblah direction the mosque of 3rd UAD?

3. OBJECTIVE :

The objectives of writing this paper are:

a. To understand the basic concepts of spherical geometry.

b. To know the application of spherical geometry in determining the kiblah

direction.

c. To determine the kiblah direction angle of the mosque of 3rd UAD.

B. THEORETICAL

1. SPHERICAL GEOMETRY

The sphere can be defined as the set of points in three-dimensional space

which has equidistant from a certain point. That point is called the center of the

sphere. Distance from the center to the points on the perimeter of the sphere

called radii sphere. Spherical geometry is two-dimensional geometry of the

surface of the sphere. Spherical geometry is the simplest form of elliptic

geometry.

If it is a line and a sphere in three-dimensional space, there will be several

possibilities

a) The line and the sphere did not meet each other.

b) The line and sphere intersect at one point, that is called a tangent of

the sphere and its point is called the point of tangent.

c) The line and the sphere intersect in exactly two points. The interesting

case when the line through the center of the sphere, then the two

points of intersection are called antipodal points.

There are several possibilities between the plane and the sphere :

a) The plane and sphere has no intersection.

b) The plane and sphere have intersection and ball meet. In this case,

there are two possibilities, first the sphere and the plane intersect at

exactly a point the plane is called the tangent plane of the sphere in the

point of intersection. Second, plane and sphere intersect. The

intersection of the sphere and the it is a circle. This circle has a variety

of sizes, it can be big it can be small. The greatest circle is formed if

the throughs the center of the sphere, the circle is called a great circle.

For more details see the image below :

Euclidean geometry. Because the surface of the sphere is used, then

the points are points that lie on the surface of the sphere. The straight

in the spherical geometry is the shortest path between two points the

that is called the geodesic. While the interpretation of the line in the

spherical is a big circle. The distance between two points in spherical

geometry is the distance along the great circle which connecting the

two points. Because of this large circle as a whole lies on the plane

this then, it can be drawn using the image of plane as shown below. If

the angle ABC is a , and if a is measured in radians then the distance

between A and B is given by the formula: d (A,B) = Ra, where R is

the radii of the sphere.

B A

a R

C

d(A,B) = Ra

The Postulates of spherical geometry are:

1. Two points lie on a unique straight line unless the points are antipodal,

in which case they lie on some straight line.

2. There is a certain distance C such that if a straight line is extended to

distance C, it met to itself. Distance C is the circumference of the

sphere. Thus, a straight line is unlimited.

3. A circle can be drawn with any point as center and any radius, given a

radius less than C / 2

4. All right angles are equal

5. All the lines meet at two points

There are two incidence relations in the spherical geometry, namely: first, if the

point A and B are two points that are not antipodal point then there is a unique

circle containing the two points. If the point A and B are antipodal points, then

there is an infinite number of great circles containing the two points. Second, two

different large circle meet in exactly two antipodal points.

In the spherical geometry, all the curves or lines do not lie on a plane. When two

great circles meet at a point, "angle of sphere" between them is the angle between

the tangents of two great circles at the point intersection. The tangents at that point

to them. Furthermore "angle of sphere" is called "corner." In the spherical

geometry, the measurement of angle is expressed in radians.

2. Spherical Triangle

Spherical triangle is defined as a triangle on the plane in general, that is an

enclosed area on the surface of the sphere formed by three arc pairs of great

circle which its pairs meet each others. In the figure below, ABC is a

spherical triangle formed by great circle AB, BC and CA. Vertex are denoted

by A, B, and C. Equally, A'B'C 'is also spherical triangle.

Properties of spherical triangles

Properties of the plane triangle can be used on the spherical triangles:

a. Largest or smallest angle is formed at the vertex facing the largest or

smallest side of triangle

b. The sum of two sides of a triangle is always greater than the third side of

the triangle.

The important difference spherical triangle and triangle plane is in the study of

astronomy triangles which are summarized as follows:

a. Although the sum of the three angle in the triangle plane is always equal to

the number two right angle. The upper limit of the sum of the angles is

amount of six right angle. In other words, in the spherical geometry effect:

180° < 𝐴 + 𝐵 + 𝐶 < 540 °

b. While in a plane triangle, the sides a, b, and c are defined in length units,

in the case of spherical triangles they are generally defined in terms of

angle. Amount three sides of the triangle ball meets the following

inequality: 0 < 𝑎 + 𝑏 + 𝑐 < 2𝜋

There are so many generic versions of spherical triangles that can be known,

the following formula spherical triangle given some of the easiest to

understand that are:

Cosine rule on the triangle ball

𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑏 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑐 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴

𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑐 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐵

𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑏 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐶

(Ngatoillah, 2001:155)

This formula states that the value of a spherical triangle can be determined if

the angle into it and the other two sides are known. In other words, given two

sides and an angle that is flanked by the two sides, then using the cosine

formula is directly on the other side can also be shown. This formula in

goniometry known pattern of relations side-angle-side (Faturrahman, 2007:5).

Sine rule in triangle ball

Sine rule is derived based on cosine rule on spherical triangles so that, we

obtained

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐴 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐵 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶

= =

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑏 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑐

(Ngatoillah,2001:155)

Each point on the earth's surface can be expressed in two coordinates, the

longitude (longitude) and longitude (latitude). All the points that has zero

longitude is the Greenwich meridian line (half circle linking the north and

south poles and through Greenwich). Meanwhile, all the points that has zero

latitude is the equator (equator). Located east longitude east of Greenwich,

while located west longitude west of Greenwich. According to the agreement

public, positive longitude is positive, while the western longitude is negative.

Meanwhile, all the points are located on the north equator is called latitude

north, as well as to a point south of the equator is called latitude south.

Northern latitude is positive, while the southern latitude is negative.Spherical

triangle ABC connects the three points A (Ka'bah) point B (which we will look

for locations) and point C (the north pole). Point A (the Ka'bah) has longitude

coordinates (λ) and latitude (θ). Point B has coordinates of longitude (λ) and

latitude (θ). Point C has 90o. The arc is a long arc that connects points B and C.

Arc b is the length of the arc that connects points A and C. Arc c is the length

of the arc connecting the points A and B. Angle C is difference between the

longitude (𝜆𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑑 )and longitude (𝜆𝑚𝑒𝑐𝑐𝑎 ). Angle 𝐶 = |𝜆𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑑 − 𝜆𝑚𝑒𝑐𝑐𝑎 |.

While the angle B is the direction toward the point A (the Ka'bah). So the

kiblah direction from point B can be determined by determining the angle

B.Furthermore, the earth radius is considered equal to 1. The angle that

connects the point on the equator, the Earth's center and the north pole is 90

degrees. Since the latitude of point A is θ_mekkah, then the arc b equal 𝑏 =

90𝑜 − 𝜃𝑚𝑒𝑐𝑐𝑎 . Since the latitude of point B is 𝜃𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑 , the arc a

equal 𝑎 = 90𝑜 − 𝜃𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑 .

Azimuth kiblah direction indicated by the angle B. Azimuth 0 degrees indicates

the north (true north). Azimuth angle direction clockwise. Azimuth 90, 180 and

270 degrees respectively show the east, south and west.

C. DISCUSSION

Determine The Qiblah Direction Using Formulas The Spherical Triangle

In order to determine the Qiblah direction using spherical triangle

formula we must first know the latitude and longitude of a place to be

determined direction of the Qiblah. In addition to latitude (θ) and longitude (λ)

to be determined where the Qiblah direction, we also need to know the latitude

and longitude of Mecca (Kaaba).

In this case we will take samples to determine the kiblah directionh in

campus 3th UAD. The campus 3𝑟𝑑 UAD is located at Jalan Prof. Dr.Soepomo,

Janturan, Warungboto, Yogyakarta 55164 has latitude (θ) −7° 48′ 29′′ LS and

longitude (λ) +110° 23′ 21′′ BT. To Mecca (Kaaba) has latitude (θ)

+21° 25′ 21,12′′ LU and longitude (λ) +39° 49′ 34,35′′ BT.

The first step that must be do to calculate kiblah direction 3rd UAD

campus mosque is to determine the value of the points required are:

1. We suppose that point A is located at the location of the Kaaba known

latitude and longitude as follows:

Kaaba latitude (φ) = +21° 25′ 21,12′′

Kaaba longitude (λ) = +39° 49′ 34,35′′

2. Determine the point B is the location / place to be counted direction

the Qibla. Furthermore, in this paper we will determine the kiblah

direction 3rd UAD campus. Then must be known the latitude (φ) and

longitude (λ) area.

Latitude Mosque Campus 3rd UAD (φ) = −7° 48′ 29′′

Longitude Mosque Campus 3rd UAD (λ) = +110° 23′ 21′′

3. Next, determine the point C is the location of the North Pole. Point A

and point C are two points that do not change, since the point A is

located right in the Kaaba and the point C is located right at the North

Pole, while point B tends to change depending on the location or place

to be determined direction of the Qibla.

If the geographical location Kaaba, location / place to be counted

direction the Qibla and the north pole in a row placed at point A, point

B and point C, so that the geographical data as a (arc BC), the b (arc

AC ), and C can already known, namely:

𝑎 = 90𝑜 − 𝜃(the place to be searched)

𝑏 = 90𝑜 − 𝜃𝑚𝑒𝑐𝑐𝑎

𝐶 = |𝜆𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑 − 𝜆𝑚𝑒𝑐𝑐𝑎 |

Such that,

𝑎 = 90𝑜 − (−7° 48′ 29′′ ) = 97𝑜 48′ 29′′

𝑏 = 90𝑜 − (+21° 25′ 21,12′′ ) = 68𝑜 34′ 38,88′′

So, we get

𝐶 = |+110° 23′ 21′′ − (+39° 49′ 34,35′′ )| = 70𝑜 33′ 46,65′′

4. Determine the length of side c by using the formula reduction

spherical triangle

𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑏 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐶

𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 97𝑜 48′ 29′′ 𝐶𝑜𝑠 68𝑜 34′ 38,88′′

+ 𝑆𝑖𝑛 97𝑜 48′ 29′′ 𝑆𝑖𝑛 68𝑜 34′ 38,88′′ 𝐶𝑜𝑠 70𝑜 33′ 46,65′′

𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐

= (cos 97,8080555556𝑜 )(cos 68,5774666667𝑜 )

+ (sin 97,8080555556𝑜 )( 𝑠𝑖𝑛 68,5774666667𝑜 )(cos 70,5629583333𝑜 )

𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 = (−0,1358548662)(0,3652429406)

+ (0,9907287496)(0,9309122448)(0,332770855)

cos 𝑐 = (−0,04962003083) + 0,3069084114

cos 𝑐 = 0,2572883806

c = 𝑎𝑟𝑐 cos (0,2572883806)

𝑐 = 75,09077513°

Then B (the direction Qibla of campus 3rd UAD) can be determined as

follows:

With the formula cosine

𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑐 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐵

cos 𝑏 − cos 𝑎 cos 𝑐

𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐵 =

sin 𝑎 sin 𝑐

cos 68𝑜 34′ 38,88′′ − cos 97𝑜 48′ 29′′ cos 75,09077513°

cos 𝐵 =

sin 97𝑜 48′ 29′′ sin 75,09077513°

cos 68,5774666667° − cos 97,8080555556 cos 75,09077513°

cos 𝐵 =

sin 97,8080555556 sin 75,09077513°

0,3652429225 − (−0,1358548662)(0,2572883806)

cos 𝐵 =

(0,9907287496)( 0,9663346673)

0,3651476021 − (−0,03495387852)

cos 𝐵 =

0,9573755366

0,4001014806

cos 𝐵 =

0,9573755366

cos 𝐵 = 0,417914878

𝐵 = 𝑎𝑟𝑐 cos ( 0,417914878) = 65,29698515° = 65°17′ 49,14654′′

Thus can be known the kiblah direction for mosques on campus 3rd UAD is

65°17′ 49,14654′′

D. CONCLUSION

1. Formula spherical triangles in spherical geometry concepts are used to

determine the kiblah direction is

𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑐 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐵

𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑐 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑎 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝑏 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑏 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐶

3rd UAD spherical triangle formula is 65°17′ 49,14654′′(from north to

west)

REFERENCES

Faturrahman, O. Penentuan dan Pengukuan arah kiblat. Yogyakarta : Makalah

Fitriyani, dkk. 2011. Geometri Bola ( Spherical Geometry). Surabaya : Makalah

Hidayati, Nur Arina. 2007. Kontribusi Trigonometri dalam ilmu falak untuk

menentukan arah kiblat dari semua tempat di permukaan bumi .

Yogyakarta: UAD.

Ngatoillah, I. 2001. Aturan sinus dan kosinus dalam Segitiga Bola dan

Aplikasinya dalam dunia fisik dan Kehidupan sehari hari. Makalah

Prosiding Seminar Nasional GMM BEM Himaptika ‘Indentika’ : UPI

Bandung

Soekemi, dkk. 1962. Pendahuluan Ilmu Ukur Ruang. Bandung : CV Pelajar.

Toyyib.Menghitungarahkiblatdenganrumussegitigabola.Jurnalpengajaransains

:Bekasi.

http://personal.fmipa.itb.ac.id/suryadi/files/2008/12/asbol_mbl_simposiumuru_14

agustus2008.pdf

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