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CHE2162 Tutorial Problems Semester Two, 2013

Week 7

Important instructions before you attempt first question –


Organise yourselves in a small group (2-3 students) and discuss the following questions which are part of
Question 1.

1. A gaseous stream of n-pentane enters a 20-cm diameter pipe at a flow rate of 100 kmol/h at 200°C
and 1 atm and is cooled at constant pressure to 100°C. In answering the following questions, use
data in Table B.1 when appropriate.
(a) As the gas moves downstream, state whether the following variables increase, decrease,
stay the same or you cannot tell without more information. Also state the reason why?
i. Molar flow rate
ii. Mass flow rate
iii. Standard volumetric flow rate (Nm3/h)
iv. Actual volumetric flow rate (m3/h)
v. Density (kg/m3)
vi. Gas Velocity (m/s)
vii. Critical Temperature
viii. Vapour Pressure
(b) Would you characterize the pentane as a gas, vapour, or supercritical fluid at (i) the pipe
inlet, (ii) the pipe outlet? Briefly explain your answers.
(c) To what temperature would you have to cool the stream to begin condensation?
(d) Suppose the stream is brought to 470 K and 11.1 atm and you wish to calculate its
volumetric flow rate using the compressibility factor equation of state. Determine z.

2. Vapour-liquid equilibrium data for mixture of acetone (A) and ethanol (B) at 1 atm are given
below:

a) Use the given data to construct a T-x-y diagram for this system.
b) A thermocouple inserted into a two-phase mixture of A and B at equilibrium reads 62.1°C. The
system pressure is 1 atm. Use the T-x-y diagram to estimate the mole fractions of acetone in the
liquid and vapour phases
c) An equimolar mixture of A and B is fed to an evacuated vessel and allowed to come to
equilibrium at 65°C and 1 atm absolute. Estimate (i) the molar compositions of each phase, (ii)
the percentage of total moles in the vessel that are in the vapour phase, and (iii) the percentage
of the vessel volume occupied by the vapour phase.
d) A liquid mixture containing 40.0 mole % A and 60.0 mole % B is fed to a continuous flash
evaporator. Vapour and liquid product streams leave the unit in equilibrium at 1 atm. The molar
flow rate of the vapour product stream is 20% of the molar flow rate of the feed stream.
Estimate the operating temperature of the evaporator and the compositions of the liquid and
vapour product streams
CHE2162 Tutorial Problems Semester Two, 2013

3. [Test 2011] The liquid feed consisting of 90 mol% propylene glycol and 10 mol% water enters a
distillation column at a flow rate of 1000 kmol/h. Heavy liquids from distillation column is drawn at a
flow rate of 1125 kmole/h, of which 80% is taken out as the bottoms product and the rest is recycled
back to the column via a partial reboiler. The vapour from the column is drawn from the top and is
completely condensed. 25% of the condensate is drawn as the top product and the rest is recycled
as a reflux to the column. The process specification requires that 98% of the water that enters in the
column is recovered in the top product.
CHE2162 Tutorial Problems Semester Two, 2013

Vapour
Total Condenser

Reflux Top Product

Liquid
Feed

Boilup

Partial Reboiler
Heavy Liquid

Bottoms Product

a) Analyse the degrees of freedom for the condenser, reboiler and the overall distillation
process.
b) Calculate the molar flow rate of the top product and the vapour that enters the condenser
c) Calculate the mole fractions of the top and the bottom product.

4. [Assignment 2011] Magnesium Carbonate (MgCO3) and 1000kg/h of 31.5 wt% aqueous sulphuric
acid solution are fed to a reactor at 110°C in stoichiometric proportions, where they react
completely to form aqueous Magnesium Sulphate:

MgCO3 + H2SO4  MgSO4 + CO2 + H2O

CO2 is released to the atmosphere while magnesium sulphate solution in the water is sent to a
cooling crystalliser operating at 15°C. The stream leaving the crystalliser is slurry of solid magnesium
sulphate heptahydrate crystals (MgSO4.7H2O) suspended in the saturated mother liquor solution.
This slurry passes to a drum filter operating at the crystalliser temperature, where the mother liquor
is removed and the MgSO4.7H2O crystals are recovered as product. The mother liquor solution
leaving the drum filter is sent to an evaporator operating at 80°C to remove some water. The
concentrated mother liquor from the evaporator is saturated at 80°C and is recycled to the
crystalliser.
Calculate the following –
(a) The production rate of MgSO4.7H2O crystals (kg/h).
(b) Volumetric rate of water loss in the evaporator (L/day). Given that SG water = 1
(c) The recycle rate of concentrated mother liquor leaving the evaporator (kg/h)
(d) If the water leaving the evaporator is condensed to be mixed with a concentrated sulphuric
acid solution to make the feed solution of 31.5 wt% sulphuric acid what would be weight
percentage of H2SO4 in the concentrated sulphuric acid solution. Comment on why it is
important to recycle the water leaving the evaporator.
CHE2162 Tutorial Problems Semester Two, 2013

Data:

Solubility of MgSO4 in water (wt% in solution) Temperature (°C)


25.0 15
37.5 80

5. Water is used to extract acetone from a 30 wt% acetone – 70 wt% MIBK mixture flowing at a rate of
200 kg/h. Two equilibrium stages at 25°C are used as shown in the diagram. If 300 kg/h H2O is fed to
each extraction unit, what fraction of the acetone in the feed solution would be removed and what
would be the composition of the combined extract?

Equilibrium Phase Diagram