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GRINDING WHEEL

BASIC TRAINING
n Pacific Grinding Wheel
Company
GRINDING WHEEL FUNCTION
n To remove material from a work piece in an
abrasive action
n Each grain acts as a cutting tool
n It is a chip formation process
n The only self sharpening cutting tool
n Consider as abrasive machining
GRINDING WHEEL
COMPONENTS

n Abrasive Type A60-M5-V

n Abrasive size A60-M5-V

n Grade/Hardness A60-M5-V

n Structure A60-M5-V

n Bond A60-M5-V
STANDARD MARKING SYSTEM

n Industry Standard
Prefix Abrasive Grain Size Grade Structure Bond Type Suffix

W A 46 K 5 V 17

Coarse Fine
8 80
Manufactures Manufactures
10 100
abrasive code bond code
12 120 4 10
14 150 5 11
16 180 6 12
20 7 13
24 Very 8 14
Fine 9 15
A - Aluminum Oxide V-Vitrified
Medium 220
C - Silicon Carbide 30 240 B - Resin
Z - Zirconia 36 280 R - Rubber
46 320
E – Shellac
60 400
500 P - Epoxy
600

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ABRASIVE GRAIN TYPES

n Abrasive Types
n Aluminum Oxide

n Silicon Carbide

n Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN)

n Synthetic Diamond
ABRASIVE GRAIN PROPERTIES

n Friability - Ability to fracture under pressure


so that as the cutting edges become dull, the
grain breaks off and exposes sharp new
cutting edges.
ABRASIVE GRAIN PROPERTIES
n Hardness - Ability to scratch or penetrate the
work piece.

n Size - Sizing is accomplished by the size of the


screen through which the grain will pass.
ABRASIVE MANUFACTURING
n Manufacture Process
n Bauxite + Coke + Iron Borings
n Cylindrical furnace 7’ dia x 6’ high
n Heated by electrodes to 3,700degress for 16 to
36 hours
n Poured into molds
n Cooled, broken, crushed to size
ABRASIVE GRAIN TYPES
Aluminum Oxide - Types
n Regular
n Brown in color
n Strongest and toughest
n Used in severe operations and on soft steels

n Semifraible
n Light brown or blue/gray in color
n Cooler cutting than regular brown aluminum
oxide
n Used on harder material

n Friable
n White (pink,ruby & gray) in color
n Fractures very easily
n Used on hard steels and alloy steels
ABRASIVE GRAIN TYPES
Silicon Carbide - Types
n Regular
n Black color
n Used on iron base materials, marble, ceramics,
aluminum, brass and copper.

n Green
n More friable than black
n Suited for carbide and other very hard materials

n Review Pacific Specifics Handbook


n Abrasive and Bond designations
ABRASIVE GRAIN TYPES
Zirconia and Ceramic - Types
n Friable
n Faster removal
n Free cutting action
n Less pressure needed

n Tough
n Longer life
n Form Holding
n More pressure needed

n Ceramic Abrasive (3M Cubitron)


n Longer Life
n Aggressive removal rates
n Cooler cutting
n Good form holding
n Best on hard materials over 50 RC
BONDS
n Definition
n Material used as the “GLUE” to hold the
abrasive grains together. Bond has no cutting
action.
GRADE/HARDNESS

n Definition
n The strength with which the bond holds the
abrasive grain together
n Indicated by a letter
n A (Softest) -------------------------- Z (Hardest)

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Grade/Hardness

n Softer Grade Wheel


n Faster cutting
n Less chatter
n Lower amps/power
n Lower wheel life
n Worse finish
n Less form holding

n Harder Grade Wheel


n Slower cutting
n More chatter
n Higher amps/power
n Longer wheel life
n Better finish
n Greater form holding
STRUCTURE

n Definition
n Indicates the density of the wheel (or) the
spacing of grain and bond

n Indicated by a number
n 4-6 (Dense)
n 7-9 (Open)
n 10 + (Induced Porosity)
BONDS
Types
n Vitrified
n Designated by the letter “V”
n Glass or Porcelain
n Normal operating speed is 6,500 sfpm
n Breaks down due to pressure
n Very rigid, stiff
n Resin
n Designated by the letter “B”
n Can operate at higher speeds (9,500-16,000
sfpm)
n Suited for cut-off wheels, foundry wheels and
roll grinding
n Breaks down due to heat and pressure
n Resilient, Forgiving
n Shellac
n Designated by the letter “E”
n Very cool cutting
n Used for roll grinding
n Resilient, very forgiving
PACIFIC BONDS
MOST POPULAR BOND SYSTEMS

n Vitrified
n VB
n General purpose
n VR / VR1
n General purpose
n Use with ceramic mixtures
n VA
n Salmon colored
n VS6
n Softest acting
n VS
n General purpose / Silicon Carbide
n VCCF
n Creep Feed / open structure
n VCP
n Tamped / controlled porosity
PACIFIC BONDS
MOST POPULAR BOND SYSTEMS

n Resin
n BB2
n General purpose
n BG
n Cut off / surface grinding
n BH4
n High strength
n BRG
n Resin / Rubber modified
n D29 / BVN4
n Foundry products
n Epoxy
n PAC
n Poured epoxy
SPECIFICATION SELECTION

n Factors When Selecting A Grinding Wheel


n Material to be ground - type and hardness
n Stock to be removed
n Workpiece geometry and surface finish required
n Grinding machine - type, horsepower and
condition
n Wheel speeds and feeds
n Grinding contact area
n Grinding fluid - wet or dry
n Severity of operation
n Dressing method
n Grinding Engineering Form – Fax to PGW
n Get the details. You can not improve grinding
performance with out understanding all the
parameters.
SPECIFICATION SELECTION -
FACTORS

n Type of Material
n Steels (Aluminum Oxide)
n Low tensile strength materials and non metallic
materials (Silicon Carbide)

n Hardness of Material

n Hard materials
n Finer grit sizes
n Friable abrasives
n Softer grade wheels
n Sharper Abrasives

n Soft materials
n Coarse grit sizes
n General purpose abrasives
n Harder grade wheels
SPECIFICATION SELECTION -
FACTORS

n Stock to be removed

n Light stock removal


n Friable grains
n Finer grit sizes
n Softer grade wheels
n Heavy stock removal
n Tougher grains
n Coarser grit sizes
n Harder grade wheels

n Workpiece geometry

n Flat/Uninterrupted surface (no form)


n Finer grit sizes
n Softer grade wheels
n Open Structures
n Form/Interrupted surface
n Coarser grit sizes
n Harder grade wheels
n Tighter structures
SPECIFICATION SELECTION -
FACTORS

n Surface Finish

n Better finish
n Finer grit sizes
n Harder grade wheels
n Less friable abrasives
n Worse finish
n Coarser grit sizes
n Softer grade wheels
n More friable abrasives

n Machine Horsepower

n Higher horsepower
n Harder grade wheels
n Tougher abrasives
n Lower horsepower
n Softer grade wheels
n Friable abrasives
SPECIFICATION SELECTION -
FACTORS

n Wheel Speed

n Faster wheel surface feet per minute


n Softer grade wheels
n Slower wheel surface feet per minute
n Harder grade wheels

n Grinding Contact Area

n Large contact area


n Softer grade wheels
n Coarser grit size
n Friable abrasives
n Small contact area
n Harder grade wheels
n Finer grit size
n Tougher abrasives
SPECIFICATION SELECTION -
FACTORS

n Wet or Dry Applications

n Wet
n Harder grade wheels
n Tougher abrasives
n Open structures
n Dry
n Softer grade wheels
n Friable abrasives
n Tighter structures
SPECIFICATION SELECTION

n Abrasive Grain Selection


n 50A
n Light feed rights (.001” or less)
n Used on heat sensitive materials
n Most friable abrasive
n Coolest cutting
n White in color
n 53A
n Heavy feed rates (.005” or more)
n Better for form holding
n Good for rough grinding
n Ruby color
n 54A
n Mixture of 53A (ruby) and 50A (white)
n Medium feed rates (.002 “ - .003”)
n Good multi-purpose abrasive
n Most versatile
SPECIFICATION SELECTION

n Abrasive Grain Selection


n 49A
n Light to medium feed rates (.001’ - .003”)
n Good general purpose abrasive
n Cool cutting
n Similar to 54A in application
n Pink in color
n 56A 81A
n medium to heavy feed rates (.001” - .006”)
n Good multi-purpose abrasive
n Very versatile
n Light pink and cream in color
n Replaces 32A
n 42A
n Mixture of 50A and A
n General purpose grain mixture
n For both soft and medium hard steels
n Brown/white or blue/white in color
SPECIFICATION SELECTION

n Abrasive Grain Selection


n 75C / C
n Used on non-metallic materials
n Iron, plastic, glass etc…
n Used in fine grit sizes for finish grinding
n Black in color
n 80C
n For sharpening carbide tools
n Used on some difficult to grind alloys
n Used in very fine grit sizes for finish
grinding
n Green in color

n Silicon Carbide abrasives are good


thermal conductors of heat.
SPECIFICATION SELECTION

n Abrasive selection depends on workpiece and


hardness
n Above 40 Rc, there are several candidate abrasives.
Mixed regular and friable aluminum oxide and
friable aluminum oxide are popular up to 58 Rc.
Above 58 Rc, friable aluminum oxides are popular.

Ceramic and Aluminum Oxide


mixtures

Friable Aluminum Oxide


White - Pink - Ruby

Mixture of Regular Aluminum Oxide


and Friable Aluminum Oxide
Dominant - Regular

Regular Aluminum Oxide

20 30 40 50 60 70

Rockwell Hardness
SPECIFICATION SELECTION
n Grit Size Selection
Coarse Medium Fine

12 14 16 20 24 30 36 46 54 60 70 80 90 100 120 150

Vertical Spindle Horizontal Spindle


Form Grinding
Surface Grinding Surface Grinder

Portable Grinding Tool & Cutter Grinding

Dry Cutoff Thread Grinding

Foundry
Centerless & Cylindrical
Snagging

Wet Cutoff

Bench Grinding

Hot Mill Roll Grinding Cold Mill Roll Grinding


SPECIFICATION SELECTION
n Grit Size Selection
n Use Coarse Grit
n Rapid stock removal
n Large areas of contact
n When finish is not important
n Soft, ductile materials

n Use Fine Grit


n When form holding is needed
n Small areas of contact
n Fine finishes
n Hard, brittle materials
n Hold radius

Grit Size 46 54 60 80 100 120 150 220


Finish (RMS) Over 32 20 - 32 15 - 20 12 - 18 10 - 15 8 - 12 6 - 10 5-6
Radius Over .020 .017 - .020 .016 - .020 .010 - .020 .008 - .010 .005 - .008 .004 - .006 .003 - .005
SPECIFICATION SELECTION
n Wheel Grade Selection - Hardness

D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Segments Cylindrical

Honing Sticks

Dressing Sticks

Foundry
Surface Grinding
Snagging

Bench Grinding

Cutter Grinding Thread Grinding

Crank and Cam Grinding

Internal Grinding Saw Gumming

Centerless Grinding
SPECIFICATION SELECTION

n Structure Selection - Vitrified Bonds

n Closed structure
n Form holding
n Tool and Cutter sharpening
n Numbers form 4 - 6

n Open Structure
n Surface grinding
n Cylindrical grinding
n Most popular
n Numbers from 7 - 9

n Induced Porosity
n Surface grinding
n Blanchard grinding (Segments/Cylinders)
n Heat sensitive parts
n Numbers from 10 and up
STANDARD WHEEL SHAPES
STANDARD WHEEL SHAPES
SPECIAL WHEEL FACES
WHEEL CARE & SAFETY
n Grinding Wheel Care
n Inspection
n Visually inspect for chips, cracks or damage to wheel
n Vitrified Only
n Ring test with wooden or plastic handle

n Wheel Handling Rules


n Handle wheels carefully to prevent dropping or bumping
n Do not roll wheel on its edge
n Use trucks or suitable conveyors which support heavy
wheels
n Stack wheels carefully on trucks to prevent damage in
transit
n Do not pile any materials or tools on top of a grinding
wheel
WHEEL CARE & SAFETY
n Grinding Wheel Care
n Wheel Storage
n Do not subject wheels to :
n Humidity , water or other liquids
n Freezing temperatures
n Sudden temperature change
n Wheels should be stored in proper racks, bins or drawers
WHEEL CARE & SAFETY

n Grinding Wheel Safety


n Check MOS against machine speed
n Never force a grinding wheel onto a machine spindle
n Do not use flanges that are not flat and clean
n Wear safety glasses
n Always use a wheel guard that cover at least 1/2 of
wheel
n Always stand to one side when starting the wheel
n Allow a newly mounted wheel to run one minute
before using
n Never grind on the side of the wheel
n Always shut off the coolant before stopping the
grinder
n Never force the wheel by suddenly jamming work into
it
n Grind only materials for which the wheel is designed