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Journal of Cleaner Production 168 (2017) 1230e1243

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Journal of Cleaner Production


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jclepro

Review

Towards zero waste manufacturing: A multidisciplinary review


Sunpreet Singh a, *, Seeram Ramakrishna b, c, Munish Kumar Gupta d
a
School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India
b
Center for Nano Fibers and Nano Technology, NUS, Singapore
c
NUS Future of Manufacturing Initiative, Department of Mechanical Engineering, NUS, Singapore
d
Mechanical Engineering Department, NIT Hamirpur, H.P., India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The word “Waste” normally emphasis something around us which should be re-cycle, re-used, reduced
Received 31 July 2017 or even eliminated, if possible. A giant amount of waste, such as: electronics/electrical items,
Received in revised form manufacturing scrap, discarded constructional materials, polymers from daily needs, etc., is being
9 September 2017
generated day-by-day, whereas its treatment is lagging. The term zero waste (ZW) is continuously
Accepted 11 September 2017
Available online 11 September 2017
encouraging both producers and consumers to adopt sustainable approaches in order to reduce their
expenditures as well as to help in making a better world. In the past, researchers have highlighted
numerous techniques to tackle physical waste, however the chemicals which are normally generated
Keywords:
Additive manufacturing
from this waste is more critical and limitedly reported. Zero Waste Manufacturing (ZWM) is believed as a
Constructional waste roadmap for future of manufacturing by which the burning issue of “Waste” can be tackled. However,
Electronic and electrical waste ZWM can be supported with recycling and reusability of the produced wastes in another manufacturing
Polymer waste process, use of optimization tools and sustainable manufacturing theories, development of precision
Recycle manufacturing systems, etc. This review article is taken up to discuss various recent sustainable
Reuse manufacturing ideas applied in the prominent sectors with an aim to either re-cycle/re-use the discarded
Sustainable manufacturing ones or to produce a fresh part in eco-friendly manners. Special attention is paid to the current trends in
Zero waste manufacturing
machining and a brief case study of sustainable manufacturing of aerospace industry has also been
discussed.
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1230
2. ZWM through re-cycling of wastes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1232
2.1. Plastics/polymers waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1232
2.2. Electric and electronic waste (e-waste) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1233
2.3. Machining scrap, tires, glass, ceramics wastes etc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1234
3. ZWM through sustainable manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1235
3.1. Recent trends in forming operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1237
3.2. Recent trends in foundry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1237
3.3. Recent trends in machining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1237
4. End note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1239
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1241

1. Introduction

Manufacturing is essential for sustaining economic growth. The


* Corresponding author. contribution of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in manufacturing
E-mail address: snprt.singh@gmail.com (S. Singh). ranges from fifteen to twenty five percent of national economies.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.09.108
0959-6526/© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
S. Singh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 168 (2017) 1230e1243 1231

Manufacturing itself accounts for a quarter of worldwide employ-


ment. Recognizing the importance of manufacturing sector, several
nations launched generously funded programs to innovate and
build factories of the future. In this today's industrialization,
manufacturing of goods and services has expanded drastically in
order to meet up with the global demand (Lopez, 1994). Now, we
have a very broad range of products, which involves: household
needs, exceptionally advanced electronic accessories, automobiles,
processing and synthesis tools, eatables, etc (Crocker, 2013). Usu-
ally, the production of all goods and services is highly complex
wherein one has to sacrifice his resources at each and every stage.
In general, these sacrificed resources are unable to recover or to
reuse, hence contributes towards manufacturing waste. This
manufacturing waste is not specific to a particular category of
process or material, but it is common for all. As a result of which,
the globe is suffering from the critical problem of waste. Controlling
the diversity of the waste streams is itself a big challenge for de-
cision makers and at most of the occasions they need to choose in-
efficient and environmentally polluting solutions, such as landfill
(Zaman, 2014).
Curran and Williams (2012) outlined that zero waste is a whole-
system approach having aims to ‘eliminate’ rather than ‘manage’
waste. Zero emissions process represents a shift from the tradi-
Fig. 1. Factors influenced sustainable material flow (Kumar et al., 2005).
tional industrial practices wherein wastes from one system acts as
input material for another. It advocates an industrial trans-
formation that can minimize its impact on the natural resources. products that can be easily reused and achieve consistent function
Zero-waste can be categorized into followings sub-systems; (i) zero with a reliable service life across multiple use cycles. Manu-fac-
waste in administration and manufacturing; (ii) zero waste of re- turing presents a challenge in achieving sustainable flow cycles as
sources; (iii) zero emissions; (iv) zero waste in product life and; (v) the attitude towards conventional manufacturing processes is one
zero use of toxics. Further, this should be highlighted that waste of the major barrier (Kumar et al., 2005). In order to tackle such
cannot responsibly be dumped without due concern and prepara- barriers, various countries have started joint research projects
tion, because not only is it unsightly, unhygienic, and potentially within their academic institutions and industries. Singapore's
disastrous to our environment, it also requires the allocation of Research, Innovation and Enterprise plan known as RIE2020 is one
space and incurs costs related to the consequences of the waste of the example of major thrust plans in Advanced Manufacturing
disposal. Suitable landfill sites are becoming more difficult to find and Engineering, AME. Other examples from Asia include Make in
and there is large cost involved in providing conveniently located India, China Manufacturing 2025, Digital Korea, and Japan's In-
and environmentally responsible landfill facilities (Ngoc and dustrial Value Chain Initiative. Germany's Factories of the Future
Schnitzer, 2009). The rate of waste generation is very fast and and UK's Innovative Manufacturing are examples from Europe.
very soon it seems to be un-manageable to locate proper landfill Similarly, America launched US Advanced Manufacturing
sites. According to a compiled report of 2009, it has been came to Initiative program. This means that, the worldwide total in-
know that Malaysia, USA, Europe, Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, vestments in manufacturing supposed to exceed tens of billions
Cambodia, Myanmar and Brunei produced 0.81kg/cap/day dollars. In these initiatives, we have two major considerations;
(Hanssan et al., 2001), 2.2kg/cap/day, 1.5kg/cap/day, 1.1kg/cap/day what are the opportune domains for innovation and entrepre-
(National Environment Agency, 2001), 0.61kg/cap/day, 64kg/cap/ neurship? What are the new drivers? And the answer should be
day (Ministerial Regional Forum, 2007), 52kg/cap/day, 0kg/cap/day focused on the three emerging and popular themes i.e. digital
(Lwin, 2003), 0.45kg/cap/day and 0.66kg/cap/day, respectively. manufacturing (DM), sustainable manufacturing and ZWM. Basi-
Till now, zero waste manufacturing (ZWM) is a philosophical cally, DM leverages advances in digital technologies to model,
term that encourages the manufacturing systems to produce parts/ design, simulate, and analyze machines, tooling, and input mate-
needs without contributing towards waste. As per the availability of rials in order to optimize the manufacturing processes and produce
manufacturing/construction/synthesis tools and systems within customized products for the local markets. Benefits of DM include
the small scale, medium scale and even large scale industries, it is improved productivity, resources efficiency and customized mass
not possible to completely eliminate the waste associated with production, respectively. Resources efficiency means optimal uti-
these. However, one may also leads towards ZWM; if he/she is able lization of materials, energy and water in the manufacturing of
to re-cycle or re-design or re-use the waste produced from one products, thus eliminating pollution and reducing costs. It also
process in an another process. For instance, kerbside recycling leads to the aspiration of ZWM. ZWM involves designing of prod-
company in Australia attained a net benefit of $72million through ucts and processes in which no trash is sent to landfills or in-
waste recycling (about 400,000tonnes). Indeed, as material, energy cinerators. Wider scope envisaged means eliminating all emissions
and waste costs rise, environmental efficiency improvements will during manufacturing to land, water or air that are a threat to
have greater benefit than ever before. Further, sustainable material planetary, human, animal or plant health. One approach is to
flow is influenced by many factors as discussed in Fig. 1. redesign products and materials selection suitable for reuse.
Undoubtedly, manufacturing plays a prominent role in waste Another approach is to conserve and recover resources from the
generations and could be resolved by adopting methodologies in used products, and use them in manufacturing new products.
which the product once produced can satisfy multi-utility even Hence, the objective of this work is to discuss the recent inno-
after it get obsolete from primary application. For this, the signifi- vation towards re-cycling and reusability of the waste in
cant attention must be devoted to manufacturing in order to create manufacturing/constructional applications. A special attention has
1232 S. Singh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 168 (2017) 1230e1243

been paid on various sustainable manufacturing processes such as: of a modern civilization without plastics as these have found a
machining, foundry and sheet metal operations, in order to discuss countless applications in household appliances, greenhouses,
how far we have made it for ZWM. Further, a brief insight on ad- mulches, coating and wiring, packaging, construction, medicine,
ditive manufacturing has also been outlined as future electronics, automotive and aerospace components. The various
manufacturing. Overall, this review article is designed in a way to plastics produced throughout the world can be proportionate in
motivate engineers/scientist/researchers to adopt ZWM strategies. terms of their percentages as: 31% polyethylene (PE), 17% polyvinyl
The organization of this paper is as follows: Section 1 introduces chloride (PVC), 15% thermoset, 14% polypropylene (PP), and 9%
the background and the context of in which the study has been polystyrene (PS), respectively. In addition, other kinds of plastics,
done. Section 2 presents the literature on various approaches in- such as: acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyamide (PA) or
clined to re-cycle waste materials for engineering applications. nylon-6, poly-lactic-acid, etc., not mentioned here comprise 14% of
Sustainable/lean manufacturing ideas and brief case study of sus- the world production (Yasar and Dünyası, 2001). Thermoplastics
tainable manufacturing of aerospace industry has been discussed in contribute roughly 80% in the total plastic consumption and are
Section 3. Further, section 4 will end this review by highlighting an used for typical plastics applications such as packaging but also in
end note. non-plastics applications such as textile fibers and coatings (Dewil
et al., 2006). While plastics are found in all major solid waste cat-
2. ZWM through re-cycling of wastes egories including containers and packaging plastics such as: sacks,
wraps, soft drink, milk, bags and water containers (USEPA, 2002;
As discussed earlier, the advancement of technology has led to USEPA, 2008). In durable goods, plastics are found in appliances,
an increase in the amount and type of waste being generated, furniture, casings of lead-acid batteries, and other products. In the
leading to a disposal crisis. In an article by Batayneh et al. (2007), UK, recent studies highlighted that, the plastic waste make up 7% of
authors have precisely explained the hierarchy of waste (refer the final waste stream (Parfitt, 2002). And the packaging accounts
Fig. 2). for 37.2% of all plastics consumed in Europe and 35% worldwide
It can be clearly understand that, the waste can be significantly (Clark and Hardy, 2004). The largest component of the plastic waste
controlled or treated either through re-use or re-cycle. However, is low density polyethylene/linear low density polyethylene (LDPE)
both these terms are always confusing with each other. Let us at about 23%, followed by 17.3% of high density polyethylene, 18.5%
suppose, we have an obsolete computer whose parts such as: hard of PP, 12.3% of PS/extended PS), 10.7% PVC, 8.5% polyethylene
disk, screen, graphic cards, cabinet, etc., can be used at some other terephthalate and 9.7% of other types (Association of Plastics
place. This is called re-use. Whereas re-cycling involves re- Manufactures in Europe , 2004).
processing, may be thermally, chemically or mechanically, of the The several options available to treat plastic wastes involves: re-
materials (not the system) through material recovery and synthesis use, re-extrusion (primary process), mechanical recycling (known
operations. This section aims to review the re-cycling approaches as secondary process), chemical recycling (tertiary process) and
applied on different types of waste materials while addressing their energy recovery (quaternary process), refer Fig. 3 (Hamad et al.,
suitable engineering applications. As the theme of this review is 2013; Al-Salem. 2009). Re-use of plastic is most economic and
ZWM, so we have particularly focused the engineering applications easiest way. However, this demands lot of time, funds as well as
and exempted all other types of waste which involves: municipal innovations in order to attain proper utilization of waste plastics for
and sewage waste. certain applications. On the other side, re-extrusion recycling in-
volves the re-introduction of clean scrap of single polymer to the
extrusion cycle in order to produce products of the similar material.
2.1. Plastics/polymers waste
This process utilizes scrap plastics that have similar features to the
original products (Al-Salem et al., 2009). Currently, most of the
Plastic/Polymer recycling is a way to reduce environmental
plastic wastes are being recycled with the help of this technique.
problems caused by polymeric waste accumulation generated from
Particularly in UK, about 250000tonnes of plastic waste was
day-to-day applications of polymer materials, mainly from pack-
generated in early 2000, 95% of which was primary recycled
aging and construction (Hamad et al., 2013). It is very hard to think
(Parfitt, 2002). In mechanical re-cycling, the plastic is ground down
and then reprocessed and compounded to produce a new compo-
nent that may or may not be the same as its original use (Cui and

Fig. 2. Hierarchy of waste (Batayneh et al., 2007). Fig. 3. Method to re-cycle plastic wastes (Singh et al., 2017a).
S. Singh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 168 (2017) 1230e1243 1233

Forssberg, 2003). This process was promoted and commercialized


all over the world back in the 1970s. Mechanical re-cycling of PSW
can only be performed on single-polymer plastic, e.g. PE, PP, PS, etc.
Mechanical re-cycling involved numerous steps in waste treatment
and preparation, hence being a costly and an energy intense pro-
cess. Normally, the starting step in mechanical recycling process
(for setup schematic, see Fig. 4) involves size reduction of the
plastic to pallets, powder or flakes, which is achieved by milling,
grinding or shredding (Zia et al., 2007). Further in chemical re-
cycling, the polymer waste is turned back into its oil/hydrocarbon Fig. 5. Waste nylon-6 (a) and development of fused deposition modelling filament
component in the cases of polyolefin's and monomers in the case of with single screw extrusion (b) (Singh et al., 2016b).
polyesters and polyamides, which can be used as raw materials for
new polymer production and petro-chemical industry (Sasse and
Emig, 1998). The chemical re-cycling can be categorized into become an immediate and long term concern as its unregulated
advanced process like: pyrolysis, gasification, liquid-gas hydroge- accumulation and recycling can lead to major environmental
nation, viscosity breaking, steam or catalytic cracking and the use of problems and endangering human health (Technical Report: e-
plastic waste as a reducing agent in blast furnaces (Al-Salem, 2009). waste in India by Agnihotri, 2011). The creation of innovative and
Moreover, the energy recovery process was found particularly to be new technologies and the globalization of the economy have made
an attainable solution to plastic waste in general and municipal a whole range of products available and affordable to the people
waste. A number of environmental concerns are associated with changing their lifestyles significantly. Electronic products, an
this method, mainly emission of certain air pollutants such as: CO2, indispensable part of human's life, are providing us comfort, se-
NOx and SOx. curity, entertainment, easy and faster acquisition and exchange of
In the past two decades, a fair amount of work has been done in information. But on the other hand, it has also led to unrestrained
the field of recycling of plastics/polymers by the various re- resource consumption and an alarming waste generation. It com-
searchers. Some of the latest and important studies have been prises a whole range of electrical and electronic items including:
presented and shown in this work. From the first research group, refrigerators, washing machines, computers and printers, televi-
Siddique et al. (2008) reviewed the various applications of waste sions, mobiles, i-pods, etc., and many of which contain toxic ma-
and recycled plastics on the fresh and hardened properties of terials. E-waste consists of all waste from electronic and electrical
concrete. The effect of recycled and waste plastic on bulk density, appliances which have reached their end-of- life period or are no
air content, workability, and compressive strength, splitting tensile longer fit for their original intended use and are destined for re-
strength, modulus of elasticity, impact resistance, permeability, and covery, recycling or disposal. It includes computer and its acces-
abrasion resistance was also discussed by them. Similarly, Singh sories monitors, printers, keyboards, central processing units;
et al. (2016b) performed a research work on the extrusion of typewriters, mobile phones and chargers, remotes, compact discs,
nylon-6 waste (collected from local industry, refer Fig. 5a and b) headphones, batteries, LCD/Plasma TVs, air conditioners, re-
and developed reinforced fused deposition modelling pattern for frigerators and other household appliances (Lalchandani, 2010).
investment casting applications. Some other former researchers The composition of e-waste is diverse and falls under ‘hazard-
have also conducted their studies on recycling of plastics materials ous’ and ‘non-hazardous’ categories. Broadly, it consists of ferrous
in different processes and operations (as tabulated in Table 1). From and non-ferrous metals, plastics, glass, wood and plywood, printed
their investigations, it has been observed that, the plastic waste circuit boards, concrete, ceramics, rubber and other items. Iron and
used in various processes can increases the mechanical as well as steel constitute about 50% of the waste, followed by plastics, non-
thermal properties and increases the efficiency of system, ferrous metals and other constituents. Non-ferrous metals consist
respectively. of metals like copper, aluminium and precious metals like silver,
gold, platinum, palladium, etc. (Vasile et al., 2008; Cui and
Forssberg, 2003; Goosey and Kellner, 2003). Mechanical and hy-
2.2. Electric and electronic waste (e-waste) drometallurgical methods have been the traditional methods of
recycling printed circuit boards. Many researchers have used
Like other hazardous wastes, the problem of e-waste has various mechanical methods to separate metals and nonmetals
from printed circuit boards such as: multi-crushing, grinding,
electrostatic separation, gravity separation, density-based separa-
tion and magnetic separation (Li et al., 2007, 2009). A generic flow
diagram for e-waste treatment is given by Brandl et al. (2010), as
shown in Fig. 6.
Zhou and Qiu (2010) applied a new process of centrifugal sep-
aration and vacuum pyrolysis for the combined recovery of solder
and organic materials from wasted printed circuit boards (WPCBs),
as shown in Fig. 7.
The pyrolysis oils can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock. This
new method has been highlighted as a clean and non-polluting
technology which offers a new way to recycle valuable materials
from WPCBs. Alagusankareswari et al. (2016) used non-
biodegradable e-waste in concrete and tested the mechanical
properties of the samples thereby. Brandl et al. (2001) also applied
the microbiological processes to mobilize metals from e-waste
materials. Soo et al. (2013) conducted a study to look into possi-
Fig. 4. Schematic of mechanical re-cycler setup (Zia et al., 2007). bilities of the recycling of CRT manufacturing waste sludge as
1234 S. Singh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 168 (2017) 1230e1243

Table 1
Literature related to the ZWM through re-cycling of wastes (Work done related to the plastics/polymers waste).

Authors and Year Materials Recycled Methodology Used Investigations Remarks/Conclusions

Elzafraney et al. (2005) HDPE, PVC and PP Mixed in the cement Thermal and energy Recycled plastic is helpful for increasing
concretes the properties of concrete
Parasivamurthy (2007) Shredded Plastics Mixed in the cement Strength Strength increases with the addition of
concretes concentration of plastic materials
Lei et al. (2007) HDPE and natural fibers Melt blending and Mechanical properties Composites showed a lower
compression moulding crystallization peak temperatures and
process lower thermal stability
Boronat et al. (2009) High viscosity grade Injection Moulding Temperature and shear rate Viscosity of low grade material is
and low viscosity grade reduced with the increasing no of cycles
ABS and the melt viscosity is increases for
high grade material
Perez et al. (2010) ABS Extrusion and injection Mechanical, thermal and rheological Melt viscosity and tensile strength
Moulding techniques properties remain same but the impact strength
slightly decreases
Aurrekoetxea Polypropylene (PP) Injection Moulding Chemical structure, melt viscosity, Melt viscosity decreases with recycling,
et al. (2011) crystallization behavior, tensile and whereas other properties increases
fracture properties with recycling
Vanitha et al. (2015) HDPE Mixed in the cement Strength Strength increases with the addition of
concretes concentration of plastic materials
Singh et al. (2016a) HDPE, 90-HDPEþ10-Fe Extrusion Mechanical/metallurgical properties e
powder, LDPE and 94- (like: porosity, peak elongation, break
LDPEþ6-Fe powder strength, Shore D hardness
Singh et al. (2016b) Nylon-6 waste Extrusion Volume of pattern, density of pattern e
and number of investment casting
coatings

additive in asphalt concrete mix materials. Specimens of varying recommendations (Chatterjee, 2007). E-waste is chemically and
compositions of asphalt and CRT sludge were prepared by following physically distinct from other forms of municipal or industrial
standard operating procedures and tested for their stability, flow waste. It contains both valuable and hazardous materials that
rate, porosity and density. E-waste is currently being filled in the require special handling and recycling methods to avoid environ-
land which is depleting the quality of fertile sand (Barba-Gutierrez mental contamination and detrimental effects on human health.
et al., 2008; USEPA, 2002). Spalvins et al. (2008) concluded that e- Effective electronics recycling requires the involvement of human
waste disposal in modern-municipal solid waste landfills is unlikely as without our awareness and courage, it would not be possible.
to result in lead leachate concentrations of regulatory concern. This essentially means that consumers need to know where to take
Dagan et al. (2007) demonstrated that, the chemical cocktail that their electronic devices and when they become obsolete or defunct.
leached from a variety of consumer electronics using TCLP was toxic The best option for dealing with e-wastes is to reduce the volume.
to aquatic organisms. Liu et al. (2008) reported elevated concen- For this, designers should ensure that the product is built for re-use,
trations of PCBs in soils, plants and snails from the town of Guiyu repair and/or upgradeability. Recovery of metals, plastic glass and
and the surrounding areas. other materials reduces the magnitude of e-waste. Such kind of
Many e-waste contaminants are spread into the air via dust. This options has the potential to both reduce the amount of
is a major exposure pathway for humans through ingestion, inha- manufacturing energy and the release of toxic materials in
lation and skin absorption (Mielke and Reagan, 1998). A report by environment.
the Basel Action Network and the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition,
Exporting Harm: Trashing of Asia’ asserts that 50e80% of e-waste
2.3. Machining scrap, tires, glass, ceramics wastes etc
collected for recycling in the US is exported to developing Nations
(Heart, 2007). The aerial contamination with dioxins has resulted in
Apart from plastic and e-waste, other types of wastes such as:
the levels of human exposure to 15e56 times higher than the WHO
machining scrap, paper, tires, glass, ash, composites, ceramics, etc.,
also contributes towards devastation of resources, energy, economy
and environment. Literature has shown tremendous examples of
utilization and reduction of these wastes (refer Table 2). Some of
those have been discussed in this section. Shukla (2013) deter-
mined the strength characteristic of CNC waste with recycled

Fig. 6. Generic e-waste treatment flow diagram (Brandl et al., 2010). Fig. 7. Collected WPCBs (Zhou and Qiu, 2010).
S. Singh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 168 (2017) 1230e1243 1235

aggregates in concrete mix. In their work, different proportions of


CNC waste aggregate (1 and 2%) were added in concrete castings
and were subjected to several tests (such as: workability test,
compressive strength test and bulk density, water absorption,
impact value test, crushing value test, fineness modulus), as per the
IS specification. It has been found that the compressive strength
was gradually increased by 50% with 2% of CNC waste. Similarly,
Vijayakumar et al. (2012) used THE lathe scrap (shown in Fig. 8) as
fiber reinforced concrete in the innovative construction industry.
In a similar way, Sengul (2016) presented the results of an
experimental program wherein steel fibers recovered from scrap
tires and were used to produce fiber reinforced concretes at
different percentages. Some mechanical properties such as:
compressive strength, splitting strength and flexural strength were
determined. And the load-deflection behaviors (refer Fig. 9)
including the post-peak responses were monitored by means of a
closed-loop bending test set-up. Test results showed that, the steel
fibers recovered from scrap tires (W0.3, W0.6 and W1.4) affected
the mechanical behavior of concrete as similar to the commercial
steel fibers (C).
Likewise, Bignozzi and Sandrolini (2006) prepared rubberized
self-compacting concrete containing different amounts of un-
Fig. 8. Collected lathe scrap (Vijayakumar et al., 2012).
treated tire waste to evaluate their mechanical (refer Fig. 10a) and
microstructure behavior (refer Fig. 10b).
is turned into a challenging issue for its market share as the waste
management is considered as a major challenge (Mahdavi and
3. ZWM through sustainable manufacturing
Danesh, 2016). The influence of the production activities on the
global environment becomes remarkable, and the effective
In this competitive world, the quality of manufactured products

Table 2
Literature related to the ZWM through re-cycling of wastes (Work done related to the machining scrap, tires, glass, ceramics wastes, etc.).

Authors and Year Materials Recycled Methodology Used Investigations Remarks/Conclusions

Ay and Unal (2000) Waste tile Mixed in the cements Pozzolanic properties of waste tile and Waste tiles have all
setting time, volume stability, particle pozzolanic properties
size, density, specific surface area, and and also used for
strength reducing cost
Rapoprt et al. (2001) Steel fiber Mixed in the reinforced Permeability test Steel fiber reduced
concrete permeability
Putman and Waste tire and carpet Stone matrix asphalt Mechanical properties Improvement in
Amirkhanian (2004) fibers toughness values
Mu et al. (2003) Chromium-containing Post-tanning operations of Various alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis e
leather waste leather processing were compared
treatment process
Bignozzi and Tire waste Mixed in the rubberized Mechanical and micro-structure High compressive
Sandrolini (2006) concretes behavior strength was obtained
Ismail and Waste glass Mixed in the concretes Strength properties and ASR expansion Overall strength
AL-Hashmi (2009) increased
Abbas (2011) Steel solid wastes Mixed in the reinforced Compression and workability test Strength increased
concrete whereas workability
decreased
Shende et al. (2012) Steel fibers Mixed in the concretes Mechanical properties Overall strength
increased
Murali et al. (2012) Lathe waste, soft drink Mixed in the concretes Mechanical properties Overall strength
bottle caps, empty increased
waste tins, waste steel
powder
Vijayakumar et al. (2012) Lathe scrap Mixed in the concretes Mechanical properties Strength increased
Murthi et al. (2015) Natural coarse Mixed in the concretes Ultra-sonic pulse velocity testing, e
aggregate, steel slag compressive strength
aggregate and fly ash
Alwaeli (2016) Scale and steel chips Mixed in the concretes Mechanical properties Steel mixed with
concrete provide better
compressive strength
Sengul (2016) Scrap tiers Mixed in the concretes Mechanical properties e
Taha et al. (2016) Ceramic products using Calamine process tailings Effect of firing temperature on physical The flexural strength is
calamine and mechanical properties increased, whereas
hydrometallurgical porosity and water
processing wastes absorption decreases
with the firing
temperature
1236 S. Singh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 168 (2017) 1230e1243

Fig. 9. Load-deflection curves of concrete (Sengul, 2016).

countermeasures in the reduction of waste and energy conserva-


tion are strongly required in manufacturing processes. Environ-
Fig. 11. Sustainable-directed production (Jawahir and Dillion, 2007).
mentally conscious manufacturing has received increasing interest
in the last couple of years owing to preventive legislations. This
credit goes to the Europeans who initiated the trend of “Product recognized that there was a pattern of improvement that could
Take-Back” from the customers, which also acted as an encour- naturally be divided into the five phases of problem solving, usually
agement for many American industries. King and Lenox (2001) referred to by the acronym DMAIC, i.e. Define-Measure-Analyze-
described “green” as ‘the good public spill over of Lean’ and explain Improve-Control (George et al., 2004). Some of the authors have
these positive side-effects in the efforts towards waste reduction connected lean manufacturing with sustainable manufacturing
and the cutting back of pollution. It involves green design of (Piercy and Rich, 2015).
products, use of environmental friendly raw materials, eco-friendly Sustainable development has become an important part of
packing, distribution, and reuse after end of life of product. It slows approaches to integrate economic, environmental, and social as-
the depletion of natural resources and lowers the trash (Foster, pects. The Department of Commerce recently identified sustain-
2001). Its emphasis is on reducing parts, rationalising materials, able manufacturing as one of its high-priority performance goals
reusing components. It covers a number of manufacturing issues, (Akbari et al., 2001). The concept of sustainable production was
including ‘6 Rs’ i.e. reduce, reuse, recycle, recover, redesign and emerged at the United Nations conference on environment and
remanufacturing as shown in Fig. 11 (Jawahir et al., 2006; Jawahir development in 1992, and was concluded that the major source
and Dillion, 2007). for environmental degradation is unsustainable production and
There is a synergistic relationship between green and lean consumption patterns (Veleva and Ellenbecker, 2001). The choice
manufacturing as these two paradigms cannot be combined. between competing alternative designs is usually made on the
Franchetti et al. (2009) stated the difference between lean and basis of some quantitative score derived from a procedure that
green lie in-terms of nature of the research and industrial practices evaluates the net environmental impact over the life of the
and their affect on the environment. The goal of sustainable product like life cycle assessment/costing. This exercise is usually
manufacturing is to reduce the waste in human effort, inventory, faced a fateful problem to greater practical implementation of
time to market and manufacturing space to become highly sustainability initiatives and lead to efforts in developing more
responsive to customer demand while producing world-class readily implemented life cycle cost assessment methods (Graedel
quality products in the most efficient and economical manner et al., 1995; Park and Seo, 2006). Jayal and Balaji (2007) pro-
(Todd, 2000). Lean manufacturing generally uses tools namely: posed a sustainable manufacturing approach to minimize the use
kaizen, one-piece flow, cellular manufacturing, synchronous of energy, material and to maximize the part life. The mutually
manufacturing, inventory management; pokayoke, standardized beneficial relationship between sustainability and economic per-
work, workplace organization and scrap reduction to reduce formance is now generally accepted as true. Previous studies
manufacturing waste (Russell and Taylor, 1999). Over the years, highlight a range of positive relationships between sustainability
many lean manufacturing tools and techniques are available and economic performance, including: cost savings, product
(Cusumano and Nobeoka, 1998; Feld, 2000). Further, Lean Six Sigma quality improvement, increasing market share, getting ahead of
is also a well-known methodology for quality and waste improve- legislation, accessing new markets, increasing employee retention,
ment, which is characterized by DMAIC phases. Motorola Company and improving public relations.

(a) (b)

Fig. 10. Compressive strength of Sengul (2016) vs literature samples (a) and scanning electron micrograph of rubber (A) and cement (B) casting (b) (Bignozzi and Sandrolini, 2006).
S. Singh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 168 (2017) 1230e1243 1237

3.1. Recent trends in forming operation there are 3000 foundry in Europe that annually generate more than
9 million tonnes of sand waste (Unamunzaga, 2016). Indian
Metal forming processes have indeed a great relevance within Foundry Industry is the 4th largest casting producer in the world,
industrial production, thus their environmental analysis is crucial having a total of 5000 foundry units and installed capacity of
(Ingarao et al., 2012). A deep analysis of material parameters and approximately 7.5 million tonnes per annum. The 95% of the
energy consumption within each sheet metal/forming process is foundry units in India falls under the category of small-scale in-
important in order to model the environmental impacts and to dustry (Metal World, 2007). These foundry units generate
minimize the energy. Generally, in case of hot forming operations approximately 1.7 MT waste foundry sand (WFS) per year.
(Ingarao et al., 2011a) the requirement of energy is high with Pal et al. (2008) investigated the application of cleaner tech-
respect to the traditional stamping processes. Further, authors nologies in the foundry industry and developed an energy efficient
(Ingarao et al., 2012) compared two types of forming processes i.e. divided-blast cupola furnace for pollution control. Deng and
conventional and single point incremental forming (SPIF). The re- Tikalsky (2008) looked at the properties of waste foundry sand
sults in terms of blank shapes (given in Fig. 12) showed a strong WFS through a test program from a wide variety of sources; the
difference in deformation mechanics leads to a different material incorporation of WFS samples into flow-able fills was validated
use. from both a technical and environmental perspective.
In case of SPIF operation, stretching and deformation obtained The cleaning of casting loads the environment with dust, noise
by reducing the sheet thickness as the initial blank shape was larger and waste; as all the casting undergoes cleaning before machining/
to allow proper clamping. Kinsey et al. (2000) adopted a promising surface treatments. To limit the load on the environment, extrac-
approach to reduce manufacturing costs, vehicle weight and to tion and filtering of dust generated during the cleaning process may
improve the quality of automotive body components through the be undertaken. CO2 hardened the moulds during pouring and so-
use of tailor-welded blanks. The welding process created form- lidification, which is a major environmental pollutant. The various
ability concerns in a traditional forming process due to material facets of the literature of ZWM in foundry industry have been
property changes in the weld and in the heat-affected zone adja- discussed in Table 3. Through this, the manufacturing cost and fuel
cent to the weld. Some of the important issues of material re- cost can be reduced by 30% and 58%, respectively. It has been found
cycling, such as material waste reduction, energy savings in form- that, the development of technologies that can reduce or eliminate
ing operations and innovative forming processes, must be taken waste and improve performance at the same time will greatly
into consideration (Ingarao et al., 2011b). Also, re-manufacturing enhance the future success and world-wide competitiveness of the
offers an interesting possibilities as it is proved to be more effi- industry. In the international market, domestic metal castings must
cient in-terms of material re-circulation than re-cycling (Nasr and compete in countries with less demanding environmental stan-
Thurston, 2006; Sutherland et al., 2008). Athalye et al. (2013) dards and where the cost of environmental control is far less.
reduced the cost by 2900US$ through the use of scrap utilization
for press part production. 3.3. Recent trends in machining

Machining is a major manufacturing operation and it involves a


3.2. Recent trends in foundry
number of sustainability factors (such as tool life, usage of coolant
and lubricant, waste chips and energy consumption) that have a big
Foundry industry provides products which are highly used in
potential for environmental impact. Therefore, the analysis of
agricultural, mining and manufacturing industry, as well as other
machining systems and their optimizations in accordance of input
industries. The contribution of this industry to the world over is
factors (controls and constraints) and outputs (objective functions)
vital and crucial to many economies. However, the foundry in-
has significant implication in sustainable manufacturing. It has
dustry consumes large amounts of water, energy and produces
been observed that the various relationship aspects of machining
numerous organic pollutants causing serious contamination in our
technologies and resulting environmental hazards are still unex-
environment. Vijayaram et al. (2006) concluded that, the careful
plored (Dietmair and Verl, 2009). Lea ~o and Pashby (2004) high-
supervision with effect motivation of individual employees in
lighted the environmental impact of electric discharge machining
achieving the quality is a must in reducing the rejection and scrap
operation on environment as shown in Fig. 13. They also reviewed
in metal casting manufacturing engineering industries. In USA,
the literature survey on the use of dielectric fluids that provide an
metal casting foundries dispose of approximately 9 million metric
alternative to hydrocarbon oil. It has been highlighted that, the
tons of WFS in landfills in 2000 (Winkler and Bol’shakov, 2000). A
gaseous dielectrics like oxygen can be a suitable alternative with
study conducted in UK highlighted that use of primary reclamation
higher material removal rates as compared to hydrocarbon oil, for
showed a saving of 210000tonnes of sand consumption. Similarly,
the next generation of machining applications. Tsuda et al. (2006)
presented a study focused on the investigation of the possibility
of producing porous aluminium foam, as shown in Fig. 14, from low
cost machined chip waste. Sreejith and Ngoi (2000) gave a state-of-
art and the recent advancements in the direction of dry machining
and suggested the industries to use this approach for all types of
processes. An idealized picture of near dry machining is shown in
Fig. 15. Fratila (2010) focused on investigating several aspects of the
machining process from ecological perspectives (results shown in
Fig. 16). Similarly, Table 4 depicts the work done conducted by
various researchers, respectively.
Also, we have performed a brief case study on the sustainable
machining of an aerospace component in order to understand the
implication of minimal quantity lubricant theory through CNC
based turning operation. Here, some turning experiments on
Fig. 12. Blank shapes (Ingarao et al., 2012). commercially used titanium (grade-2) alloy have been performed
1238 S. Singh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 168 (2017) 1230e1243

Table 3
Literature related to the ZWM through sustainable manufacturing (Work done related to the foundry).

Authors and Year Materials Recycled Methodology Used Investigations Remarks/Conclusions

Khatib and Ellis (2001) Three types of foundry Mixed in the concretes Strength As the amount of foundry sand
sand used (white fine increases, the compressive strength of
sand without the the concrete reduces
addition of clay and
coal, the foundry sand
before casting
(blended), and the
foundry sand after
casting (spent)
Backhouse et al. (2004) Automotive industry Boustead life cycle Reducing the casting weight and Reduces the foundry's environmental
analysis analyze the fictive automobile impacts
suspension component
Siddique (2009) e Fabrication of Effect of coal combustion products (fly e
controlled low strength ash, bottom ash), spent foundry sand,
materials (CLSM) cement kiln dust, wood ash, and scrap
tire rubber have been investigated
Neto et al. (2009) fabric filters and Aluminium pressure Environmental impact in terms of Fabric filters and wet scrubbers had a
scrubbers; the use of die casting plant pollution large potential (up to 99.9%) to reduce
alternative agents or metal emissions, relative to the
techniques; unabated situation and it is also
modification of the technically possible to change the
combustion process; inputs or mass flows through the
the use of new die system.
casting moulds; reduce
the scrap rate and the
use of electrical
equipment
Siddique et al. (2010) Waste foundry sand e Leachate characteristics e
Bauer et al. (2010) Titanium (as-received Dentistry Mechanical properties (in tensile and e
and re-cast) micro-hardness), microstructure and
fractography
Guney et al. (2010) Waste foundry sand Mixed in the high Tensile strengths, compressive and Reduction in the properties
strength concretes elasticity modulus
Sahmaran et al. (2011) Foundry sand and fly Development of green Mechanical and other properties 0-70% of Portland cement was replaced
ash self-consolidating with fly ash, and 0e100% sand was
concrete replaced with WFS
Siddique and Singh (2011) Waste foundry sand Mixed in the concretes Compressive strength, splitting tensile Strength properties of concrete
strength, modulus of elasticity, mixtures increase with the increase in
freezing-thawing resistance, and foundry sand contents
shrinkage
Singh and Siddique (2012a) Waste foundry sand Mixed in the concretes Strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity and A marginal increase in strength and
permeability of sand durability properties of plain concrete
by inclusion of WFS
Singh and Siddique (2012b) Waste foundry sand Mixed in the concretes Abrasion resistance and strength Addition of WFS increases the abrasion
properties resistance and strength properties
Basar and Aksoy (2012) Waste foundry sand Mixed in ready-mixed Mechanical, leaching and micro- WFS is used in making good quality
concrete structural characteristics concrete
Quijorna et al. (2012) Waelz slag and waste Mixed in the red clay Physico-chemical and mechanical Extrusion properties during forming,
foundry sand bricks properties water absorption of the sintered brick
was reduced due to connected porosity
Santurde et al. (2012) Green and core sand Mixed in the clay bricks Physically and mineralogically Clay/green sand bricks fired at 1050  C
evaluated have the better physical properties
values, while the mineralogy is not
significantly affected.

under dry, wet and MQL conditions. The machining was performed  Surface roughness measurements: Mitutoyo SJ 301 surface
with uncoated carbide inserts at cutting speed of 250 mm/rev, feed roughness tester
rate of 0.10 mm/rev, depth of cut of 0.5 mm, approach angle of 90 ,  Cutting temperature measurement: HTC make infrared
respectively. The surface roughness and tool wear was measured thermometer
based on the ISO 3685 standard. The environmental aspects in  Workpiece material: Titanium (Grade-2) alloy having hardness
terms of coolant consumption, coolant cost, recycling costs, health of 35 HRC
issues, energy consumption and wastage have been also considered  Cutting tool: Uncoated carbide inserts (0.4 mm nose radius)
and tabulated in Table 5. The complete details of experiments and  MQL system; NOGA made, mini cool system
the setup used (as shown in Fig. 17) are presented below:  Coolant used: Balmerol make soluble cutting oil (Protosole MQ)
having a ratio of 20:1 is used as a coolant
 CNC Turning center: Batliboi make Sprint 16Tc
 Lathe Tool dynamometer: TeLC DKM2010 dynamometer asso- The outcomes of the case study strongly advocated the dry
ciated with XKM software machining as the best practice amongst the others. It is also high-
 Tool wear measurements: Mitutoyo's make tool maker's lighted that, the machining community, especially the academic
microscope researchers and field engineers, should take the initiative towards
S. Singh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 168 (2017) 1230e1243 1239

Fig. 15. Pictorial view of near dry machining (Sreejith and Ngoi, 2000).

procure raw materials with recycled content wherever possible.


~o and Pashby,
Fig. 13. Environmental impact of electric discharge machining (Lea Purchasing recycled content closes the loop on the manufacturing
2004). process and generates the demand for recycled materials, making
them attractive to produce and providing outlets for recyclable by-
products.
the ZW machining not only to specific segment of machining in-
Sustainability in manufacturing is a key consideration for
dustry but as a whole. However, if we considered the performance
manufacturing organizations. The case study of aerospace sector
measures in terms of tool wear, cutting temperature, surface finish
discussed in this paper clearly highlighted the suitability of dry and
and cutting forces, the application of MQL condition is found to be a
MQL machining, with regards to different performance character-
suitable option, respectively. Now efforts are required to reduce
istics, in comparison of conventional turning operation. Such sus-
even the minimal quantity of required lubricant under particular
tainable practices in different manufacturing sectors would help us
set of machining conditions.
in controlling the alarming waste issues. Some of the companies are
already benefiting by managing the risks associated with sustain-
4. End note ability and capitalising on the opportunities (Jackson, 2005).
Insufficient number of studies effectively addressed the trouble and
In the extensive literature reviewed, it has been found that challenges connected with over-consumption and waste effort. The
manufacturing waste treatment is still suffering from critical bar- determined ZWM concept considers resources that become prac-
riers as the technologies, knowledge and resources available. Major tical without losing their ability to feed the system again after being
components of these hazardous wastes are directly dumped into used. The use of existing ZWM approaches, tools and technologies
land and also in valuable water resources, deteriorating earth requires further developments to an internet based system.
planet. The government agencies should start up waste treatment German biochemist Michael Braungart said the ZW movement that
plants to recover the energy involved rather than the land filling. it is a path from “cradle to grave” to “cradle to cradle”. ZWM needs
Moreover, the various well known software's and methods such as the most advanced methods for handling complexity. Some of the
established design for manufacturing, deign of experimentation recent techniques like digital technologies such as sensors, indus-
and simulation software should be taken into general practices in trial internet of things, big data analytics, algorithms, artificial in-
order to minimize the use of materials, energy and resources. The telligence, and cloud computing are also necessary to realize the
multiple tools and techniques are available, that manufacturers can ZWM.
apply to their operations in order to minimize their waste streams. Emerging new manufacturing technology widely known as 3D
For example, representatives from each area of operations can form printing or additive manufacturing (AM) has the attributes of ZWM.
a “green team” to communicate ideas and progress up to senior Products are produced directly using digital model data from a 3D
leadership and down to department employees, ensuring an inte- model. One of the recent publications by Griffiths et al. (2016), the
grated and comprehensive approach to waste minimization authors outlined that with a populace empowered with the
throughout the facility. Additionally, companies should attempt to

Fig. 14. Cross sections of foamed aluminium (a) made from the chip-ratio:16, (b) made Fig. 16. Three processes comparison to near dry machining and flood machining
from the chip-ratio 31 and (c) made from the powder-ratio:16 (Tsuda et al., 2006). (Fratila, 2010).
1240 S. Singh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 168 (2017) 1230e1243

Table 4
Literature related to the ZWM through sustainable manufacturing (Work done related to the machining).

Authors and Year Process Used Methodology Used Investigations Remarks/Conclusions

Sreejith and Ngoi (2000) State of art on dry e e Dry machining is also sustainable
machining approach
Tsuda et al. (2006) Aluminum Foam from Precursor Effect of TiH2 content and ceramic TiH2 content more than 3 mass% was
machined chip waste manufacturing particle addition were examined not an effective
processes way to produce highly porous
aluminum foam
Aoyama et al. (2008) Milling MQL and Direct oil drop Coolant consumption DODSS had the possibility of further
supply system (DODSS) reductions in the total amount of oil
consumption by decreasing the
diameter of oil drops
Shao et al. (2010) NC machining Life cycle assessment Analyze the environmental impact of e
machining
Pusavec et al. (2010) Turning of Inconel-718 Flood machining, cryo- Tool wear/tool life, cost Cryo and high pressure jet machining
alloy machining and high found to be sustainable method by
pressure jet-assisted reducing production cost upto 30%
machining
Fratila (2010) Gear milling Near dry machining Life cycle assessment of scrap NDM is a sustainable method used to
and flood cooling processing, the use of lubrication, and reduce the consumption of coolant as
the energy consumption well as energy consumption
Pusavec and Kopa
c (2011) Turning of Inconel-718 Flood machining, cryo- Environmental impact, energy HPJAM can be the
alloy machining and high consumption, safety, personal health, most cost efficient method, however
pressure jet-assisted waste management, and cost cryo-machining is completely
machining (HPJAM) clean and has the highest sustainability
potential
Tao et al. (2014) Turbine cylinder Energy-saving and Measurement of energy consumption Energy consumption is reduced
emission-reduction life
cycle assessment
Chauhan et al. (2015) Conveyor Pulley Lean Manufacturing Process time Lean principles results in 76.55%
Manufacturing Principles reduction of idle time
Pacelli et al. (2015) e e Scrap optimization, Unavoidable scrap e
analysis, Designing with scraps
Gilbert et al. (2017) Vessel's steel hull in Life cycle assessment Effectiveness of material efficiency to 50% hull reuse provides a 10% emissions
ship manufacture approach reduce CO2 emissions reduction
Alireza et al. (2016) Remote acceleration DMAIC concentrating Reduction of scrap rate Scrap rate was reduced to 99.03% from
sensor 98.4%
Gupta and Sood (2017) Turning of titanium Dry, Wet and MQL Cutting forces, tool wear, surface MQL machining is the most cost
(grade-2) and Inconel- machining roughness efficient and clean method,
800 alloy has the highest sustainability potential

possibility of producing their own products; this disruptive tech- money on material costs and waste disposal (Gero, 1995). AM offers
nology will inevitably lead to a change in energy and material one option as ease of re-designing, which can result in an optimum
consumption. The European Space Agency launched a 4.5-year, strength-to-weight ratio and able to meet functional requirements
V1.88 million project titled AM towards ZW and efficient produc- while minimising material volume. Gebler et al. (2014) estimated
tion of high-tech metal products (Wohlers and Caffrey, 2013). This saving possibilities of $113e370 billion by 2025. One of the best
technology became useful for reducing the scrap produced, saving examples of AM technology is set by Morrow et al. (2007). The

Table 5
A framework for a comprehensive product sustainability evaluation.

Performance measures Dry Machining Wet Machining MQL machining

Environmental aspects
Coolant consumption No coolant High (300e500 ml/h) Low (50 ml/h)
Recycling and disposal No problem of recycling Cleaning and filtering is required No need of recycling and disposal
and disposal
Manufacturing cost Very low High Low
Part cleaning No part cleaning is High part cleaning is required as it contains a Mist escapes out into the atmosphere,
required deposition of fluid over the part the part is clean and no cleaning is required
Equipment required No need of any setup Pumps, motors, pipes, hoses, nozzles, filters, etc. MQL nozzles and compressor
Health issues Totally safe Highly toxic to the human body and cause nuisance, Very Low
infection and allergies etc.
Scrap disposal (handling, Scrap is free from the Scrap has deposition Mist escapes out into the atmosphere,
storing and fluid of fluid over it, hence washing and heating the scrap is clean and no treatment is required
recycling of scrap) may be required
Power/energy consumption High Medium Low
Wastage Zero wastage High Low wastage
Machining aspects
Surface finish Poor Medium High
Tool wear High Medium Low
Cutting temperature High Medium Low
Cutting forces High Medium Low
S. Singh et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 168 (2017) 1230e1243 1241

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