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ELEMENTS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

&
ENGINEERING MECHANICS

VINAY M R
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG
SDMIT, UJIRE-574240
MODULE - 1
INTRODUCTION

Text books
1. S.S. Bhavikatti
2. M.N. Shesha Prakash
3. B.K. Kolhapure
WHAT IS ENGINEERING????
 Knowledge of science and mathematics to solve
real world problems.

 It is a profession of converting knowledge into


useful practical applications, where the materials
and forces in nature are effectively used for the
benefit of mankind.
WHAT IS CIVIL ENGINEERING????

 It is the oldest branch of professional


engineering, where the civil engineers are
concerned with the projects for the public (or)
society.
THE CIVIL ENGINEERS PLAY ROLE IN…
 Design
 Construction
 Maintenance
 Demolition
 Maintenance
 Disaster of buildings

 Infrastructure like : Roads, Bridges, Canals,


Dams…more

Civil engineering play major role on ECONOMY of the


nation.
There are many branches of civil engineering like….
 Surveying
 Building materials
 Construction technology
 Geotechnical engineering
 Structural engineering
 Hydraulic engineering
 Water resources and irrigation engineering
 Transportation engineering
 Environmental engineering
SURVEYING -
 Surveying is the art of determining relative position of
points on (or) below the surface of the earth by measuring
horizontal distance b/w them
Scope of Surveying
 To prepare the plan or map.
 To establish boundaries of land.
 To measure the area and volume of land.
 To select suitable site for an engineering project.
BUILDING MATERIALS -
The construction of any engineering structures requires
wide range of materials called Building Materials

TRADITIONAL MATERIALS : Stones, timber, bricks, lime, cement, tar,


bitumen, mortar, ferrous and non ferrous metals etc..

ALTERNATIVE BUILDING MATERIALS : Mud blocks, concrete blocks,


plastics, glass, aluminium, paints, flyash etc..

COMPOSITE MATERIALS : R.C.C, Fiber reinforced concrete, Ferro-


cement, composite laminated doors, asbestos sheets, fiber
reinforced glass etc..
CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY-
GEO-TECHNICAL ENGINEERING -

Scope
1. Deals with the study of the properties, behavior and
use of earth materials in engineering works
2. To investigate the soil and bedrock below the
structure and study the soil-structuture interaction
3. To select the type of foundation for a particular
structure
4. To design foundation for building, dams, retaining
walls, bridge, road pavements
5. To design foundation for machines such as turbines,
compressors to transmit vibrations to foundation soil
6. For ground improvement by using latest techniques
such as geosynthetics, geotextites, ground
compaction by blasting, grouting etc.
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-
Scope of structural Engineering
 The structural analysis and design are the work
of structural engineer
 The structural engineer is responsible for
creation of structural system in accordance with
the needs of the client and architect.
 The structural engineer plays important role to
build industrial and manufacturing units.
 The structural engineer should take the
responsibility about the safety and serviceability
of the structure for its life time
HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING -
WATER RESOURCES
AND IRRIGATION ENGINEERING -
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING -
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -
ROLE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING IN INFRASTRUCTRAL
DEVELOPMENT

 Construction sector job.


 Plans

 Builds
 Building
 Dams
 Bridges
 Tunnels
 Railways
 Water purification unit and distributes water for drinking
purpose.
 Distributes water for agricultural fields.
 Proper drainage system.
 Transport network system.
 Improves ground water
EFFECT OF INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES ON SOCIO-
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY

 Economic Infrastructure
 Construction Industry
 Transportation Facilities
 Power Supply
 Water supply and drainage system
 Irrigation Facilities
o Social Infrastructure
 Health Center
 Educational Facilities
 Employment Centers
 Police Stations
 Fire Stations
ROADS
Roads are the path over which vehicles and other traffic
may pass. It is the one which provides transportation
facility from one place to another place.

 ADVANTAGES

 DISADVANTAGES
CLASSIFICATION (OR) TYPES OF ROADS
 BASED ON SEASONAL USAGE

a) All weathered roads


b) Fair weathered roads

 BASED ON ROAD PAVEMENT

a) Paved Road
b) Un-Paved roads

 BASED ON PAVEMENT SURFACE

a) Surface Road
b) Un-surfaced roads
Classification of Roads (Nagpur road plan) classified the
roads in India into the following categories:
1. NATIONAL HIGHWAYS (NH)
2. STATE HIGHWAYS (SH)
3. MAJOR DISTRICT ROADS (MDR)
4. OTHER DISTRICT ROADS (ODR)

5. VILLAGES ROADS (VR)


COMPONENTS (OR) CROSS SECTIONAL ELEMENTS OF A ROADS

 PAVEMENT
(a) SUB SOIL
(b) SUB GRADE
(c) BASE
(d) SURFACING

 SHOULDER
OTHER COMPONENTS OF ROADS:
 TRAFFIC SEPERATOR
 KERBS
 FOOT PATH
 PARKING LANES
 GUARD STONES & GUARD RAILS
 FENCING
TYPICAL CROSS SECTIONS OF HIGHWAY

c/s of two lane NH (or) SH in rural area


FUNCTIONS OF ROADS
 Maximum service to one and all
 Maximum flexibility

 Provides door to door service

 It acts as a feeder system

 Helps during emergency