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Written By David Childers
Creative Common License This body of work is released under the Attribution-ShareAlike version 3.0, Creative Common License. The work may be freely distributed or modified for commercial or non commercial purposes. If this work is modified, compliance with the Attribution-ShareAlike version 3.0, Creative Common License is required. These requirements include: - Any derivatives of this work must be attributed to David Childers. - Alterations, transforming, or building upon this work requires distributing the resulting work only under the same, similar or a compatible license. For the complete legal code, please refer here: www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/legalcode Cover photograph - RCA Indian Head Test Card ca. 1940, Public Domain image. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:TESTPATTERN_RCA_3.jpg
About The Author David Childers is the Content Manager and Senior Editor for the International Broadcasting portal www.BroadcastingWorld.net. He is also the webmaster of the SHOUTcast video streaming information resource, www.scvi.net. He is very active in the Internet broadcast industry. Mr. Childers work has been cited in several national and International publications, such as: Five Essays on Copyright In the Digital Era Turrer Publishing Research On High-Profile Digital Video Production Digital Content Association of Japan Video Podcasting in Perspective: The History, Technology, Aesthetics and Instructional Uses of a New Medium Journal of Educational Technology Systems Video Podcasting: When, Where and How it's Currently used for Instruction The National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology IP Packet Charging Model For Multimedia Services National University of Rwanda Preservation of audiovisual mediums : Problems and challenges Platform for Archiving and Preservation of Art on Electronic and Digital Media P2P Technology Trend and Application to Home Network Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute Journal Peer To Peer Computing - The Evolution of a Disruptive Technology Idea Group Publishing Peer-to-Peer Systems and Applications Lecture Notes In Computer Science Springer Berlin / Heidelberg Mr. Childers has also written several guides including: SHOUTcast Streaming - Best of Technical Support www.scribd.com/doc/24188933/SHOUTcast-Streaming-Best-of-Tech-Support SHOUTcast Audio And Video Streaming Guide www.scribd.com/doc/19781412/SHOUTcast-Audio-And-Video-Streaming-Guide Icecast Streaming Handbook www.scribd.com/doc/18175026/Icecast-Streaming-Handbook Gnome Desktop Installation Script For FreeBSD www.scribd.com/doc/27366469/Gnome-Desktop-Installation-Script-For-FreeBSD FreeBSD Hardening Script Gibraltar www.scribd.com/doc/33631895/Gibraltar-FreeBSD-Hardening-Script The FreeBSD Compact Reference Guide www.scribd.com/doc/31448813/The-Freebsd-Compact-Reference-Guide
The development of the Internet has allowed the distribution of ideas and concepts on a global basis.hobbycaster. without needing expensive equipment or tedious licensing requirements.net June 2010 Keith Foncree was the person responsible for my fascination with computers and the Internet. The ability to deliver audio and video using the Internet enables any one the ability to become a mciro-broadcaster. I would like to thank Robert Andrews of www.Foreword Welcome to the Third Edition of The Streaming Media Handbook. Meu anjo do amor. Scarlet Coker and Dale Nobles for providing assistance with the editing of the manuscript and James Davey at Broadcasting World for allowing me the opportunity to create this handbook. David Childers www.com for his contributions. Tony Smaker was the great oracle of Amateur Radio that helped me get my Amateur Radio license. I have updated this guide with more useful information for the Internet broadcaster. without the need for large monetary or technical resources. It is my sincere hope that the reader finds this handbook a valuable resource. Technology is a way of organizing the universe so that man doesn't have to experience it.scvi. Max Frisch .
please consider making a small donation to show your appreciation for my work. https://www.Please Donate If you find this guide useful.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_s-xclick&hosted_button_id=10870717 .
Promoting Your Online Radio or Television Station .Public Domain / Creative Commons Content .Common Protocols Used for Internet Broadcasting .The Internet Broadcast Station Audience .Changes .Additional Resources .Audio Codecs Available for Internet Broadcasting .Why Are Streaming Protocols Important for Internet Broadcasting .Index .The Art Of Generating Revenue for Internet Broadcasting Stations .What is Internet Broadcasting .Webcasting Music Royalty Licensing .Internet Broadcasting Software Guide .Why Are Multimedia Codecs Important for Internet Broadcasting .Video Codecs Available for Internet Broadcasting .
Changes Updated .The Internet Broadcast Station Audience Removed.Promoting Your Online Radio or Television Station Updated – The Art Of Generating Revenue for Internet Broadcasting Stations Updated .Public Domain / Creative Commons Content Added .Video Codecs Available for Internet Broadcasting Updated .The Importance of Peer-To-Peer Internet Broadcasting .Audio Codecs Available for Internet Broadcasting Updated .Internet Broadcasting Software Guide Updated .Additional Resources Added .
What Is Internet Broadcasting Streaming multimedia on the Internet requires the conversion of video and audio into a compressed digital format then distributing the data through computer networks. Content that has been released under creative commons. All multimedia content is subject to applicable intellectual property regulations. Advanced codecs require large amounts of computer resources for high definition video and audio data compression. This method allows the compression of the content without losing the quality of the original video or audio content. Internet streaming is similar to standard radio and television broadcasting. Software is used to convert video and audio into a format that is suitable for delivery using a computer network. The method of data delivery used to transport the content via computer networks is determined by several factors that include: software used for the compression of the audio or video data. The first step in the Internet streaming process is to digitally compress the audio or video content. called codecs. The next step is to distribute the encoded video and audio content. This compressed data can be more easily delivered using computer networks because of its smaller size. On demand content can be hosted using a standard website account. Specially developed software applications. No broadcast license or technical certification is required for Internet streaming. public domain or has fallen out of copyright protection is not subject to intellectual property regulations and can be streamed with no special content licensing requirements. Individual files can be distributed using on demand content delivery. Delivery of this data over computer networks uses special software or hardware instructions to route the video or audio content to the end user. This specialized software can be installed and run on various computer operating systems including: Windows. The video or audio can be live or pre-recorded content. The only requirements for Internet video streaming are: specialized data delivery server software. without the need for specialized server software. Most codecs use a method of data compression known as lossy data compression. Each computer network transport protocol has its own unique characteristics that make it applicable in specific situations. or have a license to distribute material that is covered under copyright regulations. architecture of the computer network used for content delivery and end user requirements. Special computer network transport protocols enable the delivery of multimedia content to the end user ( audience members ) versus using broadcast transmitters to send the video or audio content to individual radio and television sets. This balance ensures a quality listening and viewing experience for everyone. This is required to conserve bandwidth that is used for the delivery of the content. unlike a standard radio or television broadcast station. bandwidth consumed and computer resources used. and can be continuously streamed or delivered as on demand content. Special server software is required for the continuous distribution of multimedia content. A balance must be established between the compression quality. Standard radio and television broadcast stations are required to have a broadcast license and certified broadcast engineers. Bandwidth is required for the delivery of the video and audio content to the end user. These regulations differ from country to country. in addition to several other computer operating systems. . The final step is to prepare the compressed content for delivery. special audio and video encoding software and large amounts of bandwidth. are used to compress the video or audio data. Codecs use mathematical algorithms to compress the data. Linux and Macintosh. Radio and television stations use special hardware to convert video and audio data into a format suitable for broadcasting. however the general rule for audio and video content is the station originating the Internet stream must own.
scribd.php SHOUTcast Shoutcast supports audio streaming.shoutcast. Multimedia encoder (Free) www.Best of Technical Support www.org/doc/streaming-howto/en/ch02.draftlight.org/docs.org Multimedia server (Free) www.org/streaming-features. (Free) www.org/doc/streaming-howto/en/ch03.cravecreate.com/doc/19781412/SHOUTcast-Audio-And-Video-Streaming-Guide SHOUTcast Streaming .com/download nullsoft.scribd.com/doc/24188933/SHOUTcast-Streaming-Best-of-Tech-Support www.) www.javazoom.html www.html Flash stream player (MP3 audio format. Multimedia encoder (Free) www.com/doc/18175026/Icecast-Streaming-Handbook www.videolan. Shoutcast supports video streaming.com/software.org/ezstream.html Flash stream player (MP3 audio format.net Shoutcast does support Windows Media embedded Active X player for MP3 format.shoutcast.html www.Internet Broadcasting Software Guide This is a technical assessment of current Internet broadcasting software that is available. Icecast Icecast supports audio streaming. (Java MP3 player) www.icecast.itheora.scvi.net/dnex/mp3player/minicaster/ Multimedia playback supported on most operating systems.scribd.html Icecast does support Windows Media embedded Active X player for MP3 format.javazoom.com/download Software support SHOUTcast Audio And Video Streaming Guide www.icecast.org Ezstream is a command line source client for Icecast media streaming servers.videolan. .php Visionair Theora video streaming software.php www.net/jlgui/jlgui.videolan.net/dnex/mp3player/minicaster/ Multimedia playback supported on most operating systems.) www. Icecast supports video streaming.com/support www.com/nsv/ Multimedia server (Free) www.shoutcast. (Free) www.icecast.videolan. ITheora is a PHP script allowing you to broadcast ogg/theora/vorbis video and audio files.org Software support Icecast Streaming Handbook www.net/jlgui/jlgui. (Free) visonair. (Java Vorbis audio player) www.draftlight.
Silverlight Silverlight supports audio streaming.mspx Software support www.com/products/flashmediaserver/ Multimedia server (Paid) www.com/opensource/server/streaming/index. Multimedia encoder (Free) www.apple.net/en/hosting/using-linux/tutorials/fedora/darwinstreaming QuickTime DOES NOT support embedded Active X player. Multimedia encoder (Paid) www.wowzamedia. Multimedia encoder (Free) (Mac operating system.html Installing Darwin Open Source multimedia server on Fedora Linux platform wiki. Multimedia encoder (Free) www. Multimedia playback supported on most operating systems. Multimedia playback supported on most operating systems.microsoft.) www. Silverlight supports video streaming.com/quicktime/ Multimedia server (Paid) (Mac operating system.adobe.com/expression/products/overview.mspx Silverlight DOES NOT support embedded Active X player. QuickTime supports video streaming.microsoft.Adobe Flash Adobe Flash supports audio streaming. QuickTime Streaming QuickTime supports audio streaming.microsoft. RealMedia .com/windowsserver2003/default.osflash.gandi. Multimedia playback supported on most operating systems.com/windows/windowsmedia/knowledgecenter/helpdocs.) developer. Adobe Flash supports video streaming. Windows Media Supports audio streaming.mspx Multimedia server (Paid) www.adobe.aspx?key=encoder Multimedia server (Paid) www.com/server/macosx/ Open Source multimedia server (Various operating systems.microsoft. Supports video streaming.org/red5 Multimedia server (Paid) www.) www.com/windows/windowsmedia/forpros/encoder/default.microsoft.apple.com/products/flashmediaserver/flashmediaencoder/ Open source server (Free) www.apple.aspx Windows Media supports embedded Active X player. Multimedia playback supported on most operating systems.com/ Adobe Flash supports embedded Active X player.com/windowsserver2003/default.
com/products/producer/ Multimedia server (Paid) www. Multimedia playback supported on most operating systems. Software installation supported on most operating systems.com PicoStreamer PicoStreamer supports audio streaming. Goalbit is a Open Source Peer To Peer multimedia broadcasting system that is based on the BitTorrent protocol. NSV.RealMedia supports audio streaming.html Goalbit supports most multimedia stream types. SteamCast SteamCast supports audio streaming. Ogg. .com/downloads/ Peer-To-Peer Streaming Goalbit Goalbit supports audio streaming. PicoStreamer supports Flash. The encoder.realnetworks. Multimedia encoder (Both free & paid) www.steamcast. Pirate Radio DOES NOT support embedded Active X player.sourceforge. (Special multimedia software required . This software and directory supports the following file formats: Mp3.sourceforge.net/downloads.) www.net/documentation. Multimedia encoder (Paid) www. (Free) www. Pirate Radio DOES NOT support video streaming.html Users guide goalbit. (Free) www.com/products/media_delivery.clipstream. Playback supported on Windows operating system only. RealMedia supports video streaming.free download. Steamcast is a streaming media server which has the capabilities of both SHOUTcast and Icecast2 with some extra features. Goalbit supports video streaming. SteamCast supports video streaming.com Pirate Radio Pirate Radio supports audio streaming. SHOUTcast and Icecast streaming.realnetworks. server and multimedia player are bundled in the same software package.vinz486. NSA(AAC) and aacPlus. Goalbit DOES NOT support embedded Active X player.com/purchase/pirateradio/ No remote server available.pirateradio. PicoStreamer is a set of scripts that allows you to use a standard web hosting account with Perl/PHP for streaming true real LIVE web station.html RealMedia DOES NOT support embedded Active X player. PicoStreamer supports video streaming. Download (Free) goalbit.
Some of these are proprietary and may require the purchase of a end users license. . Understanding the process of multimedia encoding and multimedia compression is important. The goal of multimedia encoding is to achieve the greatest amount of data compression while retaining the best visual or audio quality as well as clarity of the original content. It is necessary to compress the content into a manageable amount of data because multimedia production creates a large quantity of digital data. This results in the encoded video being slightly different from the original content. This would effectively limit the ability to transport or store the multimedia data and prevent the content from being delivered in a cost effective manner. Without reducing the size of the multimedia content. encoder bandwidth limitations. Specialized software applications called codecs are used to encode / compress the multimedia content. It is also important to have adequate network and computer resources to support the requirements for your broadcast. Both proprietary and open source codecs offer many unique features. the uncompressed content would require very large amounts of network resources for content distribution and electronic storage. but still providing quality visual representation. This technical term stands for coder / decoder or compressor / decompresser. with the most important feature being the ability to provide quality multimedia presentations at low bandwidth and the ease of use for end users. There are many available codecs that can be used for encoding multimedia content for broadcasting. which allows the video content to retain its quality and clarity. with each one having unique properties.Why Are Multimedia Codecs Important for Internet Broadcasting Multimedia encoding is the most important technical consideration for Internet broadcasting. encoder system resource use or end user playback software requirements. Most codecs use algorithms that are based on lossy data compression. which enables multimedia compression by slightly altering the content to be encoded. Technical limitations for the use of these codecs may include the following: specific operating system requirements. Choosing the appropriate codec for an Internet broadcast will ensure the production of quality multimedia that will be available for the audience receiving the broadcast. Excessive bandwidth consumption can severely limit the ability to deliver the multimedia content to a wide audience and complicated software set up for audience participants will dissuade people from viewing the multimedia content. Codecs use complex mathematical algorithms and specialized processes to compress the data. and some are open source that do not require the purchase of a end users license.
Audio Codecs Available for Internet Broadcasting Open Source Codecs Vorbis is a digital audio codec developed by the Xiph organization. AAC belongs to a group of codecs that use MDCT. Proprietary Codecs MP3 is a proprietary digital audio codec that was commercially implemented by the Fraunhofer Society. It also uses run-length encoding for blocks of identical samples. which includes Windows Media Audio and Vorbis. Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a proprietary digital audio codec developed by a coalition of media companies. such as silent passages. This codec uses a derivative of lossy data compression and is based on Modified Discrete Cosine Transform (MDCT). which includes Windows Media Audio and Advanced Audio Coding. High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding (AAC+) is a proprietary digital audio codec developed by the Coding Technologies company. WMA belongs to a group of codecs that use MDCT. but uses lossless compression technology. which are stored efficiently using Golomb-Rice coding. MDCT prevents the introduction of artifacts within the audio during the process of encoding or decoding. The process of data quantization used by this codec is also unique to its functionality. MDCT prevents the introduction of artifacts within the audio during the process of encoding or decoding. AAC was developed as a successor to the MP3 audio codec. Windows Media Audio (WMA) is a proprietary digital audio codec developed by Microsoft. uncorrelated numbers (known as the residual). This codec is also known as MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3. This codec uses a derivative of lossy data compression and is based on Modified Discrete Cosine Transform (MDCT). RealAudio (RA) is a proprietary digital audio codec developed by RealMedia. This codec uses a derivative of lossy data compression and uses Spectral Band Replication to improve the audio compression performance of the codec. This codec uses linear prediction to convert the audio samples to a series of small. MDCT prevents the introduction of artifacts within the audio during the process of encoding or decoding. This codec uses a derivative of lossy data compression and is based on Modified Discrete Cosine Transform (MDCT). FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) is an audio codec similar to MP3. This codec uses a derivative of lossy data compression and is based on Perceptual Coding for encoding and decoding of audio multimedia. RealAudio 10 is the current implementation and is based on the industry standard MPEG-4 / HE-AAC . The process of data quantization used by this codec is also unique to its functionality. This codec is also known as MPEG-4 AAC. This codec uses a derivative of lossy data compression. The process of data quantization used by this codec is also unique to its functionality. which includes Advanced Audio Coding and Vorbis. This codec is also known as HEAAC. . Vorbis belongs to a group of codecs that use MDCT.
org/news/ VP3 uses a multi-step approach to video encoding. improved error recovery and direct access to the data reconstruction buffer. www. Windows Media Video is based on MPEG-4 AVC. non-square pixels. Zigzag Ordering.org/media/pdf/vp8_bitstream. It promises results comparable to or better than current proprietary codecs such as H.Video Codecs Available for Internet Broadcasting Open Source Codecs VP8 is based on decomposition of frames into square subblocks of pixels. Differential. Some of the major improvements of VP7 included mode encoding.org webmproject. WebM is a video format that was created to use the VP8 video codec and the Vorbis audio codec.diracvideo. Entropy Coding. . Motion Compensation.blogspot. It uses block-orientation and motion-estimation to achieve superior compression performance when compared to other video codecs.theora.webmproject. VP7 was developed as a successor to VP6. filtering schemes. Real Video uses very accurate motion modeling. proprietary spatial pixel prediction methods. rather than from top to bottom.264 is known as MPEG-4 Part 10 or MPEG-4 AVC.org Proprietary Codecs H. Opera. www. Quantization. and adjustment of such predictions (as well as synthesis of unpredicted blocks) using a DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform). www. Run Length Encoding. It is designed to support the Matroska multimedia container format and comply with the HTML 5 standard. Google and many other content publishers.webmproject. Some of the key milestones of VP6 included support of multi-pass encoding. YUV Colorpsace and Frame Type.theora. These steps include Discrete Cosine Transforms. VP6 was developed as a successor to VP5. and frame interpolation. www. psycho-visually tuned segmentation. in addition to Adobe. Dirac uses Wavelet Compression instead of Discrete Cosine Transforms as the basis for its compression algorithm.pdf * VP8 was created to replace the VP7 video codec. rate-distortion optimized encoding algorithms and two-pass encoding. use of alternate reference frames for quality and temporal scalability. Chrome web browsers. This format is supported by Firefox. context adaptive entropy coding. prediction of such subblocks using previously constructed blocks.264. Variable Length Run Length Booleans. The current version of WMV has achieved several improvements that include native support for interlaced video.com Theora is derivative of VP3.org www. Theora aims at improving the original VP3 implementation through optimizing the encoder software and actual codec structure. This codec also uses a unusual feature that consists of encoding data from bottom to top.
Both the streaming and multimedia player software must be capable of also supporting the same streaming protocol to ensure that the audience members will be able to receive the streamed multimedia content. The quality of the streamed content would be marginal and not well suited for continuous multimedia distribution. The multimedia broadcast must be received at specific times and in the proper sequential order to ensure a quality viewing / listening experience. video and audio distribution would be very complicated and costly. This would limit the ability to deliver high quality multimedia to large groups of audiences. The selection of the streaming protocol used for individual Internet broadcasts is determined by the method used to encode the multimedia and the software used for the multimedia distribution server. These protocols control how the data is delivered over the Internet. Both the multimedia encoding and streaming server software must be capable of supporting the same streaming protocol. Without the use of specialized protocols for multimedia content delivery.Why Are Streaming Protocols Important for Internet Broadcasting Multimedia broadcasting on the Internet requires the use of specialized protocols to overcome the inconsistencies of data transfers. . Multimedia received late or out of order causes the stream to drop off or stutter.
RTSP differs from regular HTTP content delivery by requiring a permanent data connection between clients that are exchanging data. . but is still used as a fall back alternative. Transport Control Protocol (TCP) was developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration and is one of the primary methods for controlling data exchange over computer networks. RTP does not provide the ability to guarantee content delivery. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) was developed by David Reed and is one of the primary methods for controlling data exchange over computer networks. Microsoft Media Server (MMSH) was developed by Microsoft as a proprietary protocol that was used with the Windows Media Server. TCP is used to transport the data. which is used to distribute web page data over the Internet. Icecast is similar to Shoutcast and uses special meta tag data that is placed within HTTP communications headers. which does not provide guaranteed delivery of the data or proper ordering of the data. Either TCP or UDP can be used to transport the multimedia data. Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force and provides a definitive architecture for data communications between a client and server. such as starting. TCP is used to transport the data. UDP does not require the verification of data. UDP is used to transport the data. RTP is less susceptible to the loss of data being sent via computer networks. The use of TCP will result in a large communications overhead. RDT is commonly used in conjunction with a control protocol such as RTSP. pausing or stopping the delivery of the content. Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force and functions similarly to HTTP. RTSP also allows users to control the basic functions of a media server. which is used to distribute web page data over the Internet. MMSH was replaced by RTSP. Shoutcast uses special meta tag data that is placed within HTTP communications headers. RTP provides identification and sequential ordering of data bits as well as monitoring the delivery of multimedia content.Common Protocols Used for Internet Broadcasting SHOUTcast was developed by Justin Frankel and is a modification of HTTP. TCP is used to transport the data. It provides a greater data delivery speed and is much more efficient. These are the data protocols that are used to deliver the packets of information over the Internet. UDP is used to transport the data. TCP is used to transport the data. Real Time Transport Protocol (RTP) was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force. Real Data Transport (RDT) was developed by RealNetworks as a proprietary alternative to RTP. This greatly reduces overall communications overhead. Icecast was developed by the Xiph open media organization and is a modification of HTTP. RTSP uses a message ID to monitor each data connection between clients. so that no permanent TCP connection is required. but it is very sensitive to data delay that can be caused by network irregularities. TCP guarantees the reliability and order of data by requiring acknowledgment for receiving data from clients before more is sent.
Station operation The way an Internet station is run can heavily influence the station's marketing potential and audience pull. .Always update your station playlist content and keep it fresh.m3u. . Internet multimedia encoding Use a streaming format that is universal.Encourage audience members to visit the station website. Your station is broadcasting to the world. There are many aspects that should be considered when creating a promotional plan. Create a http link to the file. . planes. . . .Encourage audience members to invite their friends to listen / watch the station. etc.Consider creating regular video shows that concentrate on your station.DJ's If your station has live DJ's.PLS . location or listeners. . These aspect include: Station uniqueness What makes your station different from other stations. Station sweepers Use short announcements in your broadcast as a multi-purpose marketing tool. . . according to the type of stream encoding being used.Other * The uniqueness of the station is important for making it stand out from other stations. Embedded stream links Create web links to the Internet broadcast source stream and place them on the station website.) http://ip_address_of_server:port_number/stream_name Save the file as listen. continent. if the station produces live shows. Input the following into the file: (Substitute your station information for the information listed. building.variety is the spice of life.Location of station Country. This will allow the casual web surfer to tune in to your station.What steps will be taken to implement the promotional plan. not just your local area.Keep your station running 24 hours a day to maximize the potential audience size. Upload the file to your web site. automobiles. . It is recommended that the source stream links are for the major multimedia player applications.Type of shows If your station produces live shows. . .Promoting Your Online Radio or Television Station Creating a promotion plan for your station is very important . Create a new file.What are the cost limitations to be considered for implementing the promotional plan. city. Why should people tune in to your station if you have the same content without adding new material? Remember . Do not force potential audience members to download additional software to view / listen to your station broadcast. trains.Website Does it have unique content. .Genre Narrowing the station genre can help it stand out from other stations.Offer your audience the ability to download shows. state.M3U (Creating a M3U stream link) Open notepad or your favorite text editor.What is the purpose of the promotional plan. . . .
first impressions are lasting impressions.The website should have a contact page.) [playlist] File1=http://ip_address_of_server:port_number/stream_name Title1=Station name – Station website – Other station information Length1=-1 NumberOfEntries=1 Version=2 Save the file as listen. Create a new file.RAM (Creating a RAM stream link) Open notepad or your favorite text editor. Create a http link to the file. Create a http link to the file.ASX (Creating a ASX stream link) Open notepad or your favorite text editor. . . Create a http link to the file.0"> <entry> <title>Title Of Stream</title> <ref href="http://ip_address_of_server:port_number" /> </entry> </asx> Note: <ref href="http:// Indicates the transfer protocol used.Keep It Simple Stupid) A well designed website provides a reason for audience members to stay on the website and keep coming back.pls file.Use website templates to create the station website. Upload the file to your web site. .Avoid using Flash only index pages. Create a new file. . Remember .The website should be easy to navigate. .images are indexed by search engines. etc. .asx file.(Creating a PLS stream link) Open notepad or your favorite text editor. Upload the file to your web site. Save the file as listen. Poorly designed websites discourage people and will reflect negatively on your station. Input the following into the file: (Substitute your station information for the information listed.Use alt tags for images . Create a new file. Station website design (KISS .) http://ip_address_of_server:port_number/stream_name Save the file as listen. which could be http.The website should use a balance of text and graphics. Input the following into the file: (Substitute your station information for the information listed. Input the following into the file: (Substitute your station information for the information listed. if you are not fluent with coding html. .ram file. Upload the file to your web site.) <asx version="3. . mms. .
Widgets to allow people to listen / view your station. no more than 2 genres per station . (iTunes@live365. (Multiples with different bitrates are acceptable. using key words.IP/URL to point to.There is no guarantee of being added to iTunes. . email and phone number .Itunes E-mail submission Send e-mail to itunesradio@apple.City/State/Country of Origin . Any e-mails that do not follow these protocols will be deleted.com.com) .) 3) Station Submission requests must contain all of the following information: . . Use internal banners to pull people to “hot”parts of the station website. exposure.Station Submission: Station name (ex: Station Submission: Cameo's Favorite Tunes.com) 4) General information/guidelines/requirements: . (Multiple updates to one station or multiple bitrates for one station can be in the same email.Website for station if there is one . Optimize index page to reflect uniqueness of station.Station Type (Internet-only. . Check website for spelling and grammar.Station genre(s) for tuner (PLEASE take a minute to look at existing iTunes genres.) * If you are a Live365 station. Directories Listing your station in multiple directories is very important.Station description (to be shown in tuner. you must make your request through iTunes at Live365.Contact person name.Station name (This MUST be the name as it is used in positioning on the station. .) (Please note we only support MP3 streams at this time. Have a web page to enable audience members to send their friends e-mail notifications about the website. terrestrial simulcast.Station requests are handled on a first-come. This provides the station with increased . .- Avoid configuring audio or video files to automatically start. Use quality content and update the content regularly. Do not use excessive website scripting.Other Inquiry: State issue here 2) Each station update or submission must be sent in a separate email.). 1) ALL e-mails must have one of these three subject lines as follows: .Is station commercial-free? . The primary Search Engines to market with are: * Google * Yahoo * Bing Offer website accessories Have items that listeners can put on their websites.Station Update: Station name exactly as it appears in iTunes. etc.) .Bitrate(s) . Validate the website html for multi browser viewing. and yes we do check.Language of broadcast . Have games on the website to keep people attracted to using the site.) . please keep short) . This provides collateral advertising and creates loyalty / community for your station audience. We will not accept numbers or punctuation as part of a station's name unless that is a legitimate part of the station marketing. first-served basis.Station logo's.
. .Streamfinder Website submission www.jacapps. . . .IORSN Website submission www.com. .We randomly check stations.If we do add your station.iliketunes. Android and BlackBerry applications Create cell phone applications to allow your audience to receive your Internet broadcast station.Icecast Broadcaster must be streaming with their software.com/login.Streamdir Website submission streamdir. After all the paperwork is completed. . .broadcastingworld. www. Apple.Your station can be de-listed at any time. If you are requesting a new listing or renewing an expired listing. .Banners pointing to your station placed on reputable websites. You may re-submit stations 30 days after being de-listed. * Is consistently full and inaccessible. . a customer service representative will ask you to fill out a form with details about your station. We will remove the station without warning and you will not be able to get your station re-submitted until the issue is rectified.Windows media E-mail submission Send e-mail to tuner@microsoft.Create station flyer's and post locally.Recieva Internet radio appliance Email submission addstation@reciva.There is no magic number of slots that must be available for a station to be considered but we do tend to send a lot of traffic to our radio partners.Broadcasting world Website submission www..com . We will try to contact you when we remove a station.asp?url=newstation.php .net/listen/add/ . without notice and may or may not be reinstated depending on this issues surrounding the take down.streamfinder. This offers the ability of attracting potential audience members from other websites.Links to your station placed on reputable websites. your station will be displayed within the Internet Radio feature in Windows Media Player.com/add-station-to-directory/ . if we find that a station is: * Abusing the system by using a name that is not part of the on-air marketing of the station.com Advertising Advertising outside of your website is another important factor.If we see that certain genres are getting overly full we may de-list stations to keep the content fresh for our customers. .asp .Shoutcast Broadcaster must be streaming with their software. A general rule of thumb is a minimum of 300 slots to begin with. we will leave it up a minimum of 90 days unless there is an issue.Post station information on Craigslist. . If we find that the station cannot meet the demand we will de-list it. but it is your responsibility to make sure your contact information is current with us. It also allows your station to make connections with local people.com/addstream.
Web pages that visitors access.Write about your station using Blogs. ezinearticles.Where website visitors come from.other listeners can vote for which ones to use. People can then recommend these items to others and your station will be marketed by word of mouth.. Track the progress by following your website visitor logs and station logs. . .Do not waste time posting on “Link Farm” web sites. . .) ..com *knol. .Average length of visit. It offers very fast contact with your audience. .Print station business cards for local distribution.Flicker – (Pictures/Graphics) Funny or unique content.com Social networks Social media allows audience members to associate with each other.Become members of Internet forums related to your genre.Twitter – Currently no advertising.Write articles about things related to your station operation and submit them to websites. Audience feed back It is very important to solicit audience feed back. . . .Chat rooms – Live/ real time interaction with your audience.Youtube .Local news paper interviews. stay informed of events outside of your website and attract more audience members. . location.) * Yahoo groups * Goggle groups * Local groups * News groups . .other listeners can vote for which ones to use. Viral media Your station should create viral media which can be used as a marketing tool. * Use listener pictures on your station website . Audience interaction Interacting with your audience builds togetherness and makes them feel part of the operation of the station. Keeping your audience loyal Keeping the audience loyal is not hard and does not require spending large amounts of money.Facebook – Rapidly growing with large international base. . The number of characters per post is limited. Not as prominent as the other networks now. .Listener dedications on the air. Public relations Making people aware of your station is another important factor. * www.google.Give aways.News letters – E-mail is a very valuable marketing tool. . (Station information should be listed in your signature. method of broadcasting.(Video) Funny or unique content. * Use listener video on your station website . Imagination and planning is the key. * Use listener voices on your station website .Orkut – Primarily non US users.Number of repeat visitors. (You can create bumper stickers and logo's so people can download them and print them. The most important website statistics are: .other listeners can vote for which ones to use. Owned by Google. Web traffic / listener statistics These statistics can be used to track the progress of marketing strategies.Station contests. .Subscribe to specific e-mail lists.Location of visitor. etc. . . . This can provide you with ideas and suggestions to boost your audience potential or correct problems that you are not aware of.Myspace – One of the earliest social networks. . Quick and to the point. .Forums – A place to exchange information and ideas as a community. .
alterwind.Any website errors.org/ www.deep-software.com/ www.casterstats.html www.html www. * Note – Hits are not the same as visitors.hping. You can use various software programs to analyze the log files of your media server or web traffic. Use online tools to check page ranking and comparison with similar websites..sawmill.Location of audience members.org/shoutcast_logparse/ www.Which bots spider the website. A web page and three graphics would register as four hits.org/visitors/ www.ro/shoutcast_log_parser/main.dragonwire.Average length of connection.php?lang=en Analyzing log files of web hosts www. The most important station broadcast statistics are: . Each file that is accessed by people viewing the website is listed as a hit.com/loganalyzer/log-analyzer-lite.com www. .Peak listening / viewing times.com/ . . .w3perl.starnetwork. Analyzing log files of media servers www.webalizer.net/formats/shoutcast16.Number of repeat audience members. in reality this is only one visitor. .
com checkout.Special events hosted by the station. Increasing your station revenue requires expanding and sustaining the audience size. . Adequate cash flow is necessary to successfully operate an Internet Broadcast station on a long term basis for a large audience. The operational cost is dependent on the audience size. These methods include: .Stream hosting .Website traffic statistics. Effective marketing is the key to expanding the audience and generating more operating revenue.com -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Give something to people that donate money to your station: . -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . . .Any changes in website content.Audience listening time.paypal. method of content delivery.Royalty payments . . since the combination of your station programming.Web hosting . . . www.The Art Of Generating Revenue for Internet Broadcasting Stations Running an Internet broadcast station requires a financial commitment for station operation.google. You should include the following information in your diary: .Donations: Request that people donate money if they like the station programming or features.Give a song request live on the air.Equipment maintenance Experiment It might be necessary to try using several methods of generating revenue. type of multimedia encoding used. .Revenue generated from each of the methods tried. Planning You must determine the operational funding goals required to run your Internet broadcast station. Try each revenue generating method for a set period of several weeks to ensure that each method is given enough time for a legitimate testing cycle. Making financial supporters of your station part of the social community lets your audience know that you care and appreciate their effort and support.Create a web page to display their names and or pictures. Track your results It is recommended that a diary is kept for recording the results of using different advertising methods for generating revenue. Marketing provides both increased station exposure and revenue generation. Revenue methods There are several methods that can be used to generate operating revenue. The following items are required to operate a station: These include: .Dates of test period. station website and audience can make some methods more effective than others.Thank them on the air.Any changes in broadcast content.Purchasing new equipment . etc. The potential to generate revenue is directly linked to the school size of the station audience. .
Subscription: Offer access to a stream that does not include in stream advertising for premium or VIP members.com . T-shirts.google. www.kontera. deliver. video.streamads.admedia. www.) www. This information can also be applied to most web advertising programs. www.com/adsense www.com .com www..com/adsense www.com www.com .google.com/archives/2005/03/increase-google-adsense-ctr-by-500 How To Increase Google Adsense Income Quickly http://www.com checkout. DVD's.Affiliate sales: Sell sales of books.com .com .com www. www. 15 Effective Tips to Increase Google Adsense CTR www.com www. or cups with station logos printed on them.com www.com/2008/03/how-to-increase-google-adsense-income-quickly How to Increase Google AdSense Income Simple Tips www.Website advertising: In text advertising.quickonlinetips.paypal.jetcast.com www.com --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Information for increasing revenue performance of Google Adsense web advertising.com .google. (Textual.com --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.doubleclick.com checkout.google. (Text within the website that is highlighted and links to advertising.jetcast.Website advertising: Publish advertising on the website.spotxchange.) www.cj.com/admanager googleadmanager. schedule.com www.adbrite.google. (Television) www.In stream advertising: Publish advertising within the Internet broadcast.Email newsletter advertising: Include advertising in your stations e mail newsletter.andomedia.zazzle. graphic. magazines etc.Souvenir sales: Sell hats.com www.hubpages.chitika.com/ads/affiliatenetwork/ .blogspot.adbrite.google.paypal. www.targetspot. that are related to the station content.com . www.doubleclick. and measure all of your directly-sold and network-based inventory.kchut.cafepress.In stream advertising: Publish advertising within the Internet broadcast.yume. CD's.com/hub/Google-AdSense-Dos-and-Donts This is a hosted ad management solution that can help you sell.Subscription: Offer a higher quality broadcast for premium or VIP members.com www.com www. (Radio) www.com www.
podbean.clickandpledge.com 24 tools for fundraising with social media www.com/free-articles/a-case-for-twitter-facebook-social-media-for-nonprofitfundraisers/ Social Media Fundraising Lessons http://afine2.com * Paid www.brightcove.viddler. donors. There are several Internet companies that can help you create a Social Media fund raising campaign and increase your audience size.com www.socialmediaexplorer.tv www. www.wordpress.com From online fundraising to developing websites and managing donor relations.com/2010/03/22/social-media-fundraising-lessons/ .piryx.givezooks. These sponsorships should be relevant to your website / station content.com www.mypodcast.tivix. & social media for nonprofit fundraisers http://www.org/2010/05/28/19-tools-for-fundraising-with-social-media -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Three Keys To Nonprofit Success In Social Media http://www.com . www.com We help nonprofits and socially-conscious brands to engage supporters.Distribute regularly scheduled audio shows hosted by businesses that offers revenue sharing.com/2009/07/23/three-keys-to-non-profit-success-in-social-media/ A case for Twitter.chitika. * Free www.youtube.blip.Distribute regularly scheduled video shows hosted by businesses that offers revenue sharing. * Free www. service or company sponsorship of your broadcast station.) .Product. Trio covers it all.vmix.com www. Facebook.socialbrite.fundraisingcoach. and consumers in unique and powerful new ways. Social Media Fundraising on Twitter and Facebook for nonprofits and Political Campaigns.www.com Online fundraising for nonprofits and grassroots campaigns www. Fund raising for nonprofit Internet broadcast stations You can use Social Media to create fundraising campaigns and increase your audience size.com . www.com (Email news letters are important for maintaining contact with your audience members and keeping them informed.
several times an hour. how can they support the station.) . . Additional free plug-ins / features can be used to include various types of content. It must compel. Creating many pages with quality content provides the potential for more advertising revenue. (Donate money. .Very font color within textual advertising.Do not overload/clutter web pages with advertising. Website content and quality is king. . Your Internet broadcast must be used as a marketing tool to promote the station website. Keep your audience informed of any updates. . . in addition to a variety of free website themes being available for enhancing the look and feel of the website. Examples of this include: . . public relations and revenue generation. rather than purchasing a CD. (Different colors for heading. Promote your website within your Internet broadcast It is very important that you inform your audience about the station website. Website stickiness is what keeps people attached and keeps them coming back to the station website.Website advertising should be seamless. You can use one of several web based applications that can be installed on standard web hosting accounts and used to make comprehensive web sites. added content or changes to your station website as well.The advertising displayed on the web page should match the content. you are losing valuable revenue potential.org These applications are usually included in most web hosting account packages.joomla. At the beginning of your Internet broadcast pre-roll announcements inviting the audience to go the station website and do something. Many.) . and tends to yield higher conversion results. They also provide another dimension of content to your Internet broadcast station. You must make the announcements compelling and relevant to attract visitors to the website. inform or entertain. These FREE applications include: Wordpress : www. You no longer need to be a master of HTML to create a website. By implementing a variety of advertising methods. many stations make the mistake of not promoting their website within their Internet broadcast.A person may be more inclined to donate money. The website content should contain a mix of pictures. . Using a combination of techniques can appeal to a broader range of people.A person may be more inclined to listen to a higher quality stream rather than purchasing a shirt with the station logo. audio or video. If you are not doing this.Banner advertising tends to yield lower results than textual advertising.Do not create web pages just for the sake of publishing advertising. You can also display the station website address within an Internet video broadcasts.A person may be more inclined to watch an advertising video rather than clicking on a advertising banner. activities. you can increase the potential for generating revenue through diversification. etcetera. (The content of the station website MUST be creative and original. Why should your Internet broadcast audience visit the station website. etcetera. graphic and video advertising should be dispersed throughout the web page. . what kind of things can they do. written content. visit the forums. order CD's. Website Websites can be used for marketing. it should appear to be part of the actual web page content. You must offer content that compliments your station broadcast content. in addition to areas that allow communications with station staff and other listeners.Textual advertising is less intrusive.wordpress. what kind of content will they find. body and URL.) Psychology of web advertising .org Drupal : www.drupal.Banner advertising should be placed towards the top of the web page. . look at pictures. Designing a website is important.Multiple sources of revenue The key to an effective revenue generation plan is to use several methods and not rely on a single one.org Joomla : www.Textual.
com www. You can track web statistics on web pages using this free service. (Don't away give money!) Monitor advertising You should monitor website traffic patterns and modify low traffic web pages to increase traffic flow and increase the potential for generating additional advertising revenue.hping.Tips for using off-site web features Host your own blog OR use a blog service that allows you the ability of revenue sharing from embedded advertising. Keep the bulk of your content on the station website. It is also important to stay current with Internet advertising marketing trends and new technology that is available.google.org/ www. compare notes and information about the methods used to generate revenue. (Don't give away money!) Use social media for short announcements.org/visitors/ www.com/analytics/ Analyzing log files www.webalizer. www.com/ Stay informed Network and associate with other Internet broadcasters. .w3perl.deep-software.
distribute.creativecommons.com www. governing expiration of Intellectual Property rights vary with individual nations. The material can be mixed with other content as well.mutopiaproject.com www. (Laws.com/en www. display and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only if they give the author or licensor the credits in the manner specified by these. (If your Internet broadcast station has any form of advertising.org Creative Commons sound clips: www. Multimedia that has been placed into Public Domain because the Intellectual Property rights assigned to that specific content have expired The material is released to the public for any commercial or non commercial use.org Creative Commons search: search.Public Domain / Creative Commons Content You may use audio or video multimedia content that does not require royalty payments for streaming or distribution. distribute. and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only for noncommercial purposes.ccmixter. not derivative works based on it.tribeofnoise. either in the stream or on the station website.org www.org www.artistserver. because the Creative Common license grants the creator specific rights. however the derived work must also be placed into Public Domain. display and perform only verbatim copies of the work. ShareAlike (sa) Licensees may distribute derivative works only under a license identical to the license that governs the original work. These rights differ according to the type of Creative Common license the material is placed in.) No Derivative Works (nd) Licensees may copy. www.jamendo.free-loops. The four Creative Common licenses are: Attribution (by) Licensees may copy. The license that this multimedia content falls into is covered under three categories: Multimedia specifically placed into Public Domain by the creator All Intellectual Property rights have been waived and the material is released to the public for any commercial or noncommercial use. however the derived work must also be placed into Public Domain.archive.org/details/feature_films .) Multimedia specifically placed under Creative Commons licensing Creative Commons licenses differ from Public Domain. then you cannot use Creative Commons material released under this license.soundclick. display. The material can be mixed with other content as well. distribute.com freemusicarchive. Noncommercial (nc) Licensees may copy.com Creative Commons music and independent musicians: www.freesound.creativecommons.org/curator/creative_commons dig.org Creative Commons and Public Domain video: www.
soundexchange.net (USA) www.fi www.ppca.geidankyo.fr www.gvl.nrdv.gramo.jp/web/e/activities.uradex.sami.be www.com www.it www.sena.nl -www.ca www.pt -www.com www.no www.or.ch www.cpra.gramex.jp/e/ www.se www.jp www.ppluk.gramex.adami.swcast.swissperform.fi www.raap.loudcity.stichtingnorma.webradioworld.imaie.com Norway Portugal South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland UK USA Companies that provide comprehensive solutions for the payment of Internet audio stream music licensing.) . www.es www.aarcroyalties.gdaie.riaj. Country Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Holland Iceland Ireland Italy Japan Phonographic Rights Agency PPCA URADEX NRCC / SCGDV GRAMEX GRAMEX ADAMI GVL SENA NORMA SHF RAAP IMAIE Geidankyo CPRA RIAJ GRAMO GDAIE -AIE SAMI SWISSPERFORM PPL Sound Exchange (online only) AARC Website Address www.Webcasting Music Royalty Licensing List of national agencies for various countries that are responsible for collecting music royalty fees for Internet broadcasting.aie.com.net (USA) www.ie www.html www.au www.nl www.com (Most countries other than United States.or.de www.
Track the station audience participants and check when people from specific geographic areas are listening the most.webalizer.dragonwire.com www.org/shoutcast_logparse/ www. It is vital that you use reliable network hosts to ensure that your Internet broadcast does not fault or drop out.hping.alterwind. If you a have large number of committed audience members from different continents.starnetwork.Track the station audience participants and check if any particular programs appeal to specific parts of the world.com/ .w3perl. Understanding your audience It is very important to study your audience and find out about their viewing or listening habits.org/ www.com/loganalyzer/log-analyzer-lite.The Internet Broadcast Station Audience Audience planning Always use the easiest method for distributing streamed content to your audience. Do not burden your audience with the task of downloading additional software to receive the Internet broadcast.ro/shoutcast_log_parser/main.deep-software.casterstats. consider operating a streaming server in their geographic area to provide their content.php?lang=en Analyzing log files using the web www.html www.net/formats/shoutcast16.com/ www. Tracking your audience by region allows you to shift the station programming around to gain more audience members from that region.html www. . .sawmill.org/visitors/ www. Analyzing log files that use media servers www.
sourceforge.Additional Resources Open Source software repositories: www.net www.net .freshmeat.
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