You are on page 1of 7


A. What is Poetry?

It is a form of literature usually written in lines or verses that makes up stanzas. The lines and stanzas
may be of various lengths. Some have rhyme and meter.

It is also designed to be recited or read aloud. The recitation of poem reveals the rhythm and thought
omits that help out the meaning it wishes to convey.

B. What are the Elements of Poetry?

Elements of poetry can be defined as a set of instruments used to create a poem. Many of these were
created thousand of years ago and have been linked to ancient story tellings. They help bring imagery and
emotion to poetry, stories, and dramas.

Here are the different elements of poetry:

 Sense. It is revealed through the words, images and symbols.

a. Diction- it refers to the denotative and connotative meanings.

b. Images and sense impressions- these refer to the words that appeals to the sense of sight, smell,
hearing, taste and touch.

c. Figure of Speech- refers to the creative use of words or expressions that a poet uses to enhance
the sense impression.

Key strategy: Use visual stimuli. This is particularly helpful if your students find it hard to think
creatively. Display an image on the board. Encourage students to mind-map words, feelings and emotions the
images create and when they have a page of effective vocabulary, the thought of writing poetry becomes less
daunting. Additionally, use objects that the students can touch and smell and encourage them to focus on the

 Sound. This is the result of creative combination of words that poet may resort to the use of
alliteration, assonance, rhyme, repitition or anaphora.

a. Rhythm- this is the ordered alternation of strong and weak elements in the flow of sound and

b. Meter- this refers to the duration, stress or number of syllables per line.

c. Rhyme Scheme- this is the formal arrangement of rhymes in a stanza or in a whole poem.

Key Strategy: Create a certain atmosphere. Try playing music and soft sounds in the classroom so that
they immediately engage with their surroundings. When writing poems with themes of nature, play sounds from
forests, the sea etc. Get the students to close their eyes and put their head on the desk and allow them to listen
carefully. They become more involved and often, effective phrases and vocabulary come to their minds and they
become excited by this. Afterwards, criticize the lyrics of the song. Identify its meter and rhyme scheme.

 Structure. This refers to the arrangement of words and lines to fit together and the organization
of the parts to form the whole.
a. Word Order- the natural and unnatural arrangement of words.

b. Ellipsis- omitting some words for economy or effect.

c. Punctuation- abundance or lack of punctuation marks.

d. Shape- contextual or visual design, omission of spaces, capitalization or lower case.

Key Strategy: Experiment with structure. This is important as it seems to be what students find more
challenging. Introduce poems that have interesting structures and explore the reasons behind enjambment,
caesura and the forms they are written in. You can use a bell that students ring for every punctuation mark when
reading the poem out loud. Link this to pace and speed and how it can represent certain things in the poem.
Students can then experiment with structure in their own poems.


Types of Poems: Lyric Poetry
Definition of Lyric Poem
Lyric Poem- it expresses the author’s mood, emotion, and reflection in musical language. It
derives its name from the lyre, and was primarily intended to be sung. Not all the lyrics are singable, but
they are all melodious.
a) The ode- the most majestic type of poetry. It expresses enthusiasm, lofty praise of some
person, or thing, deep reflection, or restrained feeling. The author is in exalted mood; he/ she
feels deeply what he/ she is saying; hence subject matter can never be trivial.
b) The elegy-lyric poem that can always be distinguished by its subject matter, death. It
may voice the author’s personal grief for a loved one, or a loss affecting the public as a whole,
or it may simply be a meditation on death in general.
c) The sonnet- a lyric poem that can be distinguished by its form, for it always consist of
fourteen iambic pentameters lines.
d) The song- a short lyric poem which is intended primarily to be sung. It has that
particular melodious quality required by the singing voice.
e) The simple lyric- the category of all those lyrical poems that do not properly belong
under any of the other types of lyrics. The simple lyric touches every mood and emotion of the
human heart.

 when a character in a literary work speaks to an object, an idea, or someone
who doesn't exist as if it is a living person. This is done to produce dramatic effect and
to show the importance of the object or idea.
 a figure of speech in which two opposite ideas are joined to create an effect. The
common oxymoron phrase is a combination of an adjective proceeded by a noun with
contrasting meanings, such as “cruel kindness,” or “living death”.


 derived from a Greek word meaning “simple,” is a figure of speech that

employs an understatement by using double negatives or, in other words, a positive
statement expressed by negating its opposite expressions.


 is a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical,

cultural, literary or political significance. It does not describe in detail the person or
thing to which it refers. It is just a passing comment and the writer expects the reader to
possess enough knowledge to spot the allusion and grasp its importance in a text.


 The term paradox is from the Greek word paradoxon, which means “contrary to
expectations, existing belief, or perceived opinion.”
 It is a statement that appears to be self-contradictory or silly, but which may
include a latent truth. It is also used to illustrate an opinion or statement contrary to
accepted traditional ideas. A paradox is often used to make a reader think over an idea
in innovative way.


Sound Devices are resources used by poets to convey and reinforce the meaning or experience of poetry through
the skillful use of sound. After all, poets are trying to use a concentrated blend of sound and imagery to create
an emotional response.

a. Onomatopoeia- the use of words that imitate the sound of the idea it denotes
ex. Hiss, Swoosh, Bang, Buzz
b. Alliteration- the repetition of consonant sounds, especially in the initial position
ex. The splendor falls on castle walls
And snowy summits old in story
c. Assonance- the repetition of vowel sounds
ex. Long, long afterward, in an oak
I found the arrow, still unbroken;
I found again in the heart of a friend
d. Rhyme- the repetition of sounds at the end of words
ex. And what shoulder and what art
Could twist the sinews of thy heart?
And, when thy heart began to beat
What dread hand and what dread feet?
e. Consonance- the identity of consonant sounds in words without the identity or vowel sounds
ex. Black-block
f. Anaphora- the repetition of a word or words at the beginning of two or more successive clauses
or verses
ex. Lay me an anvil, O God!
Beat me and hammer me into a crowbar,

Lay me an anvil, O God!
Beat me and hammer me into a steel spike


An essay is a short academic composition. The word “essay” is derived from a French word “essai” or “essayer,”
which means “trail.” In composition, however, an essay is a piece of non-fiction writing that talks or discusses a
specific topic.


1) The expository essay

This is a writer’s explanation of a short theme, idea or issue.

The key here is that you are explaining an issue, theme or idea to your intended audience. Your reaction to a
work of literature could be in the form of an expository essay, for example if you decide to simply explain your
personal response to a work. The expository essay can also be used to give a personal response to a world event,
political debate, football game, work of art and so on.

2) The persuasive essay

This is the type of essay where you try to convince the reader to adopt your position on an issue or point of view.

Here your rationale, your argument, is most important. You are presenting an opinion and trying to persuade
readers, you want to win readers over to your point of view.

3) The analytical essay

In this type of essay you analyze, examine and interpret such things as an event, book, poem, play or other work
of art.

4) The argumentative essay

This is the type of essay where you prove that your opinion, theory or hypothesis about an issue is correct or
more truthful than those of others. In short, it is very similar to the persuasive essay but the difference is that you
are arguing for your opinion as opposed to others, rather than directly trying to persuade someone to adopt your
point of view.

The short thesis, which is not really an essay, but is generally considered as the classic essay form:
Five paragraphs:
State the thesis in the first paragraph.
Give three supporting paragraphs.
In the final paragraph, repeat the thesis statement, worded slightly differently, giving the impression to the reader
that you have demonstrated it.
Or to put it more plainly:
First paragraph: This is what I’m going to say.
Second paragraph: Now I’m saying it.
Third paragraph: I’m saying it again.
Fourth paragraph: I’m saying it again.
Fifth paragraph: This is what I just said.

“Here is a blank piece of paper (or, I suppose, a blank screen). Put words on it. Write what you feel. Never mind
form or function. Only mind what comes into your mind. Assertions are as good as facts. Associations are even
better. Conclusions are close-minded. Punctuation is optional.”

G.K. Chesterton
Chesterton was one of the most gifted essayists of all time.
He wrote over 5,000 essays.
He writes an essay the same way he writes a mystery story.
The ideal essay should be written using the same three elements of the mystery story: the corpse, the clues, the
: the hook, the string, the catch.
:the question, the partial answers, the complete answer.
The first sentence of an essay is the all-important hook. It needs to be spectacular. Here is the opening line of one
of Chesterton’s most famous essays:
“Lying in bed would be an altogether perfect and supreme experience if only one had a coloured pencil long
enough to draw on the ceiling.”
The strength of the essay, which is what distinguishes it from the short thesis, is also its weakness—and its
danger. It is the wonderful meandering. It is what happens between the beginning and the end.

The only thing more important than the first sentence of an essay is the last sentence.


A direct or indirect reference to something historical, literary, religious, or mythical. The author usually uses
references that will be understood by his or her audience, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art.
You can also make allusions to pop culture. Allusions can also be surprising and funny, and are a favorite tool for
rappers to prove their extensive knowledge of many topics.
In other words: dropping good allusions will make you sound smart. When used properly, allusions can be a
great tool for students.
As an introductory activity, ask students to first give a workable definition of allusion and offer a few examples.
Examples of allusions:
You brag about your backyard so much people will think it's the Garden of Eden.
Taking my little sister to the park is a real odyssey.

For this activity, you will provide your students with a list of allusions. You can use this list to get things started;
then, incorporate some of your own. Either write this list on the board or copy and print it for a handout.

Garden of Eden = A beautiful place

Odyssey = A long trip

Idiomatic Expression is a group of words with a meaning of its own that is different from the meaning of each
separate word. Here are some examples of expressions:
1. A fish out of water = to feel awkward or uncomfortable, usually in a new situation
2. To be broke = to be out of money, to have no money
3. Rule of thumb = an unwritten but generally accepted guideline, policy or method of doing something
4. Give someone the cold shoulder = to show no interest in someone or something, to ignore.
5. Head over heels (in love) = to be really or completely in love with someone
6. Penelope’s web – a task that is never ending or done.
7. Achilles’ heel – a weakest point of one’s personality.
8. Bacchanalian beast – a gathering that is characterized by abandon.
9. Herculean task – a great or impossible task.
10. Apple of discord – the object of conflict.
11. Beware of Greeks bearing gifts – be careful if an enemy suddenly becomes friendly.

Literary Allusions and Expressions

Penelope’s web – a task that is never ending or done.

Achilles’ heel – a weakest point of one’s personality.
Bacchanalian beast – a gathering that is characterized by abandon.
Herculean task – a great or impossible task.
Apple of discord – the object of conflict.
Beware of Greeks bearing gifts – be careful if an enemy suddenly becomes friendly.


Elements of Drama
Drama is a composition of prose or poetry that is transformed into a performance on stage. The story
progresses through interactions between its characters and ends with a message for the audience. Drama has
seven elements, namely plot, characters, setting, dialogue, movement, music, and theme.
Aristotle writings has influence us even today, he was a Greek Philosopher who wrote Rome and Juliet,
Sonnet 116, Henry IV, V etc. More than 2,000 years ago Aristotle was the first one to write the essential
elements of drama.

Aristotle’s Six Elements of Drama

Plot – refers to the action, the basic storyline of the play. This is what happens in the play.
Theme – refers to the meaning of the play. The main idea or what will be the lesson learned from the play. Some
plays the theme is quiet obvious but there are also the theme is subtle.
Characters – refers to the people, animals or plants in the play. They are the ones who move the action or plot.
Dialogue – refers to the spill or speeches of the characters written by playwright.
Music/Rhythm – Music is part of drama but Aristotle refers to the actors’ voices as they speak.
Spectacle – everything what the audience sees as they watch the play. Refers to the visual elements of the play,
sets, costumes, special effects, etc.

The Modern Theater

The list of elements of drama in the modern theater slightly changed, though most of them remain the
The list of essential elements in modern theater is as follows:
Convention – the methods and techniques of the playwright and the director to achieve the desired stylistics
Genre – it can be comedy, tragedy, historical, love, etc. This refers to the type of the play.
Audience – Many playwright and actors considered the audience or the group of people who watch the play to
be the most important element of drama. All the effort and writing and producing the play is for the
entertainment, to satisfy them, enjoyment of the audience.