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Class–12 Mathematics

NCERT solution

Chapter - 1

Relations & Functions - Miscellaneous Exercise

such that

Ans. Given:

Now and

even. Show that is invertible. Find the inverse of Here, W is the set of all whole

numbers.

Hence,

is an injective mapping.

If is an odd number, then there exists an even whole number such that

If is an even number, then there exists an odd whole number such that

For :

and

Hence,

3. If is defined by find

Ans. Given:

Because

injective but is not injective.

Let and

7. Give examples of two functions and such that is

onto but is not onto.

Ans. Let

8. Given a non empty set X, consider P (X) which is the set of all subsets of X.

Justify your answer.

9. Given a non-empty set X, consider the binary operation * : P (X) x P (X) P (X) given

by A * B = A B A, B in P (X), where P (X) is the power set of X. Show that X is the

identity element for this operation and X is the only invertible element in P (X) with

respect to the operation *.

Ans. Let S be a non-empty set and P(S) be its power set. Let any two subsets A and B of S.

A B S

A B P(S)

Similarly, if A, B P(S) and A – B P(S), then the intersection of sets and difference of

sets are also binary operation on P(S) and A S = A = S A for every subset A of sets

10. Find the number of all onto functions from the set {1, 2, 3, ……., } to itself.

Ans. The number of onto functions that can be defined from a finite set A containing

elements onto a finite set B containing elements =

11. Let S = and T = {1, 2, 3}. Find of the following functions F from S to T, if

it exists.

(i) F =

(ii) F =

(i) F =

(ii)

F is not one-one function, since element and have the same image 1.

Therefore, F is not one-one function.

and R. Show that * is commutative but not associative,

Now,

And

Part II: R

And,

Now and

L.H.S.

R.H.S.

As L.H.S. R.H.S.

(B – A), A, B P (X). Show that the empty set is the identity for the operation *

and all the elements A of P (X) are invertible with A-1 = A. (Hint:

and )

And =

Also A * A = (A – A) (A – A) =

Show that zero is the identity for this operation and each element of the set is

invertible with being the inverse of

We denote by for every ordered pair A x A.

A binary operation on a no-empty set A is a rule that associates with every ordered pair

of elements (distinct or equal) of A some unique element of A.

* 0 1 2 3 4 5

0 0 1 2 3 4 5

1 1 2 3 4 5 0

2 2 3 4 5 0 1

3 3 4 5 0 1 2

4 4 5 0 1 2 3

5 5 0 1 2 3 4

And and

Also on 0 = 0 – 0 = 0 *

2 * 1 = 3 = 1 * 2

15. Let A = {–1, 0, 1, 2}, B = {–4, –2, 0, 2} and be the functions defined by

answer.

(Hint: One may note that two functions and such that

At and

At and

At and

16. Let A = {1, 2, 3}. Then number of relations containing (1, 2) and (1, 3) which are

reflexive and symmetric but not transitive is:

(A) 1

(B) 2

(C) 3

(D) 4

17. Let A = {1, 2, 3}. Then number of equivalence relations containing (1, 2) is:

(A) 1

(B) 2

(C) 3

(D) 4

Ans. 2

Therefore, option (B) is correct.

or equal to Then, does and coincide in (0, 1)?

Now,

And

in (0, 1]

No, fog and gof don't coincide in (0, 1].

(A) 10

(b) 16

(C) 20

(D) 8

Ans. A =

A x A =

= 4

Number of subsets = = 16

Hence number of binary operation is 16.

Therefore, option (B) is correct.

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