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PAPER 1: UNIT III: Safety,Health and Environment Education and Training

Purpose of Training
The purpose of training is to help people learn something they need to know or be able to do for
a specific purpose, such as to achieve organizational objectives and goals, carry out specific
tasks, prepare for new responsibilities, or attain their career goals.

Training Needs Assessment” (TNA)


Method of determining if a training need exists and, if it does, what training is required to fill the
gap is called as training needs assessment
It is also the process of collecting information about an expressed or implied
organizational need that could be met by conducting training

The objective is to identify accurately the levels of the present situation through surveys,
interview, observation, secondary data and/or workshops.
The gap between the present status and desired status may indicate problems that in turn can
be translated into a training need

Training need= Desired Capability – Current capability of the participants

Training can reduce, if not eliminate the gap by equipping the participants with knowledge and
skill and by encouraging them to build and enhance their capabilities.

Five Steps of Training Needs Assessment


The process of Training Needs Assessment can be divided into five steps:
1) identify problem and needs;
2) determine design of needs assessment;
3) collect data;
4) analyze data; and
5) provide feedback

The safety training program should cover topics such as:


 accident prevention and safety promotion
 safety compliance
 accident and emergency response
 personal protective equipment
 safe practices
 equipment and machinery safety
 chemical and hazardous materials safety
 workplace hazards
 employee involvement in safety
 Benefits of a training program

An effective training program can reduce the number of injuries and deaths, property damage,
legal liability, illnesses, workers' compensation claims, and missed time from work.
Safety training classes help establish a safety culture in which employees themselves help
promote proper safety procedures while on the job. It is important that new employees properly
trained, embrace the importance of workplace safety as it is easy for seasoned workers to
negatively influence the new workers. That negative influence however, can be purged with the
establishment of new, hands on, innovative effective safety training which will ultimately lead to
an effective safety culture.

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Who Needs Training?
Training should target the following
 New recruits,
 Contract workers,
 Regular employees in high risk areas and worker whose job changes as a result of new
processes or materials.
 Managers to emphasize the importance of their role in visibly supporting the safety and
health program and setting a good example.
 Supervisors to be trained in company policies and procedures, as well as hazard
detection and control, accident investigation, handling of emergencies, and how to train
and reinforce training.
 The entire workforce for periodic refresher training in responding to emergencies.

Characteristics of successful training programs


 A successful training program effects change,
 Are designed to achieve objectives that describe what people will be able to do as a
result of training;
 Are learner centered, not trainer centered; engage learners actively in the learning
process;
 Focus not on theory but on practical information, concepts and skills that learners can
use immediately; and
 Have measurable outcomes.

Benefit of training programme


 Training helps organizations develop and retain a leaner but more productive workforce
which stay competitive and achieve results;
 be flexible enough to respond to change
 improve communication with people from diverse cultures;
 prepare new employees to do their jobs;
 prepare people for new responsibilities;
 attract and retain the best employees;
 comply with statutory requirements;
 provide excellent customer service;
 maintain a high quality of goods and services; and
 keep cost under control.

Quality of a good trainer


A successful trainer needs
 keen listening and observational skills;
 good communication skills;
 an enthusiasm for learning;
 creativity, flexibility and ability to think on one’s feet;
 energy and enthusiasm;
 organizational, resource and time management skills;
 good inter personal skills;
 research, analytical, and problem solving skills;
 good sense of humor.

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Designing Training Programs
To avoid wasting resources on training that doesn’t do the job, which is unnecessary or costs
too much, many training professionals use some form of a model known as ADDIE, which
stands for the key steps in the design process: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation,
and Evaluation.

Analysis: Determining the need for undertaking the project, the likelihood of achieving the
desired results, and what it will take to move from idea to reality.

Design: Writing the learning objectives, determining how training will be delivered, identifying
content, planning the learning activities, and deciding how the program will be evaluated.

Development: Creating or managing the development of the materials needed to run the
program.

Implementation: Scheduling training and notifying participants, arranging for materials,


equipment, and training rooms, preparing for training, and delivering the program.

Evaluation: Determining how well the program helps participants meet the learning objectives.

Creating an effective Safety training program


1. Determine what Safety training is needed
Employers should first ask themselves if training can solve the problem at hand. If problems
originate from employee performance, rather than the workplace environment itself, training is
the most effective way to remedy the problem. If problems are originating from employee
motivation or attitude, training is less effective at correcting these issues.
When evaluating employee performance issues, it is important to assess the type of issue to
determine the best approach. Training programs are most effective at addressing an
employee’s lack of knowledge about proper procedures or equipment usage.

2. Identify workplace Safety training needs


The next step is correctly identifying the specific training required to address the knowledge
gap. This process includes identifying the specific information that an employee needs to know
to perform the job safely.
A proven method for determining the depth of training required is to conduct a Job Hazard
Analysis. This process documents each step of a task while identifying and analyzing possible
safety hazards along the way. The organization can translate high risk activities into a prioritized
training plan by taking the time to assess the process.

3. Identify Safety training goals and objectives


Once training needs have been clearly identified, it is important that learning goals and
objectives are set. Effective learning objectives must be clear and measurable, making it
possible to evaluate the training at a later date. Training objectives should precisely spell out the
desired skill or behavior using specific, action-oriented language. Detailed learning objectives
allow employees and employers to understand the expected outcome of the training.

4. Develop Workplace Safety Learning Activities


After learning objectives are clearly identified, learning activities that support those objectives
must be developed. Employers should consider which methods, materials, and resources will be
needed to most effectively convey the message. The type of training chosen (group, one-to-one
etc.) should be selected keeping the audience and specific skill set in mind.

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Ideally, learning activities shall include opportunities for employees to demonstrate the skills and
knowledge they have learned in the training. These activities should directly apply to the
employee’s actual job and include lessons arranged in sequential order according to the job
process.

5. Conduct Safety training


Now that the above steps have been completed, training should be scheduled and conducted.
Training should be presented in a clear and organized fashion. To maximize learning, provide
the trainees a training overview. Ensure that the training is related to the employee’s
experience. Then follow up by reinforcing the lessons learned. To keep employees interested
and motivated in learning, allow trainees to participate and practice their new skills along the
way. Participation in discussion and hands on practice encourages new information to be
retained, and real life examples to be incorporated into the discussion.

6. Evaluate Workplace Safety Training Program Effectiveness


After training is conducted, it is vital to evaluate its effectiveness in accomplishing defined goals.
There are three ways to conduct an evaluation:
 Ask the trainees for feedback via questionnaire or informal discussions. This will provide
a quick review of initial value and learning outcomes.
 Follow up with supervisors and their observations about employee behavior before and
after the training. This shows whether the training had a noticeable outcome.
 Evaluate workplace data to examine if in long term there is a trend toward reduced
incident or near miss rates. This will be the bottom-line indicator of a training program’s
success rate.

7. Improve the Safety Training Program


Based on the training program feedback, look for ways to improve future training sessions. A
critical re-examination of all the steps of a job and in training will determine what gaps existed in
the training program. Items to revisit include:
 The method chosen to determine if there is a better way to conduct the training.
 The presentation of training materials to determine if it was effective for the audience
chosen.
 The key concepts and skills that were highlighted. If there was a gap, it may be
beneficial to review the Job Hazard Analysis to identify any missing components or any
new steps added to the process since the training was developed.
 Revise training as improvements are identified.

Creating an effective workplace training program requires care and planning and it will reward
organization and employees with a safe and productive workplace.

Training methods and strategies


Classroom or Instructor-led training
Instructor-led training remains one of the most popular training techniques for trainers. There
are many types including:
 Blackboard or whiteboard
 Overhead projector
 Video portion
 PowerPoint presentation

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Blackboard or whiteboard: This may be the most “old-fashioned” method, but it can still be
effective, especially if you invite trainees to write on the board or ask for feedback that you write
on the board.

Overhead projector: This method is increasingly being replaced with PowerPoint presentations,
which are less manually demanding, but overhead projectors do allow you to write on them and
customize presentations easily on the spot.

Video portion: Lectures can be broken up with video portions that explain sections of the training
topic or that present case studies for discussion.

PowerPoint presentation: Presentation software is used to create customized group training


sessions that are led by an instructor. Training materials are provided on CDROM and displayed
on a large screen for any number of trainees. Employees can also use the programs
individually, which allows for easy make-up sessions for employee who miss the group session.
This method is one of the most popular methods and it can be combined with handouts and
other interactive methods.

Advantages of instructor-led training programme


 Instructor-led classroom training is an efficient method for presenting a large body of
material to large or small groups of employees.
 It is a personal, face-to-face type of training as opposed to computer-based training
 It ensures that everyone gets the same information at the same time.
 It is cost-effective, especially when not outsourced to guest speakers.

Disadvantages
 Sometimes it is not interactive.
 Success of the training depends on the effectiveness of the lecturer.
 Scheduling classroom sessions for large numbers of trainees can be difficult—especially
when trainees are at multiple locations.

Techniques to make lecture effective:


 Train your trainers in the art and science of public speaking.
 Give your trainers the materials they need.
 Use interactive methods.

Interactive Methods
There are many ways that you can break up training sessions and keep trainees attentive and
involved.
Quiz: For long, complicated training, stop periodically to administer brief quiz on information
presented on that point. You can also begin sessions with a pre quiz and let participants know
there will also be a follow-up quiz. Trainees will stay engaged in order to improve their pre quiz
scores on the final quiz. Further motivate participants by offering awards to the highest scorers
or the most improved scores.

Small group discussions: Break the participants down into small groups and give them case
studies or work situations to discuss or solve. This is a good way for knowledgeable veteran
employees to pass on their experience to newer employees.

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Case studies: By analyzing real job-related situations, employees can learn how to handle
similar situations. They can also see how various elements of a job work together to create
problems as well as solutions.

Active summaries: Create small groups and have them choose a leader. Ask them to
summarize the lecture’s major points and have each team leader present the summaries to the
class. Read aloud a pre written summary and compare this with participants’ impressions.

Q & A sessions: Informal question-and-answer sessions are most effective with small groups
and for updating skills rather than teaching new skills. For example, some changes in
departmental procedure might easily be handled by a short explanation by the supervisor,
followed by a question-and-answer period and a discussion period.

Role-playing: By assuming roles and acting out situations that might occur in the workplace,
employees learn how to handle various situations before they face them on the job. Role-
playing is an excellent training technique for many interpersonal skills, such as customer
service, interviewing, and supervising.

Participant control: Create a subject menu of what will be covered. Ask participants to review it
and pick items they want to know more about. Call on a participant to identify his or her choice.
Cover that topic and move on to the next participant.

Demonstrations: Whenever possible, bring tools or equipment that are part of the training
topic and demonstrate the steps being taught or the processes being adopted.

Other activities
 Create a personal action plan
 Raise arguments to issues in the lecture
 Paraphrase important or complex points in the lecture

Advantages
 Interactive sessions keep trainees engaged in the training, which makes them more
receptive to the new information.
 They make training more fun and enjoyable.
 They provide ways for veteran employees to pass on knowledge and experience to
newer employees.
 They can provide in-session feedback to trainers on how well trainees are learning.

Disadvantages
 Interactive sessions can take longer because activities, such as taking quizzes or
breaking into small groups, are time-consuming.
 Some methods, such as participant control, can be less structured, and trainers will need
to make sure that all necessary information is covered.

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Hands-On Training
Experiential, or hands-on, training, offers several effective techniques for teaching employees.

Cross-training: This method allows employees to experience other jobs, which not only
enhances employee skills but also gives companies the benefit of having employees who can
perform more than one job. Cross-training also gives employees a better appreciation of what
co-workers do and how their own jobs fit in with the work of others to achieve company goals.

Demonstrations: Demonstrations are attention-grabbers. They are an excellent way to teach


employees to use new equipment or to teach the steps in a new process. They are also
effective in teaching safety skills. Combined with the opportunity for questions and answers, this
is a powerful, engaging form of training.

Job Coaching: The goal of job coaching is to improve an employee’s performance. Coaching
focuses on the individual needs of an employee and is generally less formal than other kinds of
training. There are usually no set training sessions.
A manager, supervisor, or an employee serves as the coach. He or she gets together with the
employee being trained when time allows and works with this employee to:
 Answer questions
 Suggest more effective strategies
 Correct errors
 Guide toward goals
 Give support and encouragement
 Provide knowledgeable feedback

Apprenticeships: Apprenticeships give employers the opportunity to shape inexperienced


workers to fit existing and future jobs. These programs give young workers the opportunity to
learn a trade or profession and earn a modest income. Apprenticeship combines supervised
training on the job with classroom Instruction in a formal, structured program that can last for a
year or more.

Drill: Drill is a good way for employees to practice skills. Evacuation drills are effective when
training emergency preparedness, for example.

Advantages of hands-on training


 Hands-on training methods are effective for training in new procedures and new
equipment.
 They are immediately applicable to trainees’ jobs.
 They allow trainers to immediately determine whether a trainee has learned the new skill
or procedure.

Disadvantages
 They are not good for large groups if you do not have enough equipment or machines
for everyone to use.
 Personal coaching can be disruptive to the coach’s productivity.
 Apprenticeship can be expensive for companies paying for employees who are being
trained on the job and are not yet as productive as regular employees.

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Computer-Based Training (CBT)
Computer-based training is becoming increasingly prevalent as technology becomes more
widespread and easy to use. Though traditional forms of training are not likely to be replaced
completely by technological solutions, they will most likely be enhanced by them. Human
interaction will always remain a key component of workplace training.

Nonetheless, it is a good idea to look more closely at what training technologies have to offer
and how they might be used to supplement existing training programs or used when developing
new ones. Computer-based training formats vary from the simplest text-only programs to highly
sophisticated multimedia programs to virtual reality.

Consider the following types of CBT

CD-ROM: A wide variety of off-the-shelf training programs covering a broad range of workplace
topics are available on CD-ROM. Programs can also be created by training consultants for the
specific needs of the particular organization or individual departments.

Multimedia: These training materials are an advanced form of computer-based training. They
provide stimulating graphics, audio, animation, and/or video. Multimedia tends to be more
provocative and challenging and, therefore, more stimulating. Although costs are higher, the
benefits in terms of employee learning may well be worth it. Multimedia training materials are
typically found in DVD format.

Virtual reality: Virtual reality is three-dimensional and interactive, immersing the trainee in a
learning experience. Most virtual reality training programs take the form of simulation, which is a
highly effective form of training. It is hands-on experience without the risks of actual
performance.

Advantages of CBT
 Computer based training programs are easy to use.
 They can often be customized or custom designed.
 They are good for helping employees develop and practice new skills.
 They are useful for refresher training.
 They are applicable to self-directed learning.
 They can be cost-effective because the same equipment and program can be used by
large numbers of employees.
 They are flexible because trainees can learn at their own pace and at a time that’s
convenient for them. Computer-based programs are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a
week. No matter which shift an employee works, training is always available.
 Some programs are interactive, requiring trainees to answer questions, make choices,
and experience the consequences of those choices. This interaction generally results in
greater comprehension and retention.
 They are uniform, which makes it possible to standardize training.
 They are measurable. When computers are used for training, it is possible to track what
each employee has learned right on the computer. Most programs have post tests to
determine whether the employee has understood the training. Test scores give trainers
statistics for training evaluations.

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Disadvantages
 These programs require trainees to be computer literate.
 They require trainees to have computer access.
 There is little or no interaction with a trainer. If trainees have questions, there’s no one to
ask.
 These programs are not effective at teaching “soft-skills,” such as customer service,
sales, or sensitivity training.
 They are not the best choice for new or one-time training. Trainers need live interaction
to ensure new skills or concepts are being communicated. Trainees need to be able to
ask questions and receive feedback.
 Some poorly designed programs are “boring” and result in trainees having a poor
retention rate of the material as well as a low finish rate.

Online or E-Learning
In addition to computer-based training, many companies with employees in a variety of locations
across the country are relying on other technologies to deliver training. Companies are using a
record level of e-learning and this number will continue to rise. This method is becoming more
and more popular as access to the web becomes more widely available.

Some examples include:


Web based training: This method puts computer-based training modules onto the Web, which
companies can then make available to their employees either on the company’s intranet or on a
section of the vendor’s website that is set up for your company. There are many courses
available on the Internet in many different topic areas. These courses provide a hands-on,
interactive way for employees to work through training presentations that are similar to CD-ROM
or PowerPoint, on their own. Training materials are standardized because all trainees will use
the same program. Materials are also easy to update, so your training is always in step with
your industry. Web-based training programs are also often linked with software (a learning
management system, or LMS) that makes trainees’ progress track able, which makes
recordkeeping very easy for the training administrator.

Tele video conferencing: These methods allow the trainer to be in one location and trainees to
be scattered in several locations. Participants are networked into the central location and can
usually ask questions to the trainer via the telephone or by a web chat feature. Lectures and
demonstrations can be effective using this method.

Audio conferencing: This method is similar to videoconferencing but involves audio only.
Participants dial in at the scheduled meeting time and hear speakers present their training.
Question and answer sessions are frequently held at the end of sessions in which participants
can email questions or call in and talk to a presenter.

Web meetings or webinars: This method contains audio and visual components. Participants
dial in to receive live audio training and also follow visual material that appears on their
computer screens. These presentations are similar to CD-ROM or PowerPoint presentations
and sometimes offer minimal online interactivity. Q & A sessions may also be held at the end of
sessions.

Online colleges and universities: This method is also known as distance learning, and many
schools now offer certificates or degrees through online programs that require only minimal on-
campus residency.

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Collaborative document preparation: This method requires participants to be linked on the
same network. It can be used with coaches and trainees to teach writing reports and technical
documents.

E-mail: E-mail can be used to promote or enhance training. Send reminders for upcoming
training. Solicit follow-up questions for trainers and/or managers. Conduct training evaluations
through e-mail forms.

Advantages of E-learning
 Online or e-learning programs are effective for training across multiple locations.
 They save the company money on travel expenses.
 They can be a less expensive way to get training from expert industry professionals and
consultants from outside the company.
 They are useful for refresher training.
 They are good for self-directed learning.
 They can be easy to update with new company policies or procedures, federal
regulations, and compliance issues.
 They offer trainers a growing array of choices for matching training programs to
employee knowledge and skill levels.

Disadvantages
 These programs require trainees to be computer literate.
 They are usually generic and not customized to your company’s needs.
 Some employees may not like the impersonal nature of this training.
 Employees may be too intimidated by the technology or the remoteness of the trainer to
ask questions.
 Lack of computer terminals or insufficient online time may restrict or preclude access to
training.
 Inadequate or outdated hardware devices (e.g. sound cards, graphics accelerators, and
local area networks) can cause programs to malfunction.
 Company’s Internet servers may not have enough bandwidth to receive the materials.
 Self-instruction offers limited opportunities to receive context-specific expert advice or
timely response to questions.

Blended Learning Approach


Blended learning approach means using more than one training method to train on one subject.

E-learning is the use of electronic media, educational technology and information and
communication technologies (ICT) in education. E-learning includes numerous types of media
that deliver text, audio, images, animation, and streaming video, and includes technology
applications and processes such as audio or video tape, satellite TV, CD-ROM, and computer-
based learning, as well as local intranet /extranet, web-based learning, Information and
communication systems, whether free-standing or based on either local networks or the Internet
in networked learning, underlay many e-learning processes.

E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It can be self-paced, asynchronous learning or
may be instructor-led, synchronous learning. E-learning is suited to distance learning and
flexible learning, but it can also be used in conjunction with face-to-face teaching, in which case
the term blended learning is commonly used.

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E-learning includes, and is broadly synonymous with multimedia learning, technology-enhanced
learning (TEL), computer-based instruction (CBI), computer managed instruction, computer-
based training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided instruction (CAI),
internet-based training (IBT), flexible learning, web-based training (WBT), online education,
virtual education, virtual learning environments (VLE) (which are also called learning platforms),
m-learning, and digital education.

In Plant training:
In Plant Training is designed to assist with in-service training of the employees, to provide entry-
level skills for new employees, and to provide upgrading or retraining for current employees. In
most cases this training can be done at the assigned work stations during normal working hours
without hindering production. The instructors may be provided by the company.

Out of Plant training

Induction training
Training provided to new employees by the employer in order to assist in adjustment to their
new job tasks and to help them become familiar with their new work environment and the
people working around them. This type of training will also outline the basic overview of the
business and its services as well as the new employee's role in the environment.

This training is done systematically and is often the responsibility of the immediate supervisor to
make sure that it is done smoothly. If carefully done, it will save time and cost (in terms of faulty
products or poor services, etc.). It is imperative that managers place their authority and power to
make sure that the new employee is carefully helped to adjust to the new work surroundings
and culture. These programs can play a critical role under the socialization to the organization in
terms of performance, attitudes and organizational commitment.

The topics to be covered are,

 Site safe access and egress routes, etc.


 Site welfare facilities and the need to maintain them in a clean, hygienic condition.
 Site fire and evacuation procedures.
 Site personal protective equipment rules, including requirements on head and foot
protection. The requirement for other personal protective equipment to be dependent on
the function of the individual and the task being undertaken.
 Company accident and first aid procedures.
 Restrictions on the use of plant and equipment by unauthorised people.
 The requirement to examine equipment before use and withdraw defective equipment
from service. Such defects to be reported to the senior company site representative.
 Site health and safety consultation procedures.
 The rules on complying with safety signs.

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 Advice on safety rules laid-down by the principal contractor or the client and the
requirement to comply with them at all times.
 The requirement to clear up waste and debris as work progresses.
 The requirement to take care for the safety and health of themselves and of others who
may be affected by their acts or omissions at work.
 Company disciplinary procedure as it applies to willfully ignoring safety rules.
 The requirement to make themselves familiar with company health and safety
procedures.

Training for visitors and contractors

Visitor–any person entering a organization for the purpose of observing, meeting, or performing
non-work (hands off) activities, including those employees from other sites of the same
company.
Contractor–any person, contracted by company, entering company premises to perform work

Objective: To inform contractors/visitors of potential hazards and their responsibilities to assure a


safe workplace.

Contractor employees may not be familiar with company’s working environment and safety
systems that have been put in place for regular employees. While designing the safety
programme the capabilities, knowledge and experience of workers to be taken care of. Ensure
that the demands of the job do not exceed their ability to carry out their work without risk to
themselves and others.

Some employees may have particular training needs. For example,


 new recruits need basic induction training in how to work safely including arrangements
for first aid, fire and evacuation,
 people changing jobs or taking on extra responsibilities need to know about any new
health and safety implications,
 young employees are particularly vulnerable to accidents and you need to pay particular
attention to their needs, so their training should be a priority. It is also important that
new, inexperienced or young employees are adequately supervised.
 employee’s representatives or safety representatives will require training that reflects
their responsibilities.

Some people’s skills may need updating by refresher training. Your risk assessment should
identify any further training needs associated with specific risks

Subject that have to be covered

 hazards and risks they may face;


 measures in place to deal with those hazards and risks;
 how to follow any emergency procedures.

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Safe Working Instructions
Safe Working Instructions are written instructions for a process or activity that outlines the
recommended safe method of undertaking the process or activity. The term “Safe Working
Instructions” is often used interchangeably with Safe Working Procedures, Safe Work Method
Statements and other related terms.

Written Safe Working Instructions are an essential part of a safe system of work and are an
important part of an overall occupational health and safety program. They provide information
necessary to assist all staff to perform tasks safely and reliably. They also assist in the training
and orientation of new recruits in the hazards of the process or activity to be performed.

Safe Working Instructions are a valuable tool in assessing the level of understanding with
regards to on the job training.

When are Safe Working Instructions necessary?


Safe Working Instructions are required
 For any routine or repeated activity or process that is associated with a medium to high
risk. Medium to high risk in this context means any activity or process where an injury
may occur if the process is not carried out with care or attention.
 Where a process or activity is a known cause of injury.

Responsibilities
The development and implementation (including training) of Safe Working Instructions is the
responsibility of the line supervisor

Developing Safe Working Instructions


It is recommended that the preparation of Safe Working Instructions be prioritised as follows:
all new hazardous processes or activities should have Safe Working Instructions prepared
before any hazardous process or activity is undertaken for existing processes, the preparation
of Safe Working Instructions should be prioritised according to the level of risk taking into
account hazard exposure, frequency of exposure, and worker knowledge and experience.
A higher priority should be placed on the tasks carried out by new employees and trainees.

Job instruction: Step by step (structured) on the job training method in which a trainer

(1) prepares a trainee with an overview of the job, its purpose, and the results
desired,
(2) demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee,
(3) allows the trainee to mimic the demonstration on his or her own, and
(4) follows up to provide feedback and help.

Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a fast, safe and thorough way to deliver effective training that's
been around since the early 1900s. It involves five basic steps:
1. Getting ready to instruct
2. Preparing he learner
3. Presenting the learning
4. Practicing the learning
5. Follow-up and evaluation
Get Ready To Instruct:
 Establish learning objectives

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 Prepare a time table
 Breakdown the task
 Ready all supplies
 Arrange learning area like the actual work area

Preparing The Learner


 Review the learning objectives
 Review the time table

Presenting The Learning (the big picture)


 Demonstrate visually
 Demonstrate again with step-by-step explanation

Practicing The Learning (the specifics)


 Instructor demonstrates based on learner’s explanation
 Learner demonstrates with explanation

Follow-Up and Evaluation


 Inform leaner of further resource availability
 Conduct quantitative (i.e. tests, job observations, etc.) and qualitative (i.e. The Success
and Challenge Exercise) evaluations as required.
Safe work procedures : Safe work procedures are developed for complex and/or high risk
tasks, which enable employees to carry out their job accurately, efficiently and safely.

They are essential to


 Minimize the risk of injury/illness
 Provide individuals with training in safe, efficient procedures
 Instruct new employees on their job as part of orientation/induction
 Ensure procedures comply with OHS legislation, standards and company policies
 Maximize the ability of staff to carry out tasks accurately, efficiently and safely
 Improve work methods.

The priorities for the preparation of safe work procedure must be:
 All new tasks where there is a high to medium risk should have safe work procedures
prepared before they are put into general use
 For existing processes, safe work procedures for high risk tasks should be prepared
first, followed by medium and low risk tasks
 A higher priority should be placed on the tasks that are carried out by new or
inexperience staff e.g. students/volunteers and/or tasks carried out most frequently.

PROCEDURE:
Step 1 :Observe Task
Observe the task in real time and in the real workplace, this gives a true indication of what risks
the team member is exposed to. Managers should include staff during this process as a way of
consulting on the agreed ‘procedure’.
Step 2 : Break Task into steps
Each task is broken down into a series of ordered steps that must be taken to complete the
task. These task steps will form the basis of the procedure or practice. To break the task into

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steps, each activity in the task must be observed and noted. The completed list must then be
edited to include only those steps of significant value.
Step 3: Identify Hazards or Loss Potential for Every Step
Each key step of the task identified must be assessed for potential hazards and/or loss
potential. Safety is one of many areas that should be considered in this process to ensure there
is only one procedure developed for the one task. Areas where hazards or loss may arise
include, people, equipment materials; and environment.
Step 4: Review Whether Each Step in the Task Is Being Performed In the Most
Appropriate Manner
Once the nature of the task is defined and risks at each step identified, a review should be
conducted to determine whether each significant step in the task is being performed in the most
appropriate and efficient manner. This will assist in improving work methods.
Step 5: Develop Controls
The manufacturer's user manual should be consulted for safety information to include in the
SWP.
Controls that will correct risks should be specified and incorporated into the procedure for each
significant step When developing controls consider requirements made under legislation,
Codes of Practice, Standards, Department Circulars.
Step 6: Safety Rule Development
Key safety instructions may be highlighted as critical as a result of developing safe work
practices. These critical safety instructions or safety rules should be displayed at the location
the task is being carried out using the Safe Work Procedure Form, or prior to entry into an area
using the Safety Rules Form .
This type of visual reminder will prompt employee’s memories, and warn others that they should
not be entering an area or carrying out a task without prior instruction. Safety rules should not
take the place of safe work procedures; they merely accompany and highlight critical
components of the safe work procedure for high risk tasks.
Step 7: Writing the SWP
The work procedure can now be documented using Safe Work Procedure Form.
The following points should be considered when documenting the SWP:
 Include a statement outlining the name of the task;
 Include the date of development and a revision date;
 Insert the level of risk as per the completed Risk Assessment;
 Include step by step description of how to complete the task including controls;
 Ensure they are written in an active, positive language e.g. reinforcing ‘what to do’ not
‘what not to do’;
 Explain why key steps must be done in a specific way;
 Ensure they are clear, concise, correct and complete;
 Ensure the format is easy to read;
 Insert Images to highlight the required PPE or other important information.
Step 8 : Test and Approve the SWP
Distribute the safe work procedure for review . have your experienced workers conduct the task
using the SWP and look for uncontrolled risks. Review the safe work procedures and make
amendments as appropriate. Once completed, the safe work procedure requires approval from
the supervisor, manager of the department involved. Approval should be made on the safe
work procedure form including the date
Step 9: Implement the SWP
Employees will require training in the new or revised safe work practices to assist with
implementation. The new or revised safe work practices provide the basis for employee
orientation and refresher training.

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Training records must be documented
Step 10: Update and Maintain the SWP
Safe work practices and safety rules should be updated every three years or when significant
changes are made to the work process or materials or in the event of an incident or loss
situation

What is a Toolbox Talk?


A toolbox talk is a short safety talk, normally delivered at the workplace (not a training room)
and on a specific subject matter. It should be short ( 5 – 10 minutes) and too the point with a
specific safety message.
The objective is to raise awareness of a particular aspect of the work but to do it on a regular
basis so that the good safety message is reinforced. Attendance should be recorded.
Toolbox meetings are a way for information to be provided to workers, and for workers to have
their say about hazards/controls, incidents/accidents, work processes and company procedures.

Structure of Meetings
Toolbox meetings should be run on a regular basis and run for 10-15 minutes. The frequency of
meetings will depend on the size, nature and location of the site. Some hazardous activities
could require daily meetings, while often a weekly/fortnightly meeting will suffice. Safety
meetings for workers should be short and to the point.

Why do we run Safety Meetings?


 Inform workers of changes to company procedures
 Identify new hazards and review existing hazards
 Develop/review hazard controls
 Discuss/review accident and incident data
 Employee participation
 Communication
 Discuss programmes
 Develop/review work processes
 Short training sessions

Record Meetings
Details of meetings should be recorded and kept on file. Record meeting dates, attendees and
discussion items. Show follow-up items from previous hazards, accidents and incidents.

Safety and health training for Managers:


Managers have the front-line responsibility to protect workers and keep the workplace
safe. The course should assist in the development of appropriate attitudes to enable
managers to effectively manage work health and safety in their areas of responsibility.
The course contents are
Safety Principles and Risk Management
Objective: To provide a framework needed to establish management’s role in the
protection of people, property and material
Legislation
Objective: To provide the structure and the essential components of occupational
health and safety legislation
Hazard Recognition and Control
Objective: To provide the skills for identifying hazards associated with machine

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and equipment operation, and for developing standard procedures & practices to
prevent such hazards
Emergency Preparedness and Fire Prevention
Objective: To outline step-by-step procedures for ensuring safe work practices and
methods for dealing with workplace emergencies
Occupational Hygiene
Objective: To provide an overview of hazardous exposures in the workplace,
related health risks, and methods of controlling such exposures
Ergonomics
Objective: To provide an overview of the methods of recognition and control of
work-related musculoskeletal disorders
Workplace Inspection and Accident Investigation
Objective: To introduce process of identifying potential hazards and to provide
skills for investigating and reporting accidents, incidents and hazardous conditions
Program Development and Implementation
Objective: To outline the elements of an effective health and safety program and to
present a step-by-step approach for developing, implementing and evaluating
health and safety programs

Training of supervisors:
Supervisors are the back bone of any industry. They co ordinate between the
employees and top management in achieving the organization goal The safety
training programme shold teach supervisors how to integrate safety into their daily
management process
The course content are

 Safety management: Advantages of effective safety management for the


organization and for the supervisor. Participants will become familiar with
key terms in the safety and health field and with elements of an effective
safety management system. In addition, they will discover the role a
supervisor plays in an effective safety management system.
 Communication:Emphasizes how essential effective communication is to
the success of any safety and health program. It introduces a
communication model to help supervisors identify and address problems
and causes of miscommunication in the workplace. Participants will learn
communication techniques to help them carry out their role and
responsibility as a supervisor more effectively
 Safety and health training:The role effective safety and health training
and job orientation training play in successful organizations. Participants
are introduced to the characteristics of adult learners and effective
methods for training this group. Supervisors will become familiar with their
role and responsibility to ensure employees are trained properly to do their
jobs safely.
 Employee involvement:Participants are introduced to employee
involvement strategies that promote safety and health in the workplace.
Strategies discussed include job safety analysis, job safety observation,
safety contacts, safety inspections, safety and health committees,
perception surveys, suggestion systems, and employee safety training. In
addition, methods and techniques that help participants carry out their
supervisor role and responsibility more effectively are presented.

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 Safety and health inspections: Participants will learn why formal and
informal inspections of safety and health practices are crucial to
continuous improvement. This also provides information on conducting
inspections that will help participants more effectively carry out their
supervisor role and responsibility. Topics explored are what inspections
should include, how they should be conducted, how often and by whom.
 Incident investigation: Participants examine effective incident
investigation techniques that a supervisor can use. Supervisors will learn
how to conduct effective investigations and analyze reports to develop and
complete corrective actions that help prevent future incidents.
 Industrial Hygiene: Recognition of potential health and physical hazards
in the workplace by supervisors is spotlighted . Participants will learn key
industrial hygiene terms and concepts as well as ways to control or
eliminate hazards
 Personal protective equipments:Supervisors will learn how to more
effectively carry out their role in the personal protective quipment (PPE)
program at their facility. This module will increase their awareness of why
and where PPE should be used and offer ways to overcome objections to
using it.
 Ergonomics: Introduction to the basic principles of ergonomics and how to
apply the principles in the workplace for improved productivity, quality and
safety. This module addresses ways that participants can detect, control or
eliminate ergonomic hazards as they carry out their role and responsibility
as supervisors.
 Hazard communication:Participants are introduced to chemical hazards
in the workplace and how supervisors can protect themselves and their co-
workers from injury and illness. This module examines the OSHA Hazard
Communication Standard (HazCom) and its requirements for protecting
workers from hazardous workplace chemicals.
 Regulatory issues: This module introduces the OSH Act and the most
frequently cited Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations
that apply to general industry. Topics addressed include OSHA standards
and requirements for documentation, reporting and recordkeeping.
 Machine safeguarding: Participants will learn how to protect against
hazards caused by moving machine parts and how to overcome objections
to using machine safeguards. In addition, participants will learn machine
safe guarding techniques that will help them more effectively carry out their
role and responsibility as a supervisor.
 Hand tools and portable power tools: Supervisors will learn hand tool
safety considerations, safe procedures and the causes of the most
frequent incidents with tools. In addition, they will find out how to control or
eliminate hazards associated with hand tools and portable power tools.
 Material handling and storage: To familiarize supervisors with the
hazards and costs of materials handling incidents. Participants will be able
to recognize hazards associated with unsafe storage of materials and
discover techniques to control these hazards and ways to prevent future
materials handling and storage incidents.
 Electrical Safety: Electrical incidents, deaths and fires are among the
most common and most costly safety hazards. In this module, participants
will learn the importance of electrical safety, how to recognize basic

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electrical hazards and the supervisor’s role and responsibility in
encouraging safe practices around electricity.
 Fire safety: Supervisors will learn to prevent fires by recognizing fire
hazards establishing preventive measures and, if a fire occurs, responding
appropriately. Supervisors will become acquainted with the elements of an
effective fire safety program and how to implement such a program.

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