0 views

Uploaded by Antonio Marcos Machado

Artigo de física

- Synthesis of Samkhya Metaphysics With Quantum Physics
- Art Magic
- Hand of God
- Radiation Protection Manual
- PHY 7C FNT 9
- The Philosophy
- CERN-THESIS-2012-217
- Dark Matter and Energy
- RPT SC FORM 1 2015
- phy 009
- astro-ph0207053
- Particle Physics
- project packet
- vocabulary first six 6 weeks
- Phits Lec02 En
- QUANTUM SMARANDACHE PARADOXES
- Globalist War on Science Approaches Climax
- Form-four Physics:Lesson 1
- Cosmology
- Big Bang Theory

You are on page 1of 10

DOI 10.1140/epja/i2016-16290-y

THE EUROPEAN

PHYSICAL JOURNAL A

Regular Article – Theoretical Physics

Thomas-Fermi approach

U.J. Furtado1,2,a , S.S. Avancini1,2,b , J.R. Marinelli1,c , W. Martarello1,d , and C. Providência2,e

1

Departamento de Fı́sica, CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis - SC, CP. 476, CEP 88040-900, Brazil

2

CFisUC, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, P3004-516 Coimbra, Portugal

Published online: 21 September 2016 – c Società Italiana di Fisica / Springer-Verlag 2016

Communicated by F. Nunes

Abstract. The behaviour and properties of neutrinos in non-uniform nuclear matter, surrounded by elec-

trons and other neutrinos are studied in the protoneutron star early stage characterized by trapped neu-

trinos. The nuclear matter itself is modelled by a relativistic mean-ﬁeld approach, and models with both

constant couplings and density-dependent couplings are considered. The so-called nuclear pasta phases at

sub-saturation densities, described using the Thomas-Fermi approximation and solved in a Wigner-Seitz

cell, are included in the calculation. We obtain the neutrino total cross section and mean free path, taking

into account scattering and absorption processes and we compare the ﬁnal results obtained with diﬀerent

parametrizations. The solution for this problem is important for the understanding of neutrino diﬀusion in

a newly born neutron star after a supernovae explosion. It is shown that the pasta phase will increase the

neutrino mean free path by as much as an order of magnitude, therefore contributing for shorter emission

time-scales.

the physics of core-collapse supernovae and neutron star

Neutrinos are elementary particles that interact with other evolution. The important ingredient in this case is the

particles only through the weak force and gravity, and, propagation of neutrinos in such a medium, which con-

therefore, neutrino scattering by matter is very unlikely. tains not only baryons but also leptons. In particular,

On the other hand, this pure weak-force scattering can for baryonic densities below the nuclear saturation value,

reveal some aspects of the structure of matter that other structures known as pasta phases [6] are expected. These

stronger interactions cannot. Also, this feature represents clusters may have exotic shapes and are embedded in a

an advantage in the sense that neutrinos carry informa- neutron and electron background gas. Actually, a delicate

tion from the target along great distances, as is the case competition between Coulomb and surface energies de-

of neutrinos produced in the interior of stars that reach termines the most favourable ﬁnal inhomogeneous struc-

earth detectors. For these reasons, the study of neutrino ture. The presence of such structures has a non-negligible

interaction with matter is at the same time very fruit- role in the neutrino diﬀusion which is a key ingredient for

ful but very challenging. In what refers to the scattering the modelling and simulation of core-collapse supernovae

of neutrinos by hadronic matter, despite the experimen- mechanisms [7–9].

tal and theoretical problems, some important progress has

been made, examples are the Karmen collaboration [1] and The models for core-collapse supernovae have evolved

Los Alamos results [2]. More recently, long-baseline exper- in the last decades, allowing presently, under certain con-

iments are under way, like MiniBoone, NOvA and other ditions, for a neutrino-driven explosion. The mechanisms

similar accelerator experiments [3,4]. Although the main that drive the evolutionary stages of massive stars [10]

purpose is to obtain further information on the Standard from collapse to explosion and, later, formation of a pro-

Model and on neutrino oscillations, a precise knowledge toneutron star (PNS) are not yet completely understood.

of the neutrino-hadron interaction as well as the hadronic However, a huge progress in this area has been done due

structure of the targets [5] is necessary. to the improvements in the treatment of neutrino inter-

actions and transport in a dense medium [11–13] and, si-

a

e-mail: ujfurtado@gmail.com multaneously, due to a better knowledge of the nuclear

b

e-mail: sidney@fsc.ufsc.br equation of state (EOS). Of course, these inputs are cru-

c

e-mail: ricardo.marinelli@ufsc.br cial for the simulations to succeed in producing an ex-

d

e-mail: williams85@gmail.com plosion and quantitatively describe the nucleosynthesis.

e

e-mail: cp@fis.uc.pt Under the current view, just after the supernova explo-

Page 2 of 10 Eur. Phys. J. A (2016) 52: 290

sion, a PNS is formed at its center made out of dense, some impact on the early stages of the evolution. There-

hot, quite proton-rich and neutrino-opaque matter, which fore, in the present work, which refers precisely to the

by the combined process of deleptonization and energy early stages, we will discuss the eﬀect of the density de-

loss, becomes a cold, neutrino-transparent and neutron- pendence of the symmetry energy on the neutrino mean

rich compact star. In the early stages of a PNS the neutri- free path. This is a quantity that is constrained by nuclear

nos are trapped, since their mean free path is considerably experiments [17].

smaller than the neutron star radius. In this stage, the One way to obtain the pasta phase is to solve the

neutrinos are essentially degenerate. However, in a few problem considering charge neutral Wigner-Seitz cells of

seconds the trapped neutrinos diﬀuse out to the neutri- appropriate geometries containing neutrons, protons and

nosphere, heating the star while decreasing the net lepton electrons within a variational approach, using both rela-

and proton fractions. tivistic and non-relativistic mean-ﬁeld calculations. Most

In this work we are particularly interested in un- of the recent applications in this case have used the

derstanding whether, in this stage of trapped neutrinos, Thomas-Fermi approximation [6,18,19], but Hartree-Fock

the non-homogeneous stellar matter existing in a density calculations [20] and three-dimensional Thomas-Fermi

range 0.1–0.7 ρ0 , where ρ0 is the normal nuclear matter calculations [21] are also found in the literature, all within

density (2.5 × 1014 g/cm3 ), aﬀects the interaction of neu- the Wigner-Seitz approximation. Recently, it was shown

trinos with stellar matter, and, consequently, their mean in [21,22] that performing a pasta calculation taking a

free path. large enough cell to include several units of the pasta

The study of the eﬀect of the pasta phase on the PNS structures, distributions of matter diﬀerent from the usual

evolution, in particular on the neutrino diﬀusion, has been ones considered within the Wigner-Seitz (WS) approxi-

also considered previously [8,9]. In the ﬁrst case, a quan- mation could be energetically favoured in some density

tum molecular dynamics simulation based on a simple ranges. Another approach to this problem, that also goes

pure phenomenological interaction, which takes into ac- beyond the WS approximation, is based on the so-called

count only neutral-current neutrino-target collisions, was quantum molecular dynamics [23–28] approach.

used to obtain the cross sections. In the second case [9], a Here we follow the Thomas-Fermi results as described

more realistic interaction was used to calculate the pasta in [29] in order to generate the pasta phase struc-

structure but within a very simpliﬁed approach to deter- ture, starting from a ﬁeld theoretical approach. The self-

mine the cross section. Even so, in this last case, an im- consistent calculation is performed considering matter in

portant diﬀerence, compared to homogeneous matter, was β-equilibrium, where only protons, neutrons, electrons

found in the total neutrino diﬀusion coeﬃcients when the and neutrinos are present. The total neutrino cross sec-

pasta phase is considered. Also, recent simulations [14], tion for each kind of particle is calculated, as a function of

have shown that temperatures and densities close to the the density, taking into account the corresponding geome-

edge of the PNS could be compatible with the expected try for the considered density, i.e., droplet, rod, slab, tube

conditions for the pasta phase formation, a few seconds or bubble. The neutrino mean free path (NMFP) energy

after bounce. and temperature dependence are also discussed.

In [13], the authors have emphasized the importance of The neutrino cross section calculation includes the ef-

treating the neutrino-matter interaction consistently with fects of strong interaction, and accounts for in-medium

the EOS. It was also shown that high-energy neutrinos, mass and energy shifts and degeneracy eﬀects, based on

compatible with the energy of neutrinos considered in this the formalism previously developed for homogeneous nu-

work, are produced at an early stage of the PNS evolution. clear matter [15], with the diﬀerence that now the strong

In ref. [15], the authors have considered the interaction and electromagnetic potentials as well as the nucleon

of trapped neutrinos with beta-equilibrated homogeneous masses and energies are position dependent. Consequently,

matter having a ﬁxed electron lepton fraction. Their re- the ﬁnal expression is similar to the free-space transi-

sults are appropriate for the early stage of the PNS evo- tion amplitude, and the uniform-matter result becomes,

lution and the neutrinos are taken at the Fermi energy straightforwardly, a particular case of our expressions for

(Eν = μν ) for several temperatures and special atten- the cross section.

tion is given for supra nuclear densities. In our work, we We will not discuss in the present paper the important

also consider matter in beta-equilibrium with a ﬁxed elec- sources of suppression and enhancement due to in-medium

tron lepton fraction. However, our focus is on the neutrino correlation [30–34]. The coherent scattering of neutrinos

interaction with non-homogeneous matter (pasta phase) by the pasta structure has been studied in [23,24]. The au-

just below saturation density which has not been studied thors have analysed both the static structure factor and

in the literature in the present context. We choose the elec- the dynamical response of the pasta and concluded that

tron lepton fraction Yl = 0.2, a value that was also taken neutrino opacities are overestimated in the single heavy-

in ref. [9] for the pasta phase investigation and which is nucleus approximation relative to the complete molecular

consistent with recent PNS simulations [16]. dynamics simulations and that the dynamical response

Recently in [16], it has been shown that the properties of pasta showed a substantial strength at low energies

of the EOS will aﬀect the supernovae evolution, and, in due to the contribution of collective modes. These eﬀects

particular, it was shown that the behaviour of the symme- are important in the low-energy neutrino region, when its

try energy, which deﬁnes the electron fraction, will have wavelength is of the order of the cell size. Our main ob-

Eur. Phys. J. A (2016) 52: 290 Page 3 of 10

jective here is to understand how inhomogeneous matter bν ) and Fμν = ∂μ Aν − ∂ν Aμ . The electromagnetic cou-

aﬀects the neutrino cross section through the mean-ﬁeld pling constant is given by e = 4π/137 and τ is the

eﬀects under the conditions of incoherent neutrino scat- isospin operator. Finally, the electron and neutrino La-

tering from individual nucleons. grangian densities read

In this paper we have considered only trapped neutri-

nos, and just electron neutrinos were taken into account in Le = ψ̄e [γμ (i∂ μ + eAμ ) − me ] ψe ,

our calculations, since the other ﬂavours are not expected Lν = ψ̄ν [iγμ ∂ μ ] ψν .

to be present in the pasta region. However, we recognize

that non-trapped neutrinos of all ﬂavours can inﬂuence The weak-boson contributions to the above La-

the total cross section and will be considered in a further grangians aﬀect the solutions of the corresponding Euler-

investigation. As in [15], we have considered elastic scat- Lagrange equations in a completely negligible way due to

tering and neutrino absorption in our derivation. In other their huge masses and relatively small energy range and

words, neutral current and charge-changing processes are are only relevant in order to obtain the neutrino cross sec-

included and their relative contribution to the total cross tions.

section is discussed. In what follows, an outline of the The solutions of the corresponding Euler-Lagrange

formalism is presented in sect. 2, numerical results and equations are obtained in the mean-ﬁeld self-consistent

discussion are provided in sect. 3, and the conclusions are Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation, as explained in

drawn in the ﬁnal sect. 4. The details of the pasta phase refs. [19,29]. We have considered two types of parametriza-

calculation can be found in the cited references and some tions: one with constant couplings Γi (NL) and another

details of the cross section calculation are shown in the with density-dependent couplings (DD). In the last case,

appendix. the terms proportional to κ, λ, ζ and Λ are set equal to

zero. Within TF the system is considered locally uniform

and the main output are the densities, which are position

2 Formalism and model parametrization dependent. Explicitly, we have for the baryonic, scalar,

isoscalar, scalar-isoscalar, electron and neutrino densities

We start with a model Lagrangian density that includes

electrons, neutrinos, nucleons, the sigma, omega, rho and ρ(r) = ρp (r) + ρn (r) = ψ̂ † ψ̂ ;

delta meson ﬁelds and the electromagnetic interaction,

given by [19,35] ρs (r) = ρsp (r) + ρsn (r) = ψ̄ˆψ̂ ;

L= Li +Lσ +Lω +Lρ +Lωρ +Lδ +Lγ +Le +Lν , (1) ρ3 (r) = ρp (r) − ρn (r) = ψ̂ † τ3 ψ̂ ;

i=p,n

ρs3 (r) = ρsp (r) − ρsn (r) = ψ̄ˆτ3 ψ̂ ;

where the nucleon Lagrangian reads

ρe (r) = ψ̂e† ψ̂e ;

Li = ψ̄i [γμ iDμ − M ∗ ] ψi , (2)

ρν (r) = ψ̂ν† ψ̂ν ;

with

Γρ 1 + τ3 μ with

iDμ = i∂ μ − Γv V μ − τ · bμ − e A , (3)

2 2 γ

M ∗ = M − Γs φ − Γδ τ · δ. (4) ρi (r) = d3 k (ηki (T ) − η̄ki (T )), i = p, n, e, ν;

(2π)3

The meson and electromagnetic Lagrangian densities (5)

are γ Mi∗

ρsi (r) = d3 k (ηki (T ) + η̄ki (T )), i = p, n;

(2π)3 Ei∗

1 κ λ

Lσ = ∂μ φ∂ μ φ − m2s φ2 − φ3 − φ4 , (6)

2 3 12

√

1 1 ζ 4 where E ∗ = k 2 + M ∗2 , k is the momentum and γ is the

Lω = − Ωμν Ω + mv Vμ V + gv (Vμ V ) ,

μν 2 μ μ 2

2 2 12 spin multiplicity (γ = 2 for protons, neutrons and elec-

1 1 trons and γ = 1 for neutrinos). For a given temperature

Lρ = − Bμν · B + mρ bμ · b ,

μν 2 μ

T , the distributions are

2 2

1 ηki (T ) = {exp [(Ei − μi )/T ] + 1}−1 ;

Lδ = ∂μ δ∂ μ δ − m2δ δ 2 ,

2 η̄ki (T ) = {exp [(Ēi − μ̄i )/T ] + 1}−1 ; (7)

1

Lγ = − Fμν F μν ,

4

with Ei (Ēi ) and μi (μ̄i ) being the particle (antiparticle)

Lωρ = Λ gρ2 bμ · bμ gv2 (Vμ V μ ) , energy and chemical potential, respectively. The particle

(antiparticle) energy depends on the mesonic ﬁelds and is

where Ωμν = ∂μ Vν − ∂ν Vμ , Bμν = ∂μ bν − ∂ν bμ − Γρ (bμ × position dependent.

Page 4 of 10 Eur. Phys. J. A (2016) 52: 290

Once the densities are determined we calculate the to- Table 1. Model properties for inﬁnite symmetric nuclear mat-

tal neutrino cross section (σ). We follow here the proce- ter at zero temperature and saturation density: the saturation

dure discussed in [15]. For a collision 1 + 2 −→ 3 + 4 we density ρ0 , the binding energy EB /A, the incompressibility K,

write the nucleon eﬀective mass M ∗ , the symmetry energy asym and

3

3

3 its slope L.

d k2 d k3 d k4 (2π)4

σ = 2GF 2 d3 r ρ0 EB /A K M ∗ /M asym L

(2π)3 (2π) 3 (2π)3 |v1 − v2 |

−3

(fm ) (MeV) (MeV) (MeV) (MeV)

·δ 4 (P1 + P2 − P3 − P4 )η2 (T )(1 − η3 (T ))(1 − η4 (T ))

FSUGold 0.148 16.299 271.76 0.6 37.4 60.4

· (V + A)2 (1 − v2 cos(θ12 ))(1 − v4 cos(θ34 )) GM3 0.153 16.3 240 0.78 32.5 89.66

NL3 0.148 16.3 272 0.6 37.4 118.3

+(V − A)2 (1 − v4 cos(θ14 ))(1 − v2 cos(θ23 ))

NL3ωρ

M2∗ M4∗ 2

− ∗ ∗ (V − A )(1 − cos(θ13 )) .

2

(8) (lv = 0.3) 0.148 16.3 272 0.6 31.7 55.2

E2 E4

Dalen 0.178 16.25 337 0.68 32.11 57

vi = |ki |/Ei∗ , GF is the Fermi constant and V, A are TW 0.153 16.247 240 0.555 33.39 55.3

the weak-current vector and axial vector couplings, re-

spectively, and depend on the target particle and on the

exchanged weak boson. For the neutrino-electron (neu-

trino) cross section we replace M ∗ by me (zero). The fac-

tors (1 − η3 (T )) and (1 − η4 (T )) are due to ﬁnal-state 40

Pauli blocking eﬀects. We have considered here scattering

asym (MeV)

well as neutrino absorption by the neutrons. The explicit

expressions and deﬁnitions for each case are shown in the 20 NL3

appendix. Through the analysis of those expressions we NL3ωρ

may conclude that the integrand in the cross section is GM3

r-dependent, since the potentials and the eﬀective mass FSUGold

TW

are position dependent. Note that the same expression Dalen

can be used for the calculation of the cross section in the 0

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

inﬁnite nuclear matter, for which the potentials and eﬀec- -3

tive mass are not r-dependent. Also, the above expression ρB (fm )

for the cross section has no approximations of the type Fig. 1. Symmetry energy as a function of the total baryonic

E ≈ M , which is usually taken for baryonic targets, nor density for all the models used in the present work.

of the type E ≈ |k | for electron targets.

The nucleon internal structure was taken into account

in our calculation, just multiplying the couplings V and sets. The last one was recently taken for neutrino mean-

A by the vector and axial-vector nucleon form factors as free-path studies [20]. Table 1 shows the properties of the

explained, for instance, in [36,37] and explicitly written in models for symmetric nuclear matter at saturation den-

the appendix. sity ρ0 and zero temperature, and in ﬁg. 1 we have plot-

The neutrino mean free path is then obtained consid- ted the symmetry energy of the models versus the density,

ering the cross section for a Wigner-Seitz cell divided by a quantity that will be necessary to discuss the results in

its volume σ −1 the following. Models Dalen, GM3 and NL3 have a smaller

λ= . (9) symmetry energy in all or part of the density range below

V

0.1 fm−3 . A smaller symmetry energy allows the system to

have a larger isospin asymmetry. As we will see next these

3 Results and discussion three models are precisely the ones with smaller proton

fractions in the pasta phase matter, and this will induce

In what follows we show our main results for the pasta a noticeable eﬀect on the neutrino mean free path.

phase, using both Lagrangian parametrizations with con- The free energy per particle obtained with the

stant and density-dependent couplings, as explained be- FSUGold parametrization for β-equilibrium matter with

fore. For the parametrizations with non-linear terms in trapped neutrinos for a ﬁxed fraction of leptons YL = 0.2

the mesonic sector and constant couplings, we choose the is shown in ﬁg. 2, where the diﬀerent geometries are identi-

GM3 [38], NL3 [39], NL3ωρ [40] and the FSUGold [41] ﬁed by diﬀerent colors. The uniform-matter result is also

sets of parameters. The sets NL3 and NL3ωρ only diﬀer shown, and, as expected, has a larger free energy than

in the density dependence of the symmetry energy and the pasta phases. Although the transition densities be-

will allow the discussion of the eﬀect of this quantity on tween geometries may diﬀer slightly, depending on the

the neutrino mean free path. For the density-dependent parametrization used [44], the qualitative behaviour does

case we take the TW [42] and the van Dalen et al. [43] not change signiﬁcantly compared to the case shown. The

Eur. Phys. J. A (2016) 52: 290 Page 5 of 10

20 200

150

10 100

µ i - M i (MeV)

F/A-M (MeV)

50

0 0

-50

-10 -100

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

ρB (fm -3 ) ρ B (fm -3 )

Fig. 2. Free energy per barion as a function of the total Fig. 4. Chemical potential as a function of the total bary-

baryonic density using the FSUGold parametrization for uni- onic density using the FSUGold parametrization for the pasta

form matter (black) and the pasta phase matter within droplet phase (points) compared to homogeneous matter (lines) for the

(red), rod (green), slab (blue), tube (purple) and bubble (light neutrons (green), protons (red), electrons (blue) and neutrinos

blue) geometries. The temperature was taken as T = 3 MeV. (black). The temperature was taken as T = 3 MeV and Mi is

M is the free nucleon mass. the rest mass of the corresponding particle.

0.2

(a)

density proﬁle of the particles inside a single cell, within

our Thomas-Fermi calculation, are shown, for instance, in

ref. [19].

Figures 3(a) and 4 display, respectively, the proton

0.18 fraction and the chemical potential for all particles in-

volved using again the FSUGold parametrization to de-

Yp

results were obtained for a temperature T = 3 MeV. One

important eﬀect of the clusterization of matter is the in-

crease of the mean proton fraction.

0.16

An eﬀect of the larger proton fraction on neutral mat-

ter with a ﬁxed lepton fraction is the reduction of the neu-

trino fraction and, consequently, the neutrino chemical po-

FSUGold tential as seen in ﬁg. 4. At low temperatures, when degen-

TW

Dalen

eracy eﬀects are important, a smaller neutrino chemical

(b)

GM3 potential will give rise to larger mean free paths, and neu-

NL3

0.185 NL3 ωρ

trinos will diﬀuse out of the star more easily. In ﬁg. 3(b)

the pasta phase proton fraction is plotted for all the mod-

els studied. These results reﬂect the density dependence of

the symmetry energy of the respective models: a smaller

Yp

0.18 proton fraction occurs for the models with a smaller sym-

metry energy at the baryonic density range of interest. In

particular the three models with a smaller proton fraction

are GM3, Dalen and NL3, the three models that have the

0.175

smaller symmetry energy for 0.05 < ρ < 0.1 fm−3 .

The individual mean free path contribution for each

particle type is shown in ﬁg. 5 as a function of ρB , for

0.17 the FSUGold and T = 3 MeV. The curves labelled pro-

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 ton, neutron and neutrino are the contributions for elastic

ρ B (fm -3 ) neutral-current scattering, while the curve labelled elec-

Fig. 3. Proton fraction as a function of the total baryonic den- tron has also an elastic contribution from charged-current

sity, (a) using the FSUGold parametrization for uniform mat- scattering. The dominance of the absorption process on

ter (black) and the pasta phase matter within droplet (red), the total cross section is clear, as was also concluded in

rod (green), slab (blue), tube (purple) and bubble (light blue) previous calculations [15], except for very low densities,

geometries, (b) for all the models and the pasta phase matter. in the droplet region, where the neutron elastic scattering

The temperature was taken as T = 3 MeV. competes with the absorption process.

Page 6 of 10 Eur. Phys. J. A (2016) 52: 290

10 5

10 3

10 4

λ T (m)

λ (m)

10 3

10 2

10 2

10 1

10 1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

ρ B (fm -3 ) ρ B (fm -3 )

Fig. 5. Mean free path as a function of the total baryonic den- Fig. 6. Mean free path as a function of the total baryonic den-

sity using the FSUGold parametrization for the pasta phase sity comparing several parametrizations for the pasta phase

matter (dotted lines) compared to homogeneous matter (full matter. TW (red), Dalen (green), GM3 (blue), NL3 (purple),

lines). Individual contributions for the electrons (red), neutri- NL3ωρ (grey) and FSUGold (orange). The FSUGold for ho-

nos (green), protons (blue) and neutrons (purple). The absorp- mogeneous matter (black) is also shown. The temperature was

tion contribution is shown in light blue and the total value is taken as T = 3 MeV and Eν = μν .

shown in black. The temperature was taken as T = 3 MeV and

Eν = μν .

10 3

individual nucleons of the pasta, as done in the present cal-

culation, we see that the mean free path increases a lot in 10 2

comparison with the homogeneous-matter case, mainly at

λ T (m)

larger proton fractions, and, therefore, the absorption pro-

cess and the scattering by neutrons are less likely to oc- 10 1

cur: the neutrino couples more strongly to the neutron

than to the proton. Other causes are related to the nu-

cleon distributions. Nucleons are concentrated in clusters

and the larger Fermi momenta of nucleons in the clus- 10 0

ter give rise to stronger Pauli blocking eﬀects. Each WS 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

cell contains, besides the cluster, a low-density nucleon ρ B (fm -3 )

background gas which has a smaller contribution to the Fig. 7. The neutrino mean free path as a function of the to-

total cross section than normal homogeneous matter. At tal baryonic density within FSUGold parametrization for the

the upper bound of the inner crust the neutron and pro- pasta phase (points) compared to homogeneous matter (lines)

ton densities of the background gas and the clusters get for T = 3 MeV (black), T = 5 MeV (red) and T = 7 MeV

closer to homogeneous-matter distribution and the same (blue) and Eν = μν .

should happen to the neutrino mean free path. In ﬁg. 5 the

diﬀerence between homogeneous matter and pasta phase

NMFP is shown for the diﬀerent processes: the absorp- precisely after the onset of the non-spherical pasta struc-

tion component is strongly aﬀected, due to a reduction tures, ρB > 0.02 fm−3 , which is a range of densities that

of the number of the neutrons. The bigger diﬀerences en- is sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry

countered for the scattering of protons, as compared to energy. GM3 and Dalen have the lowest mean free paths:

the neutrons, come from the diﬀerences in the chemical for a ﬁxed lepton fraction, a smaller proton fraction (see

potential (see ﬁg. 4), due to the Coulomb potential and ﬁg. 3) corresponds to a smaller electron fraction, which

due to the details of the position dependence of the Fermi increases the neutrino fraction and the neutrino chemical

momentum in the non-homogeneous case. potential. All these facts favour the absorption process,

The sensitivity of the total mean free path (λT ) to and consequently the NMFP is smaller. Comparing NL3

the parametrization used is presented in ﬁg. 6 together and NL3ωρ we also conclude that the softer density de-

with the uniform-matter result obtained with the FSUG- pendence of the symmetry energy gives rise to larger mean

old parameter set. At low densities the models do not dif- free paths.

fer much. This is expected since all models have similar The dependence of the results on the temperature is

behaviours, in particular, the proton fraction is almost shown in ﬁg. 7. Temperature has a strong eﬀect on the

the same in all of them, see [44]. The diﬀerences occur pasta structures which start to melt. Although within a

Eur. Phys. J. A (2016) 52: 290 Page 7 of 10

10 3 10 2

10 2 10 1

λ T (m)

λ T (m)

10 1

10 0

10 0

10 -1

40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Eν (MeV)

10 -1 Fig. 9. Neutrino mean free path as a function of the neutrino

incident energy for the pasta phase with ρB = 0.05 fm−3 and

T = 3 MeV (black), T = 5 MeV (red) and T = 7 MeV (blue). The

points represent pasta and the full lines homogeneous matter.

10 2

with energy around the chemical potential will provide

λ T (m)

system, because at low temperatures the system is prac-

tically degenerate and Pauli blocking factors will weaken

other contributions. The highly degenerate regime is ex-

10 0 pected for μi /T 1, and this condition is essentially true

for temperatures below the pasta melting temperature.

For ρB = 0.05 fm−3 , the gas of dripped neutrons is denser

and the proton fraction closer to the homogeneous one

10 -1 (see the blue region in ﬁg. 3(a) in comparison with the

40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Eν (MeV) red region). Consequently, the NMFP comes closer to the

homogeneous-matter result.

Fig. 8. Neutrino mean free path as a function of the neutrino In ﬁg. 9 we consider again ρB = 0.05 fm−3 , correspond-

incident energy for the pasta phase comparing the parametriza- ing to the slab geometry, at three diﬀerent temperatures.

tions TW (red), Dalen (green), GM3 (blue), NL3 (purple), As expected, with the increase of the neutrino incident

NL3ωρ (grey), FSUGold (orange) and FSUGold homogeneous energy, temperature eﬀects disappear. As we can see from

matter (black). The temperature was taken as T = 3 MeV

both ﬁgs. 8 and 9, the NMFP for neutrinos with lower

with ρB = 0.02 fm−3 (upper panel) and ρB = 0.05 fm−3 (lower

energy are smaller in the pasta and neutrinos with larger

panel). The triangles indicate the NMFP at the neutrino chem-

ical potential, μν , of the respective model.

energy have a greater NMFP in the pasta. This is because

at low energies Pauli blocking suppresses the interaction of

neutrinos with nucleons inside the cluster or in the homo-

TF calculation pasta structures still exist at T > 10 MeV, geneous matter, but the collisions with the surface nucle-

according to [45], if thermal ﬂuctuations are considered ons of the clusters are still possible. As the energy of the

the Wigner-Seitz cell structure is supposed to melt for neutrino increases, the Pauli blocking eﬀects are weaker

T > 7 MeV. Temperature increases drastically the back- and the NMFP in the homogeneous matter is smaller as

ground gas of dripped particles in the Wigner-Seitz cells discussed above.

and, therefore, the larger the temperature the closer the Finally, in ﬁgs. 10, 11 and 12, we present our results for

pasta mean free path comes to the homogeneous-matter the neutrino diﬀusion coeﬃcients, as deﬁned for instance

one. The reduction of the mean free path with the increase in [15]. We also show the homogeneous-matter diﬀusion

of the temperature is also expected, because the Fermi- coeﬃcients and they agree with the coeﬃcients calculated

Dirac distributions are smoothed when the temperature in [15], for the density region considered here. For the

increases, making Pauli blocking eﬀects weaker and al- pasta we obtain bigger diﬀusion coeﬃcients and these re-

lowing more reactions. sults reﬂect the bigger NMFP in the pasta matter. Com-

In ﬁg. 8 the NMFP is plotted as a function of pared to the corresponding results in ref. [9], we see a sys-

the neutrino incident energy for the pasta phase with tematic qualitative inversion in the sense that our pasta

ρB = 0.02 fm−3 and ρB = 0.05 fm−3 . We also include coeﬃcients remain always bigger than the homogeneous-

the homogeneous-matter result obtained within FSUG- matter counterpart. In fact, compared to the calculations

old. The values of λ at the neutrino chemical potential shown in [9] our method provides a spatial distribution of

Page 8 of 10 Eur. Phys. J. A (2016) 52: 290

into account in the cross section calculation, and the

50

approximations used in [9] have not been implemented in

the present study. The homogeneous diﬀusion coeﬃcients

D 2 (10 4 MeV 3 m)

40 in [15] and the ones we have obtained for densities of the

order of ∼ 0.05 fm−3 .

30

4 Conclusions

20

We have studied the eﬀect of the pasta phase, occurring

in the inner crust of a neutron star, on the neutrino mean

10 free path (NMFP). The pasta phases have been obtained

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

within a self-consistent Thomas-Fermi approximation, as

ρ B (fm -3 )

explained in refs. [19,29]. Several relativistic nuclear mod-

Fig. 10. Neutrino diﬀusion coeﬃcient D2 as a function of the els have been used to describe the pasta phase, both with

baryonic density for the pasta phase (dashed line) and for ho- non-linear meson terms and constant couplings, and with

mogeneous matter (full line) and T = 3 MeV. density-dependent couplings. In particular, we were inter-

ested in discussing whether the properties of the models,

20 such as the density dependence of the symmetry energy,

would have some inﬂuence on the NMFP. We have also

studied the eﬀect of the temperature. It should be stressed,

however, that the present work is restricted to density and

D 3 (10 6 MeV 4 m)

T 10 MeV and ∼ 0.0002 fm−3 < ρ < ρt where the

density at the crust-core transition ρt ∼ ρ0 /2. We have

considered both charged- and neutral-current reactions.

It has been shown that the absorption process dominates

10 the NMFP, but other processes cannot be discarded.

At low density, ρB < 0.02 fm−3 , where the pasta

phases obtained within the diﬀerent parametrizations

have similar properties [44], the NMFP has a small

5 dependence on the parametrization. As the density in-

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

creases, namely at the layers close to the upper border

ρ B (fm -3 ) of the inner crust, the dependence on the parametrization

Fig. 11. Neutrino diﬀusion coeﬃcient D3 as a function of the becomes more important. With a larger proton fraction,

baryonic density for the pasta phase (dashed line) and for ho- the absorption process is less likely to occur. Consequently,

mogeneous matter (full line) and T = 3 MeV. models with larger proton fractions result in larger NMFP.

The proton fraction is closely related to the density depen-

15

dence of the symmetry energy, and, therefore, the eﬀect

of this property on the NMFP is not negligible.

Besides the eﬀect of the larger proton fraction of the

non-homogeneous phases, also Pauli blocking eﬀects in-

crease the NMFP with respect to homogeneous matter. In

D 4 (10 8 MeV 5 m)

Pauli blocking eﬀects inside the cluster, where the Fermi

energy is larger than in homogeneous matter. On the other

hand the background gas of each WS cell contains a too

5 small number of nucleons to have a signiﬁcant contribu-

tion to the total cross section. At the temperatures we

have considered, the neutrinos are degenerate, and the

Pauli blocking factors ensure that only neutrinos close to

0 the Fermi energy are involved in the scattering processes.

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 Also the fact that degenerate neutrinos in the presence

ρ B (fm -3 ) of pasta phases have smaller energies than in homoge-

neous matter results in larger NMFP. When the density

Fig. 12. Neutrino diﬀusion coeﬃcient D4 as a function of the or the temperature increases, originating the melting of

baryonic density for the pasta phase (dashed line) and for ho-

the pasta phases, both the pasta and the homogeneous-

mogeneous matter (full line) and T = 3 MeV.

matter NMFP get closer.

Eur. Phys. J. A (2016) 52: 290 Page 9 of 10

We have shown that the NMFP is larger, by as much · (cV + cA )2 (1 − v2 cos(θ2 ))(1 − f123 )

as an order of magnitude, in the presence of pasta phases

than when considering homogeneous β-equilibrium mat-

+(cV − cA )2 (1 − v2 cos(θ23 ))(1 − g123 )

ter at the same density. This eﬀect will give rise to shorter

neutrino emission time-scales. Also, this means that if the M2∗ M4∗ 2

clusterized matter is accounted for adequately in a su- − ∗ ∗ (cV − cA )(1 − cos(θ3 )) ,

2

(A.1)

E2 E4

pernovae simulation code at the neutrino trapped stage,

the energy transferred to low-density layer that settles with

onto the PNS surface is more eﬃcient. Our results im- k1 cos(θ3 ) + k2 cos(θ23 ) − k3

ply that the eﬀects of the pasta phase cannot be ne- f123 = ;

E4∗

glected when calculating the NMFP at baryonic densi-

ties below 0.1 fm−3 and temperatures below 10 MeV. The k1 + k2 cos(θ2 ) − k3 cos(θ3 )

g123 = ;

parametrization used to describe the pasta phase has also E4∗

inﬂuence on the results, in particular, due to the density

dependence of the symmetry energy. k1 (E2∗ − k2 cos(θ2 ))

k3 = .

We have not considered coherent scattering of the neu- k1 + E2∗ − k1 cos(θ3 ) − k2 cos(θ23 )

trinos from the pasta clusters as done in [7,8]. These pro-

For the absorption, we ﬁnd

cesses are important when all neutrons respond coher-

ently and can cause an important reduction of the NMFP

π

2π

GF 2 3 3

for neutrino energies Eν 80 MeV, compared to free σabs = 2 d r d k2 sin(θ3 )dθ3 dφ3 k32

(2π)5 0 0

neutrino-neutron scattering [23,24]. Coherent eﬀects have

to be considered if the neutrino wavelength is comparable η2 (T )(1 − η3 (T ))(1 − η4 (T ))

·

to the radius of the cluster. Pasta phase calculations of |v1 − v2 |

the inner crust give 10 < RW S < 30 fm, where RW S is the

Wigner-Seitz cell radius and for densities above 0.01 fm−3 , m2e + k32 (C − m2e + k32 )

·

see [19]. In [8], coherent eﬀects have been calculated within Ck3 − F m2e + k32

a liquid-drop model approach and a quantum molecu-

lar dynamics calculation. The structure function shows · (gV + gA )2 (1 − v2 cos(θ2 ))(1 − f123 )

a peak at 30–40 MeV, for T = 1 MeV and a proton frac-

tion equal to 0.3, and decreases smoothly for larger neu-

trino energies approaching the incoherent neutrino scat- +(gV − gA )2 (1 − g123 )(1 − v2 cos(θ23 ))

tering from individual-nucleons result. It was also shown M2∗ M4∗ 2

that temperature broadens and reduces the peak due to − ∗ ∗ (gV − gA )(1 − cos(θ3 )) ,

2

(A.2)

E2 E4

thermal ﬂuctuations. The scattering processes discussed

in the present work are important when the neutrinos are where now

scattered by the individual nucleons that form the pasta

2F (C 2 + m2e − D)

cluster and, therefore, for neutrinos with a larger energy. k3 = −

Also, as we are concerned with the neutrino trapped phase 4(k1 cos(θ3 ) + k2 cos(θ23 ))2 − 4C 2

corresponding to the initial deleptonization of a protoneu-

16m2e C 2 F 2 + 4C 2 (C 2 + m2e − D)2 − 16m2e C 4

tron star, neutron superﬂuidity plays no role since the − ;

temperatures involved are above the pairing critical tem- 4F 2 − 4C 2

perature [46,47]. D = (k1 + k2 )2 + M4∗ ;

C = k1 + E2∗ − gρ b0 ;

We acknowledge partial support from CAPES and CNPq.

This work is partly supported by the project PEst- F = k1 cos(θ3 ) + k2 cos(θ23 ). (A.3)

OE/FIS/UI0405/2014 developed under the initiative QREN ﬁ- The constants are:

nanced by the UE/FEDER through the program COMPETE-

“Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade”. neutrino-proton: cV = 1/2 − 2 sin2 (θw ); cA = 1.23/2,

neutrino-neutron: cV = −1/2; cA = −1, 23/2,

2

Appendix A. neutrino-electron: cV = 1/2

√ + 2 sin√(θw ); cA = 1/2,

neutrino-neutrino: cV = 2; cA = 2,

According to eq. (8), with k1 = k1 ẑ and after the k4 absorption: gV = C; gA = −1.23C

integration in the scattering case

π

2π with C = 0.973 and sin2 (θw ) = 0.230. Each neutrino-

GF 2 3 3 electron and neutrino-neutrino collisions can be repre-

σscat = 2 d r d k2 sin(θ 3 )dθ 3 dφ3 k32 sented by two (ﬁrst-order) Feynman diagrams, in such a

(2π)5 0 0

way that the values of cV and cA can be re-deﬁned to ac-

η2 (T )(1 − η3 (T ))(1 − η4 (T ))

· commodate the diﬀerent cross section contributions in a

|v1 − v2 | single expression, as given above. Also, we deﬁne

k1 + E2∗ − k3

· E ∗ = k2 + M ∗2 .

k1 (1 − cos(θ3 )) + E2∗ − k2 cos(θ23 )

Page 10 of 10 Eur. Phys. J. A (2016) 52: 290

For the particle energy we have for the nucleon 15. S. Reddy, M. Prakash, J.M. Lattimer, Phys. Rev. D 58,

013009 (1998).

1 16. T. Fischer, M. Hempel, I. Sagert, Y. Suwa, J. Schaﬀner-

Ei = E ∗ + Γv V0 (r) ± Γρ b0 (r) + eA0 (r)

2 Bielich, Eur. Phys. J. A 50, 46 (2014).

17. M.B. Tsang et al., Phys. Rev. C 86, 015803 (2012).

in the NL parametrization case and 18. T. Maruyama, T. Tatsumi, D.N. Voskresensky, T. Tani-

gawa, S. Chiba, Phys. Rev. C 72, 015802 (2005).

1 19. S.S. Avancini, D.P. Menezes, M.D. Alloy, J.R. Marinelli,

Ei = E ∗ + Γv V0 (r) ± Γρ b0 (r) + eA0 (r)

2 M.M.W. de Moraes, C. Providência, Phys. Rev. C 78,

∂Γv ∂Γρ ρ3 ∂Γδ ∂Γs 015802 (2008).

+ ρB V0 + b0 + ρs3 δ0 − ρs φ0 20. P. Grygorov, P. Gogelein, H. Muther, J. Phys. G: Nucl.

∂ρB ∂ρB 2 ∂ρB ∂ρB Part. Phys. 37, 075203 (2010).

21. M. Okamoto, T. Maruyama, K. Yabana, T. Tatsumi, Phys.

in the DD case. The plus sign in the equations above has Lett. B 713, 284 (2012).

to be chosen for the proton and the minus sign for the neu- 22. M. Okamoto, T. Maruyama, K. Yabana, T. Tatsumi, Phys.

tron. Also, V0 , φ0 , b0 and δ0 are the time-like components Rev. C 88, 025801 (2013).

of the meson ﬁelds. For the electron 23. C.J. Horowitz, M.A. Prez-Garcia, J. Piekarewicz, Phys.

Rev. C 69, 045804 (2004).

Ee = k 2 + m2e − eA0 (r); M ∗ → me 24. C.J. Horowitz, M.A. Prez-Garcia, D.K. Berry, J.

Piekarewicz, Phys. Rev. C 72, 035801 (2005).

and for the neutrino: 25. Gentaro Watanabe, Toshiki Maruyama, Katsuhiko Sato,

Kenji Yasuoka, Toshikazu Ebisuzaki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,

Eν = k; M ∗ → 0. 031101 (2005).

26. Hidetaka Sonoda, Gentaro Watanabe, Katsuhiko Sato,

Finally, in order to take into account the ﬁnite size of Kenji Yasuoka, Toshikazu Ebisuzaki, Phys. Rev. C 77,

the nucleon, we have multiplied the constants gV (gA ), 035806 (2008).

or cV (cA ), by the corresponding form factor. Using the 27. Gentaro Watanabe, Hidetaka Sonoda, Toshiki Maruyama,

parametrizations as explained in [36,37], we have taken a Katsuhiko Sato, Kenji Yasuoka, Toshikazu Ebisuzaki,

common structure factor given by Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 121101 (2009).

28. A.S. Schneider, C.J. Horowitz, J. Hughto, D.K. Berry,

−2 Phys. Rev. C 88, 065807 (2013).

4.97q 2

1+ , (A.4) 29. S.S. Avancini, S. Chiacchiera, D.P. Menezes, C.

4M 2 Providência, Phys. Rev. C 82, 055807 (2010).

30. N. Iwamoto, C.J. Pethick, Phys. Rev. D 25, 313 (1982).

where q ≡ |q| = |p1 − p3 |. 31. C.J. Horowitz, K. Wehrberger, Nucl. Phys. A 531, 665

(1991).

32. C.J. Horowitz, K. Wehrberger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 272

References (1991).

33. G. Fabbri, F. Matera, Phys. Rev. C 54, 2031 (1996).

1. B. Bodmann et al., Phys. Lett. B 332, 251 (1994). 34. Sanjay Reddy, Madappa Prakash, James M. Lattimer, J.A.

2. R. Imlay et al., Nucl. Phys. A 629, 531c (1998). Pons, Phys. Rev. C 59, 2888 (1999).

3. A. Aguilar-Arevalo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 032301 35. C.A. Graeﬀ, J.R. Marinelli, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 312,

(2008) 092027 (2011).

4. T. Walton et al., Phys. Rev. D 91, 071301 (2015). 36. J.R. Marinelli, C.A. Graeﬀ, EPJ Web of Conferences 66,

5. Christophe Praet, Modelling Quasi-Free Neutrino Nucleus 02068 (2014).

Reactions for Accelerator-Based Experiments (Universiteit 37. S. Galster, H. Klein, J. Moritz, K.H. Schmidt, D. Wegener,

Gent, Gent, 2009). J. Bleckwenn, Nucl. Phys. B 32, 221 (1971).

6. T. Maruyama, T. Tatsumi, T. Endo, S. Chiba, Recent Dev. 38. N.K. Glendenning, Compact Stars, 2nd ed. (Springer,

Phys. 7, 1 (2006). Berlin, 2000).

7. C.J. Horowitz, M.A. Perez-Garcia, J. Carriere, D.K. Berry, 39. G.A. Lalazissis, J. Knig, P. Ring, Phys. Rev. C 55, 540

J. Piekarewicz, Phys. Rev. C 70, 065806 (2004). (1997).

8. Hidetaka Sonoda, Gentaro Watanabe, Katsuhiko Sato, 40. C.J. Horowitz, L. Piekarewicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5647

Tomoya Takiwaki, Kenji Yasuoka, Toshikazu Ebisuzaki, (2001).

Phys. Rev. C 75, 042801 (2007). 41. B.G. Todd-Ruttel, J. Piekarewicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,

9. M.D. Alloy, D.P. Menezes, Phys. Rev. C 83, 035803 (2011). 122501 (2005).

10. H.Th. Janka, K. Langanke, A. Marek, G. Martinez-Pinedo, 42. S. Typel, H.H. Wolter, Nucl. Phys. A 656, 331 (1999).

B. Muller, Phys. Rep. 442, 38 (2007). 43. E.N.E. van Dalen, C. Fuchs, A. Faessler, Eur. Phys. J. A

11. S.W. Bruenn, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 58, 771 (1985). 31, 29 (2007).

12. G. Martinez-Pinedo, T. Fischer, A. Lohs, L. Huther, Phys. 44. Fabrizio Grill, Constança Providência, Sidney S. Avancini,

Rev. Lett. 109, 241104 (2012). Phys. Rev. C 85, 055808 (2012).

45. C. Pethick, A. Potekhin, Phys. Lett. B 427, 7 (1998).

13. J.A. Pons, S. Reddy, M. Prakash, J.M. Lattimer, J.A. Mi-

46. M. Prakash, J.M. Lattimer, J.A. Pons, A.W. Steiner, S.

ralles, Astrophys. J. 513, 780 (1999).

Reddy, Lect. Notes Phys. 578, 364 (2001).

14. T. Fischer, G. Martinez-Pinedo, M. Hempel, M. Liebendo,

47. Alan L. Goodman, Nucl. Phys. A 352, 30 (1981).

Phys. Rev. D 85, 083003 (2012).

- Synthesis of Samkhya Metaphysics With Quantum PhysicsUploaded bybantyseth
- Art MagicUploaded byjustme4545
- Hand of GodUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- Radiation Protection ManualUploaded byHussain
- PHY 7C FNT 9Uploaded bytorious
- The PhilosophyUploaded byGian Singh
- CERN-THESIS-2012-217Uploaded byAmeli Apuy
- Dark Matter and EnergyUploaded byGeorge Rajna
- RPT SC FORM 1 2015Uploaded byAHDEAR
- phy 009Uploaded byMahantesh Chikkadesai
- astro-ph0207053Uploaded byThevakaran Arunasalam
- Particle PhysicsUploaded bySachin Vaidya
- project packetUploaded byapi-242808270
- vocabulary first six 6 weeksUploaded byPatricia Runkle
- Phits Lec02 EnUploaded bySayantan Patra
- QUANTUM SMARANDACHE PARADOXESUploaded byMia Amalia
- Globalist War on Science Approaches ClimaxUploaded bybeosro
- Form-four Physics:Lesson 1Uploaded byyaasiin
- CosmologyUploaded byWilliam Zhuang
- Big Bang TheoryUploaded byLoo DrBrad
- Perrone_LessonPlan.pdfUploaded byCleofe May Adsuara
- From Quanta to QuarksUploaded byz3459242
- EXOTIC PHYSICS AT HERAUploaded byJonathan Robert Kraus (OutofMudProductions)
- Neutrino Mass and New PhysicsUploaded byAvinanda Chaudhuri
- David Hardtke- Exploring the Neutrino Universe with AMANDA and IceCubeUploaded byGylkinn
- 111904.pdfUploaded byHorenhop Dolakov
- 16-1-MorrisUploaded byVictor Olenin Ramirez Beltran
- chem lesson cycle microteach 2Uploaded byapi-287503448
- 1303.5979Uploaded byChristos Kallidonis
- Note Chapter13 SF027Uploaded byAwlas Ron Hapnaut

- WorkAndEnergy(2)Uploaded byRavi Lall
- Nuclear_ChemistryUploaded byAnonymous 9GBFz5Dx
- Ecoult UltraBattery White Paper General VersionUploaded byramukolaki
- Solar Rooftop Infokit- 2014-15-1406213577477306780.pdfUploaded bypramods_8
- ppe unit 01 combined power plants and comparison v+Uploaded bysshridhar2008
- Barger, Philips - Collider Physics.pdfUploaded byRicardo Flores
- CHAPTER – 19 THE ATOMIC NUCLEUSUploaded byusama113
- egee reflective essay 2Uploaded byapi-252811580
- Bhimavaram Ice MakingUploaded byYasser Maamoun
- Adhidarma Et Al - RE Outlook-RESI-PREGUploaded byokiamirullah
- Modern Physics - 2 Theory_EUploaded bythinkiit
- 223Uploaded bysrilakshmisiri
- Energia EolicaUploaded byJulye Black
- Protection for Distributed Energy SystemUploaded byVankurd
- Notes 19Uploaded byMetin Ağaya
- Solar ArchitectureUploaded byVijay Khatwani
- Characterization of Photoelectrochemical Cells - FEUPUploaded bySimone Quaranta
- Technical Writing: Project Proposal SampleUploaded byJC Pineda
- BRIDGE to INDIA_The REC Mechanism_ Viability of Solar Projects in IndiaUploaded byAlaina Long
- Small Medium Wind Strategy Report 2014Uploaded byLaryssa Amado
- Units ConversionUploaded bydiasm1970
- P1 Revision SheetsUploaded byDaniel Brady
- Mahbub Review(2011)Uploaded byİsmail Kayahan
- Value of Fault Ride Through capability of Wind generation in UK.pdfUploaded bymuhannad11061975
- AEBIOM_European Bioenergy Outlook 2012svUploaded byLuigi Chiarini
- Energy PolicyUploaded byShanti Naidu
- baira suil hydro projectUploaded byAnand Kishor Mishra
- Fit Generator GuidanceUploaded byJohnWilliams
- DOE Wind Program Technology Trends and Strategic PlansUploaded byFigaroOlive
- 210 Mw St Turbine OptimisationUploaded byalee