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This poperrepresents attcmptto providethe readerwith a broadlook at the Boy Scout an phenomena early twentiethcenturyEngland.

It will start (hereafterrefenedto asthe Scouts) in

associated theScoutriia$it*eprcrc6*ueh rlr..), , widr the to by introducing reader theorfoing debate for Eut focuswill beto minethis debate whalit can scholarship the Scouts. Ore on . of therecent ''' t t ' o - Q l c '' - l i ' " r'': it a informthc reader themoveman!,ardrrffiaitqrpt-to sortthrough andestablish of 'winner'. Also,thispaper move for beyond debate, the usingit asa springboard a broader. ' will or a whichwill include lookat howwhatclass whatgeneration a unde**cf,ng:of theScoutsl


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. personwas in affectedhislherperceptionofthe movement. youth organizations nineteenth in century to Therewere manyattempts createsuccessful
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that one England,but it wasnot until the earlytwentiethlwith the creationof the Scouts, was its emerged.Unfortunatelyfor the Scouts, success very quickly toppedby an evenmore who recruiterof youth!the First World War. Thus,muohof the attentionof scholars successful

whetheror not, the Scouts, has on the haveexamined historyof the Scouts, focused establishing of intendedthe organization a mearui preparingEnglishyouth as or their creatorBaden-Powell, for war. ,r-,



phenomena, of a understanding the Scouting itre troublefor anyone seeking comprehensive
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isthat@notprovideit'Theirintentistooarguefor/ordissuadeagainst Thosewho believethat blamelies culpabilityfor the war to the Scouts,leadership, assigning of with the Scoutsfleed only convincethe readerthat the leaders the Scoutshadwar preparation in mind whenthey put togetherthe organization.Even if the effect of the Scoutsdiffered from
t",'' i'L entirefr its intentioq$they Jhaveprovedthattherewere'badguys'at thetop.that]idtbursttre of ^ , ,''*J


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-2the only convince werenot culpablefneed the movement.Thosewho believethat the Scouts public concerns otherthan war preparation.They could argue readerthat the Scoutsaddressed
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in or that ltwas reallypart of a differentmovement, part of several a


of England. To maketheir point,theyneednot weighthe relativeimportance theseother influences,only provethat they were at leastas importantaswasmilitarism. it account the Scouts, is not a of a doesnot offer the reador comprehensive But if this debate that often do suggest thereis on barrenaccountof them either. Papers, either sideof the debate, building It oughtto be understood. js eithera character a particularway in which the Boy Scouts in movement if onesees Badenfowell the influenceof ChristianSocialisrrt'orit ig'n military influences,the Scouts look at Baden-Powell's by movement revealed taking another of participationin war games beforethe First World War, andat the leadership the Scoutsat the locallevel.


Uut lastedonly a few years, it canbe movement as ChristianSocialism an organized as understood havinghada profoundinfluenceon importantpeopleof the times,andbeyond

the stressed importance the wealthygtvingto the poor. The gift of them. ChristianSocialists of their own gentlemanly code. This codeconsisted loyaltyto wasnot to be riches,but, instead, in and tF qurrn andcountry,tenderness respectto women,manliness sportandwar, purity in by thought,andrdbe tnre to one's*ot$ qualitiesthoughtpotentiallyobtainable all. Similar popularbook andcodafor the movement qualitieswerehighlightedin Baden-Powell's loyalty,fair play, in for.Bpys. Therearesections it that dealtwith honor,courtesy, Scouting for someseethis asevidence discipline,humility andso on. Therefore, obedience,

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spirit Socialist the embodiment theChristian of understanding Scouts thephysical as
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They to that ChristianSocialisminspiredBaden-Powell createthe Scouts. Othersdisagree
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Chronlqlg.on in for lookbeyond Scoutine Bol'stea letterwrittenearlier, theEtonCollege lK for into to )Xe2l.SDwerbor, 1904.Here,in ffi fint att€mpt sculpthisideas theScouts a boys role is obvious. He suggestYihat in form,a para-military for the Scouts deemed systematic miniature rifles,to judge howto aimandshoot be into villages should formed goupsandtaught scout,$C{r.r#rill distances, in to andskirmish.Any reference formingcharacter these
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that youthis downplayed comparisor{This lettermakesclearto somescholars Badenfowell in in wasstronglyaffectedby his war experiences the BoerWar. Theybelievehe viewedthe againstany reoccurrence the military incompetence of Scoutsasa form of long-terminsurance he had cometo identi$/ with this war. n tf,i, view, it wasnot knightly virtue, but instead vision of the Scouts. knightsat war which informedBaden-Powell's
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to that the scoutsalsopretended be soldiersirrih€ It comesasno surpriseto thesescholars
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Scout*+ssoeietionwith the VoluntaryAid Detachment,In August 1909,the War Office of the the inaugurated VAD dho wer€ intendedto supplement medicalorganization the
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to their members dealwithtsdcasualtief, TerritorialForce. This meantthatthq' prepared of uponwhomthe members the VAD soldiers actedaswounded military invasion. The Scouts werewar games.Scholars and couldpracticetheir first aid, bandagrng, sfietcherskills. These as makeof this participationan attemptto havethe Scoutsimaginethemselves "having suffered setting with the hygienicandaesthetic for their country'ssakeon the battlefield-in a reasonably fighting possibility of tea andbunsat the endof the day". Il in the future,the countryneeded

- +prepared the realitiesof the psychologically for men,the scoutswerealreadysomewhat battlefield. manyof the early ScoutCommissioners rootslevel of local practice, In addition,at the grass of and held military rank. In 1910,140of the total 250 Presidents Commissioners the Scouts were as GBze,tte classified servingor retiredmilitary officers. Many listedin The Headquartegs war that emphasized of of thesewere advocates the National Servicekague - an organization preparation throughconscription,andthroughcompulsorymilitary and physicaltraining for the young. With thesethreefactorsin mind, the argumentis madethat any later attemptto stress to character building mustbe seenasa clever attemptby Baden-Powell maskhis real intentions building andcitizentraining. But whichever view for the Scouts behinda facadeof character the seems mostcredibleto the reader,the debate a limited account

way a tffi@s establishing systematic of lookingat the Scouts. that was The ideathat paden-Powell influenced ChristianSocialismsuggests the by wasan upperclass with classin min$ for ChristianSocialism movementbe examined

the influenceBaden-Powell, movement.Perhaps ChristianSocialism fundamentally did if , at movementshouldbe understood, leastin part, asar*eltr"dlby the upperclassto secure ,\, , ' with the scoutsasbeing the influenceover the working class. Perhaps imageoften associated

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for includinga romance.Sland, respect titles, andfor a modernknightswaspart of a package,
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amongst working the leisureactivities,that intendedto revive the appe*lof the aristocracy


their members seethemselves knights;which perhaps to as did The Scouts promote classes. may an *.: a suggests respec, peerage.Their activitiesdid occurin rural areas;.which suggest attemptto indoctrinatethe youngwith a love of the land - still the domainof the upperclass.
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certainly suchaslearningto scbu!,to survivein the wilderness, activ{les themselves

with the middle themfor working in the cities. Perhaps, n* nothingto do with preparing to as saw idealon the wane,the upperclasses the Scouts a chance regain classes' entrepreneurial overthe workingclass. their traditionalhegemony
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groiittnis wastheir intention,the actualmembership the Scouts that suggests they were of

asit was is The breadth the appeal the Scouts opento question, of of not wholly successful. of mostlyfilled by members the middle,t*r. suggests of Perhaps, then,the success the Scouts

for that the public schools the that its upperclassauraattracted middle classes the samereason had- as an appeal their desirefor status. to public schools and for At first glance, may seempossible thereexist similaritiesbetween this that the Scoutswasput togetherat a half century the Scouts, it is importantto remember but to laterthanthe rise of the public schools.Public schools began miseduringthe mid-Victorian the periodwhenthe middleclasses In wereconfidentandself-assured. conffast, Edwardian Theyfacedthe periodwasa fundamentally insecure anxious and time for the middle-classes. from without. During this possibilities socialism from withia andinvasionfrom Germany of for wereprobabty concerned their survivalasthey werewith their as time the middleclasses that to status.With this in mind, it may be pre-mature assume the Scoutswere a rear guard t an attemptby the upperclassto re-claim status. Instead,it may haverepresented attemptby


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to and both the middleandupperclasses preventanarclry invasion.

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how it couldserveto movement ouiOU, ,*urninedto determine ,t In this light, the Scouting control the working classes.$mat one finds, is that v/hatthe middle classwasattemptingto do i was Adolescence a new, to of 'adolescence'. wasintroduce working classes their concept the yearsasan extended childhood. Boysdid not middleclassway of looking at a youth'steenage stage, periodof a an mo-ve directlyfrom childhoodto adulthood.It interjected intermediate yearswould determine his primaryimportance the youth. How a youthlived his adolescent for -{' :
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delicacy,encouraged of success an adult. The importance this time of life, andits perceived as from adults. Ultimately,underthe guiseof helpingprotect constant monitoringandinterference freedomwasto be restricted. of the youth from the dangers the outsideworld, the adolescent's then,that at a time wheretherewasa ggnicular concernthaf the working class How appropriate like youthmightjoin socialistmovementso an attemptwasmade,via movements the Scouts, that of to to attemptto extendthis conceptof adolescence the future adult members the potentially workingclasses. dangerous The Scouts separate adultandyouthworlds. It wasa singlesexorganization.It the did maintainedthat early contactwith the oppositesexwasa threatto the masculinityof the boys. ensured youthswould be isolatedfrom normalpleasures that The Scout'semphasis ascetics, on
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as this suggested asceticism, the "valueto of adulthood. The Scout'sethicsof "Be Prepared" by and the nation of its younglay in the innocense purity that werebeingendangered the alluring and society". The ethic of the amusements rapid paceof urban-industrial o'good deed"suggested

sort. It did not imply actualsocialor political but communityinvolvement, of a restricted



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impulses the of and the to Yet ifthe Scouts wereanaffempt de-politicizn contain dangerous The of in youthof theworking it be class, cannot seen successful thisregard. mainsource as

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youthswho participated the Scoutmovement in *,e€from the middleclass. Thereweretwo 5 reasons this: oneof-r#was for thatthe costsinvolvedo muchlike the costsof public schools,

for aloneweretoo muchexpense working weresimplytoo high. The clothingrequirements while thennatural was classfamily budgets.The second that the whole notionof adolescence, was to the middleclasses, wholly aliento the workingclasses. that demographic economicpressures forced children ofthe and Therewereconsiderable of out workingclasses to work assoonaswaspossible.The households the working classes that a werestill largein size. To sustain largefamily, it wasessential the youngwork., Working, meantthat they hadonefoot in the adult world. They werewell awarethat their incomeplayed their seniors part in the family buoyant,and it did providethem somestatusamongst an essential they werenot receptiveto the ideaof to not accorded children. Since,they enjoyedthis status, boyhoodfor their youngwould limit family boyhood. And that an extended an extended either. ln the to werenot receptive the-movement that income,it is not surprising their parents could expectto haveto scoutswho enteredslum neighborhoods, first few yearsof its existence, from both the youth andadultsof the working from verbalandphysicalabuse defendthemselves recognized the movement not appal to workingclass did that Someof the Scoutleaders classes. werejust not acceptable youths,andunderstood why that was."Bare kneesandhiking breeches to boyswho werealreadyart work andwho valuedtheir precocity". In fact it wasnot until after

-8popularamongst workingclasses. the of became World War Onethat a series youthmovements of this separation youth and Importantly,thesebroke with the model of Baden-Powell, softened from adults. is that a classanalysis the Scouts still not a definitiveone. of Onecannoticeherehowever, to seemed rejectthe Scouts.The Scouts Oneexample this is that all youthin their mid-teens of eagerto develop managed appealto youth while they were still willing to acceptsupervision, to though, But with outdoorrecreations. by their mid-teens and new skills andstrengths, satisfied rejected these'boyish' activities.r teensof all classes as the Perhaps then, it is fair to understand Scoutingphenomena a projectionof middle workingclass. But it may also of classed {eepestdesires.This includeda fantasy a contained J revealtheir needfor personalandsocietalrevitalization. The popularityof youth movements as like the Scoutsmay be understood renewedinfatuationwith childhoo$ with its symbolismof purity and innocence. freshness,


adults Kipling's class of middle as amongst TheScouts couldbeseen onewith thepopularity they industrial societlperhaps were In to tales, solstice ceremoniesT response a soulless and life. Romantic of and and deeply anti-modern anti-materialistic dreamt a morenatural becoming movement, in embodied theScouting and visions Arthurian knights, thesense ruralescape of of popularity themovement. they Through theirchildren, for mayhelpaccount theenormous of
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from their troubles. mayhavesoughtan escape


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The for of ! examineJbs@ial symbolicimportance the Scouts menof the middle classes. I




life vigor which waslackingin the everyday of middleclassmen. a embodied muscular Scouts with from the physicalexertiontraditionallyassociated removed Theywereconsiderably not between women'swork andmen'swork wasthreatened the manhood.Further, boundary they werefindingjobs of increasing numbers womenwereworking,but because simplybecause
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from tbeir.ownwhite not distinguishable and asteachers, retail clerks;occupations satisfactorily collar work. of essence manhood, a The menmay havefelt a needto re-establish clearanddistinguishable primal maleness a masculine as the andthus embraced moretraditional imageof an aggressive, of thatthe maleheroes the time wereunflinchingcaptains of revealing ideal. It is perhaps industy, frontiersmen warriorssuchasthe knightsof old. This may explaintheir favorable and youth, it alsoaspired intended delayprecocityamongst to While the Scouts view of the Scouts. to keepthem physicallyfit throughconstantdrills, andthusbe readyto defendtheir nation if calledupon- the imageof the Scoutasknight. This paperhashopedto makeclearto the reader,that it is not enoughto establishmilitaristic of in building aspects the Scoutsif a broadunderstanding the mov€mentis desired. or character new viewedthem,bringsto the surface differentclasses to Lookingat the Scouts see,how

did the this However, paperis not suggesting Scouts insightsthat might otherwisef,i-revealed. of not in enyway reflectcommonlyheld perpeptions the period. Surely,military preparedness, by as wereheldby all classes importantl The rejectionof the Scouts the andgoodcharacter embodied.Splinter Scouting maynot havebeena rejectionof everything workingclasses appeal groups, workingclasslifestyles,provedto haveconsiderable which took moreseriously

-t0the considering to the working class. Still, it is a particularlyimportantpoint to emphasize, movement that enrollmentof youthin the Scouts, in somewaysthis vastlysuccessful enormous as canbe still be understood a middleandupperclassphenomena.

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P. McEvoy-Halston

The BoY Scouts

the motives essay which addresses is an interesting This f ashion. sophisticated the scouting movernent in-a fairly underlying movement of the scouting the perception It seeks to investigate its derived why scouting in order to exptain lines across class from amongst the adult rniddle classes. greatest support section would have The esiiy begins well, but the introductory a complete ended with paragraph first the nia been strongei hand margin on page As noted in the comment in the right thought. clear having of terms in hanging left is reader {ne L, object of of where the papLr is going and the overall understanding late in the paper that the until It is not really the discussion. apparent. general argument being advanced becomes readily have adopted in ine body of the paper, scholars As exptained underlying perspectives on the motivations a number of different of the scholarly and aims of the scouting movement. The discussion debate on pages t-2 is hampered somewhat, however, by the fact that Has the ogtlined. debate are not fully of this the pararneters Did one positi_on on the issue debate changed over time? schoiarly It might have by another? hold for some time only to be supplanted juJt who was being discussed in this been a good idea to clarify -of In €fre absence of f ootnote ref erences it is the period. section for the reader to know. difficult rather the motives is not always easy to discern it Obviously is not Thus it of any organization. the creation underlying on such matters as opposed to stating to speculate inappr6priate Yet played a ro1e. definitely factors catLgorlcally - that certain as noted in the comments on pages 4 and 5, even a speculative of evidence which supports it. from the inclusion argument benefits There is plenty of evidence that could have been cited to make the of a general was representative case on pages 4-5 that scouting I I aristocratic of period of renewed veneration in tnis trend In terms of the broader point, see Girouard, On this values. an argument, also see the comments on issue of fr-1lIy substantiating pages 6 and i. Be sure to cite the sources of information. rniddle class fears presented on page 5 regarding The analysis as a feared Germany was not universally is open to question. Indeed, as in this period nor was war viewed unfavourably. threit pursuit, war was seen as a way in which men an avowedly masluline themselves from women, who, ds noted on page 9 | could distinguish with men in competition to be coming into increasing were perceivea could be argued, not only prolonged it period. Scouting, this a but it also helped prepare a man to be masculine, childhood, whichr ds noted in the last section of the paper' was thought trait the success of the Arguably in the period. to under threat scouting movement amongst the rniddte classes had as much to do with by the end of the This is inferred gender issues as with class. elaborated on. paper but not really than in the first and clearer is much crisper The writing speaking, the only major problem is over use paper. Grammatically have been places were a comma would in semi-colon the of the A semi-colon should only be used to differentiate appropriate. ( f ollowing or to complete an idea a colon) cornponents of a list

clause of a in the first fully, though not explained introduced, the semisentence, in wniCn case the clauses before and following should be sentences complete in and of themselves. colon
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