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Elements of the Communication Process


Chapter 3

The Communicating Process Noise Sender

Feedback Receiver

Channel Message

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Communication Process Variables Affecting the Communication Process

Sender Message Channel Reciever


1. Nature of the message
2. Background of sender
3. Background of receiver
Noise
4. Relationship between sender and receiver
5. Time of day
Feedback
6. Unusual circumstances of those communicating

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by Zane Quible Pearson Prentice Hall 3 by Zane Quible Pearson Prentice Hall 4
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Is a process that involves


translating the thoughts or Communication Flows
Encoding information into words,
signs, or symbols.

Occurs when the receiver


interprets the message
Decoding and gives it meaning
from his or her own
perspective.
Horizontally
Upward (Laterally) Downward
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Factors to Consider in Selecting Appropriate


Downward Communication Downward Medium
 Permanency of Record: written or
electronic communication may be better
Is used by administrative office managers to:
 Immediacy: oral and electronic may be
better
1. Keep their subordinates informed.  Need for feedback/understanding: oral
2. Give them job-related instructions. conversation
 Formality: Written may be better
3. Provide subordinates with feedback
regarding their job performance.
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Is used by employees to convey to their supervisors


Factors That Affect the Success of their feelings, ideas, aspirations, and attitudes
Downward Communication

1. Appropriateness of communication channel


Upward Communication
2. Timing and clarity of the message
3. Attitudes of those involved in the communication
process

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by Zane Quible Pearson Prentice Hall 9 by Zane Quible Pearson Prentice Hall 10
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Variables That Affect the Success of


Upward Communication Horizontal Communication
Takes place
1. The nature of the relationship between the between
subordinate and the manager. individuals of
2. The quality of the subordinate’s presentation equal hierarchical
of the message. rank and is more
3. The extent to which the content of the message informal than
is positive or negative.
either downward
4. The timeliness of the message. or up communi-
5. The extent to which the substance of the message cation.
is useful.
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Functions of Horizontal Communication The Grapevine

1. It helps employees fulfill their socialization


needs. Is a type of informal communication
2. It helps employees and departments coordinate
their activities with one another. It is often a fast and surprisingly accurate
3. It helps others better understand individual and communication process.
departmental responsibilities.
4. It helps individuals solve their own problems Management sometimes uses the grapevine to
before others have to become involved. assess employee reaction to a proposed change.
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Small Group Communication Reasons People Join Small Groups


 Communication among individuals
comprising a group of ten or fewer
individuals Power or Strength
 Many organizations are implementing a work- Security
in Numbers
team concept, where small groups of people
are responsible for an entire process

Morale Ready Access


Support to Advice

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Advantages of Groups Disadvantages of Groups


 Increase scope of information  Groupthink
 Identify more solutions  Tendency for one person to dominate the
 Increase commitment to solutions group
 Slower in most cases
 Free-riders, freeloaders

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Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Cues Impact the Communication


Process By:
 Impact on communication
Confirming: These cues confirm a verbal message.
 Elements of nonverbal communication
Replacing: These cues replace spoken words.
Contradicting: These cues contradict the verbal
message, adding an element of
confusion to the communication
process.
Emphasizing: These cues support the verbal
message.
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Body Language
Nonverbal Communication is Expressed By
 Gestures
 Clinched fists, finger tapping, head nodding
Body Language

 Kinesics: Known as posture


 Slouching, sitting upright
Time Paralanguage

Proxemics
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Body Language (cont.) Paralanguage


 Occulesics: Facial expressions
 Speaking Range
 Break in eye contact, cold stares, blank
expressions  Pitch
 Speaking Rate

 Tactilics: Touching  Pauses


 handshakes, pat on the back  Volume
 Intrusions

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Proxemics Time

 Artifacts and objects in  Time of day in which communication takes


the room place
 Seating arrangement  Promptness with which an appointment
 Ambience of the room gets underway
 Structure of territory  Meeting deadlines
and space

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Class Activity
Barriers to Effective Communication
 Read the case on page 59 of your book.
 Answer the questions at the end of the
1. Taking things or people for granted.
case.
2. Incorrect assumptions regarding subordinate
interest.
3. Characteristics of upward, downward, and
horizontal communication.
4. Semantics (word meanings).
5. Perception of something.
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Elements of the Listening Process Elements of the Listening Process


(1 of 3) (2 of 3)

Contextual Affected by the environment


Internal Be able to hear the message. Elements
Elements Noise
Be able to attach proper meaning to Time constraints
the words in the message. Accessibility of sender and
receiver
Capacity for listening Communication channel

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Application of the
Elements of the Listening Process Communication Process
(3 of 3)
 Conflict Resolution
Nature of relationship
Relationship between sender and receiver.  Sources
Elements  How to solve conflicts
Desire to say the right thing
at the right time.

Self Protection: Filter out


negative comments
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Sources of Conflict Conflict Resolution


 Background of conflict
1. Limited resources that must be shared.  Background of those involved
2. Incompatibility of goals.  Relationship between parties
 Benefits to be derived
3. Organizational reward systems thought to
treat some unfairly.
4. Changes in the organizational environment.

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Conflict Conflict
 Conflict is not necessarily a bad thing  If conflict is not handled effectively, the
 can lead to personal and professional growth. results can be damaging.
 effective conflict resolution skills can make the  Conflicting goals can turn into personal dislike.
difference between positive and negative  Teamwork breaks down.
outcomes.  Talent is wasted
 Increased understanding
 Increased group cohesion
 Improved self-knowledge

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Conflict Styles Conflict Styles


 Competitive:  Collaborative:
 Take a firm stand  Try to meet the needs of all people involved.
 Usually operate from a position of power,  Can be highly assertive but unlike the
 Useful when there is an emergency, when the competitor, they cooperate effectively and
decision is unpopular, or when defending acknowledge that everyone is important.
against someone who is trying to exploit the  Useful when a you need to bring together a
situation selfishly. variety of viewpoints to get the best solution;
 Can leave people feeling bruised, unsatisfied when there have been previous conflicts in the
and resentful when used in less urgent group; or when the situation is too important
situations. for a simple trade-off.

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Conflict Styles Conflict Styles


 Compromising:  Accommodating:
 Try to find a solution that will at least partially  Indicates a willingness to meet the needs of others at
the expense of the person’s own needs.
satisfy everyone.
 Often knows when to give in to others, but can be
 Everyone is expected to give up something, persuaded to surrender a position even when it is not
and the compromiser him- or herself also warranted.
expects to relinquish something.  This person is not assertive but is highly cooperative.
 Compromise is useful when the cost of conflict  Accommodation is appropriate when the issues matter
more to the other party, when peace is more valuable
is higher than the cost of losing ground, when than winning, or when you want to be in a position to
equal strength opponents are at a standstill collect on this “favor” you gave.
and when there is a deadline looming.  However people may not return favors, and overall this
approach is unlikely to give the best outcomes.

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Conflict Resolution:
Conflict Styles "Interest-Based Relational Approach"
 Avoiding:  This conflict resolution strategy respects
 Seek to evade the conflict entirely. individual differences while helping people
 This style is typified by delegating avoid becoming too entrenched in a fixed
controversial decisions, accepting default
decisions, and not wanting to hurt anyone’s
position.
feelings.  Follow a set of 6 rules
 It can be appropriate when victory is
impossible, when the controversy is trivial, or
when someone else is in a better position to
solve the problem.
 However in many situations this is a weak and
ineffective approach to take.
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Conflict Resolution: Conflict Resolution:


"Interest-Based Relational Approach" "Interest-Based Relational Approach"
1. Make sure that good relationships are the first 4. Listen first; talk second: To solve a problem
priority: As far as possible, make sure that you treat the
other calmly and that you try to build mutual respect. Do effectively you have to understand where the
your best to be courteous to one-another and remain other person is coming from before defending
constructive under pressure; your own position;
2. Keep people and problems separate: Recognize that in
many cases the other person is not just "being difficult" – 5. Set out the “Facts”: Agree and establish the
real and valid differences can lie behind conflictive objective, observable elements that will have an
positions. By separating the problem from the person, real
issues can be debated without damaging working impact on the decision; and
relationships;

3. Pay attention to the interests that are being 6. Explore options together: Be open to the idea
presented: By listening carefully you'll most-likely that a third position may exist, and that you can
understand why the person is adopting his or her position; get to this idea jointly.
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