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# Pressure at a point

Normal stress
𝐹𝑛 = 𝐹 cos 𝜃
Normal stress = 𝐹𝑛 /𝛿𝐴
Shear stress
𝐹𝑡 = 𝐹 sin 𝜃
Shear stress = 𝐹𝑡 /𝛿𝐴
Pressure on surface
 Is calculated as it was a point in its centroid to get the average pressure.
 Is independent of orientation.
Pressure on fluid itself and any point in it
𝑃 = 𝜌𝑔h + 𝑃𝑒𝑥𝑡 = 𝛾h + 𝑃𝑒𝑥𝑡
For every point in a continuum fluid:
 Pressure is independent of Area, only depth of the fluid, gravitational acceleration, density of fluid and any
extra pressure exerted on it.
Lifting with Pressure
𝐹1 𝐹2 𝐹1 𝐴1
𝑃1 = 𝑃2 ⇒ = ⇒ = ≪1
𝐴1 𝐴2 𝐹2 𝐴2
Forces on plane areas
Horizontal surfaces
𝐹𝑅 = 𝜌𝑔h𝐴 = 𝛾h𝐴 = 𝑃𝐴
Is applied In the centroid of the shape.
𝑥𝑅 = 𝑥𝑐
𝑦𝑅 = 𝑦𝑐
Inclined surfaces
𝐹𝑅 = 𝜌𝑔h𝑐 𝐴 = 𝛾h𝑐 𝐴 = 𝑃𝑐 𝐴
Where:
 h𝑐 : Vertical distance between free surface and centroid
 𝑃𝑐 : Pressure at the centroid point
But the point at which the force is exerted is no longer the centroid, as pressure is not equally
distributed.
𝑥𝑅 ≠ 𝑥𝑐
𝑦𝑅 ≠ 𝑦𝑐
To calculate the real center of pressure we use second moment of inertia laws.
𝐼𝑥𝑦𝑐
𝑥𝑅 = 𝑥𝑐 +
𝑥𝑐 𝐴
𝐼𝑥𝑐
𝑦𝑅 = 𝑦𝑐 +
𝑦𝑐 𝐴
Where:
 𝑥𝑐 : the inclined 𝑥 distance to the centroid
 𝑦𝑐 : the inclined 𝑦 distance from the free surface to the centroid
 𝐼: Second moment of area
The center of pressure is ALWAYS below the centroid.
Buoyant Force & Archimedes
When an object is submerged in a fluid, buoyant forces affects upon it upwards with a magnitude equals
the weight of displaced fluid due to this object.
𝐹𝐵 = 𝑚𝑔 = 𝜌𝑉𝑔
Where:
 𝑚: Mass of displaced fluid due to the object
 𝜌: Density of fluid in which object is submerged
 𝑉: Volume of submerged part of the object in the fluid, or volume of displaced fluid due to the
object