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CVE 581

LECTURE 3:
CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)
ENGR. OPEYEMI AKINOLA
TOPICS – this semester (CVE 581)
• Introduction to estimating cost, time and materials
• Planning and scheduling
• Critical Path Methods
• PERT (Programme Evaluation & Review Technique)
• Quality management
• Construction methods
• Equipment selection
• Health and safety in Construction 2

• Economic financial problems in construction and in executing public works


SUMMARY
• Introduction to CPM

• Network Analysis

• Rules for Network diagram

• Procedure for CPM

• Advantages of CPM
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• Uses of CPM
CREATIVE THINKING PUZZLE
• Draw four straight lines which go through the middle of all of the
dots without taking the pencil off the paper.

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INTRODUCTION
• Technique devised to plan & manage all types of construction
projects.
• Known as various terms:
• Network analysis, critical path analysis, critical path scheduling
• Completion target date & Meeting target date
• CPM adoption started around 1960
• CPM – very important tool in Construction, planning, estimation.
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NETWORK ANALYSIS
• Basic necessary data for CPM:
• Cost of all project items
• Time for completion per operation
• Information collected, reviewed & revised for economic reasons
• Possible variations considered
• Alternative equipment, different construction methods, working hours etc.
• Relevant variations checked on critical path network diagrams
• Optimum solution to time-cost problem obtained. 6
FEATURES OF NETWORK PLANNING
1. It expresses project in graphical form
2. Forms basic document for preparation of work schedules
3. Overall picture of project at a glance & indicates inter-
relationships
4. Shows activities on critical path & tolerable delay
5. Flexible self-adjusting technique that is easy to modify
6. Check time against cost & hence maximize resources
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7. Medium of communication for project parties
FEATURES OF NETWORK PLANNING cont.
9. No activity can start unless preceding events have occurred
10. No event can occur until all activities leading to it are completed
11. Non-critical paths permit use of resources for critical path
12. Closed loops cannot be incorporated in a critical path network
13. Length of activity line has no bearing on time estimate of activity
14. Performance of activity on critical path done with care & caution
15. Critical path changes if non-critical activities become critical
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RULES FOR NETWORK PLANNING
1. Dummy activity introduced
2. Every activity preceded & followed by an event
3. Every activity preceded and/or followed by at least 1 activity
4. Variations in quantity and quality affects time & cost of activity
5. Activity time can be reduced by increasing cost
6. Be able to break project down into various parts or stages
7. Be able to clearly define start and end of project
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8. Be able to estimate performance time of each project stage


PROCEDURE FOR CPM
• CPM procedure consists of 6 steps:
1. Project breakdown
2. Network diagram
3. Utility data w.r.t. time & cost
4. Activity times and floats
5. Determination of critical path
6. Scheduling
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1. PROJECT BREAKDOWN
• Project broken down into suitable processes essential for completion
• ‘Activity’ denotes each of such process
• Time is needed to complete activity

• ‘Event’ denotes the completion of an activity


• No time needed to complete event
• Events separated by activities

• Decide r/ship between all activities & arrange in proper sequence


• What activities must precede?
• What activities must follow?
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• What activities can run con-currently?
2. NETWORK DIAGRAM
• Drawn to show relationship between activities & events
• Types:
A. Arrow (activity-oriented) diagram :
• arrow represents activity;
• circle represents event.
B. Circle (event-oriented or precedence) diagram:
• circle represents activity;
• arrows represent logical time r/ship btw activities.

• Time taken for each activity also shown on the network diagram
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A. ARROW (activity on arrow) DIAGRAM
2 0
• arrow represents activity;
• circle represents event. A C
0 1 2 3
• ‘activity-oriented diagram’
• Dummy activity 3 1
Arrow diagram Arrow diagram
Fig. A-2 Fig. A-3
A B C C C
1 3 1 3
0 1 2 3

Arrow diagram
0 0
Fig. A-1
D D
2 4 2 4 13
Arrow diagram Arrow diagram
Fig. A-4 Fig. A-5
EXAMPLE OF AN ARROW DIAGRAM

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B. CIRCLE (activity on node) DIAGRAM
A B C
• circle represents activity;
• arrows represent logical time r/ship btw activities. Circle diagram
• ‘Event-oriented/precedence’ Fig. B-1
• Circle diagram preferred to arrow diagram in practice

B A A C A C

A
C
B D B D
C B

Circle diagram Circle diagram Circle diagram Circle diagram


Fig. B-2 Fig. B-3 Fig. B-4 Fig. B-5
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EXAMPLE: Student prepares for school
1. Wake-up
2. Take a bath (warm water)
3. Boil water for bathing
4. Have breakfast (bread)
5. Wash mouth
6. Say a prayer
7. Walk to bus-stop
8. Make a quick call
9. Dress up 16
10. Bus ride
EXAMPLE: Student prepares for school
1. Wake-up - A
2. Take a bath (warm water) - E
3. Boil water for bathing - C
4. Have breakfast (bread) - G
5. Wash mouth - B
6. Say a prayer - D
7. Walk to bus-stop - H
8. Make a quick call - J
9. Dress up - F 17
10. Bus ride - I
EXAMPLE: Student prepares for school
1. Wake-up - A - 5 minutes
2. Take a bath (warm water) - E - 10 minutes
3. Boil water for bathing - C - 15 minutes
4. Have breakfast (bread) - G - 15 minutes
5. Wash mouth - B - 5 minutes
6. Say a prayer - D - 5 minutes
7. Walk to bus-stop - H - 5 minutes
8. Make a quick call - J - 5 minutes
9. Dress up - F - 10 minutes 18
10. Bus ride - I - 20 minutes
Activity Duration Activities immediately
Activity
Item in mins preceding following
A Wake-up 5 None B, C
B Boil water 15 A E
C Prayer 5 A D
D Wash mouth 5 C E
E Take a bath 10 B, D F
F Dress-up 10 E G
G Have breakfast (cereal) 15 F H, J
H Walk to bus-stop 5 G I
I Bus ride 20 H None
J Make quick call 5 G None
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• Proceed with Circle & Arrow diagrams (NOW)
• Always indicate your KEY.
Solution to EXAMPLE (Circle diagram)
15 5
B J

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Start A Finish

5 5 10 10 15 5 20
C D E F G H I

A-B-E-F-G-J = 60
A-B-E-F-G-H-I = 80
A-C-D-E-F-G-H-I = 75 20

A-C-D-E-F-G-J = 55
3. UTILITY DATA W.R.T. TIME & COST
• Direct cost

• Time of completion

• Direct cost of activity related to time of activity

• Reduce time, increase cost. Example: Labourers on site.

• Network Crashing (Next Class)


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4. ACTIVITY TIMES AND FLOATS
• EST, EFT, LST, LFT, TF, FF, IF
• Total float/slack: delay activity without delaying project
completion.
• Free float: delay activity without delaying start of next activity.
• Interfering float: difference between TF & FF.

▪ EST – Earliest start time; EFT – Earliest finish time;


▪ LST – latest start time; LFT – Least finish time
▪ TF – Total float; FF – Free float 22

▪ IF – Interfering float
4. ACTIVITY TIMES AND FLOATS cont.
▪ EST = EFT of tail event;
▪ EFT = EST + duration of activity;
▪ LST = LFT – duration of activity;
▪ LFT = LST of head event;
▪ TF = LFT – EFT or LST – EST
▪ FF = EST of following activity – EFT of activity
▪ IF = TF – FF
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5. DETERMINATION OF CRITICAL PATH
• Critical path: The longest chain/route in a network diagram
• Zero float (using AOA)
H H (8, 15)
2 6 2 6
7 7 (18, 25)
I
C 12 11

D
1 4 12 7 1 4 7
B F E
15 0 5
G
3 5 3 5
10
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5. DETERMINATION OF CRITICAL PATH
• Precedence Diagram (Using AON) :

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EXAMPLE 2
Activity Duration Activities immediately
Activity A
Item in days preceding following 0 1
A Drill borehole 5 None B, C
B Cast gate-house 5 A D D
3 4
C Cast duplex 10 A D
D Finishes 15 B, C None Arrow diagram

Start A D Finish

C
Circle diagram

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• Arrow, Circle & Precedence
• Always indicate your KEY.
6. SCHEDULING
Activity Preceding
Duration EST LST EFT LFT TF FF IF Remarks
Item Activity
A - 8
B - 9
C A 12
H A 7
F B 15
G B 10
Dummy C,F 0
D C,F 12
E G 5 27

I H 11
6. SCHEDULING
Activity Preceding
Duration EST LST EFT LFT TF FF IF Remarks
Item Activity
A - 8 0 8
B - 9 0 9
C A 12 8 20
H A 7 8 15
F B 15 9 24
G B 10 9 19
Dummy C,F 0 24 24
D C,F 12 24 36
E G 5 24 29 28

I H 11 15 26
6. SCHEDULING
Activity Preceding
Duration EST LST EFT LFT TF FF IF Remarks
Item Activity
A - 8 0 4 8 12
B - 9 0 0 9 9
C A 12 8 12 20 24
H A 7 8 18 15 25
F B 15 9 9 24 24
G B 10 9 21 19 31
Dummy C,F 0 24 31 24 31
D C,F 12 24 24 36 36
E G 5 24 31 29 36 29

I H 11 15 25 26 36
6. SCHEDULING
Activity Preceding
Duration EST LST EFT LFT TF FF IF Remarks
Item Activity
A - 8 0 4 8 12 4 -
B - 9 0 0 9 9 0 Critical
C A 12 8 12 20 24 4 -
H A 7 8 18 15 25 10 -
F B 15 9 9 24 24 0 Critical
G B 10 9 21 19 31 12 -
Dummy C,F 0 24 31 24 31 7 -
D C,F 12 24 24 36 36 0 Critical
E G 5 24 31 29 36 7 - 30

I H 11 15 25 26 36 10 -
6. SCHEDULING
Activity Preceding
Duration EST LST EFT LFT TF FF IF Remarks
Item Activity
A - 8 0 4 8 12 4 0 -
B - 9 0 0 9 9 0 0 Critical
C A 12 8 12 20 24 4 4 -
H A 7 8 18 15 25 10 0 -
F B 15 9 9 24 24 0 0 Critical
G B 10 9 21 19 31 12 5 -
Dummy C,F 0 24 31 24 31 7 0 -
D C,F 12 24 24 36 36 0 0 Critical
E G 5 24 31 29 36 7 7 - 31

I H 11 15 25 26 36 10 10 -
6. SCHEDULING
Activity Preceding
Duration EST LST EFT LFT TF FF IF Remarks
Item Activity
A - 8 0 4 8 12 4 0 4 -
B - 9 0 0 9 9 0 0 0 Critical
C A 12 8 12 20 24 4 4 0 -
H A 7 8 18 15 25 10 0 10 -
F B 15 9 9 24 24 0 0 0 Critical
G B 10 9 21 19 31 12 5 7 -
Dummy C,F 0 24 31 24 31 7 0 7 -
D C,F 12 24 24 36 36 0 0 0 Critical
E G 5 24 31 29 36 7 7 0 - 32

I H 11 15 25 26 36 10 10 0 -
6b. PRECEDENCE DIAGRAM
8 7 15
H
18 10 25 15 11 26
I
0 8 8 25 10 36
8 12 20
A C
0 0 0 4 4 12 12 4 24 24 12 36 36 0 36
Start D Finish
0 0 0 0 9 9 9 15 24 24 0 36 36 0 36
B F
0 0 9 9 0 24 KEY:
24 5 29
ES D EF
E
9 10 19 Activity
31 7 36
G LS F LF 33
21 12 31 Critical Path
Non-Critical Path
SUMMARY
• Introduction to CPM

• Network Analysis

• Rules for Network diagram

• Procedure for CPM

• Advantages of CPM
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• Uses of CPM
Review Questions
What is the critical path, and why is it important from a project
management standpoint?
What is float, or slack, in the schedule?
What are the three scheduling calculations that you must perform in
order to determine the project duration and the critical path?
After you complete a forward and backward pass, how do you know
which activities are on the critical path?
What happens when inevitable changes occur is project deadline?
Practise questions 22.2-1 to 22.3-5 on pages 22-42 to 22-44. 35
TOPICS – this semester (CVE 581)
• Introduction to estimating cost, time and materials
• Planning and scheduling
• Critical Path Methods
• PERT (Programme Evaluation & Review Technique)
• Quality management (+ test)
• Construction methods
• Equipment selection
• Health and safety in Construction 36

• Economic financial problems in construction and in executing public works


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FOR LISTENING
QUESTIONS?

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