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EE234-Lab Report
Power measurement and Power Factor Improvement

16D070055 : Yashvardhan Didwania
16D070056 : Surya Prakash
16D070057 : Rashmi Ravindranath

Aim of the Experiment
Measurement of Power in Three phase circuit:
Power factor improvement:
● By connecting Capacitor banks
Basic Diagram
The  below  diagram  shows  the  star  and  delta  connections  with  the
phasor diagram of line currents voltages.

The figure below shows the two wattmeter method which is used
to measure power.

The power factor can be increased by using a capacitor bank as
shown in the figure below.

Observations & Calculations

The  following  table  represents  the  data  observed  in  the  power
consumption measurement of a star connected load.

W1  W2
Voltage (V)  382  381.5
Current (mA)  260.4  262
Power (W)  +85.65  +87.25
Power Factor  0.861  0.873

For  the  above  observations,  the  readings  of  the  wattmeter  can  be
used to calculate the total power consumed as follows:

W​1  reads  V​ab​,  I​a​,  cos  (angle  b/w  V​ab  and  I​a​)  and  power.  The  power
that  it  reads  can  simply  be  calculated by multiplication of the rest of the
quantities,

​W​1​ = V​ab​ x I​a​ x cos (30 + θ ) = Power of W​1​ = 85.65W

From  the  observed  power  factor  in  W1,  angle  between  V​ab  and  I​​ a
turns out to be c​ os​-1​(0.861) = 30.57 ° ​.

Similarly,  W​2  reads  the  power  measured  by  it  across  the  branches
C and B. Hence,

W​2​ = V​cb​ x I​c​ x cos (30 - θ ) = Power of W​2​ = 87.25W

From the observed power factor in W2, angle between V​ab and​ ​ I​​ a
turns out to be c​ os​ (0.873) = 29.19 °​.
-1​

where ​W​1​ + W​2​ = √3 x V​L​ x I​L​ x cos θ = 172.90 W
[where V​ab​⋍V​cb​⋍V​L​]

W −W
Hence θ = tan−1 [√3 ( W 2 + W 1 ) ]
2 1
= ​0.9183​ ​°
Thus the power factor for this θ is cos θ =​ 0.99987

The following table represents the data observed in the power
consumption measurement of a star connected load:

W1  W2
Voltage (V)  221.9  223.6
Current (mA)  450.8  454.6
Power (W)  +85.7  +88.87
Power Factor  0.857  0.874

From  the  above  observations,  the  readings  of  the  wattmeter  can
be used to calculate the total power consumed as follows:

W​1  reads  V​ab​,  I​a​,  cos  (angle  b/w  V​ab  and  I​a​)  and  power.  The  power
that  it  reads  can  simply  be  calculated by multiplication of the rest of the
quantities,

W​1​ = V​ab​ x I​a​ x cos (30 + θ ) = Power of W​1​ = 85.7W

From  the  observed  power  factor  in  W1,  angle  between  V​ab  and ​   I​
​ a
turns out to be c​ os​-1​(0.876) = 31.02 °​.

Similarly, W​2​ reads the power measured by it across the branches
C and B. Hence,
​W2​​ = V​cb​ x I​c​ x cos (30 - θ ) = Power of W​2​ = 88.87W

From the observed power factor in W2, angle between V​ab and​ ​ I​​ a
turns out to be​ cos​ (0.874) = 29.07 degrees ​.
-1​

Assuming​ ​V​ab​⋍V​cb​⋍V​L​, we have, Total power consumed = ​W1​ +
​ W​2​ =
174.57 W.
The phase angle ( θ ) is found out by the expression:
W −W
θ = tan−1 [√3 ( W 2 + W 1 ) ]
2 1
Therefore, θ = 1.8015 °​ ​.
Power factor = cos θ = 0.9995

Power factor Improvement :

Factor
Voltage (V)  209.6  212.7

## No  Current (A)  2.812  3.003

0.1530
capacitor  Power (W)  +379.4  -218.9
Power Factor  0.644  -0.343
Voltage (V)  212.3  214.8
Current (A)  1.809  1.882
S1 closed  0.2596
Power(W)  267.9  -97.66
Power Factor  0.697  -0.242
Voltage (V)  214  216
Current (A)  0.704  0.918
S2 closed  0.7399
Power(W)  137.98  43
Power Factor  0.916  0.217
Voltage (V)  213  218
Current (A)  0.842  0.891
S3 closed  0.8966
Power(W)  91.23  164
Power Factor  0.508  0.844

Showing the calculations in the case of no capacitor:

W 1 = V ab I a cos∠(V ab & I a )
⇒ cos∠(V ab & I a ) = 2.812379.4 x 209.6 = 0.644
(Since we observed​ I, V, power​)

W 2 = V cb I c cos∠(V cb & I c )
x 212.7 = − 0.343
−218.9
⇒ cos∠(V cb & I c ) = 3.003

W −W
θ = tan−1 [√3 ( W 2 + W 1 ) ]
2 1
= -81.19 °
⇒ cos θ = 0.1530

Rectifiers (Demo)
Half wave Rectifier:

In  a  half  wave  rectifier,  a  diode  is  connected in series between the
input  and  the  load.  When  the  input  is  in  positive  half  cycle,  the  diode
becomes  forward  bias  and  so  it  conducts.  And  accordingly  the  output
waveform  takes  the  shape  of input waveform for positive half cycle. But
for  negative  half  cycle,  the  diode  becomes  reverse  biased  and  so  it  does
not  conduct  and  as  a  result  the  output  voltage  is  zero  in  negative  half
cycle. The input, output waveforms along with circuit diagram is shown
in below image.

Half wave Rectifier with capacitor filter:

In  a  half  wave  rectifier  without  capacitor  filter, the output voltage
varies  over  a  huge  range  this  is  because  of  the  reason  that  the  output
voltage  is  zero  when  input  is  in  negative  half  cycle.  Instead  if  we
connect  a  capacitor  filter  at  the  output,  then  the  capacitor gets charged
up  till  the  input  reaches  maximum  and  starts  acting  as a voltage source
to  the  load  immediately  after  that  instant  and  starts  charging  again
when  voltage  is  about  to  reach  maximum. So, the output voltage can be
regulated  by  connected  a  capacitor  filter.  The  input,  output  waveforms
along with circuit diagram is shown in below figure.

Full wave Rectifier:

Previously in half wave rectifier, the diode conducts only in the
positive half cycle. As a result half of the input power is not being
utilised. So, a full wave rectifier overcomes this problem. A full wave
rectifier conducts in both positive and negative cycle. The below figure
shows the circuit diagram of full wave rectifier.

The  two  figures  below  shows the current flow in the circuit during
positive half cycle and negative half cycle respectively.

So, the output waveform for sinusoidal input is as shown in the
figure below.

Full wave Rectifier with capacitor filter:

In the full wave rectifier without capacitor filter, the voltage is not
being regulated. It has large regulation. So, to overcome this a
capacitor filter is placed at the output. The input, output waveforms
along with circuit diagram is as shown in the figure below.

Three phase full wave rectifier:

This rectifier requires six diodes. The figure below shows the
circuit diagram of the rectifier.

At any instant only two of the six diodes conduct. In one full cycle
of one of the inputs, for one sixth of time V RB is maximum. Similarly
V BR , V RY , V Y R , V BY and V Y B are maximum for one sixth of the
time. As result there are six peaks in output waveform for one full cycle
of input. The input and output waveforms for the above circuit are as
shown in the figure below.

Questions
A.  With  all  three  capacitor  banks  connected  across  the  load,  the  source
power  factor  might  be  now  leading.  How  can  you  infer  this  from  the
Ans:  ​We  can  infer  by  the  readings  that  the  power factor has increased as the
limit,  the circuit becomes capacitive and as a result the power factor starts to
decrease again.

B.  ​You  might  have  observed  the  voltage  &  current  waveforms  on  the  power
analyzer  (step-iv  in  ‘section  4.1’).  Why  is  the  angle  between  these  two
waveforms 30° even though the load is purely resistive?
Ans:  ​Only  resistive  load  means  θ  is  zero,but  as  the  angle  between  voltage  &
current  waveforms(angle  V​ab  and  I​a  and​   the  angle  between  V​AC  and
​   I​A    )  is
θ+30° it is observed 30 degrees.

C.  What  is  the  reason  for  reducing  the  voltage  to  zero  every  time  before
switching on the capacitors?
Ans:  ​As  the  capacitors  are  uncharged  initially,if  we  connect  high  voltage
suddenly  high  current  flows  and  capacitors  may fail or get damaged.So, it is
always  safe  to  reduce  the  voltage  to  zero  every  time before switching on the
capacitors.

D.  You  have  been  given  thick  and thin wires for connections. Which one will
you  use  for  connecting  (i)  an  ammeter  and  (ii)  a  voltmeter?  Justify  your
Ans:  ​(i) As in ammeter low value resistance is connected in series and high
current flows thick wires are used.
(ii)  As  in  voltmeter  high  valued  resistance  near  infinite  is connected in
shunt so current that flows through it is low so thin wires can be used.

E.  During  the  late  hours  of  the  night  you  might  have  observed  the  intensity
of  the  incandescent  bulb  is  much  higher  compared  to  that  during  7-8pm.
What could be the reason?
Ans:  ​As  during  the  late  hours  of  the  night  very  less  appliances/load  is  used  ,
the  necessity  of  reactive  power  is  less.As  a  result  this  increases  the  power
availability  for  other  load.That  is  why  we  observe  that  the  intensity  of  the
incandescent bulb is much higher compared to that during 7-8pm.

F.​ Why do the single phase motor driven appliances experience vibration?
Ans: ​The instantaneous power received for single phase is given by
P  =  VIcos  θ  +  VIcos(2*  ω​t  ​-  θ  ),  which  varies  as  a  function  of  time.  This  is
reason  for  single  phase  motor  driven  appliances,  such  as  refrigerators
experiencing vibration.

G.  You  might  have  observed  the  power  sockets  with  two  pins while, some of
them with three pins. What is the difference between these power sockets?
Ans:  ​There  are  three  pins  for  high  voltage  driven  devices/appliances  the
third  pin  is  grounded  so  as  to  safeguard  users  from  faults  in  the
appliances.For  voltage  driven  appliances  this  is  not  required  so  there  are
only  two  pins.So  during  a  fault  a  lot  of  current  flows  ,so  the  breaker  trips
and makes way for current trough ground connection.

H.  Utilities  use  energy  meters  to  measure  the  energy  consumed  by
consumers. Energy is given by
E = ∫ ​P dt
E = ∫​(V I cos​θ)​ dt
where  P  is  the  power  consumed  by  the  load.  From  Fig.  1  it  can  be  inferred
that  though the consumer is drawing ‘I’ A of current, he/she is being charged
only  for  I  cos  θ.  In  other  words  there  is  no apparent advantage of improving
Ans:  ​Yes,  there  is  no  direct  advantage  of  improving  the  power  for  the
consumer  apparently,  but  the  power  supply  company  benefits  by improving
the  power  factor  to  unity.  Hence  the  suppliers  charge  a  penalty  or  at  a
higher  cost/unit  for  consumers  maintaining  the  power  factor  below  a
threshold.The  reactive  power  is  transmitted  unnecessarily  which  causes
transmission  losses.  Thus  improving  the  power  factor  reduces  these  losses
which benefits the power supply company.

I.  Suppose  (3+j4)  kVA  load  is  being  supplied  at  230  V  (  load  voltage)  and  the
transmission line has an impedance of (1 + j1)Ω. Determine the following:
(a) voltage at the source terminals
Power Factor = cos (tan​-1​ (4/3)) = 0 ​ .6
3000
Load Current = 230×0.6 ∠ -37​ = ​21.74 ∠ -37​o
o​

## Voltage drop in transmission=21.74 ∠ -37​o​ × √2 ∠ 45​o​ =​30.74 ∠ 8​o

Therefore,​ S
​ upply Voltage = 230 ∠ 0​o​ + 30.74 ∠ 8​o​ = 260.48 ∠ 0.94​o

(b) power loss in the transmission line
Power Loss = i​ ​2​R = (21.74)​2​ × 1 =​ 472.19 W.
(c)  the  required  kVAR  rating  of  the  capacitor  to  compensate  the  load  fully
(source supplies only the active component of current).
The  reactive  power  is  provided  by  the  capacitor,  so  that  the  supply
current remains purely resistive.
kVAR rating of capacitor​ = -4j kVAR.

(d)  source  current,  drop  is  the  transmission  line,  power  loss  in  the
transmission line after compensation.
Power Factor​ = 1
Load Current​ = 3​ 000/230 ​= 13.04 A
Voltage drop in transmission = 13.04​ × √2 ∠ 45​o​ = 1​ 8.44 ∠ 45​o​.
Power Loss = i​ ​2​R = (13.04)​2​ × 1​ = 170W.

Conclusion

Capacitors  are  reactive  power  supplying  components.  When