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EE234-Lab Report 
Power measurement and Power Factor Improvement 
 
16D070055 : Yashvardhan Didwania 
16D070056 : Surya Prakash 
16D070057 : Rashmi Ravindranath 

 
 
Aim of the Experiment  
Measurement of Power in Three phase circuit: 
● For star connected load 
● For delta connected load 
Power factor improvement: 
● By connecting Capacitor banks  
Basic Diagram  
The  below  diagram  shows  the  star  and  delta  connections  with  the 
phasor diagram of line currents voltages.

 
 
The figure below shows the two wattmeter method which is used 
to measure power. 

 
The power factor can be increased by using a capacitor bank as 
shown in the figure below. 

 
Observations & Calculations 
 
Star Connected Load: 
 
The  following  table  represents  the  data  observed  in  the  power 
consumption measurement of a star connected load. 
 
 
  W1  W2 
Voltage (V)  382  381.5 
Current (mA)  260.4  262 
Power (W)  +85.65  +87.25 
Power Factor  0.861  0.873 
 
 
For  the  above  observations,  the  readings  of  the  wattmeter  can  be 
used to calculate the total power consumed as follows: 
 
W​1  reads  V​ab​,  I​a​,  cos  (angle  b/w  V​ab  and  I​a​)  and  power.  The  power 
that  it  reads  can  simply  be  calculated by multiplication of the rest of the 
quantities, 
   
​W​1​ = V​ab​ x I​a​ x cos (30 + θ ) = Power of W​1​ = 85.65W 
 
From  the  observed  power  factor  in  W1,  angle  between  V​ab  and  I​​ a 
turns out to be c​ os​-1​(0.861) = 30.57 ° ​. 
 
 
 
 
Similarly,  W​2  reads  the  power  measured  by  it  across  the  branches 
C and B. Hence, 
   
W​2​ = V​cb​ x I​c​ x cos (30 - θ ) = Power of W​2​ = 87.25W 
 
From the observed power factor in W2, angle between V​ab and​ ​ I​​ a 
turns out to be c​ os​ (0.873) = 29.19 °​. 
-1​

 
  where ​W​1​ + W​2​ = √3 x V​L​ x I​L​ x cos θ = 172.90 W   
[where V​ab​⋍V​cb​⋍V​L​] 
 
W −W
Hence θ = tan−1 [√3 ( W 2 + W 1 ) ]   
2 1
  = ​0.9183​ ​° 
Thus the power factor for this θ is cos θ =​ 0.99987 
 
Delta Connected Load : 
 
The following table represents the data observed in the power 
consumption measurement of a star connected load: 
 
 
  W1  W2 
Voltage (V)  221.9  223.6 
Current (mA)  450.8  454.6 
Power (W)  +85.7  +88.87 
Power Factor  0.857  0.874 
 
 
From  the  above  observations,  the  readings  of  the  wattmeter  can 
be used to calculate the total power consumed as follows: 
 
W​1  reads  V​ab​,  I​a​,  cos  (angle  b/w  V​ab  and  I​a​)  and  power.  The  power 
that  it  reads  can  simply  be  calculated by multiplication of the rest of the 
quantities, 
   
W​1​ = V​ab​ x I​a​ x cos (30 + θ ) = Power of W​1​ = 85.7W 
 
From  the  observed  power  factor  in  W1,  angle  between  V​ab  and ​   I​
​ a 
turns out to be c​ os​-1​(0.876) = 31.02 °​. 
 
Similarly, W​2​ reads the power measured by it across the branches 
C and B. Hence, 
​W2​​ = V​cb​ x I​c​ x cos (30 - θ ) = Power of W​2​ = 88.87W  
 
From the observed power factor in W2, angle between V​ab and​ ​ I​​ a 
turns out to be​ cos​ (0.874) = 29.07 degrees ​. 
-1​

 
Assuming​ ​V​ab​⋍V​cb​⋍V​L​, we have, Total power consumed = ​W1​ +
​ W​2​ = 
174.57 W. 
The phase angle ( θ ) is found out by the expression: 
W −W
θ = tan−1 [√3 ( W 2 + W 1 ) ]   
2 1
Therefore, θ = 1.8015 °​ ​. 
Power factor = cos θ = 0.9995  
 
 
 
 
 
 
Power factor Improvement : 
 
    W1   W2   Load Power 
Factor 
Voltage (V)  209.6  212.7 

No  Current (A)  2.812  3.003 


0.1530 
capacitor  Power (W)  +379.4  -218.9 
Power Factor  0.644  -0.343 
Voltage (V)  212.3  214.8 
Current (A)  1.809  1.882 
S1 closed  0.2596 
Power(W)  267.9  -97.66 
Power Factor  0.697  -0.242 
Voltage (V)  214  216 
Current (A)  0.704  0.918 
S2 closed  0.7399 
Power(W)  137.98  43 
Power Factor  0.916  0.217 
Voltage (V)  213  218 
Current (A)  0.842  0.891 
S3 closed  0.8966 
Power(W)  91.23  164 
Power Factor  0.508  0.844 
 
 
 
 
Showing the calculations in the case of no capacitor: 
 
W 1 = V ab I a cos∠(V ab & I a )
⇒ cos∠(V ab & I a ) = 2.812379.4 x 209.6 = 0.644  
(Since we observed​ I, V, power​) 
 
W 2 = V cb I c cos∠(V cb & I c )  
x 212.7 = − 0.343  
−218.9
⇒ cos∠(V cb & I c ) = 3.003
 
W −W
θ = tan−1 [√3 ( W 2 + W 1 ) ]   
2 1
= -81.19 ° 
⇒ cos θ = 0.1530  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rectifiers (Demo) 
Half wave Rectifier: 
 
In  a  half  wave  rectifier,  a  diode  is  connected in series between the 
input  and  the  load.  When  the  input  is  in  positive  half  cycle,  the  diode 
becomes  forward  bias  and  so  it  conducts.  And  accordingly  the  output 
waveform  takes  the  shape  of input waveform for positive half cycle. But 
for  negative  half  cycle,  the  diode  becomes  reverse  biased  and  so  it  does 
not  conduct  and  as  a  result  the  output  voltage  is  zero  in  negative  half 
cycle. The input, output waveforms along with circuit diagram is shown 
in below image. 

 
 
 
 
Half wave Rectifier with capacitor filter: 
 
In  a  half  wave  rectifier  without  capacitor  filter, the output voltage 
varies  over  a  huge  range  this  is  because  of  the  reason  that  the  output 
voltage  is  zero  when  input  is  in  negative  half  cycle.  Instead  if  we 
connect  a  capacitor  filter  at  the  output,  then  the  capacitor gets charged 
up  till  the  input  reaches  maximum  and  starts  acting  as a voltage source 
to  the  load  immediately  after  that  instant  and  starts  charging  again 
when  voltage  is  about  to  reach  maximum. So, the output voltage can be 
regulated  by  connected  a  capacitor  filter.  The  input,  output  waveforms 
along with circuit diagram is shown in below figure. 
 

 
 
 
Full wave Rectifier: 
 
Previously in half wave rectifier, the diode conducts only in the 
positive half cycle. As a result half of the input power is not being 
utilised. So, a full wave rectifier overcomes this problem. A full wave 
rectifier conducts in both positive and negative cycle. The below figure 
shows the circuit diagram of full wave rectifier. 
 

 
 
 
The  two  figures  below  shows the current flow in the circuit during 
positive half cycle and negative half cycle respectively. 
 

 
 
 
So, the output waveform for sinusoidal input is as shown in the 
figure below. 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
Full wave Rectifier with capacitor filter: 
 
In the full wave rectifier without capacitor filter, the voltage is not 
being regulated. It has large regulation. So, to overcome this a 
capacitor filter is placed at the output. The input, output waveforms 
along with circuit diagram is as shown in the figure below.  
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Three phase full wave rectifier: 
 
This rectifier requires six diodes. The figure below shows the 
circuit diagram of the rectifier. 
 

 
 
At any instant only two of the six diodes conduct. In one full cycle 
of one of the inputs, for one sixth of time V RB is maximum. Similarly 
V BR , V RY , V Y R , V BY and V Y B are maximum for one sixth of the 
time. As result there are six peaks in output waveform for one full cycle 
of input. The input and output waveforms for the above circuit are as 
shown in the figure below. 
 

 
 
Questions 
A.  With  all  three  capacitor  banks  connected  across  the  load,  the  source 
power  factor  might  be  now  leading.  How  can  you  infer  this  from  the 
readings? Are there any advantages of overcompensating the load? 
Ans:  ​We  can  infer  by  the  readings  that  the  power factor has increased as the 
capacitance  banks  were  added  showing  the  power  factor  leading.  There  are 
only  disadvantages  of  overcompensating  the  inductive  load.  After  a  certain 
limit,  the circuit becomes capacitive and as a result the power factor starts to 
decrease again. 
 
B.  ​You  might  have  observed  the  voltage  &  current  waveforms  on  the  power 
analyzer  (step-iv  in  ‘section  4.1’).  Why  is  the  angle  between  these  two 
waveforms 30° even though the load is purely resistive? 
Ans:  ​Only  resistive  load  means  θ  is  zero,but  as  the  angle  between  voltage  & 
current  waveforms(angle  V​ab  and  I​a  and​   the  angle  between  V​AC  and
​   I​A    )  is 
θ+30° it is observed 30 degrees. 
 
C.  What  is  the  reason  for  reducing  the  voltage  to  zero  every  time  before 
switching on the capacitors? 
Ans:  ​As  the  capacitors  are  uncharged  initially,if  we  connect  high  voltage 
suddenly  high  current  flows  and  capacitors  may fail or get damaged.So, it is 
always  safe  to  reduce  the  voltage  to  zero  every  time before switching on the 
capacitors. 
 
D.  You  have  been  given  thick  and thin wires for connections. Which one will 
you  use  for  connecting  (i)  an  ammeter  and  (ii)  a  voltmeter?  Justify  your 
answer. 
Ans:  ​(i) As in ammeter low value resistance is connected in series and high   
current flows thick wires are used. 
(ii)  As  in  voltmeter  high  valued  resistance  near  infinite  is connected in 
shunt so current that flows through it is low so thin wires can be used. 
 
E.  During  the  late  hours  of  the  night  you  might  have  observed  the  intensity 
of  the  incandescent  bulb  is  much  higher  compared  to  that  during  7-8pm. 
What could be the reason? 
Ans:  ​As  during  the  late  hours  of  the  night  very  less  appliances/load  is  used  , 
the  necessity  of  reactive  power  is  less.As  a  result  this  increases  the  power 
availability  for  other  load.That  is  why  we  observe  that  the  intensity  of  the 
incandescent bulb is much higher compared to that during 7-8pm.  
 
F.​ Why do the single phase motor driven appliances experience vibration? 
Ans: ​The instantaneous power received for single phase is given by  
P  =  VIcos  θ  +  VIcos(2*  ω​t  ​-  θ  ),  which  varies  as  a  function  of  time.  This  is 
reason  for  single  phase  motor  driven  appliances,  such  as  refrigerators 
experiencing vibration. 
 
 
G.  You  might  have  observed  the  power  sockets  with  two  pins while, some of 
them with three pins. What is the difference between these power sockets? 
Ans:  ​There  are  three  pins  for  high  voltage  driven  devices/appliances  the 
third  pin  is  grounded  so  as  to  safeguard  users  from  faults  in  the 
appliances.For  voltage  driven  appliances  this  is  not  required  so  there  are 
only  two  pins.So  during  a  fault  a  lot  of  current  flows  ,so  the  breaker  trips 
and makes way for current trough ground connection. 
 
H.  Utilities  use  energy  meters  to  measure  the  energy  consumed  by 
consumers. Energy is given by  
E = ∫ ​P dt  
E = ∫​(V I cos​θ)​ dt  
where  P  is  the  power  consumed  by  the  load.  From  Fig.  1  it  can  be  inferred 
that  though the consumer is drawing ‘I’ A of current, he/she is being charged 
only  for  I  cos  θ.  In  other  words  there  is  no apparent advantage of improving 
the power factor to unity. Is this correct? Justify your answer. 
Ans:  ​Yes,  there  is  no  direct  advantage  of  improving  the  power  for  the 
consumer  apparently,  but  the  power  supply  company  benefits  by improving 
the  power  factor  to  unity.  Hence  the  suppliers  charge  a  penalty  or  at  a 
higher  cost/unit  for  consumers  maintaining  the  power  factor  below  a 
threshold.The  reactive  power  is  transmitted  unnecessarily  which  causes 
transmission  losses.  Thus  improving  the  power  factor  reduces  these  losses 
which benefits the power supply company.  
 
I.  Suppose  (3+j4)  kVA  load  is  being  supplied  at  230  V  (  load  voltage)  and  the 
transmission line has an impedance of (1 + j1)Ω. Determine the following:  
(a) voltage at the source terminals  
Power Factor = cos (tan​-1​ (4/3)) = 0 ​ .6 
3000
Load Current = 230×0.6 ∠ -37​ = ​21.74 ∠ -37​o 
o​

Voltage drop in transmission=21.74 ∠ -37​o​ × √2 ∠ 45​o​ =​30.74 ∠ 8​o 


Therefore,​ S
​ upply Voltage = 230 ∠ 0​o​ + 30.74 ∠ 8​o​ = 260.48 ∠ 0.94​o 
 
(b) power loss in the transmission line  
Power Loss = i​ ​2​R = (21.74)​2​ × 1 =​ 472.19 W. 
(c)  the  required  kVAR  rating  of  the  capacitor  to  compensate  the  load  fully 
(source supplies only the active component of current).  
The  reactive  power  is  provided  by  the  capacitor,  so  that  the  supply 
current remains purely resistive. 
kVAR rating of capacitor​ = -4j kVAR. 
 
(d)  source  current,  drop  is  the  transmission  line,  power  loss  in  the 
transmission line after compensation. 
Power Factor​ = 1  
Load Current​ = 3​ 000/230 ​= 13.04 A 
Voltage drop in transmission = 13.04​ × √2 ∠ 45​o​ = 1​ 8.44 ∠ 45​o​. 
Power Loss = i​ ​2​R = (13.04)​2​ × 1​ = 170W. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Conclusion 
 
Capacitors  are  reactive  power  supplying  components.  When 
capacitors  are  added  in  parallel  to  inductive  load,  the  inductive  effect 
will  be  cancelled  out.  The  inductive  effect  reduces  as  the  capacitance 
value  increases,  as  a  result  the  power  factor  also  increases.  This  can  be 
observed  from  the  experiment  results.  There  was  a  significant  increase 
of  power  factor  from  the  circuit  with  no  capacitance  to  circuit  with 
delta  connected  capacitor  filter.  But  beyond  certain  value  of 
capacitance,  the  reactive  power  drives  the  reactive  power  into  negative 
region  and  as  a  result  the  power  factor  starts  to  decrease  again.  Low 
power  factor  values  increases the energy losses during the transmission 
and high power factor decreases the energy losses.