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Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173

DOI 10.1007/s00170-016-9957-6

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Probabilistic approach for predicting fatigue life


improvement of cracked structure repaired by high interference
fit bushing
A. Bahloul 1 & A. Ben Ahmed 1 & M. M. Mhala 1 & C. H. Bouraoui 1

Received: 11 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published online: 30 December 2016
# Springer-Verlag London 2016

Abstract The purpose of this paper consists in developing a Keywords Residual stress . Finite element analysis .
probabilistic approach for predicting fatigue life improvement Interference fit process . Monte Carlo simulation . Life
of 7075-T6 cracked Single Edge Notch Tension (SENT) spec- prediction . Probability density function PDF . P-S-N curves
imen repaired by high interference fit bushing. The developed
approach is carried out by coupling FE-analysis and Monte
Carlo reliability method. In this context, a 2D- finite element Nomenclature
analysis of the cracked SENT specimen using ABAQUS com- a Crack size [mm]
mercial software is established to: (i) simulate the interference b Fatigue strength exponent
fit process and (ii) to predict the fatigue life improvement after c Fatigue ductility exponent
repair. The non-linear isotropic/kinematic hardening model em- D Hole diameter [mm]
bedded in ABAQUS is used to characterize the material behav- Dc Critical damage
ior. Different stress levels, different interference fit sizes and DPSWT SWT damage parameter
different expanded hole diameters are investigated. As a result, E Modulus of elasticity [MPa]
crack arrest hole diameter equals to 6 mm with larger interfer- f{X}({Xi}) Joint probability density function
ence fit size (IFS = 0.2 mm) provides higher beneficial com- f X i ð xi Þ Probability density function of the element xi
pressive residual stress distribution and higher fatigue life im- I({x}) Indicator failure function
provement than drilling hole near the crack tip. The iso- IFS Interference fit size [mm]
probabilistic S-N curves and the Reliability-Life curves after L Load function
repair can be determined for different interference fit sizes and N Number of random sampling in the MCS
different expanded hole diameters. This probabilistic approach MCS Monte Carlo simulation
can be used with the interference fit process as an interesting Pf Failure probability
and practical tool to ensure an optimal maintenance planning R Stress ratio
for cracked structures and to improve the fatigue lives of these S Strength function
cracked components that cannot be replaced as soon as the SENT Single Edge Notch Tension specimen
cracks are observed, especially in the aeronautical filed. t Thickness of specimen [mm]
W Width of specimen [mm]
Δε/2 Strain amplitude
0
* A. Bahloul εf Fatigue ductility coefficient
bahloulahmad@hotmail.fr εD Initial critical deformation
εR Deformation at rupture
0
1
Laboratoire de Mécanique de Sousse, Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs
σf Fatigue strength coefficient [MPa]
de Sousse, Université de Sousse, Bp.264 Erriadh, σm Mean stress [MPa]
4023 Sousse, Tunisia σmax Maximum normal stress [MPa]
2162 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173

σres Residual stress [MPa] Moreover, it was demonstrated that the application of over-
σy Yield strength [MPa] load in cracked structure can produce a retardation period in
2-D Two dimensional fatigue crack growth rate. This retardation period is affected
by the compressive residual stress distribution arising from the
overload step. In this context, many retardation models
1 Introduction [14–17] were proposed in order to predict the fatigue life after
overloading. But, it should be mentioned that Shin et al. [18]
Failure analysis of cracked structures is among the most sig- showed that drilling hole near the crack tip is safer and more
nificant challenging point in the engineering industry. Crack practical than applying overload.
propagation life estimation is often used in the aeronautical In the aerospace industry, the cold expansion technique or
field to determine the optimal inspection time [1] for a grow- the interference fit process has been used for over 40 years
ing crack before it becomes critical. Therefore, looking for a [19–27]. The beneficial effect of this process for improving
procedure/method to arrest fatigue crack growth before failure the fatigue life of aerospace structures needs no more intro-
is very useful. In this context, Several investigations have duction. It should be noted that all the previous studies used
dealt with the idea of arresting fatigue crack growth [2] such essentially the cold expansion process to improve the fatigue
as: repairing the cracked zone by application of composite life of fastener holes or joints in the mechanical components.
patches [3], indentation [4, 5], cold expansion hole technique There are few studies which investigated the interference fit
[6], drilling holes near the crack tip [7–9], and applying an process as a technique to arrest existing crack before it be-
overloading step [10]. comes critical [6, 28].
Drilling holes near the crack tip is among the most suitable The aim of the present paper is to investigate the interfer-
and practical method for improving the fatigue life of struc- ence fit process as a technique for crack repair and to develop
tures containing cracks. In this context, and based on experi- a probabilistic approach that take into account the material
mental tests carried out in 6005-A-T6 aluminum alloy cracked parameters scattering for predicting fatigue life improvement
specimens, Ghfiri et al. [6] proved that the cold expansion of of repaired cracked structures. The developed approach is car-
drilling hole improves the residual fatigue life. Murdami et al. ried out by coupling FE-analysis and Monte Carlo reliability
[11] investigated arresting crack by introducing a new techni- method. Therefore, a 2D FE-analysis for a 7075-T6
cal method which consists in drilling ancillary holes near the Aluminum alloy cracked specimen using the non-linear
stop hole in order to reduce the stress concentration. Later, isotropic/kinematic hardening model is established. The
Makabe et al. [12] studied crack retardation by redirecting Reliability-Life curves and the iso-probabilistic S-N curves
crack growth. They inserted pins into the drilling hole and after interference fit repair are determined for different inter-
they proved the method’s capability for extending fatigue life. ference fit sizes, different expanded hole diameters and differ-
Recent works have investigated numerically crack-growth ent material dispersion levels.
arresting methods by drilling holes in the cracked zone.
Ayatollahi et al. [7] studied the effect of the stop drill hole
for a cracked specimen under mixed mode loading. They 2 Theoretical background
proved that the stop drill hole technique is more efficient for
improving fatigue life under mixed mode loading than under 2.1 Computational procedure for crack improvement life
pure mode I. According to Ayatollahi et al. [8], drilling two
symmetric holes in the vicinity of the crack tip can improve Engineering structures are frequently subjected to fatigue
the residual fatigue life much greater than the stop crack tip loads in which cracks may be initiated and propagated.
hole. Looking for a procedure/model to predict the fatigue life of
Recently, Fanni et al. [9] proposed a new crack stop-hole these structures still remains among a challenging point in
method to arrest existing crack before it becomes critical. several industrial sectors. In this context, various multi-axial
They found that fatigue life extension using optimum hole fatigue models [29–32] generally based on three criteria: (i)
shape near the crack tip, is significantly higher than using a the critical plane approach, (ii) the strain/stress-based ap-
circular crack stop-hole. proach and (iii) the energy-based approach, were proposed.
More recently, Ravazi et al. [13] investigated the effect of The damage parameter DPSWT proposed by Smith et al. [32] is
new stop-hole method for arresting fatigue crack propagation. commonly accepted for engineering applications [9, 33].
The main aim of the proposed method is to drill double stop-
hole near the crack tip in order to reduce the stress concentra-
tion at the edge of the stop holes. They showed that the double  0 2
Δεmax σf
stop drill-hole method provides higher fatigue life improve- DPSWT ¼ σmax ¼
0 0
ð2N i Þ2b þ ε f σ f ð2N i Þbþc ð1Þ
ment than the stop hole method. 2 E
Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173 2163

(a)
Where Ni, σmax, Δε2max , E are the number of cycles, the
maximum normal stress, the total strain amplitude and the
0
modulus of elasticity, respectively. ε f and c present the low-
0
cycle fatigue coefficients. σ f and b are the high-cycle fatigue
constants. In the present paper, the fatigue life improvement of
cracked SENT specimen repaired by high interference fit
bushing is investigated using the SWT model. According to
Ref. [33], the SWT‘s fatigue parameters for Al alloy 7075 –T6
are presented in Table 1.

2.2 Monte Carlo simulation method

Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method is considered as an


interesting tool for studying uncertain scenarios and providing
statistical and probabilistic analysis. MCS method is exten-
sively used in engineering disciplines [34–37] to evaluate risk
measurements with uncertain parameters, to study the sensi-
tivity effect of input factors on the desiring response at differ- A
ent dispersion levels and to compute their reliability.
(b)
To compute the reliability, let X be a vector of random
variable in which xi is an element of this vector, having f X i
ðxi Þ as a probability density function (PDF). Consider G(xi),
the performance function separating the unsafe and safe zone. Specimen

Gðxi Þ ¼ S ðxi Þ−Lðxi Þ ð2Þ

Where L(xi) and S(xi) are the load function and the strength Interference fit bushing
function [38], respectively. The probability of failure Pf can be
expressed as follows:

P f ¼ ∫Gðxi < 0Þ f fX g ðfX i gÞdX 1 ≤ i ≤ n ¼ PrðLðxi Þ > S ðxi ÞÞ ð3Þ


Fig. 1 (a) Specimen dimensions (mm) and (b) Interference fit process
Where Pr and f{X}({Xi}) represent the probability operator
and the joint PDF of the vector X, respectively. Three cases
can be observed: (i) structural safety condition G(xi) > 0 , (ii)
Where Nf(G(xi) < 0) is the number of failure events and
structural failure condition G(xi) < 0 and (iii) limit state func-
I({x}) represents the indicator failure function:
tion G(xi) = 0 .

Let N be the total number of MC simulation, for the N 1 if GðfxgÞ < 0
I ð f xgÞ ¼ ð5Þ
obtained value of G(xi), it is assumed that the failure event 0 if GðfxgÞ≥ 0
(i.e. G({x}) < 0 ) extends towards the failure probability Pf
when N → + ∞ [39]. Finally, the reliability R is computed as follows:

R ¼ 1−P f ð6Þ
N f ðGðxi Þ < 0Þ 1 N
P f ¼ lim ¼ lim ∑ I ð f xgÞ ð4Þ The generation of N random samplings of each input pa-
N→∞ N N →∞ N i¼1
rameters consists to define the following steps:

(i) The mean value of each parameter.


Table 1 Al 7075-T6 Strain-life data
(ii) The coefficient of variation (Cov) of each parameter
0
Fatigue strength coefficient σ f (MPa) 1466 which defines the dispersion range in terms of (%).
0
Fatigue ductility coefficient ε f 0.262 (iii) The probability density function (PDF) (i.e. it consists in
Fatigue ductilityexponent c -0.619 simulating several random samplings of input parame-
Fatigue strengthexponent b -0.143 ters according to their PDF, which are assumed to be
normally distributed in this case).
2164 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173

Table 3 Al 7075-T6 Cyclic fatigue parameters

C2(MPa) C2(MPa) γ1 γ2 Q (MPa) b

175,000 9000 3500 180 140 40

Fig. 2. The cyclic stress-strain values obtained from finite


element analysis at the edge of the hole, opposite from the
point where crack intersects the hole, is used to predict the
fatigue life improvement after repair. Different interference fit
sizes and hole diameters are considered in the present study.
In order to take into account the mean stress relaxation, the
Baushinger effect and the cyclic hardening during cyclic load-
ing, Lemaitre and Chaboche kinematic hardening model em-
bedded in the commercial code ABAQUS is used. The basic
equations of this plasticity model are described as follows
[40]:
2 p
X ¼ Cε −γX p ð7Þ
3
 
Y ¼ σy þ Q 1−e−bp ð8Þ

Where X and Y are the deviatoric part of the back stress


Fig. 2 Finite element mesh of the SENT specimen tensor and the radius of the yield surface, respectively. C, γ, Q
and b are the experimental material parameters and p represent
(iv) The total number of simulation events N (i.e. in this the accumulated plastic strain defined by the following equa-
case, the number of MCS is assumed to be equals to tion:
104 because from N = 104, the reliability values con- rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
verge (we obtain almost the same relative reliability 2 p p
p¼ ε :ε ð9Þ
values)). 3

It should be noted that the interference fit process can pro-


duce a beneficial compressive residual stress along the hole

3 Finite element analysis 42


Expirement [23], (R=0)
SWT model (present study)
In the present section, a 2D- FE analysis using ABAQUS 40
software is carried out. A Single Edge Notch Tension
(SENT) specimen with initial crack size is considered as
38
Maximum applied load (KN)

shown in Fig. 1a. In this study, the FE-analysis includes two


load steps. In the first step, the interference fit process was
simulated by applying a radial displacement on the nodes 36

situated at the hole edge up to the desired interference fit level


(i.e. resulting in expansion similar to the insertion of pin). In 34
the second step, a cyclic axial loading (R = 0.1) is applied to
estimate the fatigue life improvement of the cracked SENT 32
specimen after repair. In order to capture the proper stress-
strain behavior arising from the interference fit process, a very
30
fine mesh is implemented near the hole edge as illustrated in

Table 2 Al 7075-T6 28
mechanical properties Young Modulus (MPa) 70,940 10
4
10
5

Yield stress (MPa) 420 Fatigue Life (Cycles)


Poisson’s ratio 0.33 Fig. 3 Comparison between experimental data [23] and numerical
results
Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173 2165

Fig. 4 Flowchart adopted for the Start


probabilistic approach

SENT Specimen + input parameters (actual


crack length , interference fit level, hole
diameter, detailed geometry, stress ratio...)

Elastic-plastic analysis using ABAQUS


Software

Interference fit process simulation

Applying cyclic loading

Life prediction using (Eq.1)

Read input data:

- Material data: Fatigue strength coefficient , Fatigue ductility


coefficient , Fatigueductility exponent c and Fatigue strength
exponent b.
- Coefficient of variation: Cov , Cov , Cov c and Cov b.
- Mean value: Mean_ , Mean_ ,Mean_c and Mean_b.

Generating N random sampling of S-N curves

Computing reliability using Monte Carlo simulation method

Iso-probabilistic S-N curves (P-S-N) Life-Reliability curves

edge. However, this compressive residual stress’s effect be- Where Dc , εD , εR, p , σeq, σH and v are the critical damage,
comes unappreciable with the high level of the interference fit the initial critical deformation, the deformation at rupture,
size. In order to make a balance between the beneficial com- the accumulated plastic strain, the Von Mises equivalent
pressive residual stress distribution and the damage associated stress, the hydrostatic stress of the applied tensor stress
with the interference fit process, Lemaitre and Chaboche’s and the Poisson’s ratio, respectively. In the first step, the
damage model [41] is used in its integrated form. This damage damage parameter is evaluated using Eq.10 and then, the
model can be expressed as follows: Young’s modulus E is updated after each increment as
"  2 # ! follows:
Dc 2 σH
Da ≅ p ð1 þ vÞ þ 3ð1−2vÞ −εD ð10Þ
εR −εD 3 σeq E tþΔt ¼ E t ð1−Dt Þ ð11Þ

Table 4 Statistical data of the random parameters

Parameters Mean value Coefficient of variation (Cov) Distribution

0 1466 1% Normal
σ f (MPa)
0 0.262 1% Normal
εf
c -0.619 1% Normal
b -0.143 1% Normal
2166 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173

Fig. 5 Von Mises distribution


around the expanded hole

Where Et , Et + Δt and Dt are the Young’s modulus at loads. The SWT model is implemented to predict the fa-
the instant t, the Young’s modulus at the instant t + Δt tigue life improvement after repair. A comparison be-
and the damage value, respectively. The damage param- tween the available experimental data and the numerical
eters used in this application are Dc = 0.23 , εD = 0.03 results (Fig. 3) is carried out.
and εR = 0.25.
In this paper, User material subroutine is developed 4.2 Application 2: probabilistic approach and reliability
to integrate the Lemaitre and Chaboche’s damage model analysis
in the commercial FE code ABAQUS [42]. The Single
Edge Notch Tension (SENT) specimen used in this In this section, a probabilistic approach for predicting the fa-
study is assumed to be made from aluminum alloy. tigue life improvement of cracked SENT specimen (Fig. 1)
The Al 7075-T6 mechanical parameters and their cyclic repaired by high interference fit bushing is implemented.
fatigue parameters [43] are summarized in Table 2 and The main procedure for developing the probabilistic model
Table 3, respectively. using FE-analysis and Monte Carlo simulation method is sum-
marized as follows (Fig. 4):

(1) An elastic-plastic analysis using the non-linear isotropic/


4 Applications kinematic hardening model embedded in ABAQUS is car-
ried out. In the first step, the interference fit process was
4.1 Application 1: SWT model’s capability for predicting simulated in the cracked SENT specimen. In the second
fatigue life improvement after repair step, a cyclic axial loading (R = 0.1) for different applied
loads is applied to estimate the fatigue life improvement
The first application is established to validate the SWT after repair. Different interference fit sizes and hole expand-
model ‘effectiveness for predicting the fatigue life im- ed diameters are considered in this analysis. The % expan-
provement after repair. Therefore, a holed plate specimen sion (Ex) for each case can be computed as follows:
repaired by high interference fit bushing is considered.
The interference fit bushing diameter expanded into the
hole is equal to 5.05 mm. After the interference fit process
simulation, the specimen was applied to a cyclic fatigue
loading with zero load ratio (R = 0), for different applied IFS ¼ Rexpanded −Rinitial ð12Þ
Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173 2167

Fig. 6 Residual stress (a)


distribution (MPa) around
expanded hole for different
interference fit sizes: (a)
IFS = 0.1 mm (3.3%), (b)
IFS = 0.15 mm (5%) and (c)
IFS = 0.2 mm (6.7%)

(b)

(c)

IFS
%Ex ¼ 100  2  ð13Þ absolute failure and zone of absolute safety. Different
D dispersion levels can be applied.
Where Ex, IFS and D are the expansion level (%), (4) The reliability is computed for each material parameter
the interference fit size (mm) and the hole diameter, for different interference fit sizes and different expanded
respectively. hole diameters using the Monte Carlo simulation
(Strength-Load method).
(2) The cyclic stress-strain values obtained from finite ele- (5) The iso-probabilistic P-S-N curves of the repaired SENT
ment analysis (i.e. min and max strain at the control point specimen are determined for different interference fit
CP for each interference fit size IFS and hole diameter D) sizes and different expanded hole diameters.
are used to predict the fatigue life improvement after
repair using the SWT model.
(3) Due to the significant fatigue data scatter, the proposed
approach was developed by taking into account the ma-
terial property dispersion. Their dispersions are assumed 5 Discussion
to be normally distributed as illustrated in Table 4. The
generation of random sampling of each material param- (i) In order to validate the accuracy of the finite element re-
eter leads to transform the S-N diagram into three zones sults, a comparison between fatigue life experimental data
as shown in Fig. 8b: an uncertainty zone, a zone of and the obtained results for a holed plate specimen
2168 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173

Fig. 7 Residual stress (a)


distribution (MPa) around
expanded hole for different hole
diameters: (a) D = 6 mm (3.3%),
(b) D = 8 mm (2.5%) and (c)
D = 10 mm (2%)

(b)

(c)

repaired by high interference fit bushing was carried out. interference fit sizes (IFS) and different expanded hole
Figure 3 shows a good agreement between the available diameters. It is observed that the highest compressive
experimental data and the SWT model results for residual stress is obtained for 0.2 mm interference fit size
predicting fatigue life improvement after interference fit and small expanded hole diameter. The magnitude of
process. maximum compressive residual stress in its absolute val-
(ii) In the second application, the use of the interference fit ue corresponding to 0.2 mm interference fit size is 1.12%
process as a crack repair method is investigated. The higher than 0.15 mm IFS and 7.37% higher than 0.1 mm
Single Edge Notch Tension (SENT) specimen is consid- IFS. The magnitude of maximum compressive residual
ered in this application as shown in Fig. 1a. Figure 5 stress at 0.1 mm IFS corresponding to 6 mm hole diam-
presents the Von Mises stress distribution along the hole eter is 12.21% higher than 8 mm hole diameter and
edge after interference fit technique simulation. It was 30.6% higher than 10 mm hole diameter.
assumed that the beneficial effect of high interference (iii) Figure 8a shows a comparison between the fatigue life
fit bushing is associated with the compressive residual improvement of cracked SENT specimen repaired by
stress distribution along the expanded hole. Figure 6 and crack arrest hole (CAH) method (i.e. Ex = 0%) and by
Fig. 7 demonstrate the variation of residual stress distri- interference fit bushing (i.e. Ex = 2.5%). It is found that
bution around the hole edge after repair for different the interference fit process provides significant fatigue
Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173 2169

Fig. 8 a. Fatigue life (a)


improvement for different degrees
of expansion: Ex = 0% and
Ex = 2.5%. b: Material property
dispersion in the probabilistic S-N
curve

(b)
250 , ,b=-

= =

200
Uncertainty zone
Max imum Stres s Amplitude (MPa)

Zone of absolute
150 safety Zone of absolute
failure

The determinisc S-N curve


100

50
4 5 6 7 8
10 10 10 10 10
Fatigue Life (Cycles)

life improvement compared to the conventional CAH A variation of the fatigue life improvement correspond-
method, extensively used in several research works [6, ing to 0% and 100% reliabilities is observed. It is ob-
7]. The effectiveness of this technique is attributed to the served that the fatigue life after repair for the SENT spec-
induced compressive residual stress around the hole imen and their corresponding reliabilities increase when
which shields it from the effect of cyclic loading. the interference fit size increases. This result is consistent
(iv) Figure 9 and Fig. 10 show the variation of fatigue life with the physical observations.
improvement of the repaired SENT specimen at differ- (vi) Figure 12 shows the computed reliability results with
ent stress amplitude levels. It is found that the highest the fatigue life improvement for the same cracked
fatigue life improvement is corresponding to small ex- SENT specimen after interference fit process
panded hole diameters (Fig. 9) and higher interference (IFS = 0.1 mm) at different expanded hole diameters
fit size (Fig. 10). (D = 6 mm, D = 8 mm and D = 10 mm). It is observed
(v) Figure 11 illustrates the change of the computed reliabil- that the change of the hole diameter leads to an impor-
ity with the fatigue life improvement of the cracked tant variation of the fatigue life corresponding to 0% and
SENT specimen after repair for different interference fit 100% reliabilities. In fact, the best fatigue reliability is
sizes (IFS =0.1 mm, IFS = 0.15 mm and IFS = 0.2 mm). obtained in the case of small expanded hole diameter.
2170 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173

300
R=0.1, IFS=0.1 mm, D=6 mm 1
R=0.1, IFS=0.1 mm, D=8 mm IFS=0.1 mm
R=0.1, IFS=0.1 mm, D=10 mm 0.9 IFS=0.15 mm
250 IFS= 0.2 mm
Maximum Stress Amplitude (MPa)

0.8

200 0.7

0.6

Reliability (%)
150
0.5

100 0.4

0.3

50
0.2

0.1
0 4 5 6 7 8
10 10 10 10 10 0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Fatigue Life (Cycles)
6
Fatigue Life (Cycles) x 10
Fig. 9 Fatigue life improvement after repair at different expanded hole
diameters Fig. 11 Reliability-life curves for different interference fit sizes

This result can be explained by the fact that the higher and b, it is observed that the dispersion level (Cov val-
0
compressive residual stress arising from the interference ue) of the fatigue ductility coefficient ε f and the fatigue
fit process is obtained for small hole diameter as shown ductility exponent c has no appreciable effect in the
in Fig. 7. prediction of fatigue life after crack repair. However,
(vii) The effects of material parameters scatter for predicting the scatter of the fatigue life after crack repair increases
fatigue life extension after interference fit process were when the Cov value of the fatigue strength coefficient
0
investigated. Figure 13a, b, c and d illustrate the varia- σ f and the fatigue strength exponent b increase as
tion of the computed fatigue reliability with the fatigue shown in Fig. 13c and d. Due the statistical distribution
life improvement of the cracked SENT specimen after of the material parameters, the obtained reliability-life
repair (IFS = 0.1 mm, D = 6 mm and R = 0.1) for three curves are very useful for engineering applications to
supposed Cov values (1%, 3% and 5%). From Fig. 13a
300
R=0.1, D=6 mm, Ex=3.33% 1
R=0.1, D=6 mm, Ex=5% IFS= 0.1 mm, D=6 mm
R=0.1, D=6 mm, Ex=6.7% 0.9 IFS= 0.1 mm, D=8 mm
250
IFS= 0.1 mm, D=10 mm
Maximum Stress Amplitude (MPa)

0.8

200
0.7

0.6
Reliability (%)

150
0.5

100 0.4

0.3

50
0.2

0.1
0 4 5 6 7 8
10 10 10 10 10
0
Fatigue Life (Cycles) 0 2 4 6 8 10
6
Fatigue Life (Cycles) x 10
Fig. 10 Fatigue life improvement after repair at different interference fit
sizes (IFS) Fig. 12 Reliability-life curves for different expanded hole diameters
Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173 2171

(a) (c) ×10


1
Cov c=1%
0.9 Cov c=3%
Cov c=5%
0.8

0.7

0.6
Reliability(%)

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Fatigue Life (Cycles) 6
x 10
(b) (d) 1
Cov b=1%
0.9 Cov b=3%
Cov b=5%
0.8

0.7

0.6
Reliability (%)

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Fatigue Life (Cycles) 6
x 10
Fig. 13 Reliability-life curves for different Cov values

predict in a more efficient and reliable way the fatigue efficient and reliable way the fatigue life im-
life improvement of cracked structures after repair. provement after repair.
(viii) Figure 14 shows the iso-probabilistic S-N curves
(P-S-N) of cracked Single Edge Notch Tension
(SENT) specimen repaired by high interference
fit bushing for 5%, 50% and 95% reliabilities. 6 Conclusions
It is noted that the security zone is reduced when
the reliability values increase. These P-S-N This paper aims to investigate the interference fit process as a
curves are considered as a powerful technique technique to arrest existing crack (crack repair) in mechanical
for ensuring an optimal and safe maintenance structures. In this context, a cracked SENT specimen is con-
planning for cracked structures essentially in the sidered. The non-linear isotropic/kinematic hardening model
aeronautical field. It takes into account the influ- embedded in ABAQUS is used to characterize material be-
ence of material dispersion for predicting in more havior. Both, fatigue life improvement and compressive
2172 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173

250 P-S-N curve after repair at 5% fatigue reliability for R=0.1


P-S-N curve after repair at 50% fatigue reliability for R=0.1
maintenance planning for a detectable crack size in me-
P-S-N curve after repair at 95% fatigue reliability for R=0.1 chanical structures.
Maximum Stress Amplitude (Mpa)

200

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