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DIRECT PRACTICE IMPROVEMENT PROJECT PROSPECTUS 1

Elizabeth, I wrote so many comments below. I won’t repeat them here. You are a very

good writer, but I don’t see a clear plan for a dissertation here. You have to be much more

specific, and as I mentioned in the comments, you need a gap in peer-reviewed research as

a basis for a study. If you don’t understand any of the comments you can call me. I

appreciated your thinking and your values, and understand your feelings about these

subjects. But you need to have a specific approach for a dissertation to be accepted.

Direct Practice Improvement Project Prospectus

Submitted by

Elizabeth C. Lebron

Grand Canyon University

June 28, 2017


DIRECT PRACTICE IMPROVEMENT PROJECT PROSPECTUS 2

Direct Practice Improvement Project Prospectus

Introduction

Researchers (John & Stage, 2014; Meral & Turnbull, 2014; Thornberg, 2014; Worrell,

2014) have argued that variation in cultures tend to unlevel the ground making it difficult for

some of the students to catch-up to others. (With what you said below, the idea of “catch up” is

different from feeling alienated..) For instance, the students who come from minority

communities have the tendency to feel that the mode of presentation of facts and concepts is

alienating. This is an overgeneralization. This has been reported right from the kindergarten level

to colleges around the United States (Krueger, Tran, Hummer, & Chang, 2015; Terry, Connor,

Thomas-Tate, & Love, 2010). According to Worrell (2014), the alienated students have ended-up

having the reluctance to maintain the acceptable behavior while in school, and this has actually

complicated the challenges that the education fraternity has to deal with. You are clearly talking

about how minorities feel alienated from our culture, including education. I’m not sure this is

the best way to start a prospectus for a dissertation.

When the student’s students act-out, even the normal socialization is derailed and

ethnocentrism is inculcated (Terry et al., 2010). Other hints, which indicate that the students are

uncomfortable with school, include increased cases of absenteeism and truancy, violence, lower

test scores, and gang activity. (There are so many possible reasons for this. You also don’t know

which facts are causal. )It is for this reason that school authorities and other legitimate

stakeholders ought to find the ways and means of instilling a sense of belonging as well as

connectedness among the students. By ensuring that facts, concepts, and other learning activities

are accommodating; emotional insecurity, discomfort, feelings of ostracism, and instances of

incivility would be mitigated (Hayes & Van Camp, 2015; Jamal et al., 2013). It is in this regard

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that the proposed study is to evaluate the influence the emergent curriculum on creating

meaningful learning experiences (Not a whole sentence, unless “the emergent curriculum” is a

“thing.” If so, it sould be in quotes or have some marker to stand out.). An emergent curriculum

is the education philosophy where the focus is on the interest of the students (this has to be

explained); and this is achieved through relationship building, active participation, play-based

learning, as well as coming-up with adaptable and flexible methods of teaching (Krueger et al.,

2015). I don’t even know what level of students you are referring to. Before this last sentence, I

thought it was college kids. Now, with the play-based learning I’m thinking elementary school

kids.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson or


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Introduction
This section briefly overviews the research focus or problem, why this project is worth conducting, and
how this project will be completed.
The recommended length for this section is ONE PARAGRAPH.
1. Direct Practice Improvement Project topic is 3
introduced.
2. Describes how the project extends prior research 3
or fills a “need” or “defined gap” from current
literature.
NOTE: This Introduction section elaborates on Point #1(the Topic) from the 10 Strategic Points.
This Introduction section provides the foundation for the Introduction section in Chapter 1 of the
Proposal.

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NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph
structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.
Comments from the Evaluator:

Background of the Problem

In spite of the passage of the laws such as No Child Left Behind Act, it has been

concluded that achievement gaps still persist Between who? (Meral & Turnbull, 2014). It has

been concluded that historically, the students facing the highest risk of being alienated are those

who have appearances, cultures, languages, familial structures, and values which may not be

corresponding to the mainstream society (Hayes & Van Camp, 2015). Most of the schools in the

United States had been designed to serve, support, and propagate European (and mostly English)

culture; and this is no-longer agreeable to a significant number of students of color (Krueger et

al., 2015).

The fate of the current generation of students as well as that of the United States is set to

be determined by the manner in which the changing trend in schools is assessed and

accommodated (Hayes & Van Camp, 2015). As of 2014, the number of students of color became

dominant in public schools. This has been caused by the doubling of the population of Hispanic

students over the last two decades, and a 56% increase in the number of students who happens to

be of Asian descent. While there has been increase in the number of American Indian and Black

students; that of the White students has fallen by around 15 % over the same period of time. The

majority-minority is a phenomenon that can no longer be overlooked (Kothari & Ravi, 2016;

Maxwell, 2014). Indeed, it follows that if the mode of teaching and learning is not repackaged, it

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is the new majority that will be facing alienation in classrooms. This is particularly in such states

as Arizona and California (Elstad et al., 2012).

Researchers such as John & Stage (2014) and Thornberg (2014) have indicated that a

holistic approach to education would require of the teachers to come-up with child-initiated,

collaborative, and responsive teaching formula. (Sounds interesting, but kids don’t have choices

or know what directions they should take, and even teachers have no choices. Curriculums are

determined by state administrators in the field of education.)They ought to act as facilitators who

take into account whatever they hear and see, and their role should be that of enabling the

students to dig deeper, construct, and further their knowledge. This is why nonverbal

communication is important in teaching and learning, and the current over-emphasis on the

correct answer approach ought to be replaced with such methods of reasoning as induction,

abduction, and deduction. This is far much deeper than mere memorization, and it promotes

understanding. See last comment. A holistic approach is where the curriculum happens to be

constantly developing as opposed to being devised well in advance. Hayes & Van Camp (2015)

has argued that with a dynamic and non-repetitive curriculum, the teachers’ thinking is

reconciled with the students’ learning. The views of such recognized theorists as Piaget, Dewey,

and Vygotsky support the idea behind emergent curriculums (Krueger et al., 2015; Meral &

Turnbull, 2014). While this idea sounds good, it is not realistic. I certainly don’t see anything

pointing to a dissertation topic.

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Background of the Problem
The background section explains both the history of and the present state of the problem and project
focus.
The recommended length for this section is TWO-THREE PARAGRAPHS.

1. Identifies the “need,” or “defined gap” that will lead to the 3


research problem statement in a following section.
Citations from the literature in the last 5 years describe
the problem as a current “need” or “gap” for further
research.
2. Discusses how the “need” or “defined gap” has evolved 3
historically into the current problem or opportunity to be
addressed by the proposed project.
3. ALIGNMENT: The problem statement for the Direct 3
Practice Improvement Project will be developed from and
justified by the “need” or “defined gap” that is described
in this section and supported by the Literature.
NOTE: This Background of the Problem section uses information from Point #2 (Literature Review) in
the 10 Strategic Points. This Background of the Problem section becomes the Background of the
Project in Chapter 1 in the Proposal. It is then expanded to develop the comprehensive Background to
the Problem section in Chapter 2 (Literature Review) in the Proposal.
NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as, uses correct paragraph structure,
sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.
Comments from the Evaluator:

Theoretical Foundations and Review of the Literature/Themes

Jamal et al. (2013) argues that there is a significant achievement gap between the students

from the mainstream society and those from the minority groups. According to Terry et al.

(2010), part of this is due to the fact that the society and the education system had been modeled

in favor of the European culture, and this is contradictory to the perspectives, which Asian,

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Hispanic, African, and Native Americans have towards life in general, and education in

particular. Doh (2010) suggests it is the primary duty of the education and school officials to

improve the learning environment and accommodate the changing dynamics. Isik-Ercan (2010)

concurs with Doh and goes ahead to suggest that the stakeholders in the United States may learn

from the mistakes and/or successes in other countries in regard to how disparities in the school

systems have been handled.


Isik-Ercan (2010) continues to assert that if the emergent trend in the school enrolment

were ignored, the academic situation in America would turnout to be much worse than is the case

in many other countries around the world. He presents the case of Turkey where he indicates a

scenario where disorientation failed to be addressed and hence led to many minorities preferring

taking their children to international schools or leaving the country altogether. Luckily for

Turkey, the mainstream society will continue to dominate such minorities as the Jews, Albanians,

Armenians, the Greeks, and the Poles. While the majority-minority has become a reality in the

United States, a similar scenario may never be witnessed in Turkey as well as several other

foreign countries (Isik-Ercan, 2010; Meral & Turnbull, 2014). Kruege et al. (2015) is of the view

that even though factors such as religious, cultural, and economic backgrounds influence

personalities and hence the reasoning while attending schools; the use of the emergent

curriculum on a par with each other Butucea (2010).


Theoretical foundations avail an adequate basis for the completion of the proposed

research. I still have no idea what you inten to do. So far, you’ve discussed some difficulties

with our educational system, which I agree with, by the way. But this isn’t a dissertation topic.

It is also something that can’t be changed by one study because there are politics, economics, and

so many other issues that intervene. We now have a secretary of education who is taking most

of the resources out of public schools, and prohibiting help for kids that aren’t mainstream. These

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include the Interactionist Theory of Education, Cultural Deprivation Theory, as well as Conflict

Theory. In regard to interactionism, there are two views, which need to be considered. These

include the argument that human behavior is impacted by such external forces as culture, familial

background, economic status, as well as religious beliefs (Elstad et al., 2012). There are

researchers who feel that the opposite is true; and hence the individuals themselves are able to

construct their personalized perspectives while reducing the influence of outside influences on

ability. Sociologists in favor of the personalized perspectives are referred to as interactionists

(Jacob & Kuruvilla, 2012). As pertains to this study therefore, interactionism indicates that if the

teaching methods are adaptive and flexible, individual students are given the chance to create the

learning experiences, which are meaningful to them. They are then able to understand and

brainstorm and hence reduce the widening knowledge gap (Kothari & Ravi, 2016; Maxwell,

2014).
Marxists argue that every time conflicts happen within the society, a new order emerges.

The schools’ environments in the United States are experiencing conflicts since diversity in

classrooms has not yet been accommodated with the emergent curriculum, and this has started to

spillover to the society in general (Thornberg, 2014). The students from the minority

communities may be having adequate potential, but there are hindrances towards having it

tapped and expanded. It is as if order in schools and in classrooms is sustained via domination as

opposed to having a consensus-based learning (Finlayson, 2010). The proposed study will seek

to determine if the students’ fate is sealed by their backgrounds. I have no idea how you plan to

do this, or what you are thinking about this. If that were the case, the current zero-sum game

would be justified since it would mean that arriving at a consensus where multiple parties are

able to gain simultaneously would be difficult.

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According to the Cultural Deprivation Theory, basic skills like values, attitudes, and

personalities are first acquired within the setting of a family. Personalities influence learning

strategies as well as learning outcomes. For instance, Palmer (1991) suggests that there are five

personality views, which influence information behavior. Information behavior is the manner in

which individuals need, seek, give, and manage information within different settings. The

personality views include being non-seekers, lone and wide rangers, the unsettled self-conscious

seekers, the confident collectors, as well as hunters. The teachers ought to appreciate the

possibility of having all these categories of students within their classrooms, and they could gain

if they determine how backgrounds impact on the learners’ perspectives (Dallavis, 2011). I agree

that teachers should be aware of personality styles, learning styles, cultural differences, and so

much more. But again, what do you think you can do to revise our educational system?

The review of literature has revealed a pattern consisted of the following items:

 John & Stage (2014) argues that whenever holistic orientation is overlooked, the

minorities are unable to make progress. Holistic education is meant to prepare individuals

in a manner that enable them solve their life and academic challenges in an effective

manner. In essence, you people are facilitated to learn about pro-social behaviors, healthy

relationships, social and emotional development, resilience, as well as about themselves.

Students from certain communities get confused when they start schooling since much of

the current education system ignore aspects of the holistic education. Therefore, there is a

conflict between what individuals learn at home and the kind of teaching happening in

school. Minority communities are notably spiritual and communal, and these are not the

kind of things being taught in the current mainstream education system. Unless the

differences are reconciled, the students may find it difficult to connect the imagined with

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the practical; which in essence would mean that understanding is impossible. This is a

scenario that has been explained by an Anthroposophy-based view, which is called

Waldorf education. This view was introduced by Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) (John &

Stage, 2014). (My daughter went to Waldorf. It was not a great approach, at least nor for

a lot of the kids. It also didn’t prepare kids for the real world because it had values which

were inconsistent with our real-world systems. One example is they didn’t want kids to

use computers.)

 Thornberg (2014) argue effectiveness in classroom-based cross-cultural communication

needs an understanding of non-verbal communication. Indeed, interpersonal

communication is always influenced by non-verbal cues; and the cues are important

components of the participants’ messages. Even though there are universal von-verbal

messages, the interpretation of factors such as touch, appearance, space, time, and body

language is mediated by the individual’s culture (Finlayson, 2010). For instance, Mexican

and Puerto Rican children tend to avoid eye contacts with the adults in case they are

reprimanded (Meral & Turnbull, 2014; Saleh, 2012). In an American classroom situation,

this would signal disrespect on the part of the students. Therefore, a miscommunication

happens as a result. Similarly, several cultures, which are natively Middle Eastern, Native

American, and Asian consider it being rude and disrespectful when a listener makes an

eye contact. This is attributed to the studies by Ralph V. Exline (1922-1993), Robert

Rosenthal, and Clara Mayo (Jacob & Kuruvilla, 2012; Kapadia, 2013). Failure to look

someone in the eye does not necessarily mean that the child is not paying attention.

Cultural misapprehensions by the teachers as well as the fellow students contribute by

increasing the knowledge gap since entire groups of learners are pushed to the fringes.

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This is in line with the research work by psychologists and researchers like Janet Dean

Fodor (born in 1942) and Michael Argyle (1925-2002) (Isik-Ercan, 2010; Krueger et al.,

2015).

 The culture of the correct answer as opposed to that of explanation is another major issue,

and this is according to Thornberg (2014) and Meral & Turnbull (2014). It ought to be

appreciated that in many of the minority cultures, individuals are taught to conduct

situational analysis and make their inferences in the most appropriate manner possible.

With the current education system, most schools emphasize on memorizing. The goal of

addressing this point is to establish how constructivist classrooms can be created or

formulated, and this is where the students and their teachers perceive knowledge as being

dynamic as opposed to being static and restricted to unexplained and possibly ambiguous

answers (Kapadia, 2013). The approach taken by the proposed primary study is that

instead of insisting that the students memorize unclear facts, it would be advantageous to

help them come-up with the ways and means of solving scenarios in an objective cycle of

inductive and deductive reasoning. You still haven’t stated your specific research plan.

This is way deeper than just knowing that certain facts and concepts exist. Being able to

reason-out is having a clear understanding of the subjects in question (Saleh, 2012).

 Bosworth, Ford, & Hernandaz (2011) indicate that the issue of the critical mass has

significant effect. Being fewer in number means that several students from the minority

groups rarely master the courage to make contributions like everyone else. An

appropriate reference with regard to the issue of the critical mass is the evaluation of the

Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin, a Supreme Court battle between the White

students who had been denied admission on the basis of race. The Supreme Court has

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since argued that the critical mass argument by the university is constitutional since it has

met the three most important controlling principles. Even without going into the details of

the arguments and the decision by the Supreme Court, it is evident that the university was

justified in arguing that most students are derailed in their studies whenever they fail to

be in the company of a sufficient number of individuals (students and teachers alike) who

are from their own backgrounds. Background in this case refers to religion, ethnicity, and

even race (Meral & Turnbull, 2014; Thornberg, 2014; Worrell, 2014). So you are saying

kids have to be with others that are similar to them in all these ways? Isn’t that asking to

segregate eduction? The addressing of the issue of the critical mass will, nonetheless, go

beyond the case involving the University of Texas at Austin; since this is an issue that

cuts-across all levels of education.

 Jamal et al. (2013) asserts that perceived discrimination, together with the ‘non-

representative’ common-core education system are also part of the issues, which need to

be addressed if the levels of education amongst the minorities are to improve.

Discrimination and common-core are hoped to place everyone at the same level, which is

not the case in reality. In extreme cases, perceived discrimination tend to trigger

depression. Becker (1971) presents a theory he refers to as “taste for discrimination”; and

even if he was addressing work-related settings, the same applies in education. With

regard to the “taste for discrimination”, the primary study will be addressing four types of

discrimination. These include the subtle, automatic discrimination, or unconscious

discrimination; statistical discrimination, which is also known as profiling; discrimination

on the basis of biased institutional-based processes; and intentional, explicit

discrimination (Becker, 1971).

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Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson or


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Theoretical Foundations and/or Conceptual Framework

This section identifies the theory(s) or model(s) that provide the foundation for the project. This section
should present the theory(s) or models(s) and explain how the problem under investigation relates to the
theory or model. The theory(s) or models(s) guide the clinical questions and justify what is being
measured (variables) as well as how those variables are related (quantitative) or the phenomena being
investigated (qualitative).

Review of the Literature


This section provides a broad, balanced overview of the existing literature related to the proposed project
topic. It describes the literature in related topic areas and its relevance to the proposed project topic
findings, providing a short one-two sentence description of each theme/topic and identifies its relevance
to the project topic supporting it with at least one citation from the literature.

The recommended length for this section is two-three paragraphs


1. Theoretical Foundations section identifies the theory(s), 3
model(s) relevant to the variables (quantitative project) or
phenomenon (qualitative project). This section should
explain how the project topic or problem coming out of
the “need” or “defined gap” in the Background to the
Problem section relates to the theory(s) or model(s). (One
paragraph)
2. Review of the Literature Themes/Topics section: This 3
section lists the major themes or topics related to the
project topic. It provides a short one-two sentence
description of each theme/topic and identifies its
relevance to the project topic supporting it with at least
one citation from the literature. (One or two sentences per
theme/topic).
3. ALIGNMENT: The Theoretical Foundations models 3
and theories need to be related to and support the problem
statement or project topic. The sections in the Review of
the Literature are topical areas needed to understand the

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various aspects of the phenomenon (qualitative) or
variables/groups (quantitative) being studied; to select the
design needed to address the Problem Statement; to select
surveys or instruments to collect information on
variables/groups; to define the population and sample for
the project; to describe components or factors that
comprise the phenomenon; to describe key topics related
to the project topic, etc.
NOTE: The two parts of this section use information from Point #2 (Literature Review) from the 10
Strategic Points. This Theoretical Foundations section is expanded upon to become the Theoretical
Foundations section in Chapter 2 (Literature Review). The Theoretical Foundations section is also
used to help create the Advancing Scientific Knowledge section in Chapter 1. This Review of
Literature Themes/Topics section is expanded upon to provide the Review of the Literature section in
Chapter 2 (Literature Review). The Review of the Literature Themes/Topics section is also used to
provide the basis for the Significance of the Project section in Chapter 1.
NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure,
sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.
Comments from the Evaluator:

Problem Statement

It is not known how exactly variation in socio-cultural practices cause disparity in

education. How could you possibly separate the factors? Societies where socio-cultural practices

are less pronounced between the members of different communities are able to reduce disparity

in education a lot better than in cases where the practices are more pronounced. Turkey was

significantly a multicultural society during the early and mid-1900s. Indeed, this was also the

case in schools where the Greeks, Jews, Armenians, and others interacted freely with everyone

else and pursued education with relative ease. Since then, a lot has changed; and many people

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argue that the society has become increasing intolerant. At the moment, the number of non-

Muslims in Turkish elementary schools is less than 15 percent, and this is actually dropping.

In the United States, and as it has been concluded that the minorities feel disoriented and

sidelined (Hayes & Van Camp, 2015; John & Stage, 2014; Krueger et al., 2015; Meral &

Turnbull, 2014; Thornberg, 2014); and this is one of the challenges which need to be addressed

if, indeed, the promise of the No Child Left Behind Act is to be realized. There have been several

arguments that disparity could be based on misunderstandings. Others have indicated this could

be based on deeper issues. Clearly, there are inconsistencies with regard to conclusions and

recommendations by researchers. A problem that has not even been defined cannot be corrected

in a realistic manner. It is based on these indications that the proposed seek to address the subject

in further details. Aside from everything I’ve said, you’re not going to be able to control how

different kids are selected for different schools. You’ve also contradicted yourself by saying kids

should be with others like themselves to learn, and that the educational practices should include

everyone.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson


Evaluation or Reviewer
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(0-3)
Problem Statement

This section includes the problem statement, the population affected, and how the project will contribute
to solving the problem.
The recommended length for this section is one paragraph.
1. Presents a clear declarative statement that begins with either: 3
“It is not known how or why…” (qualitative),
or
“It is not known if or to what degree/extent…” (quantitative).
2. Clearly describes the magnitude and importance of the problem, 3
supporting it with citations from the literature.

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Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson


Evaluation or Reviewer
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(0-3)
3. ALIGNMENT: The problem statement is developed from and 3
justified by the “need” or “defined gap” defined by the Literature
that is discussed in the Background to the Problem section
above.
NOTE: This section elaborates on Points #3 (Problem Statement) from the 10 Strategic Points. This
section becomes the foundation for the Problem Statement section in Chapter 1(and other Chapters where
appropriate) in the Proposal.
NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure,
sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format
Comments from Evaluator:

Clinical Question(s) and Phenomenon

R1: To what extent does holistic education promote meaningful learning?

Meaningful learning is where the concepts are fully understood by the individuals in

question, and they also happen to understand how a specific fact is related to the other facts. For

such a development to happen, the learners have to be in a proper emotional state, and the

information ought to connect to their lives in one way or the other. These issues are influenced

by backgrounds. If the students are inspired to find-out more, nonetheless, the positivity in the

class tends to promote productivity irrespective of the backgrounds of the students.

Consequently, knowledge gaps are reduced (John & Stage, 2014; Thornberg, 2014). While this is

in theory, the proposed primary study seeks to establish the situation in Maricopa County.

R2: What is the impact does the critical mass have on meaningful learning?

Thornberg (2014) argue that the students tend to feel intimidated when they are

significantly fewer in number as compared to those from the mainstream society. Such

intimidation tends to reduce someone’s creativity, confidence, and inspiration. As the numbers

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are increased, however, they gain the courage to be active participants in class (Meral &

Turnbull, 2014).

R3: How much does discrimination affect meaningful learning?

Discrimination, victimization, and harassment leave people broken and confused. When

children feel judged over facts they cannot change, they end-up doubting themselves. Successful

learning demands of the teachers to keep the children as engaged as possible (Thornberg, 2014).

Racism does the contrary. It disrupts and limits the students’ capability, and their performance is

negatively impacted. The proposed primary study is to establish the extent to which

discrimination among the students in Maricopa County impact on their effective learning (Meral

& Turnbull, 2014). You mentioned questions that are interesting, but they are not research

questions that a dissertation can tackle. They are philosophical questions that individuals with

varied backgrounds would discuss for years and still not resolve the questions.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson


Evaluation or Reviewer
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Research Question(s)

This section narrows the focus of the project and specifies the clinical questions to address the problem
statement. Based on the clinical questions, it describes the variables or groups and their hypothesized
relationship for a quantitative project or the phenomena under investigation for a qualitative project.
(2-3paragraphs)
 The recommendation is a minimum of two clinical questions along with related
hypotheses and variables is required for a quantitative project.
 Also recommended is a minimum of two clinical questions along with the phenomenon
description is required for a qualitative project.
 Put the Clinical Questions in the appropriate Table in Appendix B based on whether the
project is qualitative or quantitative.
1. Qualitative Designs: States the clinical question(s) the project will 3
answer, and describes the phenomenon to be studied.

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Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson


Evaluation or Reviewer
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or
2. Quantitative Designs: States the clinical question(s) the project
will answer, identifies the variables, and presents the hypotheses.
3. ALIGNMENT: The clinical questions are based on both the 3
Problem Statement and Theoretical Foundation model(s) and
theory(s). There should be no clinical questions that are not
clearly aligned to the Problem Statement.
NOTE: This section elaborates on Points #5 (Clinical Questions) & #6 Variables or Phenomena) from
the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the foundation for the Clinical Question(s) section in
Chapter 1 in the Proposal.
NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure,
sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.
Comments from the Evaluator:

Significance of the Project

An individual’s culture has an impact on their personality, and this in turn influences their

behavior and relationship with other people while in class. There could be instances of

misunderstandings, and an individual could also feel as if they are constantly under siege.

Whether there is discrimination or not, it has been observed that a feeling of being singled-out

ruins the chances of reducing the knowledge gap (Jacob & Kuruvilla, 2012; Meral & Turnbull,

2014; Worrell, 2014). Therefore, the study is significant in the sense that it will highlight

instances where the students’ potential ends-up being wasted simply because the use of the

emergent curriculum is overlooked.

The proposed study seeks to help close or reduce the achievement gaps. I still don’t know

what this study is, what you want to do, how you want to do it. So far everything is

philosophical. The writing is good and the concepts are important. But I don’t see a dissertation

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possibility yet. This will be accomplished by suggesting the policies and practices, which are

most relevant to the schools in Maricopa County. Since this is a qualitative research study, the

relevant issues which be addressed in an in-depth manner (If you want to do a qualitative study

on the concepts you’ve discussed, you need to mention this much earlier, give a strong

background based on peer-reviewed research, and present a strong gap showing how this

information would address a need based on previous research. . The United States has become an

increasingly multicultural society (Meral & Turnbull, 2014). This means that even if there may

be the need for researchers to complete similar primary studies while dealing with other regions

of the country, this study will still be beneficial to them. Therefore, in addition to the study to

being valuable to the educators, schools, students, and parents/guardians in Maricopa County;

the findings will also advance the study will come-in handy to other researchers. In order to

achieve this and make it comprehensible, the researcher looks forward to base the work on the

congruence between such frameworks as The AVID Program, Prep for Prep program, and Uri

Treisman's Merit Workshop Model. I have no idea what these things are, but perhaps they should

be mentioned earlier, research using them needs to be described, and a gap in research needs to

be provided.

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Significance of the Project

This section identifies and describes the significance of the project and the implications of the potential
results based on the clinical questions and problem statement, hypotheses, or the investigated phenomena.
It describes how the research fits within and will contribute to the current literature or body of research. It
describes potential practical applications from the project.
The recommended length for this section is one paragraph.
1. Describes how the proposed project will contribute to the 3

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Literature, relating it specifically to other studies from the
Background to the Problem and Problem Statement above.
2. Describes how the proposed project will contribute to the 3
literature on the selected theory(s) or model(s) that comprise the
Theoretical Foundation for the project.
3. Describes how addressing the problem will have practical value 3
for the real world considering the population, community, and/or
society.
4. ALIGNMENT: 3
Part 1 is based on specific studies from the Background to the
Problem and Problem Statements sections above and identifies
how this project will contribute to that Literature. Part 2 is based
on specific model(s), theory(s) or variables from the Theoretical
Foundations section above and identifies how this research will
contribute to the knowledge on those model(s) or theory(s). Part 3
reflects on potential practical applications of the potential
research findings based on Literature in the field of practice.
NOTE: This section does not directly come from any section of the 10 Strategic Points. However it does
build on the Background to the Problem, Problem Statement and Theoretical Foundations sections that
are developed from the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the Significance of the Project section
in Chapter 1 in the Proposal.
NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure,
sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.
Comments from the Evaluator:
Rationale for Methodology

The study is qualitative since the understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship

between cultures and academic knowledge-gaps is best accomplished through the analysis of

lived experiences. Qualitative research is flexible, and this is important since every respondent

has a story to tell. In that case, phenomenology is the most appropriate approach, especially its

flexibility, comes in handy since the issue in question is difficult to address via structured

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methodologies. The inquiry is directed towards complex topics in contextual situations, and this

means that the sensitive personal issues need not to be considered as part of a generalized

phenomenon. Individuals are regarded as stand-alone entities, which are not easily replaceable.

Establishing the meanings which individual respondents ascribe to specific situations and

experiences is to be anchored upon data gathered using in-depth interviews and detailed field

notes describing the context. It follows that phenomenology is the best approach in this case.

Phenomenology facilitates the addressing of lived experiences, which is the case with the

proposed primary study.

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Rationale for Methodology

This section clearly justifies the methodology the researcher plans to use for conducting the project. It
argues how the methodological framework is the best approach to answer the clinical questions and
address the problem statement. It uses citations from textbooks and articles on research methodology
and/or articles on related studies.
The recommend length for this section is one paragraph and completion of Table 1 (quantitative)
and/or Table 2 (qualitative) in Appendix B.
1. Identifies the specific project methodology for the project 3
(quantitative, qualitative, or mixed).
2. Justifies the research methodology to be used for the project by 3
discussing why it is the best approach for answering the clinical
question and addressing the problem statement. Uses citations
from original sources in the literature on the specific research
methodology to support the arguments. (NOTE: Books such as
those by Creswell, which are secondary sources summarizing
others approaches to research, may not be used as sources in this
section).
3. ALIGNMENT: The selected methodology should be justified 3
based on the Problem Statement and Research Questions.

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Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self-


Chairperson
Evaluationor Reviewer
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(0-3)
NOTE: This section elaborates on the methodology part of Point #7(Methodology and Design) in the 10
Strategic Points.
This section becomes the foundation for the Project Methodology in Chapter 1 of the Proposal and the
basis for developing Chapter 3, Project Methodology.
NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure,
sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format
Comments from the Evaluator:

Nature of the Project Design

The research is to be completed using the phenomenology approach. This is an approach

that describes the participants’ lived experiences from the psychological as well as philosophical

view points (Bosworth et al., 2011). A phenomenon is a ‘lived’ experience, and hence the focus

while using this methodology is on how the respondents perceive those experiences as being

meaningful to themselves as well as those close to them. This method has been selected because

the members of the minority groups tend to have one or several aspects of experience in common

(Krueger et al., 2015). These include the feeling of being alienated by the approach of teaching

as well as the real or perceived discrimination. The goal, therefore, is to describe and establish

the meaning of the experience(s) in question. This is an emotive issue, and phenomenology is

effective in dealing with the emotional reactions.

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Nature of the Project Design

This section describes the specific research design to answer the clinical questions and why this approach
was selected. It describes the research sample being studied as well as the process that will be used to

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Evaluation or Reviewer
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collect the data on the sample.
The recommend length for this section is one paragraph and completion of Table 1 (quantitative)
and/or Table 2 (qualitative) in Appendix B.
1. Identifies the specific type of project design as well as a sample 3
appropriate for the design. (e.g., Quantitative designs include
descriptive/survey, correlational, causal-comparative, quasi-
experimental, and experimental. Qualitative designs include case
project, narrative, grounded theory, historical, and
phenomenological.) Other designs are possible.
2. Discusses why the selected design is the best design to address 3
the research questions as compared to other designs.
3. ALIGNMENT: The selected Project Design should be justified 3
based on the research questions as well as the
hypotheses/variables (quantitative) or phenomenon (qualitative).
It should also be aligned with the selected Project Methodology.

NOTE: This section also elaborates on the Design part of Point #7 (Methodology and Design) in the 10
Strategic Points. This section provides the foundation for Nature of the Project Design in Chapter 1.
NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure,
sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.
Comments from Evaluator:
Purpose of the Project

The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological project is to explore the influence of

socio-cultural practices on early education amongst the children from minority groups living in

the United States. The situation in Maricopa County is utilized as the case in point. At this stage

in the project, the socio-cultural practices will generally be considered to be those issues, which

cause the students to have varied perspectives with regard to the issue at hand. It could be the

kind of upbringing and advice they get while at home, the social organization within their

families and communities, the economic statuses, as well as religions. The children may need

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proper orientation with facts and concepts since they may have been brought-up to assimilate

things, which they are sure about. With explanations, the challenges associated with the narrow

correct-answer approach could be addressed. The issue of the critical mass and its important will

also be examined in details (Hayes & Van Camp, 2015; Krueger et al., 2015). The goal,

therefore, is to study the influence of socio-cultural practices in propagating disparities in

education; and it is on the basis of how orientation to the concepts is done, the impact of being

fewer in numbers, as well as the negative effect that the feeling of being sidelined has on the

students. I still don’t know what you are thinking. Are you wanting to interview kids? Young or

older? Parents? Teachers? So much is unknown.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson


Evaluation or Reviewer
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Purpose of the Project

The purpose statement section provides a reflection of the problem statement and identifies how the
project will be accomplished. It explains how the proposed project will contribute to the field.
The recommend length for this section is one paragraph.
1. Presents a declarative statement: “The purpose of this 3
_______project is….” that identifies the project methodology,
research design, target population, variables/groups (quantitative),
or phenomena (qualitative) to be studied, and geographic
location. It often includes a version of the Problem Statement as a
way to define the phenomenon or variables/hypotheses.
2. ALIGNMENT: The Purpose Statement includes: Project 3
Methodology, Project Design, and Problem Statement from the
previous sections. It also includes the target population, which
should be of sufficient size to provide a large enough sample to
complete the project and provide significant (quantitative) or
meaningful (qualitative) results.

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Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson


Evaluation or Reviewer
Score Evaluation
(0-3) Score
(0-3)
NOTE: This section elaborates on Points #8 (Purpose Statement) in the 10 Strategic Points. This
section becomes the foundation for the Purpose of the Project in Chapter 1 of the Proposal.
NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph
structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.
Comments from the Evaluator:

Instrumentation or Sources of Data

The study will utilize surveys and the review of documents. The documents in question

include school reports, students’ performance report cards, and class attendance lists. Such

materials will be available during fieldwork, and they will facilitate the understanding of the

performance gaps between students from multiple backgrounds. The use of credible documents

is important since it would be expensive to obtain every piece of primary data that the researcher

would need through interviews. Besides, document review offer corroboration to the data

gathered for the first time (Isik-Ercan, 2010). A phenomenology approach is appropriate in cases

where the participants are describing lived experiences. It is these experiences, which are

synthesized to define a phenomenon. The idea is to establish the meaning behind the encounters.

And how about the interviews?

The survey will facilitate the collection of data and facts about how the critical mass,

perceived discrimination, correct-answer approach, non-verbal orientation, as well as lack of

holistic orientation cause disparity in education. So you’re saying there are surveys which

provide all this information? Are you planning on using these for your interviews? This is

especially when the individuals concerned happen to have come from the minority groups.

Analytical surveys are about seeking to describe and also explain why particular scenarios exist.

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This is a strategy that will facilitate the studying of the characteristics and relationships between

the causes and the effect. The issues and the population are well defined, and the information that

is needed can actually be gathered via written and/or oral questioning. This will facilitate the

studying of the habits, attitudes, and behaviors on the basis of the critical mass, perceived

discrimination, correct-answer approach, non-verbal orientation, and lack of holistic orientation.

Surveys will then be complimented by document reviews. The documents will be internal

organizational and program records. For instance, there will be the search and review of the

records about the appraisal and revision of the programs dealing with perceived discrimination,

critical mass, correct-answer approach, non-verbal orientation, and lack of holistic orientation.

The specific information will include details of the meeting’s minutes, reports, funding

proposals, and program logs. This strategy has been selected since it enhances the understanding

of the background and determines if the program implementation strategies are in accordance to

the plans. Above all, it will certainly enhance the surveys. This is because the data helps in

understanding the ‘what’ and ‘how’ evaluation questions are formulated and presented (Elstad et

al., 2012).

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson


Evaluation or Reviewer
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(0-3)
Instrumentation or Sources of Data

Describes, in detail, all data collection instruments and sources (tests, questionnaires, interviews, data
bases, media, etc.). Discusses the specific instrument or source to collect data for each variable or
group (quantitative project). Discusses specific instrument or source to collect information to describe
the phenomena being studied (qualitative project).
The recommend length for this section is one paragraph AND completion of Table 1
(quantitative) and/or Table 2 (qualitative) in Appendix B.
1. Identifies and describes the types of data that will be collected to 3

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Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson


Evaluation or Reviewer
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answer each Clinical Question for a qualitative project. Identifies
the data that will be collected for each Variable/Group in a
quantitative project.
2. Identifies tools, instruments, or databases to be used to collect the 3
data (e.g., observations, interviews, questionnaires, documents,
media (qualitative), standardized tests, surveys, and databases
(quantitative)). For a qualitative project, identify the specific
tools, instruments, or databases for each research question in a
qualitative project. For a quantitative project, identify the name of
the specific “validated” and “previously used in quantitative
research” survey or data source to be used to collect data for each
variable, providing a citation for the instrument or data source.
3. ALIGNMENT: Aligns with the Clinical Questions (qualitative) or 3
Variables (quantitative) previously described in the Clinical
Question(s) and Phenomena or Clinical Questions,
Hypotheses, and Variables section above. Identifies and
describes the data and data source that will be used to answer
each Clinical Question for a qualitative project. Identifies,
describes, and names the type of numerical data and specific data
collection instrument or source that will be used for each variable
and group in a quantitative project.
NOTE: This section elaborates on Point #9 (Data Collection) from the 10 Strategic Points.
This information is summarized high level in Chapter 1 in the Proposal in the Nature of the Project
Design for the Project section. This section provides the foundation for Instrumentation
(quantitative) or Sources of Data (qualitative) section in Chapter 3.
NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph
structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.
Comments from the Evaluator:

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Data Collection Procedures

The location of the study is in Los Angeles County. The Los Angeles Unified School

District has 1023 schools. This is a significantly high number, considering that it has over 26,000

teachers and at least 734,641 students. Therefore, a total of 5 schools will be selected for the

study. The entire school population in the United States is the theoretical population. The study

population, or the population that the researcher is able to focus on is the schools in Maricopa

County, where a sample of 5 institutions is taken. According to the rule of 5 about sampling; for

any 5 randomly sampled subjects, there is over 93% possibility that the mean of the population

lies between the largest and the smallest values of the sample (Isik-Ercan, 2010). It follows that

the statistics about the sample may be inferred on to the population. Settling on the schools in

question will be through systematic selection. With this strategy, only the first item is selected

randomly. The remaining is settled-upon based on the distance between the already determined

unit, and the time it would take to navigate the entire place. Sampling by clusters will then be

used to select the respondents, and these are 10 students and 3 teachers in every institution.

Upon the completion of a holistic document review, a survey will be completed. In

addition to being analytical, the survey will also be interpretative. Had the facts been unknown, a

factual survey would have been more appropriate. Opinion surveys are avoided because of their

subjectivity. Data collection will be through the combination of interviews and telephone calls.

After having decided on that approach, the instruments will be planned, tested, and revised.

Testing will be done at one of the schools, i.e. Compton Avenue Elementary. Step three of the

survey is deciding on the population and the sample; and at this point, it has already been

determined. Step-four is on locating the respondents, conducting the interviews, as well as

carefully recording the data. Finally, the findings will be presented to peers for critiquing. I still

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don’t really know what you are planning to ask them about. The topics are so general and non-

secific, and there are so many possible responses, which can come from so many factors.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson


Evaluation or Reviewer
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Data Collection Procedures
This section details the entirety of the process used to collect the data. It describes each step of the
data collection process in a way that another investigator could replicate the project.

NOTE: It is recommended that the researcher get written approval (or at the very least unofficial
approval) to conduct their practice project in their selected organization. Ensure the person (who is
usually a school superintendent, school boards, or corporate officer) providing approval is authorized
by the organization to grant approval for research. Do not assume your organization will allow you to
collect data since many organization do not allow research to be completed within the organization.
The recommended length for this section is two paragraphs.
1. Defines the target population and the expected sample size, which 3
comprises the people or organizations being studied, as defined
in the problem statement. For quantitative studies, it justifies why
the target population and expected sample size (final number of
people or organizations being studied for which data will be
collected) is large enough to produce statistically significant
results (quantitative) or meaningful results (qualitative).
2. Provides an overview the proposed step-by-step procedure to 3
collect data using the tools, instruments, or databases from the
section above. Includes the steps (e.g., obtaining initial informed
consent from participating organization; IRB review; sample
selection; groupings; protecting rights/well-being; maintaining
data security; sample recruitment; data collection instruments and
approaches; field testing instruments; notifying participants;
collecting the data, etc.) in a way another researcher can replicate
the project. Steps may be provided in a list format.
3. ALIGNMENT: Shows the steps and approach to collect data for 3
each and every data source identified in the Instrumentation or

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Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson


Evaluation or Reviewer
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Sources of Data section. Defines the sample as the set of people
or organizations being studied for which data will be collected.
The sample size must be correct for the type of design selected to
get statistically significant (quantitative) or meaningful
(qualitative) results.

NOTE: This section elaborates on Points #4 (Sample and Location) and #9 (Data Collection) in the 10
Strategic Points.
This section provides the foundation for the Data Collection Procedures section in Chapter 3 in the
Proposal. And it is summarized high level in Chapter 1 in Nature of the Project Design in the Proposal.
NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure,
sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.
Comments from the Evaluator:

Data Analysis Procedures

Since this is a qualitative research methodology; the data analysis techniques include

coding and thematic analysis, social network analysis, comparative case analysis, as well as case

summaries. With thematic coding, the researcher will be identifying the texts, which happen to

be linked by common themes. These are also the ideas, which enable one to index the texts into

clear categories. By so doing, frameworks of thematic ideas are established (John & Stage,

2014). Lack of holistic orientation will be addressed using this procedure. Social network

analysis will be utilized in the analysis of the connections, which exist between institutions,

groups, and individuals (i.e. people) (Dallavis, 2011; Terry et al., 2010). This procedure will be

utilized in determining the derailments caused by the perceived discrimination of students. It is

important in determining interrelationships.

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Case studies are used where deeper insights and detailed theoretical explanations are

needed. When this is combined with comparison analysis, the researcher manages to learn from

peer-reviewed and critiqued natural experiments. Nonetheless, it happens to be selective and

rigid, and this is with regard to the data being processed (Krueger et al., 2015; Thornberg, 2014).

In order to avert this major challenge, the proposed study will focus on comparing interview

results, expert and presentation surveys, as well as recorded accounts of focus groups. This

approach will come in handy while addressing the impact of the critical mass in propagating

disparities in education. The same is the case with respect to the analysis of the level of

derailment that is caused by the perceived discrimination.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson


Evaluation or Reviewer
Score Evaluation
(0-3) Score
(0-3)
Data Analysis Procedures

This section describes how the data were collected for each variable or group (quantitative project) or for
each research question (qualitative project). It describes the type of data to be analyzed, identifying the
descriptive, inferential, and/or non-statistical analyses. Demonstrates that the data analysis is aligned to
the specific project design.
The recommend length for this section is one paragraph AND completion of Table 1 (quantitative)
and/or Table 2 (qualitative) in Appendix B.
1. Describes the analysis to examine each stated research 3
question and/or hypothesis. For quantitative projects describes
the analyses including the inferential and/or descriptive
statistics to be completed. For qualitative projects, describes
the specific analytic approach appropriate for the Project
Design and each clinical question to be completed. In
qualitative projects the different clinical questions may require
different approaches to doing qualitative data analysis, as well
as descriptive statistics.
2. ALIGNMENT: For qualitative projects, there is a clear and 3

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Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson


Evaluation or Reviewer
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obvious alignment between each research question, data to be
collected, tool or data source, as well as data analysis to
understand/explain the phenomenon. For quantitative
projects, there is a clear and obvious alignment between each
variable, data to be collected, instrument or data source, as
well as data analysis for each hypothesis.
NOTE: This section elaborates on Point #10 (Data Analysis) from the 10 Strategic Points. This section
provides the foundation for Data Analysis Procedures section in Chapter 3 in the Proposal.

NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure,
sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.
Comments from the Evaluator:

Ethical Considerations

Studies involving human subjects are supposed to be completed in accordance to the

federal and institutional ethical guidelines. This is ascertained by the Institutional Review

Board (or IRB). Even though this study may be exempted from the review by the IRB on the

basis of the fact that it is within the acceptable educational settings and normal educational

practices are in place, it still fall under the domain that needs the Internal Research Review

Board (i.e. IRRB) consent (Isik-Ercan, 2010; Thornberg, 2014; Worrell, 2014). The researcher

themselves will ensure that only anonymous and no-risk surveys and observations will be

done. In case any identifying information is needed, this will be confidential and will not be

included in the final report (Bosworth et al., 2011).

The researcher will ensure that they follow the ethical standards established by the

American Psychological Association. They are six in total, and they include competence,

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integrity, scientific and professional responsibility, respect for the dignity and the rights of the

participants, concern for their welfare, as well as having social responsibility. With regard to

competence, the researcher will attempt only the work that they are competent to undertake.

On integrity, they will be honest and fair in regard to their professional cooperation with

others. There will be scientific and professional responsibility, and this is where high-

standards of professional behavior will be maintained. Respecting the dignity and rights of

others involve the right to confidentiality. The concern for others will involve coming-up with

the work that facilitate the bridging of the gaps in research, and this is actually closely related

to social responsibility where the researcher will meet this code by using their skills to the

benefit of the society (Meral & Turnbull, 2014).

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson


Evaluation or Reviewer
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(0-3) Score
(0-3)
Ethical Considerations
This section discusses the potential ethical issues surrounding the project, as well as how human
subjects and data will be protected. It identifies how any potential ethical issues will be addressed.
The recommended length for this section is one paragraph.
1. Discusses potential ethical concerns that might occur during the 3
data collection process.
2. Describes how the identities of the participants in the project and 3
data will be protected.
3. Describes subject recruiting, informed consent and site 3
authorization processes.
4. ALIGNMENT: Ethical considerations are clearly aligned with, 3
and relate directly to the specific Data Collection Procedures.
This section also identifies ethical considerations related to the
target population being researched and organization or location as
described in the Purpose Statement section.
NOTE: This section does use information from any of the 10 Strategic Points.
This section provides the foundation for Ethical Considerations section in Chapter 3 in the Proposal.

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Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3 Learner Self- Chairperson


Evaluation or Reviewer
Score Evaluation
(0-3) Score
(0-3)
NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure,
sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.
Comments from the Evaluator:

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References

Becker, G.S. (1971). The Economics of Discrimination. Chicago and London: University of

Chicago Press

Bosworth, K., Ford, L., & Hernandaz, D. (2011, April). School climate factors contributing to

student and faculty perceptions of safety in select Arizona schools. Journal of School

Health, 81(4), 194-201

Butucea, M. (2010). The pragmatic explanation in educational sciences. A possible approach for

a school ‘Culture Design Theory’. Petroleum - Gas University of Ploiesti Bulletin,

Educational Sciences Series, 62(1B), 6-17

Dallavis, C. (2011, July-Sept.). 'Because that's who I am': Extending theories of culturally

responsive pedagogy to consider religious identity, belief, and practice. Multicultural

Perspectives, 13(3), 138-144. DOI: 10.1080/15210960.2011.594375

Doh, J.P. (2010, June). From the editors why aren't business schools more global and what can

management educators doing about it? Academy of Management Learning & Education,

9(2), 165-168. DOI: 10.5465/AMLE.2010.51428541

Elstad, E., Christophersen, K.A., & Turmo, A. (2012, July). Exploring antecedents of

organizational citizenship behavior among teachers at Norwegian folk high schools.

Studies in Continuing Education, 34(2), 175-189. DOI: 10.1080/0158037X.2011.611798

Finlayson, A. (2010, Sept.). Cameron, culture, and the creative class: The big society and the

post-bureaucratic age. Political Quarterly, 82, 35-47. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-

923X.2011.02325.x

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Hayes, L.B., & Van Camp, C.M. (2015, June 29). Increasing physical activity of children during

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Meral, B.F., & Turnbull, H.R. (2014, Sept.). Analysis of special education policy in Turkey and

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Appendix A

The 10 Strategic Points


1. Topic: The proposed topic is ‘The influence of socio-cultural practices on early education
amongst the minority groups in the United States’.
The study seeks to evaluate the impact that social-cultural practices have on early
education amongst the minority groups in the United States. The endeavor is to come-up with a
recommendation of how the negative aspects need to be redressed as the positives are enhanced.
2. Literature review
i. Background
Research and observation have indicated that there is a role, which needs to be played by
every major stakeholder in the education sector. The teachers, students, parents/guardians, and
education officials have a responsibility to ensure that everyone is subjected to an environment
that is conducive for learning. It has been identified that there are serious cultural conflicts,
obstacles in communication, as well as misunderstanding that exists amongst the stakeholders in
the education sector, especially in schools in such border-states as Arizona (Elstad et al., 2012).
This means there is the need to find the strategies, which work in an effective manner, and then
have them implemented as soon as possible.
ii. Theoretical Foundations
There are various approaches towards enhancing the learning capacity of the students
who come from the minority groups. The theories include Interactionist Theory of Education,
Conflict Theory, as well as Cultural Deprivation Theory. Not every sociologist believes that the
behavior of human beings is controlled, or at least determined, by external forces. Sociologists
who doubt this are referred to as interactionists (Elstad et al., 2012; Jacob & Kuruvilla, 2012).
According to Marxism, a new order is always produced whenever there are class
conflicts. The theoretical approach goes ahead to state that parents only pass the social and
educational capital they have; meaning that if a community is dominated with individuals of low
capacity, this is reflected in the generations to come, and hence the Conflict Theory (Finlayson,
2010). Cultural Deprivation Theory holds that most individuals begin to gain some of the most
basic skills, attitudes and values as they socialize with the rest of the members of their immediate
family (Dallavis, 2011).

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iii. Review of literature


 According to John & Stage (2014), lack of holistic orientation is one of the aspects,
which derail learning amongst the minorities.
 Thornberg (2014) argue that non-verbal orientation is of significance in the lives of the
minorities, yet it is a subject that has not taken center-stage in education and research.
 The culture of the correct answer as opposed to that of explanation is another major issue,
and this is according to Thornberg (2014) and Meral & Turnbull (2014). It makes it
almost impossible for the minorities to match-up.
 Bosworth, Ford, & Hernandaz (2011) indicate that being fewer in number means that
several students from the minority groups rarely find adequate representation.
 Jamal et al. (2013) asserts that discrimination and common-core are hoped to place
everyone at the same level, which is not the case in reality.
iv. Summary
The themes identified are condensed into three major aspects. These include the influence
of lack of orientation, the impact of the inability to meet the critical mass, and the derailments
caused by the feeling of being purposefully discriminated.
3. Problem Statement
It is not known what the exact root-causes of disparity in education are. They could be
issues such as critical mass, lack of holistic orientation, the correct-answer approach to teaching,
or even the perceived discrimination. It could also be a combination of all these or even some of
the issues. It is in this regard that the study is geared towards addressing the subject in further
details
4. Sample and Location
A total of 5 schools will be selected for the study. The entire school population in the
United States is the theoretical population. The study population, or the population that the
researcher is able to focus on is the schools in Maricopa County, where a sample of 5 institutions
is taken. According to the rule of 5 about sampling; for any 5 randomly sampled subjects, there is
over 93% possibility that the mean of the population lies between the largest and the smallest
values of the sample (Isik-Ercan, 2010). Settling in the schools in question will be through
systematic selection. With this strategy, only the first item is selected randomly. The remaining is
settled-upon based on the distance between the already determined unit, and the time it would

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take to navigate the entire place. Sampling by clusters will then be used to settle on the
respondents, and these are 10 students and 3 teachers in every institution.
5. Clinical Questions
R1: To what extent does lack of holistic orientation influence disparity in education?
R2: What is the impact of the critical mass on disparities in education?
R3: What is the level of derailment that is caused by the perceived discrimination of students from
the minority groups?
6. Hypothesis/variables or Phenomena
Holistic orientation includes both verbal and non-verbal briefings. The idea is to enhance
the confidence and adaptation of individuals who would otherwise feel left behind (John &
Stage, 2014; Thornberg, 2014). Critical mass refers to the perceived minimum number that
would cause a change in strategy. For instance, if only 3% of the students fail, it may be
concluded that the current approaches are effective. Nonetheless, the 3% as well as every
individual who fail matters; and it is in this regard that it has been concluded that strategies such
as the correct-answer approach could be disorienting (Thornberg, 2014; Meral & Turnbull,
2014). These issues will be wrapped-up by summarizing the issues addressed by the other two
for the purpose of arriving at a holistic explanation.
7. Methodology and Design
The research is qualitative, and phenomenology approach will be utilized. It works well
with surveys and document review, and this is in an endeavor to explain the various lived
experienced by the respondents. It helps in assessing the views deeply since the respondents are
given space and time to explain themselves.
8. Purpose Statement
This study is important since the various stakeholders in the education sector need to
know how inclusivity may be enhanced. They hope to ensure that no child is left behind, but this
has not been easy since there are various factors, which come into play. For instance, in cases
where over 95% of the students are performing well, some of the stakeholders may overlook the
minority and argue that the learning approaches work, as they should. Hence the need to
demonstrate why there is always room for improvement. The individual students stand to benefit
in the process.
9. Data Collection

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Data collection is through surveys and document review. The respondents will be
presented with a set of predetermined responses, and it is from these responses that they are to
select their answers. The questions will, nonetheless, be open-ended. This means that the
respondents will answer in their own words; and their answers will be categorized into smaller
list of responses for the purpose of mapping. For open-ended questions, the strategy will be
through emails and telephone calls.
Document review is important since it facilitates the studying of the issues, which have
emerged over a specified period of time. This is an opportunity to retrieve comprehensive
information that could be difficult to gather in a primary study. The disadvantage is that
accessing the documents is not easy. Sometimes there is the need for constant authorizations;
sometimes even multileveled sequence of authorizations. Document review is also rather
inflexible. Nonetheless, knowing clearly what information is needed can mitigate most of the
challenges, and making sure that the information being gathered is valid and reliable.
10. Data analysis
Since this is a qualitative research methodology; the data analysis techniques include
coding and thematic analysis, social network analysis, comparative case analysis, as well as case
summaries. With thematic coding, the researcher will be identifying the texts, which happen to
be linked by common themes. Social network analysis will be utilized in the analysis of the
connections, which exist between institutions, groups, and individuals (i.e. people) (Dallavis,
2011; Terry et al., 2010). Case studies are used where deeper insights and detailed theoretical
explanations are needed. When this is combined with comparison analysis, the researcher
manages to learn from peer-reviewed and critiqued natural experiments. Nonetheless, it happens
to be selective and rigid, and this is with regard to the data being processed (Krueger et al., 2015;
Thornberg, 2014).

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Appendix B

Variables/Groups, Phenomena, and Data Analysis

Table 2: Qualitative Studies


Clinical Phenomenon: Sources of Data: Analysis Plan: Describe the specific
Questions: State Describe the overall Identify the specific approach that will be used to (1)
the clinical phenomenon being approach (e.g., summarize the data and (2) analyze the
questions that will studied by the clinical interview, observation, data.
be used to collect questions artifacts, documents,
data to understand database, etc.) to be
the Phenomenon used to collect the data
being studied to answer each clinical
question
R1: To what extent  Cultural tendencies  Document review  Comparative case analyses will be
does lack of tend to impact on the  Observation utilized to summarize and analyze the
holistic orientation way the students  Survey (using data relating to document review.
influence disparity participate in interviews)  Comparative case analyses sharpen the
in education? education. The  In essence, this researcher’s capacity to describe
research study seeks is a combination of scenarios, formulate concepts, and also
to assess the both question- address the suggested similarities as
influence that socio- answer sessions as well as contrasts.
cultural practices well as observations.  This will come in handy in inductive
among the students In some cases, visual theory building. The comparison being
from the minority aids will be utilized. made in this case involve conclusions
R2: What is the groups has on their  Document review of particular processes and accounts
impact of the educational  Survey (using relating to various groups; and this is
critical mass on endeavors. In most questionnaires) over a specified period of time, which
disparities in cases, such students  Questionnaires is 5 years.
education? come from allow anonymity,  Social network analysis will also be
collectivist cultures, and they allow cost utilized; and this is the process through
while the mainstream effectiveness as well which flows and relationships between
American society is as timeliness. individuals, groups, as well as
individualistic. When Nonetheless, the organizations are mapped and
the teachers and other sample could be less measured. Nodes represent entities
stakeholders have representative. such as individuals, groups, and
R3: What is the inadequate  Document review organizations, while relationships and
level of derailment knowledge about flows are indicated as links.
 Survey (using
that is caused by such an impact, they  Another process is thematic analysis.
interviews)
the perceived inaccurately judge the Thematic analysis refers to
 With
discrimination of students’ behavior pinpointing, examination, and
interviews, there is
students from the and academic recording of data patterns. Themes are
increased
minority groups? performance. Since the patterns, which exist between sets
exploration. In cases
this is a persistent of data, and they are important in
where more people
challenge, the describing phenomena associated with
are involved, it is
proposed study is specific research questions.
cheaper, and there is
geared towards  Finally, the process will conclude with
increased sampling.
addressing the charting, mapping, and interpretations
underlying factors in
an exhaustive
manner.

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