You are on page 1of 14

Automotive and Stationary

(Grid) Technology

FastCAP Systems Corporation © FastCAP Systems Corporation. All rights reserved. No portion may be reproduced in
any form, by any means, for any purpose, without written permission of FastCAP. The
21 Drydock Ave. 8th Floor East information contained in this document is for reference only. Users must follow all
Boston, MA 02210 applicable Federal, state and local regulations governing the use of all FastCAP products.
(857) 239-7500 FastCAP reserves the right to change or revise the specifications of any product without
www.fastcapsystems.com notice. All product use is governed by applicable terms and conditions.”
Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

AUTOMOTIVE AND STATI ONARY OVERVIEW

FastCAP’s high performance, harsh environment ultracapacitors enable significant improvements in


the way that electrified drivetrains and utility grid systems are designed – reducing weight, volume,
and complexity while improving performance and relaxing design constraints on current
technologies. Our ultracapacitors provide higher power, require little to no thermal management,
withstand high shock and vibration on a component and module level, and are not subject to the
volatility associated with chemical batteries. In applications where batteries are currently oversized
for power handling, we expect dramatic reductions in total energy storage system weight by
complementing those batteries with ultracapacitors. In cases where the battery designer would be
forced to trade off energy for power, the ultracapacitor relaxes those design constraints enabling a
more optimal solution – longer life, higher performance, lower volume and weight. In applications
where pulsed power is routed long distances, we expect dramatic reductions in wire harness weight
by providing point of load (POL) power buffering. In some applications, we expect the ultracapacitor
to be a complete replacement of less optimal battery technologies.

KEY APPLICATIONS AND BENEFITS


1. Reduce upfront costs with 2-3x higher energy and power performance based on FastCAP’s advanced electrode technology
2. Reduce maintenance costs, eliminate thermal management, place the energy storage “under hood” or in other harsh
environments with long-life, high cycle count reliability derived from FastCAP’s harsh environment technology
3. Improve the performance of torque assist, stop-start and cold-cranking features in automotive and heavy transport
4. Reduce the footprint and cost of mixed energy storage systems comprising high energy batteries or fuel cells with
ultracapacitors.
5. Provide backup power and ride-through support for renewables and critical power systems in remote or harsh environments
6. Provide distributed brown out and UPS functionality to server farms and data centers without added thermal management
7. Enhance the reliability and reduce the cost of blade pitch actuator systems for wind turbines

COMPANY OVERVIEW
FastCAP Systems is an energy storage company started in 2009 from research conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Initially funded from an ARPA-E grant for advanced energy storage research and also DoE
for geothermal technology researcy, FastCAP now operates in Boston, Massachusetts and
maintains a workforce of roughly 20 employees. FastCAP specializes in ultracapacitor
devices and systems for a variety of markets including energy exploration, aerospace and
defense, automotive, and stationary storage. FastCAP's ultracapacitors are a unique form
of energy storage that offer unparalleled performance in high reliability and extreme
environment applications. They are lithium free, high powered, rechargeable devices
which operate in extremely high temperature, shock, and vibration conditions enabling
unprecedented performance in some of the most challenging environments found in the
oil & gas, aerospace, and defense industry.

FastCAP is ready to engage on projects and partnerships to advance its technology for short-term, near-term and long-term business
opportunities. FastCAP’s wealth of experience in developing specialized ultracapacitors and ultracapacitor-based systems opens the
door to a suite of technology and potential not seen anywhere else in the energy storage industry. Additionally, FastCAP’s competency
in advanced nanomaterials provides opportunities to complement and broaden its wide array technology opportunities.

1
Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

TECHNOLOGY: EXTREME ENVIRONMENT ENERGY STORAGE AND SYSTEMS

FastCAP’s line of high-temperature ultracapacitors introduces the first practical rechargeable energy storage available for extreme
temperature environments. FastCAP’s technology provides engineers with a new means for down-hole power generation, storage,
and delivery enabling higher performance, higher efficiency, safer, and less expensive operations.

• Shock and vibration resistance


• Laser welded & hermetic package
technology – Operation in vacuum and
– Engineered internal connections to harsh environments
withstand shock and vibrations

• Proprietary electrodes
– Low internal resistance (ESR)
• Proprietary, high performance electrolyte – Great cycleability
– Wide voltage window
– Optimized for high power and
extended lifetime

HIGH TEMPERATURE ENE RGY STORAGE TECHNOLO GY

FastCAP’s core exploration technology is an ultracapacitor cell specifically designed for the oil
and gas market. Each extreme environment (EE) cell is capable of 150°C operation with 20g
vibration and 500g shock survival. There are currently no other capacitors on the market capable
of matching the high reliability and high performance of FastCAP extreme environment
ultracapacitors.

The EE cell technology was validated in the oilfield throughout an aggressive testing campaign
of FastCAP’s Ulyss EM telemetry system (ET) that took place from October 2014 to December
2015. The EM telemetry system consists of an APS DiPole module outfitted with a high energy
ultracapacitor module and custom power electronics for charging and signal amplification. By
utilizing the ultracapacitors for rechargeable energy storage, the ET system is capable of more
than 150W output power without exceeding 40W input power. The results showed a greater
signal to noise ratio without diminishing battery lifetime.

Over 20 wells were completed throughout the Eagle Ford, DJ, and Bakken regions over the
course of the testing program. The performance of the high power electronics and capacitor modules was validated across a full range
of drilling operations. Significant improvements to the surface signal detection hardware and software were also confirmed to mitigate
the effects of highly dissipative formations and severe electrical interference.

VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLO GY

FastCAP’s high-temperature ultracapacitors exceed the performance capabilities of any other ultracapacitor on the market, enabling
new fields of exploration and development.

2
Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

The graph to the right illustrates data


gather by Sandia National Laboratory GT_2015042901_01_200C 200°C
showing 200°C operation over 4000 hours
with less than 10% increase in ESR and Capacitance ESR
roughly 20% increase in capacitance over 200%

Capacitance and ESR Variance


this period. In comparison, traditional
ultracapacitors typically have a maximum
150%
temperature of 65°C. This technology
represents a significant step in high-
100%
temperature rechargeable energy
storage.
50%
Development so far has brought the
technology to TRL 4. Through strategic 0%
investment, the technology can be 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
developed further for system-level Time (Hrs.)
prototyping and integration.

NEXT GENERATION ENER GY STORAGE TECHNOLOG Y

THIRD GENERATION ULTRACAPI CATOR – TRL2


 Higher Voltage cells – Semi-rugged for high reliability, higher operating voltage to increase energy density and power density
and reduce cost per Joule and per Watt
o Broad Operating Temperature
o High Voltage
o Shock & Vibration Resistant
o Hermetically sealed aluminum construction
o Proprietary electrode for scale up in manufacturing
o Eco-Friendly
o Designed and Assembled in the USA
 Applications
o Automotive drivetrain electrification
o Remote pulsed power and actuation for grid and stationary
o High reliability rechargeable energy storage for back-up power and ride-through support

3
Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION STUDIES

FastCAP is exploring automotive partnerships as the market uptake for drivetrain


electrification accelerates. FastCAP’s high energy density (2x) and power density
(3x) relative to competitors will translate directly to cost savings in this market.
Meanwhile, FastCAP has the world’s only ruggedized, wide temperature
ultracapacitor and the related IP. With that, our technology can be placed under
the hood or under the chassis and no thermal management will be required. This
too will translate directly to cost savings. The range of the electric vehicle can be
extended by incorporating ultracapacitors in at least two ways. Primarily, with the
ultracapacitors dedicated to the pulsed power needs of the vehicle, the design constraints on the battery are relaxed. The designer
can choose a much higher energy density battery technology that would be less optimal on its own for power density, e.g. Lithium
Cobalt Oxide vs. Lithium Iron Phosphate. Additionally, the use of ultracapacitors to condition the load allows access to more of the
energy in the battery - the “useable energy” - and therefore the range is increased.

Battery cycle life, or the number of charge cycles before a battery’s capacity falls
below 80% of its original capacity, is adversely affected by full charge/discharges
as well as frequent large power draw cycling. Quickly charging and discharging
lithium-ion cells, during events such as high acceleration and deceleration, can
result in lithium metal deposition on the anode and ultimately lifetime
degradation.

Ultracapacitors exhibit both high power density and exceptional life cycle
capabilities. Thus, high charge and discharge events can be buffered by the
ultracapacitor bank, essentially filtering and isolating the battery module from
such loads. The net effect of which is a battery module that requires less Figure 1. Lithium-air Mechanics
maintenance and exhibits full range capabilities over an extended battery lifetime ultimately providing greater range and lower vehicle
costs.

LITHIUM-OXYGEN BATTERIES WIT H ULTRACAPACITORS

One of the most promising emerging technologies in the field of energy storage is metal-air batteries. Lithium-oxygen batteries have
attracted significant attention in recent year due to their enormous implications for the electric vehicle industry. Lithium-oxygen
batteries consist of a metal anode, in this case a lithium based anode, and an oxygen cathode. The cathode is typically comprised of
a graphene lattice construct to support the particle reactions between the oxygen and lithium. The lithium ions are released from the
anode as a redox reaction product and move through the electrolyte to the cathode where they react with oxygen. This process
generates the battery’s moving charge1. Lithium-oxygen batteries have great potential for the EV market because of their high energy
density. As of 2010, lithium-oxygen battery lab tests have provided energy densities of 362Wh/Kg7. This metric is 150% of the energy
density of the Li-ion batteries used by Tesla Motors today. The theoretical energy density of a fully developed Lithium-air battery could
be as much as 5,200-11,140 Wh/kg, reaching comparable energy densities of gasoline1.

The greatest draw back to implementing lithium-oxygen batteries in the electric vehicle industry is their poor power density. Current
power densities both experimentally and theoretically have been measured in the mW/kg range 2. Lithium-oxygen batteries must be
supplemented with a viable power source in order to be implemented in the electric vehicle industry. Fast charging and highly efficient
ultracapacitors are capable of providing the power density that lithium-oxygen batteries lack. FastCAP Systems is currently developing
a ruggedized aluminum ultracapacitor with an anticipated power density of 50kW/kg. This capacitor is designed with high vibration
environments in mind and is capable of operating within a wide temperature range (-40⁰C to 65⁰C). Release of this product is scheduled
for Q4 or 2016.

4
Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

FUEL CELL-ULTRACAPACITOR HYBRID POWER SYSTEM

Hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles are now being commercialized. Toyota’s Mirai boasts a drive range of 312 miles and a refuel time
of roughly 5 minutes.3 Mercedes Benz has also committed to developing a fuel cell vehicle with their production of the B-Class F-CELL.

Hydrogen fuel cells are capable of


reaching energy densities between
275-375Wh/liter. This metric is
much higher than average Li-ion
energy densities around
4
200Wh/liter. However, Hydrogen
fuel cells fall short on providing
needed power density metrics for
typical vehicle applications. As
such, commercialized systems
typically use Li-ion batteries as
complementary power buffers.
These Li-ion battery packs are
frequently sized to accommodate
the power requirements of the
vehicle during acceleration and
regeneration. Since these periods
of acceleration and deceleration
are relatively short, the Li-ion
battery pack is often oversized to
meet the power requirements,
resulting in inefficient use of
Figure 2. Fuel Cells (green) vs batteries (blue) energy storage.

To illustrate this point, three different simulations were constructed based on standard driving models used to evaluate vehicle
efficiency; FTP-75, LA92, and US06. Each driving model stresses different driving environments such as urban, suburban, and highway
driving conditions. The simulation includes important car characteristics such as air drag, wheel friction, power train efficiency, power
conversion efficiency, and vehicle mass for accurate real-condition results. A vehicle mass of 2,400 lbs. was utilized with a 50kW fuel
cell. The peak power and energy given for the buffer energy storage represents the power and energy needed to augment the existing
fuel cell to meet the specified performance levels.

Max. Accel. Max. Regen. Avg. Power Peak Buffer Buffer Energy
Power [kW] Power [kW] [kW] Power [kW] [Wh]
FTP-75 61.7 16.6 6.8 11.8 32.1
LA92 86.0 59.7 9.8 36.0 212.6
US06 146.0 37.9 18.9 96.0 342.1

As shown, while the Peak Buffer Power requirements are substantial, the relatively short periods of high power driving cause the
buffer energy requirements to be very low. The table below illustrates the resulting buffer packs if they were constructed with all
NiMh batteries versus all ultracapacitors and finally as an optimized hybrid module. NiMh specifications are taken from Toyota’s
current NiMh cell used in the Mirai battery back at 2kW/kg and 23.8Wh/kg. Ultracapacitor specifications are taken from FastCAP’s EEx
ultracapacitor at 50kW/kg and 6.6Wh/kg.

5
Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

Storage Mass Comparison


60
51.8
48
50

40
Mass [kg]

32.1
30
18
20 15.4
9.2
10 6 4.8
1.4
0
FTP-75 LA92 US06

All Battery All Ucap Hybrid

All Battery All UCap Hybrid


FTP-75 12kW, 140Wh, 6kg 243kW, 32Wh, 4.8kg 12.3kW, 32.1Wh, 1.49kg
LA92 36kW, 428Wh, 18kg 1610kW, 212Wh, 32.1kg 36kW, 212.6Wh, 9.2kg
US06 96kW, 1142Wh, 48kg 2590kW, 342Wh, 51.8kg 97.2, 342.1, 15.4kg

The calculations above demonstrate that in each driving model, the NiMh pack is sized for the necessary power requirements while
the ultracapacitor pack was sized for energy requirements. Furthermore, the resulting excess energy and power in each case is
substantial, providing strong evidence that a battery / ultracapacitor hybrid power buffer will result in both increased performance
and higher overall system efficiency. This is shown in the final column, illustrating an optimized hybrid module. Power and energy
specifications are met for each profile with significant reductions in mass across each driving model.

Hybrid solutions include some additional complexity in power management as ultracapacitors and batteries must be handled
appropriately for best performance. However, an all-ultracapacitor power buffer based on FastCAP’s wide temperature range
technology would require little to no thermal management with significantly increased life cycle and would thus represent a low-
complexity solution compared to an all-battery power buffer.

FastCAP’s ruggedized ultracapacitor has the potential for extraordinary size, weight, and cost savings when paired with fuel cell and
battery buffer systems.

MATERIAL HANDLING AN D HEAVY AUTOMOTIVE

Full electrification of drivetrains is increasingly a requirement in closed space, for instance, airport tarmacs and commercial
warehouses. Those material handling vehicles may be powered from batteries or fuel cells and will be subject to transient behavior
such as frequent stopping and starting and even lift actuation in the case of fork lifts and
robotic movers. Coupling ultracapacitors with the primary sources in those applications
can enable substantial cost and size reductions and improved performance.

The same concepts transfer to heavy duty and construction equipment where vehicle-
based actuators such as lifts, and compactors require short-duration high power not easily
provided by the primary source or even a combustion engine. FastCAP’s technology may
solve major complexity and cost problems by providing frequent torque or power assist

6
Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

functionality. Generally, these systems may be exposed to harsh conditions, making FastCAP’s semi-rugged design an important value-
add.

In cases where a vehicle is designed for limited range but high power requirements,
incorporating ultracapacitors into the energy storage is shown to increase overall
vehicle efficiency5. This is caused by the necessity to size the battery module for the
required power ultimately creating a battery that is oversized for the required energy.

Examples of such vehicles include low range municipal vehicles such as garbage trucks,
construction equipment, as well as motorcycle and scooter platforms. Foster City, CA
based company Motiv is founded on electrifying heavy vehicles 6. Through the
incorporation of ultracapacitors, the hybrid power train can be optimized for the
vehicle range and power requirements, ultimately reducing the cost, size, and weight Figure 3. Chicago's fist E-Garbage Truck
of the vehicle while improving efficiency and market availability. by Motive

FastCAP is internally invested in scaling up this technology by way of outsource manufacturing partners and licensing arrangements.

STRUCTURAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR AUTOMOTIVE

Structural energy storage can be implemented in vehicular systems with benefits in weight and mass reduction or “dual-use.”

Figure 41 illustrates the replacement of inactive vehicle materials such as car body paneling to address these performance metrics.
This reconfiguration can provide additional power and energy to the electric powertrain as well as auxiliary electrical systems. As
indicated, this reconfiguration may also lower the overall weight of
the vehicle through replacement of some of the steel paneling with
composite materials.

Due to the logistics regarding servicing car body paneling,


incorporation of the energy storage into the physical structure of
the vehicle necessitates both a mechanically and electrically
durable solution. From an electrical perspective, the structural
energy storage should exhibit a long cycle life, accommodating a
large number of charges and discharges without appreciable
degradation.

Ultracapacitors are a suitable technology that can address the


power requirements associated with the automotive environment.
An alternative energy storage solution is Lithium-ion. Although
Figure 4 Automotive structural energy storage concept
Lithium chemistries tend to have a much higher energy density than
ultracapacitors, their cycle lives are generally much shorter. Lithium-
ion batteries have a typical cycle life on the order of 500 cycles, whereas ultracapacitors have a cycle life on the order of 500,000
cycles. As such, Lithium-ion technology would be a less attractive solution for structural energy storage in its current state.

Ultracapacitor Structural Storage Lithium Ion Structural Storage


Long Life Cycle (>1M cycle lifetime) Short Life Cycle (500-2000 cycles)
High Power High Energy
Stable, High Safety Factor Volatile, Low Safety Factor

1
http://arpa-e.energy.gov/sites/default/files/documents/files/CSESS%20Asp.pdf
7
Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

Table 1 lists several ultracapacitor manufacturers and compares their respective technological level with respect to a common form
factor.

Parameter FastCAP Ioxus Maxwell


Maximum Cell Voltage (V) 3.0 2.7 2.5
Cell ESR (mΩ) 1 2.5 3.2
Cell Capacitance (F) 460 400 350
Table 1 Comparison of ultracapacitor technologies

MICROHYBRIDS AND UND ER-THE-HOOD

In 2015, over 560,000 plug-in electric vehicles were sold world-wide [1], amounting to roughly 6.4% percent of the 87.5 million cars
sold according to IHS Automotive [2] With electric plug-in vehicles still relatively small combined to traditional gasoline and gasoline
hybrid vehicles, manufacturers are turning to new technologies to increase efficiency while keeping vehicle costs low. Such technology
includes start-stop systems and electric turbochargers. Both of these applications require electric energy storage in order to operate.
Traditional car batteries cannot offer the lifetime, energy, and power required for efficiency operation. As such, new energy storage
technology suitable for the under-the-hood environment is required.

Supercapacitors can be used as a high power, wide temperature range energy buffer in a variety of automotive architectures and
applications to support heavy pulsed loads and extreme or cold temperatures. Examples of these use-cases include start-stop, DC
buss voltage stabilization and cold-cranking.

Traditional electric vehicles contain large battery packs that often carry with them
complex and high performance thermal management systems (TMS) to
accommodate the narrow operating range of the battery modules. Without the
incumbent battery TMS, gasoline vehicles designers must consider the
environment in which to place electric energy storage. Placing storage closest to
the point of power delivery, be it a starter motor, turbocharger, or cabin
electronics, provides incentives of increased efficiency, smaller and lighter wiring
harnesses, easier repair and maintenance, and overall lower complexity. In this
case, placing electric storage under the hood is the ideal solution but the
environment brings challenges
to traditional energy storage.

A primary concern of the under-the-hood environment is temperature. A


conservative rule of thumb for maximum under-the-hood temperature is roughly
ambient temperature plus 100°C with typical estimates falling around 60°C higher
than ambient. On a warm day, this could exceed 90°C. Conversely, cold starts on
winter days can occur below 0°C. Automotive electronics are rated from -40°C to
125°C to accommodate these extreme temperatures.

Cooling systems can be effectively utilized to reduce energy storage temperatures


but this often comes at the expense of complexity in the cooling system and/or
increased complexity of the energy storage system.

8
Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON ENERGY STORAGE


Nearly all energy storage will see a reduction in lifetime as temperature increases. A typical automotive lead-acid battery is rated to
55°C with an expected lifetime of roughly 3.5 years [3]. Primary modes of degradation due to temperature include corrosion of the
cathode. For every 15°C, the cycle lifetime will roughly halve. [4]

Ultracapacitors are also susceptible to damage from over-heating. Typical ultracapacitors are rated from -40°C to +65°C. While
cyclability of ultracapacitors is very high, lifetime at high voltage and temperature is typically only rated for 1500 hours [5]. Similarly,
supercapacitors see an expontential decrease in lifetime at temperature; typically every increase of 10°C results in a halving of
expected lifetime in hours at high voltage and temperature.

Operating above the maximum rated temperature can result in rapid irrecoverable performance degredation including significantly
reduced capacitance, increased resistance, as well as violent venting of the cells. Repeated high power loads, commonly seen in micro-
hybrid applications, cause additional internal cell heating to further reduce the temperature ceiling. Maxwell Technologies
recommends keeping the ambient temperature below 40°C to reduce the risk of over-heating. [6]

FastCAP ultracapacitors, on the other hand, are designed to accommodate much higher operating temperatures enabling longer
lasting and higher performance systems.

The above plot shows FastCAP’s range of high temperature energy storage solutions. Considering an under-the-hood temperature of
65°C (150°F), typical ultracapacitors will already have reached their maximum operating temperature without any additional internal
heating. At this operating point, severe damage to the storage is likely with high potential for cell venting. On the other hand, 65°C is
well within the operating range of FastCAP’s EE ultracapacitor line, enabling safer and higher performance systems.

START-STOP

Start-stop technology turns off the engine while the vehicle is at rest to avoid excessive inefficient idle operation. It is estimated that
70% of all vehicles in North America will incorporate start-stop technology [7]. Driving studies have shown that typical driving patterns
can result in more than 250 start/stop events per day, with 95% of drivers experiencing less than 73 start/stop sequences per day.

9
Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

Additionally, 95 percent of cars will require less than 56Wh of energy at roughly 6kW peak power to drive the start motor. [7] Hence,
vehicle designs are targeting 200,000 to 300,000 start/stops over the course of the vehicle lifetime.

For such applications, Advanced Lead-Acid Batteries (AGM) as well as Li-Ion batteries are suitable but AGM batteries show relatively
short lifetimes and the stress of cold-starting and repeated cycles may require more expensive lithium technology, such as Lithium
Titanium Oxide. However, the high power and low energy profile of the start/stop load is favorable to a supercapacitor technology or
battery / supercapacitor hybrid technology.

BUSS STABILIZATION, AND COLD-CRANKING

A number of hybrid architectures make use of chemical batteries for traction and recovery, but tradeoffs in the design may lead to
insufficient performance at very low temperature, repetitive high power pulsed load profiles, or interaction among coincident but
unrelated power draw from the drive train and hotel loads. Supercapacitors can relax the design constraints on an otherwise over-
constrained system design and ultimately provide the reliability and performance that the end-user expects. For example, a traditional
lead acid battery would support DC loads, such as air conditioning, radio, power electronics, etc. while the capacitor bank support high
power start/stop applications. Meanwhile, the supercapacitor can provide power at low temperature (<-30°C) where the battery
performance may suffer substantially.

ELECTRIC TURBOCHARGE RS AND SUPERCHARGERS

Turbocharger technology is making a comeback in the automotive market for its ability to reduce the size and weight of the engine
while maintaining the high power and torque of a larger engine. One of the primary issues with turbochargers is that the power gain
comes at higher RPMs, leaving the engine struggling at lower RPMs. The supercharger gets around this issue by being driven directly
from the engine but the net result is an overall reduction in fuel efficiency.

A possible solution to both issues is the electric turbocharger or electric supercharger. The basic premise is to use an electric motor to
assist the turbocharger at the lower RPMs effectively removing turbo lag and relieving the engine from needing to drive a traditional
supercharger. Regeneration can be used to augment electric generation to prevent additional engine alternator loading.

Similar to the start/stop profile, electric turbochargers and superchargers would be used frequently throughout the normal drive cycle
with a high peak power and relatively low energy requirements making them suitable candidates for capacitive energy storage.

10
Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

STATIONARY (GRID) AP PLICATION STUDIES

SERVER FARMS AND DATA CENTERS

Costs associated with server farms can be primarily categorized into downtime, power
consumption, and maintenance. To prevent downtime, server farms employ a UPS
system that turns on in the event of a brown out or complete power outage. Brown outs
and power outages, while already present today, will be aggravated as renewables
increasingly penetrate the grid. Ultracapacitors are generally well-suited for these
applications compared to chemical batteries as the time scale of spurious power loss is
typically 0.1 to 10’s of seconds. For server farms and other stationary applications,
FastCAP’s technology can be deployed for “ride-through” support during the changeover
between power sources. FastCAP’s technology can also serve as a distributed “micro UPS”
for instance, per server blade or per chip to enhance reliability in brown out ride through or power glitch conditions. In both cases,
the peak power capability is key quickly providing the necessary power to enable volatile information backup while energy sources
are transferred.

The table below shows the peak power capability of modern NiMH chemistry, known for high reliability and power capabilities over
Lithium-Ion technology, compared to FastCAP’s ultracapacitor portfolio.

NiMH1 FastCAP EE UCAP2 FastCAP EEx UCAP3


Peak Power [W] 14.4 40 100
1. Panasonic BK70AAH Back-up High Temperature AA NiMH Cell
2. FastCAP EE100-035 High Temperature AA Ultracapacitor
3. FastCAP EEx100-035 High Temperature Aluminum AA Ultracapacitor

The key advantage of FastCAP’s ultracapacitor technology compared to other ultracapacitor technology is that they’ve been
ruggedized over a wide range of temperature enabling less maintenance and higher performance. To decrease costs for cooling, server
farms may be run at a higher ambient temperature thereby reducing typical cooling requirements. The effect of which is that each
server will run hotter, especially on-board where local board level and chip level backup supplies are best utilized. As higher power
servers are employed with less ambient cooling, board level temperature can exceed 65°C. Typical ultracapacitors show significant
degradation in both capacity and lifetime at high temperature. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors maintain high capacity and long lifetime at
temperatures well in excess of 100°C. The result is less maintenance and higher performance backup energy storage in the increasingly
demanding high temperature server environment.

Maxwell BC Ucap1 Ioxus Titan2 FastCAP EE100 FastCAP EE150


Operating
-40°C – 65°C -40°C – 85°C -40°C – 100°C -40°C - 150°C
Temperature*
*Rated operating temperature. Rated lifetime 1,500 at maximum operating temperature and nominal
operating voltage.

1. Maxwell BC Capacitor Specification


2. Ioxus Titan Capacitor Specification

The table above represents the operating temperatures of modern ultracapacitors from two prominent manufacturers. As listed in
the specification sheet, when operated at the maximum temperature and nominal voltage levels, lifetime of the ultracapacitor is rated
at 1,500 hours. Significant lifetime extensions are possible by operating the ultracapacitor well below its maximum temperature,
justifying capacitors rated for higher temperature.

11
Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

The plot below shows lifetimes at maximum voltage over operating temperature. Thus, the effect on ultracapacitor lifetime can mean
the difference between a <1 year or >10 year maintenance schedule.

WIND TURBINE BLADE PITCH ACTUATORS

FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are can provide the pulsed power needed to pitch wind turbine blades under high-wind conditions. This is
a necessary feature to make wind turbines practical and safe. In this instance, the cost to maintain the power system is very high as
these systems are remote and difficult to access. FastCAP’s semi-rugged, high performance technology reduces cost of ownership in
this application by virtue of its high reliability, long cycle life, and ruggedization inherited from aerospace and defense technologies.

RIDE-THROUGH SUPPORT

Power providers have to will increasingly look for methods for changing hands among multiple
power source as renewables increasingly penetrate the grid and they must contend with
intermittency associated with wind and solar. Ultracapacitors are generally well-suited for
supporting short time-scale highly transient ride through events either between multiple
baseload sources or between baseload and reserve. In the case of spinning reserves, the
generator can take seconds to minutes to respond. In the case of fuel cells, transient response
can be tenths of seconds to seconds to reach full capacity. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are
particularly well-suited when these systems are remote and difficult or expensive to maintain. When they are exposed to harsh
conditions, FastCAP’s solution further reduces cost of ownership by virtue of its semi-rugged design.

Microgrids are becoming increasingly popular to support remote operations in energy, military, and residential applications. Industrial
microgrids often must contend with large transient loads and intermittent power supplies. Storage technology is advancing to support
microgrids as an energy buffer, supplying needed power to the grid and filtering variations and in the energy supply and demand.

12
Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

Ultracaps have their place in microgrids by enabling higher power transients and extending battery lifetimes through absorbing
damaging high power transients. Such hybrid storage modules enable long lasting, high-performance storage to support microgrid
operations for years without service or degradation. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors offer the performance, harsh environment, and high
reliability necessary to keep storage and maintenance costs low for practical implementation.

REFERENCES

[1] "Energy.gov," Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/fact-
918-march-28-2016-global-plug-light-vehicle-sales-increased-about-80-2015. [Accessed 02 June 2016].

[2] IHS Automotive, "2015 Global Automotive Forecast - What Really Happened?," IHS Automotive, 2016.

[3] Duracell, "Duracell Automotive Technical Guide," Duracell, 2013.

[4] PowerThru, "Lead Acid Battery Working - Lifetime Study," PowerThru.

[5] Maxwell Technologies, "DATASHEET K2 ULTRACAPACITORS - 2.85V/3400F," Maxwell Technologies, San Diego, CA, 2015.

[6] Maxwell Technologies, "Product Guide - BOOSTCAP Ultracapacitors," Maxwell Technologies, San Diego, CA, 2009.

[7] O. G. C. B. B. C. J. B. J. D. J. N. Harshad Tataria, "USABC Development of 12 Volt Battery for Start-Stop Application," in Internal
Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Vehicle Electric Vehicle Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 2013.

13